Sie sind auf Seite 1von 76

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:

NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS


LEARNING UNIT

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:

NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND


ADVERBS

LEARNING UNIT

ANA TERESA JATAR


UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR
INSTITUTO PEDAGGICO DE CARACAS
DEPARTAMENTO DE IDIOMAS
CTEDRA DE GRAMTICA
SEPTIEMBRE, 1994

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

INTRODUCTION

The following learning unit gives you all the information you require
to learn to identify and classify nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs.

The information here presented has been carefully graded so that


you learn at your own pace, bit by bit, with very little, if any, difficulty.

You will be given an objective to guide your attention. Then,


concepts are given and explained. Finally, you will find exercises that will
help your understanding and that will give you the opportunity to practice.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE STUDENTS

Instructions are a very important part of this unit because you will
work on your own most of the time. So, please follow them.

1. Keep the sequence of the steps by means of which the material


is presented.

2. Do all the exercises given in the unit as many times as you feel
it necessary,

3. Refer to your teacher whenever you feel in doubt or need any


help, or when you want to check the answers to the exercises.

4. When studying each step, emphasize the comprehension of the


objective. You will be examined on the objectives presented in
the unit.

Instructions for the teacher

This unit has to be given to the students and they will work on their
own for a determined period of time. During class hours the teachers will
be available for the students to answer questions, if they should arise.
Afterwards, the students will have to take a test on each one of the
objectives here given. It is important that the students understand what is
the intention of the material and they have to feel motivated towards the
work they are about to begin.

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

CONTENTS

I. NOUNS .. 05 -19

II. VERBS .. 21 - 55

III. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS ..... 56 - 76

REFERENCES

Christophersen & Sandved (1970), An Advanced English Grammar,


Macmillan Student Editions, London.

Francis, Nelson (1958), The Structure of American English, The Ronald


Press Company, New York.

Fries, Charles (1957), The Structure of English, Longman, London.

Sledd, James (1959), A short Introduction to English Grammar, Scott,


Foresman & Company, Illinois.

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

I
NOUNS

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 1

The objective of this step is that you learn to define the noun
from an inflectional point of view.

Traditionally a noun has been defined as the name of a person,


place or thing. Nowadays a noun is defined according to other criteria. For
example, a noun can be defined as follows:

A noun is any word that will fit into a paradigm where


there is contrast between singular and plural and/or
between common case and genitive case.

A noun is any word that can take the same inflectional


suffixes as the words MAN and BOY.

That is to say, for example:

Man Mans Men Mens


Boy Boys Boys Boys

Another way of explaining the same fact is the following:

A noun is any word belonging to an inflectional series which is built


like Man, Mans, Men, Mens, or Boy, Boys, Boys, Boys; on either or
both of the contrasts between singular and plural numbers and between
common case and genitive case (also called possessive case).

For a word to be considered a noun from an inflectional pint of view,


it has to accept the plural and/or the possessive morphemes. So a word
such as Girl can be considered a noun because it fits into the paradigm

Girl, Girls Girls, Girls.


References: Christophersen & Sandved, p. 18; James Sledd, p. 70, Francis Nelson, p. 238.

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

Now, answer the following questions:

1. What is a noun from an inflectional pint of view?

2. How is the paradigm for nominal inflections formed?

3. What are the nominal inflections?

4. Can the words woman and father be considered nouns, inflectionally?


Explain fully.

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 2

The objective of this step is that you distinguish those nouns


that accept inflectional suffixes from those that do not.

There is a group of nouns that accept plural and possessive


morphemes. There are nouns that accept only one of these morphemes,
and, finally, there is another group that accepts neither of these
morphemes.

The previous statements are facts which cannot be fully explained


because the reasons are associated with the use of the language. Use
determines these three groups and we can only deduce certain
characteristics. We cannot determine exactly when and why a word
accepts or does not accept these morphemes.

Nevertheless, it is true that when we learn a language we learn


these possibilities. That is, we know, though we cannot explain, that
furniture does not accept either plural or possessive morphemes.

Having accepted the fact that we do not have magic ways of


knowing when nouns accept or do not accept inflectional morphemes, we
can now turn to establish certain hints that can help us when facing this
problem.

For one thing, nouns that can be counted, generally, accept the
plural morpheme. On the other hand, nouns that cannot be counted,
generally, do not accept this morpheme. Nouns that are objects, non-living
entities, generally, do not accept the possessive morpheme. Notice that
we say generally, this is because there are exceptions to these rules.

The following list includes nouns that accept plural and genitive
morphemes because they can be counted and because they are not
objects, but living entities.

1. student students students students


2. dog dogs dogs dogs
3. writer writers writers writers
4. gentleman gentlemans gentlemen gentlemens
5. husband husbands husbands husbands

Now, the following nouns are examples of the group that only
accept the plural morpheme because they can be counted and because
they are non-living entities:

1. box boxes 4. pencil pencils


2. eyes eyes 5. book books

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

3. desk desks 6. picture pictures

Now, we present a list of nouns that are examples of the group that
do not accept either plural or genitive morphemes. Notice that they cannot
be counted and they are non-living entities:

1.furniture 2.knowledge 3.bread 4.ink 5.information


6.butter 7.glass 8.honey 9.music 10.happiness

The following group of phrases contains nouns which are


exceptions to the rules so far studied. It is interesting for you to be aware
of this possibility. Language is always offering rules and exceptions to
these rules. As an exercise, try to explain why they are exceptions.

- the companys officials


- the sands of the Sahara
- to be in deep waters
- the nations social security
- Europes future
- a summers day
- ten days absence
- the worlds championship
- a years crop

Now, do the following exercises.

a) Write an X on those nouns that accept both plural and genitive


morphemes.

1.artist__ 2.water___ 3.teacher__ 4.cat___ 5.flour__

6.child__ 7.uncle__ 8.mother__ 9.music__ 10.examiner__

b) Write an X on those nouns that accept only the plural morpheme.

1.student__ 2.pencil__ 3.desk__ 4.man__ 5.lamp__

6.bedroom__ 7.radio__ 8.passport__ 9.director__ 10.chair__

c) Write an X on those nouns that accept both plural and genitive


morphemes.

1.artist__ 2.water__ 3.teacher__ 4.cat__ 5.flour__

6.child__ 7.uncle__ 8.mother__ 9.music__ 10.examiner__

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

d) Write the inflectional paradigm for those nouns in the list that accept
both types of nominal inflections. Follow the example: man, mans,
men, mens.

1. Pediatrician

2. Suggestion

3. Patient

4. King

5. President

6. Idealism

7. Nurse

8. Secretary

9. Table

10. Postman

e) Answer the following questions:

1. How would you define a noun from an inflectional pint of view?

2. How would you explain the fact that the following words are nouns
from an inflectional point of view?

cat teacher writer

3. Can we say that furniture is a noun from an inflectional point of


view? Explain fully.

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 3

The objective of this step is that you recognize nominal


derivational suffixes.

As we have seen, nouns can be identified as such by means of the


nominal inflectional suffixes. Now, we have to learn that they can also be
identified by means of derivational morphemes.

1. {-age} breakage 8. {-ness} happiness


2. {-ance} appearance 9. {-er} writer
3. {-ess} tigress 10. {-tion} selection
4. {-ist} artist 11. {-ism} organism
5. {-ity} equality 12. {-ship} friendship
6. {-ian} historian 13. {-ing2} dancing
7. {-ment} judgment

There is a group of derivational suffixes that are used only with


nouns. So these suffixes can be used to detect and classify nouns. It is
necessary for you to become familiar with these suffixes. Here they are:
References: Nelson Francis, p. 240; James Sledd, p. 72.

In order to become familiar with these derivational suffixes and be


able to recognize them, do the following exercises.

a) Here is a list of derived nouns, underline or circle the derivational


suffixes for each word.

1. usage 11. blockage


2. appliance 12. historian
3. lioness 13. stoppage
4. monarchism 14. composer
5. concertist 15. hostess
6. activity 16. kindness
7. payment 17. agreement
8. friendliness 18. regularity
9. correction 19. mannerism
10. employer 20. communication

10

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

b) Here is a list of nouns, underline only those that have derivational


suffixes.

1. shortage 2. annoyance 3. matrix


4. storage 5. material 6. actress
7. lorry 8. jewess 9. magnetism
10. paradigm 11. grammar 12. arrangement
13. adverb 14. mentalism 15. noun
16. rabbit 17. materialism 18. electricity
19. government 20. goddess 21. coolness
22. examiner 23. hyphen 24. hardship
25. selection 26. table

11

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 4

The objective of this step is that you recognize nominal


derivational suffixes.

It is important to remind you that inflectional morphemes follow


derivational morphemes and often close the construction in which they
occur; so that when one inflectional morpheme has been added to a form,
often no further suffix will follow.

For example, from hard we can form hardship (derivation), and to


hardship we can add the plural morpheme: hardships (inflection). But to
hardships no other morpheme can be added.

Another distinction may be drawn between inflectional and


derivational suffixes. It is that a derivational suffix generally changes the
class of the form to which it is added. That is, hard is not nominal, but
when we add the derivational suffix {-ship}: hardship, we are transforming
hard into a nominal. That is when derivational suffixes are added, there is
when derivational suffixes are added, there is generally change of the
class of the word: hard (not nominal), hardship (nominal). Yet, when
inflectional suffixes are added, there is no change of the class of the word:
boy boys (both nouns).

We have introduced this information here because it is important for


this unit, though we recognize that this topic must have been learnt by you
in previous courses.
Reference: James Sledd. P. 64.

Now, do the following exercise.

- In the spaces provided, write down the derivational and inflectional


morphemes present in the words. Follow the example:

Derivation Inflection
- activities {-ity} {-s}
1. writers
2. payments
3. artists
4. employers
5. agreements
6. composers
7. selections
8. pediatricians

12

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 5

The objective of this step is that you learn to define the noun
according to the distribution or positions of the noun in
three testing frames.

We have seen that a noun can be defined or identified by the


inflections it accepts or the derivational suffixes it presents. Now we are
going to define it according to the positions (distribution) it may occupy in
three testing frames.

This first testing frame is the following:

FRAME A

(The) ______________ was / were good.

As you can see the frame consists of an optional determiner, that is,
the determiner may or may not occur. Then there is a blank space, this is
the place to collocate the word that is being tested as noun. Then there
are two alternatives, was / were; one of these two is chosen in agreement
with the word placed in the slot. Then, there is the word good. This word
cannot be changed.

This frame is used to test nouns. If a word fits in the blank space it
is a defined or classified as noun; if it doesnt, it cannot be considered a
noun. Take the word concert. Does it fit the frame? The concert is good.
It is a noun. But now, take the word beautiful. Does it fit the frame? *The
beautiful is good. No, it is not a noun. This is the way to use the frames.
But there are two other frames used to test nouns. The second one is:

FRAME B

(The) ____________ remembered (the) ____________.

Notice that in this frame we have two blanks; the first blank is
preceded by a determiner and followed by remembered; the second blank
is preceded by a determiner and is placed after remembered. In the first
blank nouns like man, lady, boy, etc., can be inserted. In the second
blank nouns like question, book, ball, etc., can be inserted. Yet, the first
blank cannot be occupied by the second group of nouns. Examples: The
man remembered the question (and not *the book remembered the man).
The lady remembered the book. The boy remembered the ball (and not
vice-versa).

13

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

The third frame is as follows:

FRAME C

(The) ______________ went there.

This frame consists of an optional determiner followed by a blank space,


then, went and there. Examples of nouns that fit in this frame are:
teacher, woman, student.

Having explained the structure and function of the three testing


frames, we can now conclude with the following definition of a noun from a
distributional point of view:

A noun is a word that fits the blanks in the following testing frames:

A. (The) ______________ was /were good.


B. (The) ______________ remembered (the) ______________.
C. (The) ______________ went there.
Reference: Fries, Charles, p. 76.

Now, do the following exercises.

a) Complete the following statements:

1. Frame A consists of

2. Frame B consists of

3. Frame C consists of

4. We say that pencil is a noun because it fits

5. We say that boy is a noun because it fits

b) Answer the following questions.

1. How would you define a noun from a distributional point of view?

14

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

2. From a distributional point of view, how would you explain that boy
is a noun?

3. From a distributional point of view, how would you explain that


blackboard is a noun?

4. From a distributional point of view, how would you define sugar as a


noun?

15

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 6

The objective of this step is that you practice using the


nominal testing frames in order to classify nouns.

As we have said before, any word that fits in the blanks of the three
testing frames is defined as a noun. But you may have noticed that not all
nouns fit in all the blanks of the three testing frames.

A great majority of nouns fit in Frame A: concert, boy, student,


book, ball, etc. Yet, all these nouns do not fit in the two blanks of Frame
B. In the fist blank of Frame B, only boy and student fit, whereas all five
nouns fit in the second blank of this frame. On the other hand, only boy
and student fit in the blank of Frame C.

The problem is related to the meanings of the words used. A book, for
example, cannot remember anything; but a boy can remember a book.
A ball cannot go anywhere, whereas a boy can go there.

Now, do the following exercises.

a) Here is a list of words. Mark with an X those words that be classified


as nouns because they fit one of the blanks in the three testing
frames.

1. there _______ 2. blackboard _____ 3. frequently ___

4. sharpener ___ 5. electricity ______ 6. language ____

7. day ________ 8. communicate ___ 9. battery ______

10. high ________ 11. extinguish _____ 12. course ______

13. boat ________ 14. wonderful _____ 15. game _______

16. patiently ____ 17. passage _______ 18. here ________

19. priest _______ 20. law ___________

16

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

b) Here is a list of nouns. In the blanks beside the words, write the
frame(s) where the noun fit. Follow the example.

e.g. Mary A B C
e.g. desk A B
1. reptile
2. country
3. drive
4. instrument
5. technology
6. occasion
7. meeting
8. pediatrician
9. telephone

c) Following the example given bellow, justify the classification of the


following words as nouns.

Example: bookkeeper

It is a noun because it fits frame A: The bookkeeper is good.


It fits frame B: The bookkeeper remembered the number.
It fits frame C: The bookkeeper went there.

1. writer
2. actor
3. crocodile
4. lamp
5. space

d) Answer the following questions.

1. Why do you think that not all nouns fit in the first blank of Frame B?

2. Why do you think that not all nouns fit in Frame C?

17

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 7

The objective of this step is that you put together all the
information you have acquired about nouns.

We have said that traditionally nouns were defined as the name of


a person, place or thing. But nowadays nouns are defined following
inflectional, derivational and distributional criteria. A complete definition of
a noun has to deal with the three types of criteria. But not all nouns accept
inflections or present derivational suffixes. Yet they have to fit in at least
one of the blanks in the three testing frames. This means that even if
inflectional and derivational criteria do not help us to classify a word as a
noun, it is sure that distributional characteristics will determine the
classification quite clearly.

Now, do the following exercises.

a) Here is a list of nouns. Circle the criteria you can use in order to
classify them as nouns.

1. rock inflection derivation distribution


2. information inflection derivation distribution
3. shortage inflection derivation distribution
4. portrait inflection derivation distribution
5. flexibility inflection derivation distribution
6. classroom inflection derivation distribution
7. tiger inflection derivation distribution
8. mentalism inflection derivation distribution
9. knowledge inflection derivation distribution
10. poet inflection derivation distribution
11. sugar inflection derivation distribution
12. argument inflection derivation distribution
13. honey inflection derivation distribution
14. pilot inflection derivation distribution
15. veterinarian inflection derivation distribution

b) Taking into account the information you have gathered in the


previous exercise, try to draw some conclusions about the group of
words given above. We have included some clues in the form of
question that may help you arriving at some conclusions.

1. Is there any noun that does not fit the distributional criterion?

18

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

2. How many of the words in the list do not accept any of the
inflectional suffixes? Too many?

3. How many words in the list present derivational suffixes? What


are these derivational suffixes?

4. What are the words in this list that do not accept possessive?
Can you explain why?

5. What kinds of words do not accept inflectional morphemes? Can


you describe them briefly?

Now, write your own conclusions.

19

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

c) A group of nouns is given to you in this exercise. Explain, whenever


possible, the distributional, inflectional and derivational criteria that
can be used to define these words as nouns. Follow the example.

Example: violinist
- It fits frame A: The violinist is good.

- It fits frame B: The violinist remembered the music.

- It fits frame C: The violinist went there.

- It fits the inflectional nominal paradigm:


Violinist violinists violinists violinists

- It has a derivational suffix: {-ist}.

1. employer
2. milk
3. lady
4. agreement

20

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

II
VERBS

21

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 1

The objective of this step is that you learn to define the verb
from an inflectional point of view.

Traditionally a noun has been defined as the a word that expresses


action, being or condition. Nowadays the verb is defined according to
other criteria. One of these other ways of defining the verb is as follows:

A verb is any word belonging to an inflectional series which marks


the difference between present and past tenses and whose members will
fit into a pattern like the following:

sing sings sang sung singing, or


play plays played played playing

So, for a word to be considered a verb it must accept the verbal


inflectional morphemes associated to third person singular, represented
by {-z3}, the simple past tense, represented by {-ed1}, the past participle,
represented by {-ed2}, and the continuous tense, represented by {-ing1}.
References: James Sledd, p. 74; Francis Nelson, p. 252

Now, do the following exercises.

a) Complete the following statements.

1. A verb is any word that

2. The inflectional suffixes of verbs are

3. The word do is a verb inflectionally because it

22

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

4. The word live is a verb inflectionally because it

b) Read the following statements and select the one that best describes
the verb:

1. A verb is a word that expresses action, being or condition.

2. A verb is any word that belongs to an inflectional series which


marks the difference between present and past tenses and which
can take the same inflectional suffixes as the words sing and play.

Now, explain the reason for your selection

c) Answer the following questions.

1. What is a verb from an inflectional point of view?

2. How is the paradigm for verbal inflections formed?

3. What are the verbal inflections?

23

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

4. Why can the words think and paint be considered verbs


inflectionally?

24

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 2

The objective of this step is that you learn to identify the


verb from an inflectional point of view.

As we have seen, for a word to be inflectionally a verb it must fit into


a pattern like the following:

walk walks walked walked walking


or
hit hits hit hit hitting

So, given a group of words such as: woman, teacher, car, live,
write, sound, the first three words, obviously, do not accept verbal
inflections. This means that they are not verbs. On the other h and, the
last three do accept verbal inflections

live lives lived lived living


write writes wrote written writing
sound sounds sounded sounded sounding

In this way, words that accept verbal inflections are verbs.

Now do the following exercises.

1. Here is a list of words, Mark with an X those words that accept verbal
inflections.

learn____ window____ paint____ look____ moon____


see_____ song______ erase____ draw____ define____

2. Add verbal inflections to the following verbs.

bring____ walk____ listen____ organize____ come____

3. Using your dictionary, determine if the words (usually known as nouns)


accept verbal inflections. Identify them by putting a check-mark (V)

book_____ house_____ wallet_____ chalk_____


street_____ book_____ paper_____

25

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 3

The objective of this step is that you recognize verbal


derivational suffixes.

As we have seen verbs can be identified as such by means of


verbal inflectional suffixes. Now, we have to learn that they can also be
identified by means of derivational morphemes.

There is a group of derivational suffixes that are used only with


verbs. So, these suffixes can be used to detect and classify verbs. It is
necessary for you to become familiar with these suffixes. Here they are:

1. {-ize} organize 2. {-ate} activate

3. {-fy} simplify 4. {-en} sharpen

Reference: James Sledd, p. 75; Francis Nelson, p.260

In order to become familiar with these derivational suffixes and be


able to recognize them, do the following exercises.

Here is a list of derived verbs, write the verbal derivational suffixes


on the blanks beside each word.

1. modernize _________ 9. internalize __________

2. operate ___________ 10. glorify _____________

3. fortify _____________ 11. strengthen _________

4. widen _____________ 12. implicate ___________

5. computerize _______ 13. personify ___________

6. darken ____________ 14. blacken ____________

7. discriminate ________ 15. formalize ___________

8. beautify ___________ 16. motivate ____________

26

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 4

The objective of this step is that you learn to define the verb
following the distribution or positions of the verb in three
testing frames.

We have seen that a verb can be defined or identified by the


inflections it accepts or the derivational suffixes it presents. Now we are
going to define it according to the positions (distribution) it may occupy in
three testing frames.

FRAME A

(The) noun _________________ good.


(was / were)

Do the words yellow, house, quickly, that fit into the slot?
The answer is no. Therefore these words are not verbs.

Do the words seem, look fit into the slot?


The answer is yes. Therefore these words, and any word that fits
into the slot of this frame, will be defined as a verb.

This testing frame consists of an optional determiner, followed by


an obligatory noun, a verb that fits into the slot, and the word good.

FRAME B

(The) noun _________________ (the) noun.


(remembered)

The verbs that fit into the slot of frame B are different from those in
frame A. Notice that in this frame verbs like saw, wanted, hit, kick, etc.,
do not usually fir in frame A but frame B.

This testing frame consists of an optional determiner followed by an


obligatory noun, a verb that fits into the slot, and optional determiner and a
noun.

FRAME C

(The) noun _________________ there.


(went)

The verbs that fit into the slot of frame C are different from those in
frame A and B. Notice that in this frame verbs like come, go, run, etc., do
not usually fit frames A and B but in frame C.

27

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

This testing frame consists of an optional determiner followed by an


obligatory noun, a verb that fits into the slot and the word there.

To summarize, any word that fits into the slots of frames A, B, and
C, must be defined adverbs.

Reference: Fried, p. 76

Now, do the following exercises.

a) Complete the following statements.

1. Frame A consists of
2. Frame B consists of
3. Frame C consists of
4. We can say that sounds is a verb because it fits frame
5. We can say that drink is a verb because it fits frame

b) Answer the following questions.

1. How would you define a verb from a distributional point of view?

2. From a distributional pint of view, how would you explain that


become is a verb?

3. From a distributional point of view, how would you explain that run
is a verb?

28

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 5

The objective of this step is that you learn to define


copulative or linking verbs.

The three testing frames for verbs imply three different groups of
verbs. Verbs which fit into frame A do not necessarily fit in frame B or C.

Any verb that fits in frame A is called a copulative or linking verb.


The characteristic of these verbs is that they occur between a noun and an
adjective such as good.

Examples: Mary is beautiful.


nice
intelligent
tall

Copulative or linking verbs also occur between two nominals.

Examples: Helen is a teacher / Helen became his wife.

If a copulative verb occurs between two nominals, the second


nominal refers back to the first nominal. In other words, in the examples
given, both teacher and wife refer to the first nominal which is Helen. The
nominals teacher and wife have the same referent.

Now, do the following exercise.

- Complete the following statements.

1. A copulative or linking verb is any verb which

2. A copulative or linking verb can occur

3. A copulative or linking verb can also occur

4. In the sentence Peter became a teacher, the verb became is


copulative because

5. When a copulative verb occurs between two nominals these


nominals

29

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 6

The objective of this step is that you identify copulative or


linking verbs.

We have said that, copulative or linking verbs occur either between a noun
and an adjective or between two nominals.

In order to identify these verb types do the following exercises.

a) Underline copulative verbs followed by an adjective.

1. She is nice. 2. The food tastes good.

3. She is here. 4. She answered the letter.

5. The music sounds beautiful. 6. The exercise seems difficult.

7. She turned red. 8. He came early.

9. It looks familiar. 10. She appeared angry.

11. He remained silent. 12. She smells good.

13. Cotton grows wild.

b) Underline copulative verbs which occur between two nominals having


the same referent.

1. She became a politician.

2. Tom is a technician.

3. He wrote a letter.

4. He turned traitor.

5. She bought a book.

6. He proved a failure.

7. Tim remains our teacher.

8. He painted the house.

30

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 7

The objective of this step is that you learn to define


transitive verbs.

Transitive verbs occur in frame B, i.e., they occur between two


nominals but these nominals do not have the same referent. For example:

Peter remembered the story.

Peter and story refer to two different entities.

Transitive verbs can also be defined as verbs that accept who or


what questions.

- Peter remembered the story. What did peter remember? The story.
- He punished Tom. Who did he punish? Tom

The fact that the answer given to the question is a noun indicates
that the verb is transitive.

Another characteristic of transitive verbs is that they generally


accept passive voice. For example:

- He punished Tom. Passive voice. Tom was punished (by him).


- Peter remembered the story. Passive voice. The story was remembered
(by Peter).

So, we can say that if a sentence can be changed into passive


voice we are dealing with a transitive verb.

1. Transitive verbs occur in frame

2. Frame B consists of

3. The two nominals in Frame B do not have

4. In the sentence: Mary wrote a letter, the two nominals have


different referents, so the verb is

5. In the sentence: Peter drove the car, the verb is transitive because
we can question the verb using

31

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

6. In the sentence: I saw Mary, the verb is transitive because we can


question the verb using

7. Verbs that can be questioned ____________ or ____________


using are __________ verbs.

8. One further characteristic of transitive verbs is that most of them


accept

9. When the sentence can be turned into passive voice the verbs are

32

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 8

The objective of this step is that you learn to recognize


transitive verbs.

As you have seen, transitive verbs occur in frame B, they can also
be questioned with who or what and the sentence in which they occur can
be turned into passive voice.

In order to recognize transitive verbs do the following exercises.

a) Mark with an X the sentences which belong to verbs frame B.

1. He invented the wheels.


2. The doctor examined the patient.
3. He became a scientist.
4. We damaged the house.
5. He broke the window.
6. He ran quickly.

b) Mark with an X verbs that can be questioned with who or what.

1. I liked the girl.


2. Peter went out.
3. They polished the floor.
4. She opened the door.
5. The smiled happily.
6. I know her.

c) The following verbs accept who or what questions.

1. I typed a letter.
2. She loves her children.
3. I recognized the actress.
4. He took a plane.
5. We cleaned our bedroom

d) Change the following sentences into passive voice.

1. I received a message.
2. They watched T. V.
3. He made a speech.
4. They learnt their exercises.
5. We remembered his advice.
6. John drank beer.

33

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

e) By now you should know three criteria for identifying transitive verbs.
What are they?

1.
2.
3.

Now, use the criteria described in exercise e) to classify transitive


verbs in the following sentences. Underline each verb and explain the
criterion that corresponds.

1. John recognized transitive verbs.

2. She painted her house.

3. Mary ate some apples.

4. She has two books.

5. I offered a prize.

6. She questioned her.

34

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 9

The objective of this step is that you learn to distinguish


copulative verb from transitive verbs.

Copulative verbs may occur between two nominals, and transitive


verbs always occur between two nominals. In order to distinguish
copulative and transitive verbs followed by nominals you have to identify
the basic differences. The nominals in copulative verbs have the same
referent, while the nominals in transitive verbs have different referents.
Another difference is that copulative verbs do not accept passive voice.

Look at these examples:

1. John is a student. 2. John received a message.

In sentence 1, both John and a student refer to the same person.


This means that the verb in sentence number 1. is copulative. In sentence
number 2. John and a message have totally different referents. So the
verb in sentence number 2. is a transitive verb. Passive is only possible in
sentence 2.: A message was received by John.

Exercises

a) Distinguish copulative verbs from transitive verbs, by writing the one


that corresponds in each one of the following sentences.

1. It appeared a good move.

2. He turned the chair around.

3. They grow vegetables in their garden.

4. She made a cake yesterday.

5. She has remained my friend.

6. It appears a true story.

7. They turned spies.

8. He proved her guilt.

9. Plants grow roots.

10. She proved a good teacher.

35

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

11. He grew a nice man.

12. The hole makes a good hiding place.

b) Do the following sentences accept passive voice?

1. He typed a letter last night.

2. He has become a good engineer.

3. They opened the door quickly.

4. It looked an interesting film.

5. He tasted the hot soup.

6. She is a teacher at the Pedaggico.

7. She took a photograph of me.

8. He told me a good joke.

36

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 10

The objective of this step is that you learn to define


intransitive verbs.

Intransitive verbs occur in frame C. As you should remember frame


C consists of an optional determiner followed by an obligatory noun, a
verb that fits into the slot and a word such as there.

(The) noun _________________ there.


(went)

The main characteristics of these verbs are that:

1. They can usually be questioned using where, when, how, etc.


2. They are never followed by nominals.
3. They do not accept passive voice.
4. They cannot be questioned using who or what.

Complete the following statements.

1. Intransitive verbs occur in

2. Frame C consists of

3. Intransitive verbs are never followed by

4. Intransitive verbs cannot be questioned using

5. Intransitive verbs do not accept

6. Intransitive verbs can be questioned using

37

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 11

The objective of this step is that you learn to identify


intransitive verbs.

The verbs in the following statements are intransitive verbs:

1. They went home.

2. She arrived yesterday

3. Mary runs quickly.

The identification of these intransitive verbs may be explained as


follows:

1. The verbs occur in frame C.

2. The can be questioned in the following way:

a) Where did you go? Home

b) When did she arrive? Yesterday.

c) How does Mary run? Quickly.

3. There is no possibility of turning these statements into passive


voice.

Now do the following exercises.

a) Mark with an X verbs that occur in frame C.

1. She came early. 5. She drove slowly.


2. She became a teacher. 6. She took a plane.
3. She has forgotten her bag. 7. She works quickly.
4. She spoke fast. 8. She left yesterday.

b) Question the verbs in the following sentences and underline those


sentences which have intransitive verbs.

1. He ran silently. 5. She drew a picture.


2. They stayed here. 6. Hes arriving tomorrow.
3. She answered mysteriously. 7. He bought a watch.
4. She sang loudly. 8. She came here.

38

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 12

The objective of this step is that you learn to distinguish


verbs from intransitive verbs.

As you have seen transitive verbs are always followed by nominals.


On the other hand, intransitive verbs are not followed by nominals. In other
words, transitive verbs are questioned with who or what; intransitive verbs
are questioned with how, when, where, etc.

Look at the examples.

1. John drove a car.


2. John drove quickly.

In sentence number 1 the verb is transitive because the nominal a


car is an answer to the question What did he drive? A nice car A nice
blue car, etc., but the main word is a noun.

In sentence number 2 the verb is intransitive because the word


quickly is an answer to the question How did he drive? You must also
realize that the answer to this question could also be a phrase instead of a
word: in a hurry.

a) In the following exercise mark with a T sentences with transitive verbs;


and with an I sentences with intransitive verbs.

1. She draws beautifully.

2. He distinguished the differences.

3. This ball throws nicely.

4. She is wearing a nice pair of shoes.

5. I saw him in the exhibition.

6. She screamed angrily.

7. I met Carolina yesterday.

8. He has arrived home.

9. He is building a big house.

10. The plane crashed last night.

39

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

b) Question the verb and then identify transitive and intransitive verbs.
Follow the example:

Question Type of Verb

1. The secretary is reading the mail.

2. Robert sings in the shower.

3. We study every day.

4. Helen dances beautifully.

5. They learn English.

6. My sister underlines the verbs.

7. Elvira tipped the waitress.

8. They are singing a melody.

9. Mike painted the house.

10. My mother fell in the garden.

11. The sun shines brightly.

12. The little child cries at home.

40

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 13

The objective of this step is that you learn to define verbs


that take particles.

Look at examples:

1. She turned down my application.

2. I carried out his orders.

3. The plane took off.

The meaning of the underlined verb in sentence number 1 is that


She rejected my application. As you can see the meaning of turn and
the meaning of down as independent words have no relationship with the
meaning of turn down as a unit of meaning. The same thing happens with
the underlined verbs in sentences numbers 2 and 3: carry out means
follow or obey and take off means when a plane rises from the surface
of the earth. These underlined verbs are called verbs that take particles.
As you have seen these verbs consist of two parts that function as a unit
of meaning, and this unit of meaning is different to the meaning of the
individual parts when they work as independent forms.

Compare the previous group of sentences with the following one:

4. She turned left.

5. She carried the boss.

6. I take sugar in my coffee.

You should notice that turn down and turn in sentences 1 and 4
have different meanings, and moreover, the meanings of the two verbs are
completely different. You cannot tell the meaning of turn down from the
meaning of turn. The particle changes the meaning of the verb in
isolation. The same thing happens with the rest of the sentences.

The combination of verb plus particles, which functions as a single


unit, is highly idiomatic. One cannot predict the meaning of the expression
by looking at the individual elements.

41

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

Now, do the following exercises.

a) Complete the following statements.

1. Verbs that take particles consist of and

function as

2. Turn down and turn have different

3. Carry is an independent verb. Carry out is a verb that

4. In the same way that take is a unit of meaning, take of is also a

b) Answer the following questions.

1. What is a verb that takes particle?

2. What is the difference between turn and turn down, carry and carry
out, and take and take off?

3. You cannot tell the meaning of turn down from the meaning of turn.
Why not? Explain your answer.

42

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 14

The objective of this step is that you learn to identify verbs


that take particles.

Verbs that take particles consist of two parts and function as a


single unit of meaning. We cannot predict their meanings from looking at
the two parts individually.

Now do the following exercises.

a) Underline verbs that take particles.

1. The party broke up at midnight.


2. She suddenly turned up in Caracas.
3. He broke my new glasses.
4. The machine soon came apart.
5. She ate a lot of soup.
6. He gave up smoking.
7. Her mother gave in very soon.
8. I have to call in at my brothers home.
9. I hardly know the new teacher.
10. You have to turn off the lights.

b) Now find the meanings of the verbs you have underline in a) and
compare the meaning with the same verb in isolation.

Meaning with the particles Meaning in isolation


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

43

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 15

The objective of this step is that you learn to distinguish


when the verb + particle is a unit of meaning.

Examine the following examples:

1. We look up the word in the dictionary.


2. We look up the chimney.

In sentence number 1 the verb look up is a complete unit of


meaning, that is, the particle is part of the meaning of a verb which
consists of two words in sentence number 2 up is not part of the meaning
of the verb but belongs to the next unit of meaning, which is up the
chimney. Notice that the question that fits in sentence 1 for the unit that
follows the verb is What do we look up? The answer establishes that the
unit that follows is the word in the dictionary. In sentence number 2 the
question that fits for the unit that follows the verb is Where do we look? In
this case, the answer establishes that the unit that follows is up the
chimney. We may conclude then that some particles may be a part of the
verb or may be a part of the next unit. The best way to distinguish when
the particle belongs to the next unit is by asking questions with where,
when, how, etc. The answers to these questions generally include the
particle in the answer, which means that the particles do not belong to the
verb but to the following unit.

Now, do the following exercises.

a) Underline the verbs that take particles.

1. I went to Portland yesterday.


2. You can call off the meeting.
3. She was walking up the street.
4. This man teaches at the university.
5. The battery has run down.
6. The technician works in a factory.
7. Elizabeth has come from London.
8. She is bringing up her brothers sons.
9. A fire broke out in the basement.
10. You must rule out the use of force.

44

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

b) From the previous sentences, rewrite those you did not underline.
Then, question with when or where, each one of these sentences.
Follow the example:

e.g. She is living in his house. Where is he living? In his house

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

c) From the sentences in a), take those you underlined and find the
meaning for each one of them.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

45

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 16

The objective of this step is that you learn to define verbs


that require prepositions.

There is a group of verbs which pattern with certain prepositions,


that is, the verb requires the preposition. This requirement occurs when
the verb in this group is followed by a noun.

Examine the example:

She complains about her problems.

Complain requires the preposition about when it is followed by a


noun if the noun is not included, the preposition is not required.

She complains constantly.

Similar examples are the following:

She is waiting for Mary.


She is waiting patiently.

She is talking to me.


She is talking loudly.

Another characteristic of this group of verbs is that there is no


change in the meaning of the verb when it is used with or without the
preposition. The verb and the preposition are two distinct units of meaning,
as opposed to verbs that take particle. Examine the following example and
notice that there is no change in the meaning of the verb complain when
used with or without the preposition:

She complains about you / She is always complaining.

Complain: to express feeling of annoyance, pain,


unhappiness, dissatisfaction, to speak in an unhappy,
annoyed, dissatisfied way.

Now do the following exercises.

a) Complete the following statements.

1. Verbs that require with certain

2. This requirement occurs when

46

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

3. Complain requires about when

4. If complain is not followed by a noun, then the is


not needed.

5. Complain means the same when used

b) Answer the following questions.

1. What is a verb that requires preposition?

2. How would you explain that complain is a verb that requires a


preposition?

3. How would you explain that complain and about are two distinct
units of meaning?

47

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 17

The objective of this step is that you learn to identify verbs


that require prepositions.

Verbs that require prepositions are verbs that consist of two parts
and these two parts function as two distinct units of meaning. There is not
variation of meaning when the verbs are used with or without the
preposition. The use of the preposition is obligatory when a noun follows
the verb. Examine the example:

She is waiting for us / She is waiting anxiously

Wait: remain somewhere until something expected happens.

Do the following exercises so that you learn to identify these verbs.

a) Underline the verb and the preposition required by the verb.

1. I listened to her complains.

2. I studied with her.

3. She agrees with me.

4. They looked at me.

5. This car belongs to me.

6. She concentrated on the plan.

7. Mary spoke to the man in the corner.

8. The letter consists of two paragraphs.

9. How would you deal with an armed burglar?

10. He commented on the results.

11. Helen has applied for that job.

12. Would you care for a walk?

13. You should conform to the rules.

14. I danced with him

48

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

b) Compare the verb in the following pair of sentences with regard to teir
meanings. Are their meanings different?
Example:
I studied with her. I studied thoroughly.

e.g. I studied with her. / I studied thoroughly.


The meaning of study is the same in both sentences.

1. The teacher spoke to me. / I speak slowly.

2. She wrote to her friend. / She writes quickly.

3. I quarreled with my sister. / I quarreled heavily.

4. I have danced with him many


times. / She dances beautifully.

49

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 18

The objective of this step is that you learn to distinguish


verbs that take particles from verbs that require prepositions.

As you have studied, verbs that take particles are verbs that consist
of two parts that function as a unit of meaning.

She turned down my application


(rejected)

The meaning of turn and the meaning of down as independent


words have no relationship with the meaning of turn down as a unit of
meaning.

On the other hand, verbs that require prepositions are verbs that
also consist of two parts but these two parts function as two units of
meaning.

She complained about me / She is always complaining.

Complain: to express feeling of annoyance, etc.

There is not variation in the meaning of complain when used with


or without the preposition. Yet, the verb requires the preposition when
followed by a noun.

Now, do the following exercises.

a) Underline verbs that take particles and verbs that require prepositions,
and indicate what kind of verb you are dealing with in each sentence.
Follow the example:

e.g. The letter consists of two parts. V + Prep.


e.g. She gave up very soon. V + Part.
1. She carried out the plan perfectly well.
2. She carried on her work.
3. They ran with their classmates.
4. The beer is running out quickly.
5. I applied for a new job.
6. Turn off the radio, please.
7. He turned to me angrily.
8. Call off the meeting.
9. Drop in for a minute.
10. I shouted at him.
11. I asked for a new job.
12. She depends on your heavily.

50

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

b) In the following group of sentences you will find two kinds of verbs,
those that take particles and those that require prepositions. Underline
the verbs and then answer the given questions for each sentence.
Follow the example:

e.g. He made up the story.


i Is it a verb + particle or a verb + preposition?
Is it a verb + particle.
ii Is it one or two units of meaning?
It is one unit of meaning.
iii Is there any variation in meaning when you delete the particle /
preposition?
There is variation in meaning if you delete the particle.

1. He passed away peacefully.


i
ii
iii

2. Pull up by that bus stop.


i
ii
iii

3. He commented on the results.


i
ii
iii

4. I cant cope with heavy traffic.


i
ii
iii

5. They have put off the meeting.


i
ii
iii

6. He persisted in his argument.


i
ii
iii

51

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

7. Well set off in an hour.


i
ii
iii

8. I count on you.
i
ii
iii

9. He looks after the children.


i
ii
iii

10. He takes after his mother.


i
ii
iii

52

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 19

The objective of this step is that you learn to distinguish


transitive and intransitive verbs followed by particles or
preposition.

Transitive verbs are followed by nouns. Intransitive verbs are either


followed by nothing or by a word(s) similar to there (review step 10).

Verbs that take particles or that require prepositions may also go


under the more comprehensive category called transitivity. That is, these
groups may or may not be followed by a noun.

1. I turned off the lights.


What did I turn off? The lights.
Verb + particle, transitive.

2. The party broke up at midnight.


When did the party brake up? At midnight.
Verb + particle, intransitive.

3. I have to call in at my brothers home.


Where do you have to call in? At my brothers home.
Verb + particle, intransitive.

4. We looked up the word in the dictionary.


What do we look up? The word.
Verb + particle, transitive.

5. I asked for the book.


What did I ask for? For the book.
Verb + preposition, transitive.

6. She complained about you.


Who is she complaining about? You.
Verb + preposition, transitive.

7. Sam was talking to the teacher.


Who was Sam talking to? To the teacher.
Verb + preposition, transitive.

8. He commented on the results of the exam.


What did he comment on? The results of the exam.
Verb + preposition, transitive.

53

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

Notice that whereas verbs that take particles may be transitive or


intransitive, verbs that require preposition are always transitive when used
with the preposition. (Some may function without the preposition, in which
case they are intransitive: She is constantly complaining).

Exercise:

Underline the verbs and say whether they take particles or require
prepositions, and whether they are transitive or intransitive. Follow the
example:

e.g. I asked for the book. Verb + preposition, transitive.


e.g. He turned off the lights. Verb + particle, transitive.
1. He made up the story.
2. I studied with her yesterday.
3. We set off in an hour.
4. I carried out the plan at home.
5. The book belongs to my father.
6. The fire broke out in basement.
7. I listen to the radio in the car.
8. You can call off the meeting.
9. She writes to me every day.
10. This battery has run down.

54

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 20

The objective of this step is that you put together all the
information you have acquired throughout the unit for verbs.

You have learnt to classify verbs according to three distinct criteria:


inflectionally, derivationally, and distributionally. That is, given a sentence,
you are able to underline the verb and explain its characteristics.

Example: He organized the party.

- The underlined word is a verb because:

a) Inflectionally: it ends in -ed or it fits the verbal paradigm.


Organize organizes organized organizing.

b) Derivationally: it is formed by the addition of the


morpheme {-ize} to the stem organ.

c) Distributionally: it fits the testing frame B, that is, it is a


transitive verb.

Not all verbs can be classified as such by means of the three


criteria. Some do not present a derivational formation. For example, the
verb work can be classified as such on the basis of the criteria of inflection
and distribution, but it has no derivational morpheme.

Now, following the example given above, do this exercise:

- Underline the verb in the sentences given and classify each verb
explaining, whether possible, the three criteria mentioned in this unit.

1. He went home.
2. She is a nice girl.
3. It looks interesting.
4. I gave up my job.
5. He treated me nicely.
6. She motivated my day.
7. They simplified the explanation.
8. He arrived on time.
9. He threatened the policeman.
10. She legalized the documents.

55

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

III
Adjectives
&
Adverbs

56

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 1

The aim of this step is that you learn to define adjectives


from a distributional point of view.

From a distributional point of view and adjective is a word that fits


the position before a noun or following a linking verb.

Look at this:

The _______________ boy is ______________.

Any word which fits both blank spaces will be defined as an


adjective in terms of position or distribution. That is to say, words such as
good, bad, intelligent, clever, etc. are adjectives because they may
occupy both the position before the noun and the position following a
linking verb. You must realize that, for a word to be considered an
adjective, it has got to be able to occupy both positions and not just one.
For example, the word there fits the space after the linking verb but not
the space before the noun.

The ________________ boy is there.

So, there cannot be considered an adjective because it cannot fit in


both positions.

Now, do the following exercise,

- Answer the following questions.

1. Distributionally, how do you define an adjective?

2. Distributionally, what is the condition for a word to be considered an


adjective?

3. Distributionally, how do you explain that beautiful is an adjective?

4. Distributionally, how do you explain that somewhere is not an


adjective?

57

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 2

The aim of this step is that you learn to classify adjectives


according to distributional criteria.

We have said that an adjective is a word that fits in both slots of the
following frame:

The _______________ boy is ______________.

So, now you will use this frame in order to classify adjectives.

Exercises:

- Underline adjectives and indicate whether the underlined word fits in the
adjectival frame. Follow the example.

e.g. reliable The reliable boy / is reliable.

1. sharp

2. peaceful

3. find

4. different

5. sometimes

6. cold

7. upon

8. beautiful

9. serious

10 sticky

11. accept

58

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 3

The aim of this step is that you learn to define adverbs


distributionally. That is, an adverb is a word that occupies
the final position in three testing frames.

We have studied three testing frames which are now completed for
the study of adverbs:

A. The (adjective) noun is / was (adjective) ______________.


adverb

B. The noun remembered the noun ______________.


adverb

C. The noun went ______________.


adverb

Adverbs vary widely in distribution. That is, they occur in three


different positions: front, middle or final. Now, the final position shown in
the frames given above can be used to test adverbs. In other words, it is
possible to see adverbs at the beginning of the sentence:

Slowly she began to move.

But they may also occur in the middle of a sentence:

She quickly realized the difficulty.

Finally, it may also appear following the adjective in frame A,


following the second noun in frame B, or following the intransitive verb in
frame C. This ending position is used to distinguish adverbs from any
other kind of word. Regularly, the adverbs established in the frames.

59

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 4

The aim of this step is that you learn to identify adverbs


according to distributional criteria.

An adverb has been defined as a word that occupies the final


position in the three testing frames given. Now, we would like to identify
adverbs using this definition:

Exercise:

- Underline adverbs and indicate whether they occupy the position in


Frame A, Frame B, or Frame C. Follow the example.

e.g. David ended the semester happily. Frame B

1. They arrived quickly.

2. He is stupid sometimes.

3. Elizabeth ate the cake greedily.

4. She seemed nice then.

5. The mechanic repaired the car yesterday.

6. The little child fell intentionally.

7. Tom caught a bus recently.

8. He came yesterday.

9. This charming girl achieved success


instantly.

10. They looked rare suddenly.

11. The new teacher gave a class admirably.

60

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 5

The objective of this step is that you learn to identify


adverbs which occupy mid and front positions.

The final position in the position used to identify adverbs. Yet,


adverbs may occur in front and mid positions.

1. He stated his opinion clearly.


2. Furiously she entered the room.
3. She easily realized the difficulty.

When adverbs are placed in front and mid position, it is possible, in


most cases, to move the adverb to a final position:

3. She entered the room furiously.


4. She realized the difficulty easily.

Now, do the following exercises.

a) Underline adverbs in the following sentences.

1. Outside, the boys were jumping.


2. They recently had an accident.
3. Yesterday, I sent John a letter.
4. Today he wasnt come.
5. They obviously knew the answer.
6. Sometimes the players knock the ten pins.
7. He bravely faced the crowd.
8. Deliberately he made a mistake.
9. He intentionally told a lie.
10. Vaguely he looked at me.

b) Now rewrite the sentences in the previous exercise placing the adverb
in final position.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

61

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

7.

8.

9.

10.

c) Now answer the following questions.

1. What position is used to distinguish adverbs from other words?

2. Yet, what other positions can be occupied by adverbs?

3. Can adverbs that occupy other positions be moved to final position?

62

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 6

The objective of this step learn to define base adjectives as


stems from which nouns and adverbs are formed.

A base adjective is defined as such because a noun and an adverb


can be formed by the addition of {-ness} and {-ly} to the adjective in
questions. That is, we identify strange as a base adjective because a noun
is formed by the addition of {-ness} - strangeness - and because an
adverb is formed by the addition of {-ly} - strangely. Other examples:

false falseness falsely


bad badness badly

These adjectives can also be recognized by the fact that they are
short words, to which morphemes ({-ness} {-ly}) can be added.
Nevertheless, there is a group of exceptions, some of which are here
listed:

ADJECTIVE NOUN ADVERB

1. Good Goodness Well

- The boy is good. He is a good boy. (Adjective)


- His goodness of heart made him do this. (Noun)
- She slept well last night. (Adverb)

2. small smalless small

- The boy is small. He is a small boy. (Adjective)


- I was surprised at the smallness of his house. (Noun)
- He writes so small that I cant read it. (Adverb)

3. little littleness little

- The boy is little. He is a little boy. (Adjective)


- The littleness of his finger made me think of a series of dots. (Noun)
- She speaks little in class.

4. long length long

- The river is long. It is a long river. (Adjective)


- The length of his arms is a problem. (Noun)
- The work wont take long. (Adverb)

63

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

5. fast fastness fast

- The trip was fast. It was a fast trip. (Adjective)


- We guarantee the fastness of these dyes. (Noun)
- She walks very fast. (Adverb)

6. ill illness ill

- The man is ill. He has ill health. (Adjective)


- There has been no illness in the village this winter. (Noun)
- She spoke ill about her neighbors. (Adverb)

7. hard hardness hard

- This stone is hard. It is a hard stone. (Adjective)


- The hardness of this ground allowed them to build those houses. (Noun)
- Though he studied hard he failed. (Adverb)

Note:

Notice that hardly has not been considered as an adverb formed from
the base adjective hard. In fact, both adverb and adjective are spelled in
the same way, but considered one or the other according to distributional
characteristics. Hardly has a different meaning and is used differently, it
means only just, not quite, scarcely, i.e. I hardly know her.

Exercise:

Here it is a list of adjectives. Indicate whether they are base adjectives or


not by filling in the blanks following the example. You may use a
dictionary.

Adjective Noun Adverb


e.g. Strange Strangeness strangely
1. bright
2. sharp
3. broad
4. eager
5. cold
6. thick
7. narrow
8. blind
9. clever
10. comfortable

64

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 7

The objective of this step is to learn to define and identify


derived adjectives.

Derived adjectives are those formed by the addition of adjectives


forming suffixes such as the following.

1. {-y} faulty, healthy, funny, heady, hearty, greedy, gloomy,


glassy.

2. {-al} natural, national, professional, emotional, classical.

3. {-able} remarkable, capable, understandable, portable, reliable.

4. {-ful} hopeful, useful, beautiful, helpful, colorful, peaceful.

5. {-less} hopeless, useless, helpless, nameless.

6. {-ous} mysterious, harmonious, famous, anonymous, anomalous.

7. {-ent} convenient, sufficient, efficient, eminent, intelligent.

8. {-ed3} ragged, beloved, rugged, learned, tired, bored, devoted,


complicated. ({ed1} and {ed2} -verbs).

9. {-ing3} interesting, boring, exciting. ({ing1} -verbs, {ing2} -nouns).

10. {-ly2} friendly, homely, sickly. ({ly1} -adverbs).

Now do the following exercises.

- Here is a list of derived adjectives. Write down the adjective identifying


suffix for each word, following the example:

e.g. Convenient -{-ent}


1. national 6. boring
2. understandable 7. harmonious
3. greedy 8. nameless
4. helpful 9. professional
5. friendly 10. complicated

65

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 8

The objective of this step is that you distinguish base and


derived adjectives.

It should be clear now that adjectives fall in two formal groups: base
and derived. In the following list of adjectives you have to identify and
distinguish both groups. Follow the example:

- bold: It is a base adjective, it is the origin of boldness and boldly.

- beautiful: It is a derived adjective; it ends in the morpheme {-ful}

1. Mysterious:

2. Dry:

3. Pure:

4. Colorful:

5. Homeless:

6. Adjectival:

7. Thoughtful:

8. Humorous:

9. Dumb:

10. Inscrutable:

11. High:

12. Emotional:

13. Heavy:

14. Famous:

15. Intentional:

66

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 9

In this step the objective is that you recognize the


morpheme {-ly} as a derivational identifying suffix for
adverbs.

A very large group of adverbs may be identified by the derivational


suffix {-ly}, which is added to derived and base adjectives. A word such as
health (noun) can be transformed into an adjective by the addition of the
derivational adjectival suffix {-y} health. Then, to this derived adjective,
the suffix {-ly} can be added to form a derived adverb: healthily. In the
same way, adverbs can be formed by the addition of {-ly} to base
adjectives: eagerly, strangely, falsely, loudly, happily, darkly, brightly,
highly, kindly, etc.

Exercise:

- The following is a list of adverbs formed by the addition of {-ly} to


derived and base adjectives. Following the examples, state whether
they are formed from derived or base adjectives.

- healthily - Adverb formed by the addition of {-ly} to a derived


adjective. (health + {-y})

- eagerly - Adverb formed by the addition of {-ly} to a base


adjective (eager + {-ly})

1. traditionally -

2. purely -

3. highly -

4. remarkably -

5. famously -

6. conveniently -

7. Uselessly -

8. heavy -

9. brightly -

10. naturally -

67

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 10

The objective of this step is that you learn to identify the


inflectional suffixes {-er} and {-est} for adjectives and
adverbs.

The suffixes {-er} and {-est} are found in both classes of words,
adjectives and adverbs. In this way, these suffixes cannot, on their own,
be used to distinguish these words. It is common to find adjectives
inflected with these suffixes, but I is also possible to find adverbs. So,
when it is required to establish the class of the word from an inflectional
point of view, it is necessary to use the distributional criteria as well. For
example, the word bright is an adjective because it takes the adjectival
suffixes {-er} and {-est}. The word soon also takes these suffixes, but it is
distributionally and adverb. The word beautiful does not accept the
suffixes {-er} and {-est} but it is distibutionally an adjective. To conclude
we may say then that distribution will really determine the class of the word
in this situation and in relation to these suffixes. The inflectional suffixes
alone are misleading.

Now do the following exercises.

- Identify adverbs and adjectives by underlining them. Then distinguish


both classes by writing either adverb or adjective on top of them.
Explain briefly how you distinguish the words. Follows the example.

Adj.
- She took the slowest train.
It occupies an adjectival position, before a noun.

Adv.
- He jumped the highest.
It occupies an adjectival position, before a noun.

1. This is the latest book I have read.

2. He came sooner than I expected.

3. The tallest man in the line talked to me.

68

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

4. She arrived later in the afternoon.

5. We speak louder when we are at school.

6. She is brighter than Peter.

7. Henry drew finer lines than Margaret.

8. This is the highest marker hes ever got.

9. Mary runs the fastest.

10. They drive slower than Mary.

69

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 11

In this step you will learn to distinguish adverbs and


adjectives in special situations.

There is a special link between adjectives and adverbs. This link


refers to the fact that the same form (word, lexical item or sequence of
letters), i.e. fast, can be used as either adjective or adverb. So, in
isolation, fast, cannot be classified. But if you place it in a sentence, then
its classification becomes clear. For example, fast is an adjective in: It is a
fast train. It is placed before a noun, so distributionally it is an adjective.
Yet, it is an adverb in: He came fast. In this sentence fast is following an
intransitive verb, so it is in adverbial position.

When dealing with this special group of words one has to rely on
distribution for their classification. It is not possible to classify these words
using inflectional or derivational criteria.

Exercise.

- In the following sentences you will find adjectives and adverbs,


underline and identify them. Then explain the criterion used in your
classification; follow the example.

- He is an early riser. Adjective.


It is an adjective because it occupies an adjectival position,
before a noun.

1. He came late to class.

2. It is a lovely dress.

3. Are cats cleanly animals?

4. He is acting cleanly.

5. Speak loud and clear.

70

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

6. Shes got very loud voice.

7. Mary has queenly appearance.

8. It happens daily.

9. It is a daily occurrence.

10. The kindly man spoke kindly.

11. Dont aim too high.

12. It is a high wall.

13. It is deadly poison.

14. It is a goodly sum of money.

15. She has lively imagination.

16. What a lovely dress.

17. She runs fast.

71

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

18. It has a homely atmosphere.

19. This is a slow student.

20. Drive slower please.

21. A hard worker works hard.

22. He is a sickly man.

23. She flew direct to France.

24. It was direct hit.

25. Give me a quick answer.

26. He came quick.

72

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

STEP 12

In this step you will have to put together all the information
acquired in the unit of the purpose of classifying adjectives
and adverbs.

A. In the given group of sentences you will identify adjectives or adverbs,


and ten, whenever possible, give inflectional, derivational and
distributional criteria. Follow the examples.

Examples:

1. The most intelligent girl in the class won the prize.

a) It fits both positions: the girl is intelligent / the intelligent girl.


b) The suffix {-ly} can be added to form an adverb: intelligently.
c) It has the derivational identifying suffix {-ent}.

2. He turned slowly.

a) It occupies a final utterance position. (In other situations it may


occupy a final utterance position.)
b) {-ly} has been added to a base adjective.

Now do the same with the following sentences.

1. He likes Mary considerably.

2. Peter dances beautifully.

3. Her death was peaceful.

4. I want to have a serious talk with you.

73

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

5. We must examine the problems quietly.

6. You are wearing a different dress.

7. He is a reliable man.

8. Mary is acting mysteriously.

74

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

B. In the following sentences one word must be underlined.

a) Say whether it is an adjective or an adverb.


b) Explain your choice briefly. Use the criteria studied.

1. The students spoke loudly in the classroom.

2. I think she is bright enough to pass the exam.

3. His effort in the exam was rewarding.

4. We went on a direct flight to Margarita.

5. They were impressed because he jumped higher than his


brother.

75

MAJOR FORM CLASSES:


NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
LEARNING UNIT

C. Identify each of the underlined words. Explain all the criteria used in
order to identify them as nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs.

1. I have always treasured her friendship.

2. The report shows the quick development of the area.

3. The man turned to drinking when he was faced by problems.

4. Equality is important for all of us.

5. He had a hearty laugh at the joke.

6. He acted his part remarkably.

7. The meeting broke up with a fight.

76