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Jami McElrea

Independent Study Unit- Issue Based

Mr Babcock

30 May 2017
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Summary of Research Methods...Page 3

Definition...Page 4

Significance....Page 7

Background..Page 10

Expert...Page 14

Role of Religion..Page 19

Logic of Evil..Page 21

Case Studies

Case Study I- United States......Page 22

Case Study II- The United Kingdom...Page 29

Case Study III- The Phillipines ...........Page 35

Canadian Connection..Page 39

Solutions ....Page 46

Conclusion..Page 50

Work Cited.Page 51


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This independent study unit was researched using a large variety of research methods. Search

engines such as Google Scholar and Google were primarily used. Encyclopedia Britannica, The

Economist, The Guardian, Forbes, Foreign Affairs and multiple other scholarly websites were

used to obtain facts and background information.


Not since the 1930s has nationalism enjoyed the influence and traction in Europe it does
today. (Wight) Nationalism, at its best unites a country around common values with inclusive
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patriotism. At its worst it can be nostalgic and aggressive, drawing from any and all differences
in culture, religion and race to set citizens of a nation apart. Unfortunately, this exclusive and
particularist brand of nationalism is more prevalent than the former. The nationalism often
grouped with negative sentiment is called Ethnic Nationalism which is glossed as illiberal and
often racist. It is the act of exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis
on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations (Merriam-
Webster). This type of nationalism, of which the paper is centered, is a means to distract the
unhappy with patriotic rhetoric, as well as to increase their sense of superiority and self-esteem.
This is worrying, because it propagates false information and superficial divisiveness. According
to Michael Ignatieff, Harvard Professor and former Canadian Liberal Party of Canada leader,
ethnic nationhood is defined by language, religion, customs and traditions, whereas to ethnic
nationalists, the glue that holds people together is not shared political rights but pre-existing
ethnic characteristics. Civic Nationalism is meanwhile regarded as much more idealistic.
Ignatieff describes Civic Nationhood as consisting of all those who subscribe to its political
creed, regardless of ethnicity or race, color, religion, gender or language. A civic nation is, in
principle, a community of equal, right-bearing citizens, to a shared set of political practices and
values (e.g legitimacy of 1960s Civil Rights Movement in USA). A civic nation is democratic
in the sense that it vests sovereignty in all of the people (all citizens).

Although it is seemingly simple to differentiate the two forms of nationalism, we must

not automatically box nationalism into neatly empirical and moral profiles. Nations with causes
rallying around civic nationalism are seen as more well-founded and reputable by the developed
world, whereas those celebrating ethnic nationalism are perceived as juvenile. Roger Brubaker,
Professor of Sociology and UCLA Foundation Chair at the University of California, Los
Angeles, explores the use of self-legitimizing language of civic nationalism. Leaders of post-
independence Ukraine and Kazakhstan, have self-consciously used the language of civic
nationhood to present their states, especially to an international audience,as paragons for civil
inclusiveness rather than as states of and for a single ethno-cultural group. They and scholars
sympathetic to their cause, have pointed out their inclusive citizenship legislation, liberal
language laws and rhetorical emphasis on ethno-cultural survival. (Brubraker, 136) The civic-
Ethnic distinction to legitimize or discredit particular state policies or nationalist movements is
its very own brand of nationalist politics. Brubaker states, In some cases: it may speak more to
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the punitive international respectability and legitimacy of the state or movement in question, than
to its empirical characteristics. The spectrum of political and moral ambiguities and dilemmas
generated by nationalism can and should be analyzed case to case. Nationalism should not be
taken at face value because defining and placing a nationalistic movement into a box can lack
accuracy. The nationalism referred to in this paper might popularly be described as ethnic, but
there is an understanding that circumstances may be more complicated than the term ethnic
nationalism can imply.

Throughout the educated world, many scholars have their own definition for the movement that
has a firm hold on the strongest of nations. Tom Nairn, a Research Professor in the Politics
Department of Durham University wrote '''Nationalism'' is the pathology of modern
developmental history, as inescapable as "neurosis" in the individual, with much the same
essential ambiguity attaching to it, a similar built-in` capacity for descent into dementia, rooted
in the dilemmas of helplessness thrust upon most of the world (the equivalent of infantilism for
societies) and largely incurable. (Nairn 222) For the purpose of this paper, this definition is
preferred because it encapsulates how nationalism is sometimes difficult to diagnose but should
nevertheless be opposed and denied the opportunity to progress and grow worse. The comparison
to infantilism is compelling. When a child is afraid or uncomfortable he screams, he cries and
throws a temper tantrum, in much the same way some nationalists do. Tom Nairns definition is
pessimistic, for he describes nationalism as an incurable disease such as dementia which stems
from the helplessness felt by most people. Humans act rashly and animalistic when they feel
threatened, uncomfortable and insecure in their world and with themselves. Self- preservation is
instinctive, and when people fear their capacity to survive economically, or if they feel their
ability to express their beliefs and culture is at risk, rational thought takes a back seat.
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In developed countries, worldwide uneven social and economic policies such as the
increasing divide between classes and the loss of job opportunity have lead to an increased
distrust in government institutions. Many prominent politicians pander to this discontent by
promoting quick and easy solutions involving the blaming of an internal or external enemy, an
other. A nationalist government may invoke such feelings of division in order to appeal to
popular opinion (E-International) The problem is that popular opinion can resort to the isolation
of minorities with different, races, religions, ideologies or cultures from those of the majority,
downgrading them to inferior citizens. A nationalistic sentiment is one that encourages a
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population to take into account only the individual, the one culture, race or country rather than
place emphasis on the communal prosperity between all nations and people.

For the first time since the second world war, the great and rising powers are
simultaneously in thrall to various sorts of chauvinism. Like Mr. Trump, leaders of countries
such as Russia, China, and Turkey embrace a pessimistic view of that foreign affairs are often a
zero-sum game in which global interests compete with national ones. It is a big change that
makes for a more dangerous world. (The Economist)
Chauvinism, defined as excessive or prejudiced loyalty or support for one's own culture, cause,
or gender, as well as an excessive patriotism, is on the rise. (Dictionary)

Across the continent we are witnessing nationalist parties and movements - extreme and not so
extreme - having the kind of impact they could only ever have in a time of economic recession
and convulsion (Wight) Nationalistic political parties throughout Europe are gaining
momentum with significant electoral success. Leader of the Front National in France (FN)
Marine Le Pen has enjoyed much popular support with policies such as leaving the European
Union and ending mass immigration. The Danish Peoples Party in Denmark(DPP) headed by
Kristian Thulesen Dahl panders to anti-foreigner, anti-islamic and nationalistic sentiment. The
UK Independence Party (UKIP) in Britain currently led by Paul Nuttall are gaining traction due
to the impact of global economic factors and insecurities. John Wight explains: It is evidence
that economic upheaval produces political upheaval, providing the opportunity for radical
solutions to seemingly intractable crises. (Wight) When people are angry at the political-
financial establishment, and when they can still feel the effects of the recession and its aftermath,
appeals to economic theory will not work. These appeals are likely to backfire, because most are
looking for instant, usually simple explanations that reaffirm their own previously held beliefs.
Solutions that will take time to test and integrate are not what elects popular politicians, but
rather an unmoving rigorous oversimplified answer. The problem is that these instant answers are
often more destructive than productive, and in the case of nationalism, they tend to act as a
chauvinistic method of handling globalization. If we look towards a more recent history:
Frances Muslim community has been experiencing an increase in discrimination and exclusion
from French society. This is an issue because the marginalization of minorities can lead to to
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radicalization. Consequently, Frances prisons have become a breeding ground for extremists.
The French radical right is growing in influence, which is just stoking the racial tension.

Approximately 1,800 people left France to join ISIS and other militant groups in Iraq and Syria

as of May 2015, according to estimates from French authorities. (Time)

In comparison, between 600 and 1,000 fighters are estimated to have come from Egypt,

the largest country in the Arab world. According to a report from the Soufan Group, an

international strategic consultancy firm that advises governments, Frances marginalization

among immigrant communities could have a part to play. Against this sense of alienation that the

refugees feel, the propaganda of the Islamic State offers an attractive alternative of belonging,

purpose, adventure and respect. (Soufan Group) Negative nationalistic sentiment has the power

to further marginalize and exclude minorities, pushing more towards fundamentalism. This is

counterproductive to what most nationalistic causes rally against: terrorism. (YourDictionary)

Nationalism is a legitimate issue because in extreme cases it often leads to war. Co-existence
diminishes in importance as nations look towards their own interests over those of the world as a
whole. It is a more combative and argumentative take on foreign policy, with each nationalistic
group presenting their wants, needs and values as superior to others. Direct causality can be
drawn between nationalism and war. The greater the number of stateless individuals who hold
nationalistic sentiments, the greater the likelihood of war. (E-International Relations)

An example of the detrimental consequences of nationalism is the Sri Lankan Civil war. In the

1970s and early 1980s the escalating violence due to ethnic tensions between the Buddhist

Sinhala majority and Hindu Tamil minority in Sri Lanka lead to many casualties. Sri Lanka has

been ravaged by a long- running and bloody civil war. The conflict cost the lives of an estimated
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80,000 to 100,000 citizens and hundreds of thousands of civilians were displaced. The Buddhist

Sinhalese nationalism lead to discrimination against the Tamil language and culture, which

escalated into the formation of guerilla groups, the Tamil Tigers, who purposely incited violence

in rebellion. The more oppressed a nations minorities are, the greater chance for violent

outbreaks. In addition, the historic roots of the modern Sri Lankan conflict lie in the nationalism

perpetrated by the British colonial rule. Nationalism breeds nationalism.


Throughout history, nationalist leaders have used a peoples fear and hatred of difference
as a means of controlling the masses. Nationalism was evident in the European colonialism of
Africa. The "Scramble for Africa" was the invasion, occupation, division, colonization and
annexation of African territory by European countries, between 1881 and 1914. ( H.R Cowie)
Until the late 1800s most of Africa was independent because white rule overseas was made
difficult with the threat of malaria and the challenge of distance (pre-industrialization) made
white rule overseas very difficult. As late as the 1870s, European states still controlled only ten
percent of the African continent, with all their territories located near the coast. It was the rivalry
between Britain, France, Germany, and the other European powers that account for a large part
of the colonization. The scramble also reflected the concerns of leading nations for the
acquisition of resources, both natural and military. (H. R. Cowie) Colonies with large native
populations were also a source of military power. Britain and France used considerable numbers
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of British Indian and North African soldiers, respectively, in many of their colonial wars, as well
as in the future World Wars. Colonies were also seen as assets because during times of
international bargaining they could be exchanged. In this age of nationalism there was pressure
on a nation to acquire an empire as a symbol of strength. The idea of "greatness" became
synonymous with colonization.

Africa was vulnerable to colonization because it could be portrayed as a slavery-ridden

continent run by tyrants and isolated from the beneficial effects of commerce. The nationalism of
European countries, the feeling of superiority and the undeniable racism towards African
savages, provided an excuse to intervene and develop infrastructure that was meant to exploit
the natural resources of the colonies. The Europeans also took the opportunity to instill the fear
of God within the savages which they could then use to further manipulate

The comprehensive reorganization of African societies in every sphere of life signaled a

new dispensation that functioned as the comprehensive framework of the African
experience under colonialism. The boundaries that resulted from the nineteenth century
partition of Africa were determined without regard to antecedent institutions and cultures.
The colonial powers, especially the French and the Portuguese, undertook a systematic
dismantling of indigenous institutions in order to establish colonial rule as the primary
source of legitimacy in the territories they controlled. (F. Abiola Irele)

Europeans took it upon themselves to completely reorganize the African systems, so that African
natives would be forced to submit to the oppressing influence of European colonialism. Africans
struggled to preserve their heritage and spirituality while their everyday existence was being
transformed by colonial rule. Religious nationalism also had a role to play in the detrimental
effects of colonialism.The missionary was undoubtedly the forerunner of subsequent colonialist
who was eager to carve an empire in Africa for purposes of exploiting African resources for his
own good. The early religious missionaries preached christianity and a European way of life,
oftentimes in an effort to exploit African natives:

European missionaries especially from Portugal, France, Britain, and Germany went to
Africa under the premise of going to convert the locals to Christianity. In many cases
Christian conversion looked more like European Capitalist conversion and the plunder of
African resources. It was their mission to do anything necessary to convert Africans who
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were viewed as uncivilized and barbaric. Missionaries often failed to distinguish between
Christian principles and those of the colonialists. They misused biblical passages to
further the causes of their colonial friends. (Global Black History)

This falsification of intent was used to gain the trust of leaders in African society. Once this trust
was gained, more secular missionaries would come and produce unfair trade deals and contracts
that favoured the Europeans, and which all but stole from the natives. (Alpha History)

The rise of Nationalism was one of the main causes of World War 1. In the early 1900s

the rise of nationalism in Europes greatest powers created fierce competition and rivalry which

stemmed during the Scramble for Africa.

Most pre-war Europeans believed in the cultural, economic and military supremacy of
their nation. Their attitudes and overconfidence were fuelled by things like jingoistic
press reporting. The pages of newspapers were often packed with nationalist rhetoric and
inflammatory stories or rumours about rival nations. Nationalism could also be found in
other aspects of popular culture, including literature, music and theatre. Royals,
politicians and diplomats did little to deflate nationalism and some actively contributed
to it with provocative remarks and rhetoric. (Nationalism as a cause for World War 1)
In the early 1900s, nationalism created an urgency between Europes nations to have the
strongest economy and military. The primary nations concerned were Germany, Austria-
Hungary, Great Britain, the United States, Russia, Italy, and France. The rising nationalism
encouraged the call for national security and territories and colonies. Austria-Hungary and
Russia were in dispute for the domination of the Balkans (Southeast Europe). Within the Balkans
there was a variety of ethnicities such as Serbians, Bulgarians and Romanians who were
demanding independence. Serbias Slavic nationalism led to their support of Russia in the
debate, since there was a large percentage of Russians of Slavic descent. Serbia wanted to extend
its borders and become a part of a larger Ssavic nation to include the Slavs in the Balkan
Peninsula (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Austria-Hungary, fearing a great slavic state would incite a
rebellion, opposed the idea and soon after annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina which outraged the
Serbians who wished to extend their borders and join them. The tension between Serbian and
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Austrian nationalities reflected the conflict, and eventually lead to the Assassination of Archduke
Franz Ferdinand, which escalated into World War 1. (Nationalism) Both the Serbian and
Austria-Hungary governments believed their prestige and credibility were on the line, not only in
the international community, but at home and refused to compromise and diffuse the situation
peacefully. Germany and Russia mobilized their armies and committed themselves to support
their Balkan allies- Austria-Hungary and Serbia respectively, without much deliberation. They
feared defeat by powerful enemies if they delayed and that failure of mobilization could mean
the loss of trust of their important allies and leave them isolated. Meanwhile, England entered the
war because a German victory, would mean Germany replacing them as a super-power .
("") The first world war was a battle vested in nationalistic self -interests of
individual nations ignoring those of others as well as the consequences that would be paid in
human lives. The total number of military and civilian casualties was over 38 million. Military
Casualties-World War-Estimated," (Statistics Branch)

After Germany lost World War 1 in 1918, Germans were forced to pay millions of euros in
reparations to allied forces. Devastated by war and political instability, Germany plummeted into
poverty. Adolf Hitler, the leader of the Nazi Party, used oratory skills and the German
populations dissatisfaction to manipulate them into following his regimes propaganda. Hitler
blamed the Jewish population for the economic disparity in Germany while propagating
nationalist beliefs that Nazis were a superior race. Hitler focused on the economic inequalities
between rich Jews and economically devastated Germans to agitate relations between groups.
This ignited the anti-semitism that the Nazi Party endorsed. In a state of frustration, the once
disjointed Germans unified under a government that provided comfort and security. This
newfound nationalism was built around a common scapegoat: the Jewish people.
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John McGarry is a professor of Political Studies at Queen's University in Canada, a

Research Chair on Nationalism and Democracy, as well as the first ever" Senior Advisor on
Power-Sharing" to the United Nations. He has appeared as an expert witness before the
International Relations Committee of the U.S. Congress, participated in briefings of the UN
Security Council, and worked with several governments around the world. He was born in
Belfast, Northern Ireland and grew up in Ballymena, County Antrim.

McGarry is mainly concerned with the design of political institutions in deeply divided
places. He explores possible policies, arrangements, institutions and governments that might help
societies live together in peace. His interest in conflict resolution began while witnessing the
conflict in Northern Ireland between the Loyalists and the Nationalists from the late 60s to 1992.
In an interview with The Wig after winning the Molson Prize, (which is given to only two people
each year nationwide in recognition of a significant and outstanding contribution in their years of
work, one in the arts and one in the social sciences and humanities), he stated "People I knew
were being killed. It gave me an obvious interest in trying to understand why that was happening
and even more interest in how to stop it." (Balakrishnan, 2016) McGarry focused many of his
publications on this conflict. He provoked change with his book outlining police reform with his
colleague Brendan OLeary in 1999. In, Policing Northern Ireland: Proposals for a New Start,
McGarry and OLeary proposed ten ideas on political reform; all but one were implemented.
The police issue is now resolved to the satisfaction of both communities," McGarry explained.
"It's impartial with both Catholics and Protestants in it. No police are being killed anymore, and
the police aren't killing anyone." (

It is commendable that while following his passion, writing about what he is most
interested in, McGarry has managed to make the world a less violent place through critical
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thinking and his ongoing search for solutions. In 2008 he started working for the United Nations
as senior advisor of power sharing, advising the mediation support unit for 15 months. His job
consisted of diplomatically going into unstable countries with ethnic-based violence, to
negotiate possible solutions. He t tactfully initiated conversations with politicians, and mediated
and facilitated the implementation of possible solution-based negotiations. While working for the
UN, he was responsible for advising on a number of conflicts, ranging from Iraq to Kenya to the
Philippines to Cyprus, the Western Sahara and Zimbabwe.

McGarry became interested in the situation in Cyprus and continued to advise on constitutional
affairs and power-sharing even after he returned to Queens in 2009. Cyprus is still a divided
island between the Turks and Greeks but negotiations facilitated by the UN are taking place to
re-unify it. McGarry is in an ideal position where he can combine the spheres of the observant
academic with the active political, and it is in doing this that gives him the most gratification.
(Balakrishnan, 2016) Gary was appointed as a Canada Research Chair in 2002 (renewed in
2009 and 2016). In 2010, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and won the
Trudeau Fellowship Prize in 2011. In 2013, he was awarded the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond
Jubilee Medal and the Killam Prize (Social Sciences), the first political scientist to win the
award. In 2014, McGarry was awarded the Innis-Grin Medal, the Royal Society of Canada's
highest honour for a social scientist. In 2015 his research on conflict resolution was recognized
by the Council of Ontario Universities (COU) as one of the top 50 examples of "game-changing"
research conducted in Ontario during the past 100 years. In 2016, he was the co-winner of the
Distinguished Scholar Award from the Ethnicity, Nationalism and Migration Section of the
International Studies Association; was awarded the Molson Prize (Social Sciences and
Humanities) by the Canada Council for the Arts and Social Sciences and Humanities Research
Council (sharing this honor with Margaret Atwood and Northrop Frye, among others ); and was
appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada. (Department of Political Studies.")
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5. Role of Control

The rise of populism has much to do with the influx of misinformation. The
reason the news media is considered the Fourth Estate is because it plays an integral role
in shaping our politics. The press is the backbone of democracy, and when its broken the
other components of the system are able to operate unchecked by the people theyre
supposed to serve. (Board, Rant Editorial)

Where there used to be integrity in journalism and mainstream media, self-interest has been
prioritized. Honest journalism is no longer the objective and it is having detrimental effects on
democracy. The institutions respect for authentic reporting has diminished because many media
organizations prefer being the first to break a story than to ensure it is completed before
reporting. The mainstream medias pursuit of ratings and clicks has lead to an age of
misinformation, in which 94% of Americans do not trust what they are reading. When the people
are misinformed they elect leaders that do not represent their best interests, and who often-times
go against them. When citizens feel that they are always being lied to, the truth is lost. Instead of
voting for policy they vote emotionally and without actual basis.

The Alt-Right, a term originated with extremists is a growing nationalistic force that has
maneuvered its way into the mainstream media.

The Alternative Right, commonly known as the Alt-Right, is a set of far-right ideologies,
groups and individuals whose core belief is that white identity is under attack by
multicultural forces using political correctness and social justice to undermine white
people and their civilization. Characterized by heavy use of social media and online
memes, Alt-Righters eschew establishment conservatism, skew young, and embrace
white ethno-nationalism a fundamental value. (Alternative Right)
The term encompasses a range of people on the extreme right from white nationalists, white
supremacists, neo-nazis, and mens rights activists who believe white people are under threat
and who reject mainstream conservatism in favor of forms of conservatism that embrace racism
or white supremacy. (Anti Defamation League)
Entrenched with anti-semitism and xenophobia, the Alt-Right movement resembles Hitlers.
Richard Spencer is the President of the National Policy Institute, a small think tank that the
Southern Poverty Law Center describes as a leading promoter of "academic racism." In recent
years, Spencer has also become one of the most identifiable leaders of the so-called Alt-Right
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movement. "We've been legitimized by this election," he says. While the campaign itself was a
huge boost to the movement, Trump's election, he says, has brought the Alt-Right to "a new
level." "Legitimacy is an unmeasurable, intangible thing that is everything."
He says he views Trump as a symbol for white aspirations. (Posner)
The rich and the powerful often have a role to play in the rise of populist nationalists. They use
the peoples anger over disparity to popularise politicians that have their own best social and
economic interests in mind.

Nearly all the rich people surveyed by Northwestern vote, 68% make campaign
contributions, nearly half had contacted a member of Congress and a fifth had solicited
contributions on behalf of a candidate. A good chunk of those calls were meant to help
their businesses. But many were motivated by the common good, defined in as many
different ways as the sources of their wealth. (Who exactly are the one percent?, The

These statistics demonstrate the influence of wealthy individuals and corporations on elections,
and consequently, how they contribute to the rise of populists, if they so wish. Their wealth gives
them the power to contribute more resources and money to a political campaign. To run a
powerful political campaign you need resources:

At their core, democratic elections are a battle of personalities and ideas,

and the only way to inform voters about their choices in an election is make sure that the
messages of candidates reach them. And just about any way you cut it, thats going to
cost moneywhether its to pay for advertising, to set up and run a website, to hire
people as staffers, or to hold rallies or events that the media will cover. (Berman)

So to simplify, in elections, as in most areas of life, money has the most control. Those who
have the most, have the best opportunity to influence others with their rhetoric.

Of the 50 richest families, 28 mainly donate to Republicans and only seven contribute mainly to
Democrats. Not all families stay on the same side of the political spectrum 15 support
candidates from both parties. (Savchuk) The majority of the fifty wealthiest American families
donate to Republicans. Their support, coupled with the frustration of the American people, is the
perfect storm to circulate a particular politicians agenda with popular support. Idealistically the
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power needs to be in the hands of the people; the issue is that in the case of nationalism, much of
the control does therein lie with the people. When it comes to nationalistic governments, the
population are electing the leaders. The general population has the power to educate themselves,
yet most are manipulated and herded into voting against their own interests, because of their fear
and financial insecurities.

Role of Religion
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A key characteristic shared by those within a nationalist grouping is a shared cultural identity;
this can be language, history, customs or religion, as well as a myriad other influences." (E-
International Relations) Religion has deep ties and usually goes hand-in-hand with nationalism.
Nationalists often rally around one religion, and express its superiority over other religions.
Religion can be a unifying force within a community with similar fundamental beliefs and
practices, although it can also be divisive. Religion is the struggle to find a meaning in life, to
determine which rules and what values will to follow. Debates about what is moral and what God
wants can turn dangerous, and often serve as an explanation to hurt or even kill those who do
not share a belief system. Throughout history the human race has commited genocide to achieve
religious purity within a population. The Nazis exterminated 6 million Jews to purify the Aryan
race. In 1995, Bosnian Serb forces killed more than 8000 Bosniak (Bosnian muslim) in a wider
cleansing campaign. The conflict in South Sudan between the two biggest Ethnic groups, the
Dinkas and the Nuer, has claimed the lives of more than 50,000 people since December 2013,
according to a UN official, left more than 2.5 million displaced, and made it difficult for half the
population to find food. (Mastracci, 2017-Vice) There are a panoplie examples throughout
history of religion as a justification for violence. Religion is a means of oppression, and it breeds
nationalism. One way of analyzing the connection between religion and nationalism sees
religion not as something outside of nationalism that helps to explain it, but as so deeply
imbricated or intertwined with nationalism as to be part of the phenomenon, rather than an
external explanation of it. (Religion and Nationalism)It acts as prime marker for ethnicity and
identity. An example of this is perhaps the White Nationalist movement in the United States.
White nationalist groups espouse white supremacist or white separatist ideologies, often
focusing on the alleged inferiority of nonwhites. (Wikimedia Foundation)
They fight for tradition and conservatism, promoting strong Christian values. The largest white
nationalist group in America has been the Council of Conservative Citizens, which is a
revamping of the old White Citizens Councils that were formed to resist desegregation in the
1950s and 1960s.
Christianity is a necessary foundation for white nationalism. The religion provides the air of
morality and legitimacy that these causes would not have otherwise.
When priests in Corinth sprinkle holy water around the new campaign office of

the Greek Neo-Nazi party Golden Dawn and the Patriarch of Moscow embraces Vladimir
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Putin with a gusto that might have embarrassed his tsarist predecessors, there is little

doubt as to why Orthodoxy seems appealing to a white nationalist movement. (Kelaidis)

This relationship between the church and white nationalist movements is mutually

beneficial to both parties involved. Religion provides guidelines that can be interpreted as

coinciding with the values of a white nationalist movement. Religion does not

necessarily define the boundaries of the nation, but it supplies myths, metaphors and

symbols that are central to the discursive or iconic representation of the nation.


Logic of Evil

The current situation of the world is the terrain from which fascism grew 80 years ago.

The Great Depression had delivered millions into the arms of destitution and
unemployment across a European continent that was yet to fully recover from the
catastrophe of the First World War. As with the economic shock to engulf the world in
2008, the Great Depression of the 1930s started in the United States with the stock
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market crash of 1929, arriving on the back of a boom that had been fueled by an
unsustainable level of consumer debt, reckless lending in poorly regulated markets, and
lack of long-term investment. The result was a global slump which proved a godsend to
hitherto marginal political figures such as Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, along with
the movements they led. (Wight, Huffington Post)
Throughout history, the perfect setting for extreme nationalism has always been when people are
suffering through the most difficult social and economic situations. It is in these situations that
the darkest of human nature becomes visible. As human beings, it is much easier to act with
compassion and generosity when socio-economically comfortable. However, when faced with
problems that threaten sense of self, humans tend to revert back to a more egocentric way of
life; a tribalism which consists of nepotism and a growing mistrust of others. This, especially if
encouraged by populist alt-right leaders, can progress into support for xenophobic policies.
Xenophobia is a dislike and/or fear of that which is unknown or different from oneself.

The fear of losing already limited jobs to outsourcing or illegal immigrants inspires
protectionist immigration and trade policies.

Manufacturing jobs in the U.S. actually increased in the years after the North
American Free Trade Agreement with Mexico and Canada went into effect in 1994. But
the story changed dramatically in 2000. Since then, the U.S. has shed 5 million
manufacturing jobs, a fact opponents of free trade mention often. (CNN)
Currently, Trump is rallying the white middle-class by dumbing down complex economic
problems such as the loss of low-kill jobs to automation and outsourcing, while scapegoating
minorities.Not only does this do little to solve challenging problems, it boosts nationalism and
increases the chauvinistic sentiments that ravage the world today.


Less than a couple years ago, the evidence for a new wave of global nationalism was weak.
Some mid-size European countries, Hungary and Poland, had elected rightist, anti-globalization
governments. France, the Netherlands, Sweden and a few other European nations had alt- right
parties that were beginning to look like possible contenders. The United Kingdom was voting on
their membership to the European union, but the idea that the majority would vote to exit the EU
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seemed far-fetched, and Trump was but a sideshow in the Republican primary. Centrists in
influential countries like Barack Obama in the United States and Angela Merkel in Germany,
provided the balance necessary to ignore the new wave of nationalism affecting the world.


The United States is a country situated in North America, and bordered by Mexico in the South
and Canada in the North.There are two types of nationalistic populist strains that are prevalent
throughout the history of the United States. In the first, politicians and citizens alike blame
corporate elites and enablers in government who have betrayed the interests of the hard- working
American people. These populist politicians advance a version of civic nationalism which
historian Gary Gerstle defines as the belief in fundamental equality of all human beings, in
every human beings inalienable rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, and a
democratic government that derives its legitimacy from the peoples consent. (Gerstle) The
second type of populism also accuses big businesses and the elites of undermining working-class
Americans economic interests and political liberties. The difference between the two, however is
that the second type is more ethnically restrictive. For example, for most of U.S history, the
people were humans of European heritage, and the term real Americans has been used to
imply that others that live in the United States are not as legitimate. It is important to recognize
that both kinds sprang from the same sense of alarm about widening inequality between
unregulated corporations and investment houses, and ordinary workers and small farmers during
the gilded age.
Mark Twain called the late 19th century the "Gilded Age." By this, he meant that the period was
glittering on the surface but corrupt underneath. In the popular view, the late 19th century was a
period of greed and guile: of rapacious Robber Barons, unscrupulous speculators, and corporate
buccaneers, of shady business practices, scandal-plagued politics, and vulgar display.
It is easy to caricature the Gilded Age as an era of corruption, conspicuous consumption, and
unfettered capitalism. But it is more useful to think of this as modern America's formative period,
when an agrarian society of small producers were transformed into an urban society dominated
by industrial corporations. (Digital History)

During the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, champions of the ethnic strain of
nationalism used xenophobic and racist appeals to ban all Chinese and most of the Japanese from
immigrating to the United States. The movement, led by unionists and working and middle class
McElrea 22

white Americans, brandished the slogan Chinese must go! while demanding an 8 hour work
day. Only a few labourists objected to this obviously racist rhetoric. In 1882, these unionists
convinced congress to pass the Chinese Exclusion Act which was the first law in U.S history to
ban members of a specific nationality from entering country. Just two decades later, activists in
Californias labor movement led a new campaign to pressure congress to ban all Japanese
immigration. The primary motivation for this campaign is similar to the one that Trump echoes
today: Japanese immigrants, many white workers alleged, were spies for the Japanese Emperor
who was planning attacks on the United States. Agreeable attitudes from union officials helped
legitimize the federal governments relocation of some 112 000 Japanese Americans, most of
whom were U.S citizens. In 1915, methodist preacher William Simmons launched the second
incarnation of the Ku Klux Klan, a predecessor of Trump style populism. Fifty years before, the
government had shut down the first which used terror to stop African-Americans from exercising
their newly won freedoms. This second generation KKK not only strove to oppress African-
Americans, but they also thought powerful liquor interests were conspiring with Catholic and
Jewish bootleggers. At its peak in the 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan had grown to nearly 5 million
members. The KKK and its allies used their influence to help push Congress to pass strict annual
quotas limiting immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe to only a few hundred per
country. It was only in 1965 that congress revoked this discriminatory system. In America, the
populist trend is primarily focused on domestic issues. Like earlier examples of American
populists, Trump also condemns the global elite for promoting open borders, which he insists
allow immigrants to take jobs away from Americans. Trump is specific about which minorities
are a threat to the American way of life. He accuses Mexicans of bringing crime, drugs and
rape to an otherwise peaceful, law abiding and great! America. His solution is overtly simple
Build a wall!. Trump has since signed an executive order to build a 1000 mile wall along the
United States- Mexico border to keep illegal immigrants from entering the country. He has said
that taxpayers would initially pay for the bill, but that Mexico would be forced toabsolutely 100
percent reimburse the United States, an action that Mexico has clearly stated it will not do.
(Texas Standard) This is an example of a short-term solution with no foresight that can have long
term economic consequences for the American people.
McElrea 23

The myth that immigrants come to their new country and cause harm is simply untrue,
and statistics prove that first generation immigrants tend to be more law abiding and more likely
to contribute to the economy than natural citizens of the U.S.

Immigration, on the whole, bolsters the workforce and adds to the nations overall
economic activity. Look at the impact on cities that attract the most foreign-born residents. New
York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Houston are all major immigrant destinations and also
economic powerhouses, accounting for roughly one-fifth of the countrys gross domestic
product. In New York, immigrants made up 44 percent of the city's workforce in 2011; in and
around Los Angeles, they accounted for a third of the economic output in 2007. (Hesson)

There is substantial evidence that immigrants are creating businesses and revitalizing the
U.S. workforce. In recent years many immigrants have been drawn to Nashvilles growing
economy. The foreign-born population of Nashville has doubled since 2000 and immigrants are
responsible for three fifths of Nashvilles new population growth from 2006 to 2012. They are
not just prospering off of Nashville's economy but contributing to it, playing a large role in
essential local industries such as healthcare, hotels and construction. Immigrants are twice as
likely to start up their own companies than Nashville- born residents (Partnership for a New
American Economy). Nashville has embraced the integration of immigrants as integral to their
economy and leads by example to help immigrants assimilate, and other cities are following. As
for the rest of the United States, more than two-fifths of the startup tech companies in Silicon
Valley had at least one foreign-born founder. (Kauffman Foundation) A report by the Partnership
for a New American Economy, which advocates for immigrants in the U.S. workforce, found that
immigrants are responsible for 28 percent of all new small businesses in 2011. Immigrants have
been unfairly demonized by the far-right and by Donald Trump as a drain on the American
economy or job thieves when in fact the truth it is the opposite.

Donald Trump also disapproves of muslim immigrants who favour horrendous attacks
by people who believe only in Jihad, and have no sense of reason or respect for human life.
Trumps incorrect notions of Jihad can be quite dangerous if they influence others to believe that
Jihad is a form of terrorism. In the religious sense, Jihad has many meanings. It can refer to the
internal and external effort to preach the faith of Islam and to be an exceptional Muslim or
believer. In the military sense, to which Trump is referring, Jihad is required to protect the faith
of others using anything from legal, economic, diplomatic to political means. If there is no
McElrea 24

peaceful alternative, Islam does allow the use of force but innocents such as women and children
must never be harmed. Also, if there is ever any peaceful proposition by the enemy, it must be
accepted. To degrade Jihad to just another form of terrorism, is to suggest that anyone who
believes or practices Jihad is a terrorist, which can lead to dangerous repercussions in the form of
Islamophobia. Jihadist terrorists do not represent mainstream Islam, just as Christian extremists
are not the paradigm of good faith in religious communities.
Trump also disproves of globalization, rejecting trade deals such as the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization (NATO) as horrible for the United States. NATO is a multilateral military
alliance of 28 countries bordering the North Atlantic Ocean. It includes Canada, the United
States, Turkey and most members of the European Union. (Amadeo) Although he has since
reversed his position, withdrawing from Nato could have been tumultuous seeing as the United
States contribute 73% of NATO defense cost. (Kessler) NATO is integral in promoting global
interests and military co-operation rather than competition and war. If the United States
withdrew, much of NATOs relevance nce would be lost.

Donald Trumps views are dangerous because they propagate protectionist ideologies
very similar to those of the Klu Klux Klan, while encouraging the type of racism seen in the
1920s labour movement that is ever-present today. As previously mentioned, the Alternative
Right, a term ranging from holocaust deniers to conservative outcasts are slowly but surely
gaining relevance in the mainstream media. This is significant, for in the past, they have been
blacklisted and ignored as extremists by the Republican Party, along with the majority of the
In recent months, far-right activists which some have labeled the alt-right have
gone from being an obscure, largely online subculture to a player at the very center of
American politics. Long relegated to the cultural and political fringe, alt-right activists
were among the most enthusiastic supporters of Donald Trump. Earlier this year,
Breitbart executive Steve Bannon declared the website the platform for the alt-right. By
August, Bannon was appointed the CEO of the Trump campaign. In the wake of Trumps
victory, hell be joining Trump in the White House as a senior advisor. (Michael)

The Alt-Right movement concerns themselves with concepts such as race, civilization and
culture, which are all prime characteristics of ethnic nationalism. The origins of the alt-right stem
from American white-nationalist movements that have endured for decades, but until recently
have been marginalized, with no influence on mainstream culture. An example of the newly
McElrea 25

found relevancy of the Alt-Right is that the readership for Breitbart has grown from 2.9 million
unique visitors in 2012 to 17 million in 2016, making it the most-read conservative news site in
the United States. (BBC)

Donald Trump often uses his sloganMaking America Great Again which only offers
vague nostalgic cliches that can be synonymous with Making America Hate Again. The
closing of borders, and the unwillingness to cooperate with other nations, with and for mutual
interests, correlates with taking America back to a pre-globalized world, where ethnicity
exemplified citizenship instead of shared values and common goals. rump has tapped into a deep
vein of distress and resentment among millions of white, working and middle class Americans.
According to a recent study by political scientist Justin Gest, 65% of white Americans, about
2/5ths of the American population, would be open to voting for a party that stood for stopping
mass immigration, providing American jobs to American workers, preserving Americas
Christian heritage and stopping the threat of Islam. This 65% of white Americans are the citizens
who feel they are being left behind by globalization and the celebration of multiculturalism.
Roughly the same percentage is found in the French who back the National Front, while being
found only 10% less than the British who voted to exit the European Union. (Kazin) The
majority of these Americans are found in the Rust Belt. The Rust Belt is a term for the region of
the United States from the Great Lakes to the upper Midwest States such as Illinois, Indiana,
Michigan, and Ohio, as well as Pennsylvania. The term Rust Belt refers to economic decline,
population loss, and urban decay due to deindustrialization in these once dominant industrial

With readily available coal, labor, and inland waterways the region was once ideal for
steel manufacturing. Moreover, the automotive industrya major buyer of steel
developed nearby. In the 1970s and 1980s, however, the U.S. steel industry rapidly fell
from world dominance. The U.S. worldwide market share of manufactured steel went
from 20 percent in 1970 to 12 percent by 1990, and American employment in the industry
dropped from 400,000 to 140,000 over the same period. Starting in the late 1970s, steel
factories began closing. Among the hardest hit of the communities was Youngstown,
Ohio, where the closure of three steel mills starting in 1977 eliminated nearly 10,000
high-paying jobs. Also hurt were foundries in Buffalo, New York; and Johnstown and
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where the last outmoded steel plant closed in the late 1980.
(Rust Belt)
McElrea 26

Donald Trump, the then Republican nominee for President of the United States, was quoted
during a speech he made on June 28th at Pennsylvania-based company, Alumni Source, about
the loss of jobs and the evils of fair trade. Many Pennsylvania towns once thriving and
humming are now in a state of despair. He then explained that the new wave of globalization
has wiped out the middle class, while describing Chinas entrance into the World Trade
Organization as the greatest job theft in history Trump proceeded to present himself as the
solution to all these issues. Places like Elkhart, a town of 50 000 in northern Indiana explains
why Trump was so keen on the midwest. Elkhart was one of the biggest makers of recreational
vehicles, proudly calling itself the RV capital of the world. Consequently, its dependence on
one industry making a non- essential product proved difficult for business during an economic
downturn Elkhart became one of the hardest it of manufacturing towns struggling from
deindustrialisation. The town lost 24 000 jobs when the depression struck and unemployment
rose to more than 20% of the workforce. It is understandable why Trumps message disparaging
international trade, corporate outsourcing and illegal immigration is favourable in the rustbelt
bits of the United States, which are on average whiter, older, and less educated than the rest of
the country. The rustbelt is also feeling the burn from the loss of 6m manufacturing jobs between
2000 and 2009. (The Economist) The problem that Trump fails to mention, is that a large
percentage of these manufacturing jobs will not be returning due to automation and the loss of
demand for low-skill jobs.

Trump's victory has made it more difficult for centrists to ignore the rise of alt-right
nationalism. His triumph was a shock in many ways, but one of the most terrifying parts is his
friendliness towards prominent authoritarian leaders and foreign politicians with alarming views.
Trump's counterparts in Europe, watched with admiration as Trump took office on January 20th.
The 45th U.S. president will be surrounded by like-minded politicians at meetings such as the G-
20 and the U.N. General Assembly. If the National Front's Marine Le Pen wins the French
presidential election in May, the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council would be
led by Trump, Le Pen, Russia's Vladimir Putin, China's Xi Jinping and Britain's Theresa May,
who is ushering the U.K. out of the EU (even though she campaigned for it to remain).
McElrea 27


The United Kingdom (UK), officially referred to as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Wales is a monarchy in northwestern Europe composed of England, Wales, Scotland
and Northern Ireland. In 1536, Wales legally became a part of the Kingdom of England when
the Laws in Wales Act was signed. Although making up only 2% of the legislature, the 153
words that dealt with the Welsh language were the most discussed. English was to be the only
language of the courts of Wales, and those using the Welsh language were not to receive public
office in the territories of the king of England. This defines the discriminatory nature of English
nationalism, and highlights the strategy England used to shape Wales in its image, while trying to
minimize the importance of the Welsh language. (BBC Wales)

In 1707 The Acts of Union united England and Scotland under one Parliament and Crown, along
with the previously joined Wales, to officially form the Kingdom of Great Britain. The decision
by the Scottish Parliament on January 16, 1707 to support the merger of parliaments was
controversial. Scottish nationalists thought it treacherous, and murderous riots ensued across
McElrea 28

Scotland. The nationalists were convinced the corrupt Scottish nobleman sold out their fellow
countrymen. This is captured perfectly by lines written by Robert Burns in 1791 about the
parcel of rogues (Scottish Parliament) We're bought and sold for English gold. Whereas pro-
unionists saw it as pragmatic and best serving Scotlands economic interests after half of its
capital was lost, while attempting to launch a trading empire to rival England's East India
Company in Panama. (Carrell) The act of the Union received royal assent on August 1st, 1800
and was enacted on September 1st, 1801, at which point the United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Ireland was formed. In 1921, the Anglo- Irish treaty was signed, making Southern Ireland
the Irish free State which gave it power to make laws for the peace and power of Ireland,
giving it the same constitutional status as Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand.

The terms were that the British agreed to concede dominion status (equivalent to
the constitutional status of ex-colonies like Canada) to the south, now to be known as the
Irish Free State. The Head of State would remain the King, with a Governor-General as
his representative in Dublin. Various office-holders, including parliamentarians, would
have to take an oath of loyalty to the Crown. Three ports in the south would remain
British territory for reasons of imperial security. Ireland was designated as within the
British Commonwealth, though its precise obligations in this area remained undefined.
(The Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921)

On the Irish side, nationalists won independence on local affairs and practical independence over
their foreign policy. The only difficulty was the pledge of allegiance, which was a hotly debated
topic among delegates and then in the general election in the south. In both cases, the pro-treaty
stance won by a narrow margin. Nevertheless, anti-treaty forces became openly hostile towards
the new Irish government, and forced the country into a bloody civil war from 1922-1923. In
1937 the Irish Constitution was formed and the Irish left the Commonwealth. The 1921 Anglo-
Irish treaty is still relevant today because it give Southern Ireland its independence (in the
practical sense) and there is still a division between the North and the South today. (The Anglo-
Irish Treaty of 1921)

When the South of Ireland removed themselves from the Union, the UK changed their name to
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The MP, who is leader of the party
that wins the most seats in a general election, is appointed Prime Minister by the Queen. The
McElrea 29

current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is Theresa May, MP, leader of the Conservative

In 1975 a referendum was held on whether Britain should remain in the European
Community, the predecessor to the European Union. The vote was an overwhelming yes, with a
victory margin of 67% to 33%. Since then many have attempted to leave. In the 1983 election,
the labour party ran a campaign centered around leaving the EEC, which resulted in failure. Four
years after the EEC became the EU, the newly formed Referendum party of Sir James Goldsmith
ran during the 1997 elections with the promise to hold a referendum on the UK membership to
the EU, but the party also failed, not winning a single seat. In 2012, Prime Minister David
Cameron rejected calls for a referendum concerning the UKs continued EU membership.
Cameron later revisited the idea of a referendum on the campaign trail, promising to hold one if
he were re-elected in 2015. Soon after he was voted in he stood by his promise and the European
referendum act was introduced into British Parliament. On Thursday June 23rd 2016, a
referendum was held to decide whether the United Kingdom should remain in the European
union. Cameron campaigned for the United Kingdom to remain in the EU. Where Boris
Johnson, a conservative politician who had previously served as the Mayor of London for two
terms was the figurehead of the Leave side. Another primary supporter of the UK leaving the
European Union was Nigel Farage of the UK Independence Party (UKIP), who has used the
referendum as means to garnish more support after winning only one seat in the previous
election. The referendum turnout was 78% with over 30 million people voting. 51.9 % of UK
citizens voted to leave the EU while 48.1% voted to stay. England and Wales voted to leave,
while Scotland and Ireland both voted to stay in the EU. (Brexit)

These statistics demonstrate that there are direct correlations between varying
demographics to whether they voted for the UK to leave the European Union or not. :

The demographic trend which had the strongest correlation to voting patterns was
education level. Those who hold a degree voted 71% to remain in the EU, while 66% of those
with no learning past high school voted to leave. There was a clear divide in voting patterns
when voters are grouped by age. For the 50-and-older crowd, 64% of those 65 and older and
55% of the 50-64 group voted to leave. Of the 30 areas with the most elderly people, 27 of them
voted to leave.Compare that with the 71% of 18-24 year olds who backed Remain.With few
McElrea 30

exceptions, areas with a median annual income of over 30,000 heavily backed Remain, but in
every area where 40% or more of the local population earned less than 22,000 a year, the
majority voted to leave. And those in lower income brackets generally have fewer assets. (Four

British citizens who were under 50, who held a degree, and who had an annual income of
30,000 a year were far less likely to vote to leave than citizens over 50 who did not have a
degree and who made less than 22,000 a year.

Since the referendum, the United Kingdom has received a new Prime Minister. The
former Home Secretary, Theresa May replaced David Cameron, who announced he was
resigning on the day he lost the referendum. Like Cameron, May was against the UK leaving the
EU, but she played a minor role in the campaign, and was never seen as much of an EU
enthusiast. Theresa May became Prime Minister without a full Conservative leadership race after
key rivals from the leave side pulled out. (Wheeler)

In October, Prime Minister Theresa May promised to invoke article 50, the legal procedure for
leaving the EU by March 2017. On March 29th she sent a letter to the president of the European
council, Donald Tusk, and put in motion the two year limited negotiating process which can only
be extended with unanimous agreement from all 28 EU governments. Brexit, a term derived
from British Exit would mean some difficult divorce talks. The European Commission (EC) is
an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing
decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU. The EC
will be negotiating with the UK for the terms of Brexit. The most explosive part of the
commission's negotiating mandate will be settling the exit bill it claims the UK should pay. The
commission claims that past commitments, plus future obligations, means the UK owes over $65
bn. Theresa Mays opposition has been largely ineffective due to both the Labour and the UK
Independence party being plagued with weak leadership and internal feuding. Her biggest
challenge may be satisfying hardcore supporters of Brexit who are ready to denounce any
compromise in negotiations as betrayal. Mrs. May has elevated their expectations, as well as
McElrea 31

those of the voters, on the benefits of Brexit. If and when it becomes clear that there are costs,
her high popularity ratings could suffer.

If the UK does indeed leave the European Union, there will be many more costs to pay.
Scotlands parliament backed the demand of its first minister Nicola Sturgeon, for a second
independence referendum. (The first was in 2014, where the Scottish voted to stay in)
Meanwhile, Sinn Fein, the largest Irish Republican party, is calling for a referendum on whether
it should join the the Irish Republic (Southern Ireland) and leave the UK as soon as possible, to
remain in the EU. Both Northern Ireland and Scotland voted to remain in the EU, and if Britain
does leave the EU it could mean the disbanding of the UK.

The 1957 Treaty of Rome established the first common European market and turned the idea of a
United Europe into a reality. This European bloc has since expanded from 6 to 28 nations and
has won the nobel prize for preventing war. Today, the EUs very foundations are being eroded
by a tide of anti-federalist populism (Time magazine) The issues that are being witnessed today
began to emerge after the 2009 global financial meltdown and when the Eurozone Crisis hit
(European debt crisis), exposing the economic chasms between the richer North and the poorer
South. Austerity policies used to reduce budget deficits using a combination of spending cuts or
tax increases has lead to stagnant growth, high unemployment and public anger. Likewise, EU
divisions have become more prominent due to the migrant crisis as central and east Europeans
have defied the EUs orders to resettle refugees. Homegrown terrorism of radicalized citizens of
France and Belgium has threatened the peace and security of the EU, pushing more citizens
towards xenophobic and Islamophobic political parties. The influence of the United Kingdom in
the European Union is undeniable. In 2014, the U.K. was the fourth largest national contributor
to the EU budget, after Germany, France and Italy. It paid a total of 11.34 billion euros ($12.24
billion) to a budget of 116.53 billion euros. In 2015, that contribution rose to 18.20 billion euros
of a total of 118.60 billion euros. (Amaro)
The European Union has made steps towards recovery since the financial crisis. However asking
nations to contribute more in the place of the UK could spark debate and tension.
McElrea 32

After the referendum results were broadcasted to the world, several politicians from other
far- right populist parties in other European countries exclaimed their support of the United
Kingdoms decision to leave the EU. Geert Wilders, The leader of the Dutch Freedom Party, who
recently came second to Prime Minister Mark Ruttes Freedom and Democracy Party in the
recent election, made comments in support of Brexit. He called for a referendum for his own
country. He wrote: "Hurrah for the British! Now it's our turn, time for a Dutch referendum."
(Wildman) Marine Le Pen, a right nationalist and leader of the Front- National made similar
"From Brexit to Frexit: It is now time to bring democracy to our own country. The French must
have the right to choose." (Wildman)

The idea put forward that Brexit could prove detrimental to the EU is not so far-fetched. Marine
Le-Pen is currently the leading candidate in Frances presidential election and she is promising
radical change. If she wins, she could be the final nail in the coffin of the European Union.
Marine Le Pen is a symptom of a much deeper conflict taking place under the surface of
European society (The Economist) Likewise, to alt-right nationalist politicians around the
world, Le Pen has connected with sections of French society that feel economically left behind.
89% of French people are unhappy with the direction their country is going and there is a 25%
youth unemployment. This has lead to growing dissatisfaction in the under 25 French population,
which in turn has lead to young French citizens supporting the Front-National more than any
other party, whereas the older voters are worrying about their savings and pensions if France
would leave the EU. This is opposite to support of Trump and Brexit, which is weakest among
under 25s and strongest with older voters who are losing their jobs to automation. Le Pens
campaign is being played out on the backdrop of fear and Islamophobia with France being home
to one of Europes largest Muslim minorities, as well as suffering three tragic terrorist attacks
within the space of 18 months in 2015 and 2016. The presidential election has been conducted in
a state of emergency which has been renewed 4 times since November 2015. The French
presidential campaign has shined a light on a divided society while reviving the question of the
EUs survival. For all its flaws the European Union has promoted prosperity and peace since the
Second World War. Its destruction could mean countless consequences affecting countries all
over the world.
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The Philippines is a SouthEast Asian country in the Pacific made up of 7000 islands. The country
has been Asia's largest Catholic country since Spanish colonial times. Within the Philippines
there are over one hundred ethnic groups, a mixture of foreign influences and a fusion of culture
and arts has created a unique Filipino identity. ("Philippines.") On May 9th 2016 Rodrigo
Duterte was elected as the 16th president of the Philippines. The countys government mostly
follows the American model. The President of the Philippines is elected by the people and serves
as both the head of state and the head of government. Before Duterte was elected in May,
Benigno Aquino III was President for six years from 2010 to 2016. During his term, Aquino was
known for good governance initiatives and prudent fiscal policies, which international investors
and global media hailed. He was also celebrated for putting a spotlight on the issue of
bureaucratic corruption like there had never been before, which represented a turning point in
Filipino political culture. Although Aquino appeared successful, there were still tens of millions
of ordinary Filipinos who were not reaping the benefits of their countys economic
accomplishments. The financial growth only provided economic opportunities to the countrys
elite but left average Filipinos out, causing the national crime rate to soar. As for Aquinos anti-
corruption efforts: they often targeted his rivals and were largely ineffective. Not one high-
profile figure that was accused of corruption was ever put in jail. The judicial system was too
slow and Aquino himself was accused of shielding his own friends and inner-circle members
from corruption allegations. Dutertes platform was favourable because it provided the
opportunity to change the status quo and address the grievances of the working class Filipinos.
Duterte was globally known during his campaign as the controversial and quick- talking
Mayor of Davao city and has been nicknamed the Donald Trump of the East by the Filipino
elite and international media, due to similar rhetoric. He, like Trump, was seen as a political
outsider who had only the slightest chance of remaining in the political race; and he, like Trump
made the most of this status and dismissed his opponents as incompetent and corrupt puppets of
the oligarchy, desiring to keep power in the hands of the few. Duterte is also known for making
McElrea 34

crass jokes that make him seem ordinary, honest and effective as well as some disparaging
comments towards women. Trump, it can be noted, has also been caught making crass or
inappropriately crude comments about women. Like Trump, Duterte demonstrates a big
personality, rejecting the mold of a typical politician, while giving the appearance of remaining
unfazed by the political establishment. Similar to other populists worldwide, it was economic
dissatisfaction, rising crime rates and the peoples frustration that catapulted him onto the world
stage. (Heydarian) Before the election, Duterte was only on the margins of the Filipino ruling
establishment, consequently, he faced a great challenge going up against rivals with superior
political machinery, resources, and family ties. Although the official result had not yet been
declared, Dutertes main rival Mar Roxas admitted defeat once the polls showed that Duterte
won by great margins. Mar Roxas, candidate of the Liberal Party, was previous President,
Aquinos top pick. In the end Duterte was victorious. Filipinos gravitated towards the strength of
his uncompromising rhetoric against crime, drugs and corruption which consists of targeting
anybody suspected of participating in the selling and consumption of narcotics. Roxass
approach to crime was his approval for the launch (2014) of Oplan Lambat-Sibat, a program s
to improve policing by auditing crime data, to deploy police more intelligently and moving the
police from offices to the streets (Rappler) . This has lead to the assassination of over 6000
civilians since June 1st, with another 38 000 thrown in Jail (fueling crisis in the overpopulated
Filipino prisons). Filipinos also appreciate his swift and decisive solutions differed from the
conventional, establishment- minded policies of his rivals. Although there are many similarities
between Donald Trump and Rodrigo Duterte, they are not by any means the same. Although
Dutertes leadership does have some autocratic and authoritative tendencies, such as making
threats against critics and speaking his mind with little regard for the established rules and
customs, he does have two decades of political experience behind him, as well as an actual plan
to turn promises into reality. For example, when the Philippine stock market flinched at the
prospect of his Presidency, Duterte was able to soothe the market jitters by pledging to hire a
competent, technocratic cabinet ( experts in corresponding fields) composed of experienced
officials from previous administrations. His reassurances helped the stock market hit a 9 month
high. Even though Duterte may have acted erratically during his campaign, he has promised to
act more like a statesman in office. Unlike Donald Trump, Duterte does have some positive
experience in office. As mayor of Davao city, Duterte took a tough stance on crime and turned a
McElrea 35

wayward municipality into one of the nations safest cities. For the rest of the country, he has
vowed to do the same. He has also promised to deliver improvement in infrastructure and greater
independence for impoverished central and southern islands of Visayas and Mindanao, which
have felt abandoned by Imperial Manila and left behind by the industrialized northern island of
Luzon. Despite all his talk, Duterte has proven to be a realist in foreign policy. He wishes to
avoid conflict with China. He has also expressed an inclination to engage in direct dialogue with
Beijing over controversial issues, such as Chinas aggressive expansion in the South China Sea.
The South China Sea contains some of the most coveted and strategically important maritime
territory on earth. In the past few years China has been taking control of waters that were either
considered international or even claimed by other countries. An example of this is how China
builds up islands with underwater sediment so they can hold military installations. China has
become more aggressive when patrolling around its claimed territories, chasing away non-
china ships, which has lead neighboring countries to believe it is striving for the domination of
the South China Sea. This has involved the United States who has sent the navy to patrol waters
while asserting that it is helping international mediation efforts. Recently, an international
tribunal in the Hague ruled in a territorial dispute between the Philippines and China. They ruled
in the Philippines favour, declaring that China had illegally seized the Philippines maritime land.
While this ruling is considered legitimate there is no enforcement mechanism. China has stated
that the tribunal has no jurisdiction, but it faces international pressure regardless. It is among the
interests of all countries involved to keep the water way free.

The waters also contain lucrative fisheries that account for, according to some estimates, 10
percent of the global total. . The areas greatest value is as a trade route. According to a 2015
Department of Defense report, $5.3 trillion worth of goods moves through the sea every year,
which is about 30 percent of global maritime trade. That includes huge amounts of oil and $1.2
trillion worth of annual trade with the United States. (Fisher)

It is of utmost importance that leaders of countries involved in this territorial dispute act
intelligently or there could be enormous consequences on the rest of the world.

Furthermore on the topic of Duterte, it is highly unlikely that he would ever cut relations with the
United States, because he needs Washingtons cooperation as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria
McElrea 36

(ISIS) grows in Minduana. Dutertes greatest challenges, however, are in domestic issues, for he
is expected to address issues of crime and corruption during his first year. (Heydarian)

Canadian Connection

Canada is often seen as a happy contrast to the situation that is being seen in other rich nations
around the world where growing dissatisfaction and Islamophobic- based fear towards
McElrea 37

immigrants has led to the referendum in which the United Kingdom voted to leave the European
Union, Donald Trumps presidency and the rise of populist parties across Europe. Canada is not
exempt from the stresses facing the rest of the world. Justin Trudeau, Canadas Prime Minister
stated: All the pressures and anxieties that people are feeling around the world still exist here.
Canada seems to have dealt with this new wave of nationalism better than most, which could be
in part because of its unique history. After Britain took control of Quebec from France, its new
French speaking subjects resisted assimilation, as did the First Nations. Although this resistance
was often met with cruel oppression and violence, these incomplete conquests forced Canadian
leaders into habits of accommodation and acceptance, which has in turn, shaped the diversity
seen in Canada today. (The Economist)
Canada is not, as Trudeau stated, immune to issues facing the rest of the world. Factory
employment dropped from almost 2 million in 2000 to 1.5 million in 2015. Parts of South
Western Ontario and the Niagara Peninsula are as affected by industrial decay as parts of
Pennsylvania and Michigan. Abandoned steel mills, vehicle-parts factories and food processors
as well as car parks studded with tufts of grass are evidence of this economic urban decline.

In Vancouver, housing prices have been on the rise for years, in part due to the influx of
Chinese investment. The prospect of young Vancouver residents being able to afford housing is
dwindling, which is fueling an Xenophobic frustration in a usually welcoming city.

In the last five years, the median selling price for residential properties in Vancouver has
jumped 57 percent to $1.1 million (Canadian), according to data compiled by Reuters from the
Real Estate Board of Greater Vancouver. The price of detached homes has soared 82 percent, to
$2.1 million (Canadian). The median household income, meanwhile, has risen by an estimated
13 percent in the same period, according to Statistic Canada. (Reuters)

A recent poll found that two-thirds of metropolitan Vancouver residents believe

foreigners investing is a main cause of high housing costs.These unaffordable housing prices
are spurring an anti-Chinese sentiment in the city. The have been instances xenophobic action,
recently a small anti-immigration group covered up Chinese symbols on real estate signs in the
affluent suburb of West Vancouver with stickers reading Please Respect Canadas Official
Languages. Police have also investigated incidents on Vancouver Island where anti-Chinese
pamphlets have materialized in wealthy neighborhoods and where signs for Chinese real estate
agents were defaced with racist phrases such as Go home and Not welcome.
McElrea 38

Late August, Leitch emailed a survey to her supporters: Should we screen potential immigrants
for Canadian values?Within weeks, the anti-Canadian values proposition came to dominate the
Conservative leadership race. Other candidates Maxime Bernier and Michael Chong have
rejected it, while Tony Clement is in supportt. Chong described it as the worst of dog-whistle
politics. Dog-whistle politics is political messaging employing coded language that appears to
mean one thing to the general population but has an additional, different or more specific
resonance for a targeted subgroup. In this case Chong is indicating that the sub-group Leitch is
targeting is Islamophobic Canadians. Michael Chong also warned the Tories could suffer the fate
of the Parti Qubcois after it introduced a values charter viewed by many as anti-Muslim; it
lost half of its support.

It is clear that Kellie Leitch does not comprehend the Canadian immigration system currently in
place . There is already a lengthy and thorough process to screen refugees hoping to come to
Canada. Here are the steps taken for refugees or immigrants seeking asylum in Canada, which
can span over many months, or even years:

1. Refugee leaves his\her own home country

The Syrian refugees looking to come to Canada typically make their way to host countries
Lebanon, Turkey and Jordan.
2. Refugee takes up residence in the host country
Not necessarily in a refugee camp. Some refugees have enough money to rent a home, or stay
with people who have opened their homes.
3. Host country begins sorting refugees
The United Nations Refugee Agency's (UNHCR) position is that it is the responsibility of the
host country to sort out combattants and those involved in activities incompatible with the
civilian character of asylum. According to the Canadian Council for Refugees, some host
countries do engage in this first stage screening, while others let UNHCR handle the work.

4. UNHCR registration
McElrea 39

Registration means conducting interviews with the refugee touching on past or current military
activities, affiliations, other relevant information and future plans. The UNHCR says the refugee
may also be subject to anti-fraud procedures like iris scanning.
5. Referral to Canada
The time between the registration phase and a referral by the UNHCR to Canada can be lengthy.
Only a fraction get to this point. The UNHCR considers factors such as gender, age, history, level
of physical risk and requirement for medical help not available in host country.
6. Visa officer
The Canadian government gets involved, with a visa officer conducting a review of the refugees
documentation, ensuring they meet the criteria to be eligible to come to Canada. They will
typically be interviewed in person in the host country.

7. Security and Medical checks

If approved by the visa officer, the refugee must pass through another series of security checks
administered by Canadian Security Intelligence Services (CSIS). Associations and memberships
are scrutinized, as are social media posts. Medical exams are also completed.
8. Back to the Visa Office
The visa officer reviews the material from security and medical checks. If CSIS recommends the
refugee be admitted and the visa officer agrees, the refugee is granted permanent resident status.
9. Arrival in Canada

Immigration lawyer Evelyn Ackah questions how how Kellie Leitch would implement a values
screening test:
It doesn't really seem to be practical, and it doesn't seem to make sense. I think really what's
underlying that is she's looking at certain types of people, and I think if she was more honest and
upfront about that, then we can have a real discussion. (CBC News)

Tom Flanagan, a veteran Conservative Party strategist and Professor of Political Science at the
University of Calgary, also sees the stance as misconceived and dangerous:
McElrea 40

In a free society the test should be whether you obey the law or not, not what your
opinions are. We screen immigrants now for law-abidingness, we do security checks for
any evidence of criminal record; asking about Canadian values is unlikely to do a better
job of screening.

Comparing the current immigration system with Kellie Leitchs controversial anti-Canadian
values screening tests, as well as taking the consultation of experts into account; it is safe to
deduce that Kellie Leitchs immigration plan will be much less effective compared to what
Canada already has. As it stands, the majority of immigrants are already obliged to have face-to-
face interviews. What Leitch is proposing is to have over-riding screening processes that bring
into question the refugees morals and whether or not they deserve to be Canadian. This idea is
intrinsically flawed, for how could one persons first impression during an interview conclude
more than background and security checks. These facts bring into question Kellie Leitchs true
motives, and whether the phrase anti-Canadian values is just a dog whistle term used to
discriminate against the Muslim population.

In an interview with Macleans magazine writer Anne Kingston in 2016, Kingston questioned
Kellie Leitch on the phrasing she uses when speaking of Canadian values.
I ask Leitch why she frequently refers to stoning when describing people who dont share
Canadian values. I read her a line from a CBC interview shed given a week earlier: People who
believe women are propertythat they can be beaten, bought or sold, or that gays or lesbians can
be stoned because of who they lovedont share Canadian values. Leitch nods her head: I
think all Canadians find that offensive, dont you? Yes, I answer, but stoned is a word used
in reference only to Muslim nations. Leitch bristles. People want to put words in my mouth,
she says.Im simply reading back your words to understand them, I say. Leitch is annoyed.
Youre implying something else, she says, waving off the notion that stoning is synonymous
with Muslim nations. (Nations that punish homosexuality with death by stoning, aside from
Islamic State, and nations include Yemen, Saudi Arabia and Mauritania.)
McElrea 41

Kellie Leitch is walking a fine line, where she wants to open up a conversation about anti-
Canadian values screening but where she dismisses any claims that the screening test is based
on prejudice towards Muslims and xenophobic in practice.

It is not a surprise that Kellie Leitch and her plan to exclude potential Canadians for their lack of
inclusivity has been interpreted in some circles as the Canadian version of Donald Trump and his
wall. Although Trump is more vocal with his distaste for immigrants, especially Mexicans and
Muslims, Kellie Leitchs undefined values proposition clearly resonates with a similar
audience and plays into the international isolationism that provoked the Brexit vote in the U.K.
and Trump being elected with his anti-immigration stance.

Leitch, like Trump, is articulating something people feel, says Tom Flanagan, It taps into
concern about the nation, about living in a dangerous world where fears are not unrealistic
witness the attack on Parliament Hill. People are concerned. Something that appears to offer a
remedy of sorts is going to get attention. Summoning Canadian values is like a Rorschach
test, Flanagan says: Many will read it as a security measure to make sure no radical Muslims get
in. [Leitch] has denied thats what she has in mind but no question people will read it that way.

Together we will stand up to those who dont want to discuss Canadian values and whose
politically correct elitism remains tone deaf to the views of most Canadians, she said in a recent
fundraising letter. She rejects any suggestion shes a member herself, noting her family lived in a
trailer when they first moved to Fort Mac: Some people may say, Okay youre one of the
elites. That is not to say that I have not had the privilege from working hard of ending up in
those places.

Flanagan sees such campaign tactics as emblematic of a larger shift in politics from the
democratic to a more dogmatic focus on populist culture. Previous standards of learning and
rationality no longer apply, he says. Weve been reduced to lowest common denominators due
to constant barrage of reality TV and social media. That is the world politicians have to operate
in. Rob Ford showed that. Donald Trump showed that, he says. In a different way, Justin
Trudeau also showed that; his political takeoff dates back to the boxing match [with Sen. Patrick
McElrea 42

Brazeau]. It seemed a tremendous risk, but he was a better boxer than people realized. He never
looked back after that.

There was uproar over the Harper governments focus on the niqab at citizenship
ceremonies, as well as its promised introduction of an RCMP barbaric practices tipline for
children and women a proposal Leitch herself was charged with rolling out. Harpers hard line
on immigration, with talk of old-stock define Canadians, drove immigrants and other voters
into Justin Trudeaus open arms.

Colleagues continue to express outrage with Leitchs involvement in the barbaric practices tip
line, which she unveiled with Chris Alexander, who was then the Minister of Citizenship and
Immigration. Leitch says she wasnt involved in developing the tip line. She did have a hand in
the Zero Tolerance for Barbaric Practices Act tabled in 2015; it banned people in polygamous
and forced marriages from immigrating to Canada. When she and Alexander announced that bill,
Alexander noted those practices are incompatible with Canadian values, a comment that made
no mention of the polygamist community of Bountiful, B.C.
Her dad, the local Conservative riding President, spurred her political involvement, which
continued at the federal and provincial level throughout university. Summers were spent working
for Ontario MPP David Turnbull and, in 1993, then for External affairs Minister, Barbara
McElrea 43


Nationalism is driven, in part, by concerns arising from globalization, and economic instability.
Fears of globalization include: the impact of migration on public services, jobs and culture; the
ability of big businesses to use foreign lands to dodge taxes; and unfair competition, which is
often blamed for the loss of jobs at home. Critiques of globalization offer some truth, although
there is a difference between improving globalization and reversing and reverting to protectionist
trade policies. The idea that globalization is a scam that only benefits corporations and the
wealthy is not true. Since the Second World War there has been a vast improvement in global
living standards, which was made possible by the increase in world trade. Export-led growth and
foreign investment have allowed hundreds of millions of people to lift themselves out of poverty
in China and has transformed economies such as Ireland and South Korea. This may not provide
comfort to western voters but the overall benefits of free trade are difficult to argue. Exporting
firms pay higher wages than those who serve only the domestic market. The competition seen in
free trade lowers the prices for consumers. Protectionism, by contrast, hurts consumers and does
very little for workers. The worst-off tend to benefit far more than the rich. A study of 40
countries found that if cross-border trade ended, the richest consumers would lose 28% of their
McElrea 44

purchasing power, but those in the bottom tenth would lose 63%. When analyzing the onslaught
of migrants globalization has brought, those often used as scapegoats by populist leaders for all
the countries problems, it can be noted that migrants not only improve their own lives but the
economies of their host countries. European immigrants who have arrived in Britain since 2000
have made net contributions to national finances.
Globalization has flaws, but the worst answer would be to turn our back on it. (The Economist)

As growth is slowing in mature economies around the world, economic inequality is rising to
new heights. A generation ago, as in other global economies, inequality in the United States was
much lower. Gains have rocketed on the top end of income distribution, and circumstances have
grown more dire on the bottom. In Germany, poverty, as measured by EU standards, has risen by
nearly half since 2000. Europe has not made much progress in helping the poor in recent years,
despite the EU pledging to lift 20 m Europeans out of poverty or social exclusion by 2020. Past
President of the United States, Barack Obama, defines this inequity as the defining challenge of
our time . Christine Lagarde, the head of the International Monetary fund (IMF) warned of a
dark shadow cast across the global economy. The problem, is that many with the power to
shrink the gap between the rich and the poor are resigned to this less equal world, speaking as if
there is little to do that can change it. The explanation for the global issue of rising inequality
centers on the economic principles of supply and demand. Around forty years ago, a Dutch
economist, Jan Tinbergen described a race between education, which increases supply of skilled
workers, and technological changes with an increase in demand. Demand for high- skill workers
has grown faster than supply, which has led to premium wages for those who can perform highly
skilled jobs, and hence, widening the wage differential between them and their low- skill
counterparts. Not to mention, globalization has caused more low-skill jobs to disappear
worldwide. This often leads to a call for more education, which is justified, but there is more to
the story. Drivers for technical developments are not uncontrollable forces. Most technological
advancements are the product of decisions made by research managers, business people,
investors, governments and consumers. It is these decisions that affect the degree of which
technical change favours low-skill workers or high-skill labour. For example, a company can
decide to automate its warehouse and replace its workers with robots. For the company, this is an
easy increase in earnings, for they would not have to pay the robots or treat them well. Robots
McElrea 45

also eliminate challenges such as health insurance, maternity leave and and all the costs
associated with keeping human employees healthy and happy. There are some jobs being lost to
globalization, but the majority are being lost to automation. Nationalist politicians are barking up
the wrong tree when blaming immigrants and China for the loss of job opportunities, and
propagating that the way to regain these jobs is the use of protectionist trade and immigration
policies. The world must face the harsh reality that jobs lost to automation are not coming back,
and that even new jobs in new fields will not be able to stifle this crisis. The primary culprit at
fault for the rise of nationalism is economic disparity, a consequence of the loss of jobs due
mainly to automation. Canada needs to consider radical changes to its social safety net, or else
like the rest of the world, Canada could face a crisis. The head of the governments economic
growth advisory council, Dominic Barton, has said that governments around the world need to
construct new social contracts with Canadians to combat the deepening income inequality as
the gulf between the rich and the poor continue to grow . Barton has also said that over the next
decade or so about 40% of existing Canadian jobs will disappear due to automation. (Canadian

One such social contract being considered is the Universal Basic Income. A universal
basic income (UBI) is a fixed amount, at a level sufficient for subsistence , given by the state to
all its citizens regardless of income or work status. (Futurism) This possible solution replaces
social safety nets, and ensures that everybody has the means to survive, while still having the
opportunity to work and earn additional incomes. Governments could pay for the UBI through a
large variety of means, from Carbon taxes, income taxes, negative interest rates, earnings from
investments to resource based revenues. One method of obtaining the resources to pay for the
UBI could be to tax the automated robots who are replacing the steady manufacturing jobs of
millions. The most important benefit of the Universal Basic Income is the elimination of families
living below the poverty line. Many believe that it could also result in the explosion of
entrepreneurship and creativity, for people would no longer be obliged to do work that they
didnt enjoy, and could pursue their own true desires. (Futurism) In countries such as
Switzerland, India, Finland, Kenya, France and Canada among others are in various levels from
experimentation from just starting the national conversation, feasibility studies and trial projects.
There have been some successful implementation world wide. Alaska has had its own version of
McElrea 46

a Universal Basic Income since 1982. It is called the Permanent Fund Dividend (PFD) which is
payed for from earnings accumulated from investment in the the Alaska Permanent Fund (APF),
a portfolio of diversified aspects. Different market fluctuations affect the Fund so the dividend
paid to Alaskan citizens can vary. Since the implementation of the PFD, there has been a
tremendous increase in purchasing power which has created 10 000 new jobs. Also concerning
the fear that having Universal Basic Income would decrease ambition, only 1% of Alaskans
report that they work less because of the dividend. Moreover the poverty rate of Native
Americans have fallen from 25% to 19% from 1980 to 1990. (Futurism)
In Conclusion, there are many dangers that accompany the rise of ethnic nationalism that are
being seen worldwide. The rise of nationalism is not only an issue in one single country, but all
of them. Whether this form of Nationalism is present in the United States, the United Kingdom,
or the Philippines, it is imperative that we take the measures necessary to oppose it. This battle
consists of a fight against bigotry as well as a fight against economic disparity, but is
nevertheless essential. Consequences of ignoring this rise in Nationalistic leaders, or even
supporting it will and has proved detrimental to society. Economic disparity is a primary cause of
the current momentum of nationalism, so we must solve it before we can hope to halt the rise of
protectionist, populist and nationalist politicians. Considering income security projects such as
the Universal Basic Income must become commonplace, so that the world has a chance to fight
this plague.
McElrea 47

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