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Russian, Ukrainian and Siberian Paleolithic sites - The Paleolithic of

the former USSR

View of Dubovka - Beldzhamen

Photo: Arsave, via Panoramio

Distribution of Palaeolithic Sites in the USSR

Photo: Vladimir Gorodnjanski 2007


Source: The Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg

Distribution of mobile art in Eastern Europe.

1 Stary Duruitory, 2 Brynzeny, 3 Kosseoutzy, 4 Klimaoutzy, 5 Suren' 1, 6 Chan-Koba, 7 Apiantcha, 8 grotte d'Uvarov, 9 Sakagia, 10
Sagvardgil, 11 Gvardgilas-Kld, 12 Devis-Khvreli, 13 Taro-Kld, 14
Molodova V, 15 Lissitchniki, 16 Lipa VI, 17 Klinetz, 18 Ossokorovka,
19 Dubovaya Balka, 20 Kastrovaya Balka, 21 Mejiritch (Mezhirich),
22 Kievo-Kirillovskaya, 23 Mzine (Mezin), 24 Novgorod Severskyi,
25 Puchkari I, 26 Dobranitchevka, 27 Gontzy, 28, Rogalik, 29
Amvrossievka, 30 Eliseevitchi I, 31 Eliseevitchi II, 32 Yudinovo, 33
Khoylevo II, 34 Timonovka, 35 Suponevo, 36 Avdeevo, 37 Sungir',
38 Gagarino, 39 Kostienki 19, 40 Kostienki 21, 41 Kostienki 13, 42
Kostienki 1, 43 Kostienki 14, 44 Kostienki 12, 45 Kostienki 17, 46
Kostienki 2, 47 Kostienki 11, 48 Kostienki 4, 49 Kostienki 15, 50
Kostienki 9, 51 Kostienki 8, 52 Borchtchevo 1, 53 Borchtchevo 2, 54
Ilskaya, 55 Murakovka, 56 Ostrovskaya, 57 Bez'imyannyi, 58
Smelobskaya, 59 Kapova, 60 Ignatievskaya.

Photo:Abramova (1995)

Early Paleolithic of the Russian Plain

The mainlocations of theEarlyPaleolithicof the Russian Plain

Photo:Abramov et al. (1984)


a - single open air site -
- a group of open air sites -
- individual sites of a rock shelter or cave type -
- a group of rock shelter or cave type sites -

1. Onokovtsy, Goriani, Radwanska mountain (Radvanskaya gora) - -, ,


2. Koroljovo, Rokosovo, Cherna - , ,
3. MolodovaV, Corman IV -V, IV
4. Chetrosu, Stinka, Attacki IV.VII, and others - , , IV. VII .
5. Older Duruitory, Buteshty, Booz-duzhany - , , -
6. Vyhvatiptsy -
7. Stary Kukoneshty, Mersyna - ,
8. Tiraspol (Kolkotova balka, Kolkotova beam), Karagash - ( ),
9. Vasiliki.Skuliany, German-Dumeny - . , -
10. Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi - -
11. Ilinka -
12. Richta -
13. Zhitomirskoje -
14. Zolotariha -
15. Khotylevo I, Negotino, Betovo - I, ,
16. Romankovo -
17. Orjol, Cruglik, Nenasyten, Kodak - , , ,
18. Chokurcha, Volchiy Grot (Wolf Cave), Kiik-Koba, Shaitan-Koba, Starosels, Aji-Koba, Bach-chisarayskaya - ; ;
-; -; ; -;
19. Za skal'niye i Ak-Kayskpy stoyanki. Prolom (For the rock and the Ak-Kayskpy sites.Prolom) - - .

20. Sari-Kaya, Krasnaya balka - -,
21. Samsonovo, Obryv, Novoazovsk - , ,
22. Antonovka I-II Aleksandrovka, Petrovka.Maryanovka - III; , .
23. Makeyevka, Belokuzminovka, Zvanovka - , ,
24. Rozok 1-11.Nosovo 1,Gerasimovka, Lovinsadovka, Beglica, Bokovo - 111. 1. , ,
,
25. Bessergenovka -
26. Elizavetovca -
27. Matveyev Kurgan -
28. Amvrosievka, Novoklinovka, Beloyarovka, Uspenka - , , ,
29. Kamenek-Shakhtinsky - -
30. Krasny Yar (Red Ravine) -
31. Derkul -
32. Dubovka -
33. Kalitvenka -
34. Khryashi, Mikhailovsky, Konstantinovka - , ,
35. Bol'shaya Kozlova balka, Tsiganskiy hootor (Big Ball Kozlov beam, Gypsy village) - ,
36. Suzaya Mechetka 1-11, Pichuga - 111,
37. Logovsky -
38. Shakino (ustye Myedvyeditsy, mouth of Medveditsa) - ( )
39. Krasnaya Glinka -

Text:Abramov et al. (1984)

Upper Paleolithic of the Russian Plain

Upper Paleolithic of the


Russian Plain

Photo:Abramov et al. (1984)

- .

A schematic map of the main areas of distribution of archaeological cultures and sites of Upper Paleolithic of the Russian Plain.

- sites of Dniester - Prut region - - -


a - a group of open air sites -
- single open air sites -
- a group of multi-layer open air sites -
- a single multi-layer open air site -
- Molodovskaya culture - ; - Brynzenskaya culture -
- Lipska culture -
- kamenno (stone) balkovskaja culture -
-MezinandMezhirich-Dobranichculture - -
- a group of cave sites -
- single cave dwellings -
- group of multilayer cave sites -
- single multi-layered cave sites -
- Streletko-Sungir culture - -
n - Pushkarev Culture -
p -Willendorf-Kostenkiculture - -
- Svider culture -
- cultures known only within theKostenki-Borshevoarea (Spitsin - Gorodtsov - Zamyatin) -
- ( )
y - the approximate boundaries of the development of the late Paleolithic culture in Eastern Europe. -
- .

I - South -West Region - -


II - Southeastern Region (Steppe) - - ()
III - Dnieper -
IV - Main Don region -
V - Northeast region - -
VI - Northwest Region - -

1 - Voronovitsky group (Voronovitsa 1-5) - ( 1 - 5) 2 - Babinsky group (Babin 1-11) -


( 1 - 11) 3 - Molodovsko Kormanskaya-group (Molodova1-8 Corman 1-4) - - ( 1 - 8
1 - 4) 4 - Korpachskaya Group - 5 - Brynzenskaya group - 6 - Costesti I - I 7
- Atakskaya group (Attack 1-6) (?Otach' on the right bank of the Dniester River near the border with Ukraine?) - ( 1 -
6) (??) 8 - Rashkovsky group (Rashkov 1-8) - ( 1 - 8) 9 - Bobuleshtskaya group (Bobuleshty 1-6) -
( 1 - 6) 10 - Chutuleshtskaya group (Chutuleshty 1-3) - ( 1 - 3) 11
Bol'shaja Akkarzha - 12 - Muralovka - - 13 Kamenno (stone) balkovs'aja group -
14 - Amvrosievka - 15 - Kulichivka - 16 - Lipska group (Lipa 1-6) - ( 1 - 6) 17 -
Radomyshl - 18 - Kirillovskaja stojanka (St. Cyril's site) - 19 -Mezhiritch - 20 -
Dobranichevka - 21 Osokorovka Dubovaja balka (oak beam ) - 22 - Site at Lake Svityaz -
. 23 - Ezhyarinas - 24 - Vilnius - 25 - Berdyzh - 26 - Moesia - 27 -
Pushkarevskaya group (Pushkary 1-8 Pogon (Epaulettes) Bugorok(Hill) - ( 1 - 8 ) 28
-Eliseevichy (Yeliseevichi) - 29 - Suponevo Timonovka - 30 -Avdeevo - 31 -group of sites in
the Kostenki-Borshevo district - - 32 - Gagarino - ; 33 -Sungir - 34 -
Karacharovsky site - 35 - Kapova Cave - 36 - Ostrovskaya site. MV Talitsky -
. . . 37 - Medvezh'ja peshhera (Bear's Cave) - 38 - Byzov site - 39 -
Syuren 1,2 - 1,2

Text:Abramov et al. (1984)

Palaeolithic sites in Siberia and the Far East

Map of Palaeolithic sites in Siberia and the Far East

Photo:Abramov et al. (1984)


- Early Paleolithic open air sites. large symbols - a group of sites; small symbols - individual sites
- Early Paleolithic cave or grotto, large symbols - a group of sites; small symbols - individual sites
- Late Paleolithic open air sites, large symbols - a group of sites; small symbols - individual sites
Late Paleolithic caves or grottoes
- afontovskaya culture
- kokorevskaya culture
- Diuktai culture
- the Maltese-buretskaya culture
- direction of cultural ties

- ; ;
- ; ;
- ; ;
-
-
- -
-
- -
-
Close up of Palaeolithic sites in Siberia, with
particular emphasis on the cultural ties in this
central and important area.

Photo:Abramov et al. (1984)

1. Mysovaya -
2. Shikaevka -
3. Cherpoozere -
4. Volch'ya Griva (Wolf Mane) -
5. Pyeshshyera Strashnaya (horrible cave) -
6. Pyeshshyera Oost'-Kanskaya (Ust-Kan cave) - -
7. Dyenisova pyeshshyera (Denisova Cave) -
8. Tuekta -
9. Ulalinka -
10. Srostki -
11. Tomsk -
12. Mogochino -
13. Achinskaya -
14. Malaya Siya (Small Syya) -
15. Saglam -
16. Ching-Doug-uzhu - --
17. Shagonar -
18. Khemchik -
19. Ooloog-Byook, Porog 1 (Ulug-Buck, threshold 1) - -, 1
20. Demir-Sug - -
21. Kan-tegir - -
22. Goloobaya (Blue) -
23. Dvooglazka (Two-eyes) -
24. Tashtyk -
25. Kokorev - -
26. Novoselovo -
27. Afontova Gora (Afontova hill) -
28. Druzhiniha - -
29. Mal'ta -
30. Sosnoviy Bor (Pine forest)
31. Vyerholyenskaya Gora (Verkhoyansk Mountain) -
32. Buret' -
33. Gora Glinyanaya i dr. (Mount Clay and others) .
34. Gora Sta-raya i dr. (Mountain Old and others) - - .
35. Igeteysky log -
36. Krasniy Yar (Red Ravine) -
37. Fedyaeva - -
38. Bratsk -
39. Ust-Kova - -
40. Ust-Kyakhta - -
41. Zarubino -
42. Nyangi, Nomohonovo - ,
43. Oshurkova -
44. (Varvara Mountain)
45. Sanniy Mis (Sled Cape) -
46. Stoodyenoye (Glacial) -
47. Tol-baga - -
48. Kupaley -
49. Sohatino -
50. Ikaral -
51. Makarov - -
52. Chastinskaya -
53. Avdeiha -
54. Dyooktayskaya pye-shchyera (Diuktai Cave) - -
55. Verhnetroitskaya -
56. Ezhantsy -
57. Ihine -
58. Berelekh -
59. Ushkovskiye stoyanki (Ushkovsky sites) -
60. Kumara -
61. Filimoshki - -
62. Osinovka -
63. pyeshchyera Gyeograchyeskovo obshchyest-va (Cave of the Geographical Society) - -
64. Ustinovka -

Text:Abramov et al. (1984)

Early Paleolithic of the Caucasus


Early Paleolithic of the Caucasus

Photo:Abramov et al. (1984)

1. a - Mousterian location and sites -


2. - Acheulean location -
3. - Cave sites -

1 - Tsymbal - 2 - Abinskaya - 3 - Gelendzhik - 4 - Il'skaya I and II - I II 5 - Smolenskaya -


6 - Kadoshsky Cape (Kadoshskiy mys) - 7 - Haorze - 8 Ignatenkov Cutok - 9 -
Bakuskaya - 10 - Borovikova mountain (Borovikova gora ) - II - Grishkin mound (Grishkin bugor) -
12 - Imeretinskaya - 13 - Karpovo - 14 - Goitkh - 15 - Khadyzhenskaya - 16 -
Tuhinskoe - 17 - Khanskaya - 18 - Fortepyanka - 19 - Kurdzhinskaya - 20 - Semiyablonya
- 21 - Yaroslavl - 22 - Mahoshevskaya - 23 - Abadzehskaya - 24 - Farskoe -
25 - Srednij Hodzhoh - 26 - Kolossovskoe - 27 - Hojo - 28 - Dahovskaya - 29 -
Achesh-bok - - 30 - Bagovskaya - 31 - Barakaevskaja i Monashevskaja peshhery , Gubskij naves I i dr .-
, I . 32 - Perepravnaya - 33 - Giray Quarry (kar'er Girej) - 34 -
Sinyuhovskoe - - 35- Armavir - 36 - Otradnaya - 37 - Gurmay - 38 - Husa - 39 -
Kardonikskaya - 40 - Plastunka - 41-45 - Caves (peshhery) Azinskaya, Hostinskaya I and II, Vorontsovskaya,
Navalishenskaya - - . I II, , 46 - Kepshinskaya cave (peshhera) -
47 - Ahshtyrskaya - 48 - Bogos - 49 - Gumariya and others - . 50-52 - Heyvani I-V,
Leselidze I-III, Baranovka - I-V, I-III, 53 - Colchida - 54 - Kaldahvari - 55 - Barmysh -
56 - Cure-dere - - 57 - Asheri - 58 - Lechkoh - 59 - Ahbyuk - 60 - 61 - Yashtuh, Byrts, Gvard -
, , ; 62 - Kelasuri 63 - Bogoveshti - 64 - Svaptasavana - 65 - Otap - 66 -
Ochamchiri - 67 - Achigvara - 68 - Ghali - 69 - Chuburiskhindzhi - 70-72 - Chahati, SakaJia,
Ortvali - , - , 73-76 - Tsutshvatskie peshhery (Cave) (a bronze, bison, double grotto, etc.) -
( , , 77 - Sagvardzhile - 78 - Dzhruchula - 79 - Samgle Klde - -
80 - 85 - Acheulean and Mousterian sites Imereti: Serbebiu Chilovani, Perevicha, Kazhnari, Hvirati and others -
- : , - , , 86. Kudaro I - I 87 - Kudaro III
- - III 88 - Tsona - 89-96 - Acheulean and Mousterian sites, nding the foothills of South Ossetia, Lasha-Valta, Caleti, Tigva,
Gorostavi, Kverneti, Caleti. Karkusta-kau, and others - - - ; -
, , , , , . - 97- Zayukovo - 3 98 Lysaya (Bald) Mountain -
99 - Gamurzievo, Nasir-court, etc. , - 100 - Saga-tsuha and others - - 101 -
Qumran-kada etc - - 102 - Chumrala-Init, Gedzhuh - - , 103-104 - Kistauri, Osnauri and others -
, 105 - Kachreti - 106 - Ziari - 107 - Melanie - 109 - Kvemo-ke-ti - - - 110 -
Akhaltsikhe - 111 - Kumurdo - 112 - Akhalkalaki - 113 - Chikiani (Kuyundag) - ( ) 114 -
Gomareti - 115 - Samshvilde - 116 - Kazreti - 117-118 - Jajur - 119 - Tssopn - 120 - Shahla
I-II - I-II 121 - Gayaly and others - 122 - Yukhari-Syalahly - - 123 - Cave Damzhily and Dashsalahli -
124-125 - Shashguzet, Chahmakly and others - -, 126 - Satani-dar, Erkar-blur,
Areguni and others - -, -, 127 - Cave Lusakert I and II, Ashirabad, Chatkrap and others -
I II, , 128 - Dzhraber I-XI, fontan I-II, Ketsdarasy I-IV - I-XI, I-II, I-IV 129 -
Arzpp - 130 - Yerevan peshhera (cave) - 131 - Taglarskaya - neschera - 132 - Azikhskaya
peshhera (cave) -

Text:Abramov et al. (1984)

Early Palaeolithic of the Caucasus

1. Caucasus - one of the main areas of primary settlement in our country the oldest man, an area of high concentration of sites of the Lower
Paleolithic. The abundance, nature and characteristics of these archaeological sites in the Caucasian region is closely related to the
geographical position of this region, its natural conditions, Quaternary history and proximity to the anterior ancient Asian Palaeolithic world.

2. Historiographical introduction. The rst search for traces of the Stone Age in the Caucasus have been made over a hundred years ago in
connection with the preparation of the Archaeological Congress in Tbilisi in 1881, starting overseas study of the Palaeolithic to the Caucasus
is considered, however, in 1898, when French scholar Joseph de Bai discovered in the North Caucasus Ilskuyu Mousterian site near
Krasnodar. The discovery of the Palaeolithic to the south of the Caucasus mountain range was a little later, during a visit of French explorer
Jacques de Morgan in Armenia. On the western slope of Mount Aragats stone tools were collected, referred by them as a whole to the Upper
Palaeolithic, although as outlined, there were some Mousterian forms (Morgan, 1909).

3. By 1917, the Lower Palaeolithic of the Caucasus was one of the least developed parts of the primitive archeology of the area. Information
about the Acheulian era was absent, scarce Mousterian materials (Il'sky, Aragats) were not preserved, and they had lost almost all scientic
value. In essence, Soviet archaeologists were forced to start the search and study of the Lower Paleolithic again.

4. Soviet archaeologists work on the study of the Lower Paleolithic of the Caucasus can be divided into four main stages.

5. The rst, covering the period up to 1934, was characterised by studying the previously known sites. In 1925 SN Zamyatnin reopened and
resumed the study of Il'sky archaeological site (1925, 1926, 1928).

6. The second phase, which includes 6 - 7 pre-war years (1934-1941.) Indicates the formation of Soviet Palaeolithic kavkazovedcheskoy
science, expressed primarily in the broad deployment of specialised reconnaissance of large areas. Systematic search of work covered in
these years, the Caucasian Black Sea and Kuban in part. In Sochi, the Black Sea region Abkhazia was found rst in the country Acheulean
sites (Yashtuh, Guardi, Byrts, etc.), the rst location in the Caucasus Mousterian (Host, Lech-cop, Escher, Kelasuri, Ochamchire, etc.) and
Mousterian cave dwellings with an undisturbed cultural layer (Ahshtyrskaya, Pavalishenskaya, Atsinskaya, Vorontsovskaya Hosta I and II)
Zamyatnin S., (in 1936 and 1937, the same site unearthed by VA Gorodtsov.) 1937, 1940, 1950, 4961; Panichkin M. 3., 1940; Krainov, DD,
1947. In the Kuban were discovered Lower Palaeolithic location Fortenyanka and others (SY Zamyatin, 1949).

7. The third stage is the rst postwar decade. A qualitatively new development here was the involvement in the study sites and the problems
of early Palaeolithic specialists, who grew up in the Caucasian national research centres. The main achievements of this period were: the
discovery of two new major areas of concentration Acheulian and Mousterian sites - in Armenia (Zamyatin SY, 1947; Panichkin M. 3., 1950;
Sardaryan SA, 1954) and in South Ossetia (in Lubin Ya., 1954, 1958, 1960a) and a new group of lower Palaeolithic sites in the Kuban area
(SY Zamyatin, 1949, 1950; Formozov AA, 1952).

8. In 1955 begins the fourth and last stage, the most signicant of the scientic results. It is opened by the discovery of four multi-mountain
cave sites with undisturbed Acheulian cultural layers. These are - Kudaro I (1955), Kudaro III (1957) and Tsona (1958) in the South Ossetian
Autonomous Oblast of the Georgian SSR and Azykh (1960) in Azerbaijan (in Lubin, J., 1959 , 1969a; Lubin VL Levkovskaya GM, 1972, and
A. Kalandadze, 1965; Museib MA, MM Guseinov, 1961; Guseinov A /., 1965). In the same period were excavated dozens of new and
previously known Mousterian cave sites in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Black Sea and Prikubaie (Zamyatin SY, 1961 MM Guseinov, 1959,
1973a; Korobkov and J. ., 1962; Grigolia GK, 1963 Tushabramishvili DM, 1963a, b; Berdzenishvili NZ, 1964, outlaw William H., 1964, 1973;
Panichkin M. 3., VekilovaE. A. , 1962 E. Vekilov, A., 1967, 1973; Kalandadze AN, 1969 Yeritsyan BG, 1970, 1975, Lubin VP Soloviev, LP,
1971 Nioradze MG , 1976; Lubin, VP, 1977a; Jafarov AK, 1978a, b, etc.) and have been identied and examined hundreds of angels and the
Mousterian localities in various parts of the Caucasus. Among them is the large group of Lower Palaeolithic localities in the Kuban region
(Outlaw PW, 1963 Formozov AA, 1965), in the Black Sea (Korobkov MI, 1967, 1971; Gumilevsky NY, Korobkov I. J., 1967 Schelinsky VE
Ostrovskii, AV, 1970 Lubin VP Schelinsky VE, 1972; Berdzenishvili VZ, 1979; Grigolia GK, 1979, etc .), in Imereti (Tushabramishvili DM,
1962), in South Ossetia (Lubin, VP, 1960a, 1977a), Armenia (Lubin, VP, 1961), in Javakheti (Grigolia GK ., 1965), in Kakheti (Bugianishvili T.,
1969, 1979), in zapadpom Azerbaijan (Mansurov M., 1965, 1978) and others.

9. To date, the lower Palaeolithic is found in all areas of the Caucasus mountain country: the Greater Caucasus (up to the highlands of the
zone), and in many places in the Transcaucasian intermountain depression, in the Lesser Caucasus and the Armenian volcanic plateau as
shown in the map above. Important features of the postwar stages of research are: monographic edition of materials selected sites (Grigolia
GK, 1963, outlaw William P., 1963 N. Berdzenishvili 3., 1964), synthesis, accumulated both within the individual regions of the Caucasus
(Panichkin M, 3., 1950; Sardarian S. A,., 1954; Formozov AA, 1965, Lubin, VP, 1960a, 19696), and the entire Caucasus (Lubin, VP, 1969a,
1977a), and the widespread involvement of representatives of the research sites natural sciences (Lubin VP Kolbutov AD, 1961, Lubin B. J.,
Burchak-Abramovich NI Klapchuk MN, 1971; Lubin, VP and GM Levkovskaya , 1972; Lubin VP, Outlaw William P., Grichuk VP, et al, 1973; in
Lubin, P., Rengarten NV and others, 1978; Lubin VP Selivanova, IB et al, 1978; Gabunia MK, Tushabramishvili DM, AK Vekua, 1961; Grichuk
VP Gubonin 3. P. et al, 1970; SchelinskiyV. E., Ostrovsky, AB, 1970; Vekua AK, Mamatsashvili YS, T-ushabramishvi a DM, 1973 Vekilova EA,
Grichuk VY and others, 1978 ; Nioradze MG, AK Vekua et al, 1978; Maruashvili LI, Mamatsashvili NS et al, 1978).

The geography of the Caucasus has an extremely wide variety of environmental conditions. To understand the Palaeolithic of the Caucasus,
to a much greater extent than for understanding the Palaeolithic of other vast regions of our country, we must take into account this diversity,
and this is due to present a brief geographical introduction

Text:Abramov et al. (1984)


Geographical areas of the Caucasus.

A schematic map of the location of limestone- karstic areas of the Greater


and Lesser Caucasus Mountains. After IA 'Gvozdetskii (1968-1972)

Upper map:

1 - Known boundaries of karst regions

2 - Estimated boundaries of karst areas

I - array - Fisht Oshten-Lagopaki in Montenegro; II - the western part of the


cuesta band ; III - the eastern part of the cuesta band ; IV - Transition Region
'cuesta-fold' as for the Andean mountain range; V - a limestone region of
internal Dagestan ; VI - limestone-karst region of southeastern Dagestan; VII
- cave area of Shahdag; VIII - the north-western region of the Black Sea
coast; IX - Sochi -Abkhaz region; X - West Georgia area; XI - on the Dividing
Range; XII - the northern slope of the western Caucasus; XIII - Western
region of Azerbaijan; XIV - Dashkeskanskaya area; XV - Tutgunchay-Shusha
region; XVI - Zangelayao-Fizullinskaya area.

Lower map:

Paleogeographic scheme of Pleistocene glaciation of the Caucasus (After IV


Dumitrashko, 1977).

1 - Development of Pleistocene mountain-valley glaciation (with a maximum


spread in the late Pleistocene), 2 - modern glaciation, 3 - large lake basins, 4
- Rocky Range escarpment, after Dumetrashko NV, Milanovskiy EE, Balian
S. P ., SayadyanYu. V., 1977).

Photo:Abramov et al. (1984)

For the maps above, the borders of the Caucasus in the north and south are not natural physical and geographical boundaries, as on both
sides of their zone there is no sharp distinction. The openness of the Caucasian isthmus to the north and south of the Caucasus and the
closure of the West or Southwest Asia, part of which it is played an important role in the initial population of Caucasian man and his
relationship with the ancient population of the neighbouring territories.

10. The major elements considered related to mountain building are the Pre-Caucasus plains and the Caucasus mountain country. Pre-
Caucasus areas include the steppe zone of the European part of the USSR, representing the southern part of the Russian Plain. The
Caucasus is the mountainous country of the central and southern part of the isthmus and is divided into the Greater Caucasus, the
Transcaucasian depression and Transcaucasian Highland.

11. The Greater Caucasus is the mighty mountain range which extends across the Caucasian isthmus. Its length is about 1100 km, width up
to 180 km. In the axial zone of raised ridges there are peaks over 5000 m

12. Along its length the Great Caucasus is divided into three segments: the Western, Central and Eastern, for which the boundaries between
sections are those passing through Mount Elbrus and Kazbek. The Central Caucasus is the highest and coldest. In the West we sometimes
delineate the Black Sea Forest Caucasus (medium altitude mountains in the area from Anapa to Sochi) and Abkhaz (Abkhaz-Kuban, or from
Sochi to Mount Elbrus).

13. Transcaucasian Depression - An area of intermountain basins separating the Greater Caucasus and the Transcaucasian Highland. The
western part is the Rioni basin (Colchis Lowland), the eastern - Kura Basin. Between them is a midland Surami (Likhi) range, which is the
most elevated portion of depression.

14. Transcaucasian highlands - a small, northern section, located within the anterior portion of our country's Asian highlands. From the north
it limits the area of kurorionskih basins in the south - p. Arak. The major elements of mountainous Highlands are the mountain ranges of the
Lesser Caucasus, the Armenian volcanic plateau, Priaraksinskie ridges and mid-Araks basin.

15. Lesser Caucasus - a system of ridges bordering the Armenian plateau to the north and north-east (Ajara-Imereti ranges, Trialet,
Somhetsky, Karabakh, etc.).

16. The Armenian volcanic plateau occupies the central part of the Transcaucasian Highland. Within the Armenian Plateau is Southern
Georgia (Javakheti) and Central Georgia (actually Armenian). The highlands are distinguished by the extensive development of lava rocks,
high elevation (1500 - 3000 m), fairly rugged, arid and continental. In the south-east of Armyanskoe Highland Group Priaraksinskih there are
ranges (Zangezur, etc.) to the south, along the border - a chain of Middle basins with at terrain (Ararat, Nakhichevan. Ordubad). The left-
bank part of these basins, and other elements of the Transcaucasian highlands falls within Turkey or Iran (Gvozdetskii JA, 1948, 1963,
Antonov, BA, Gvozdetskii JA, 1977).
17. The exceptional diversity of climate of the Caucasus is determined mainly by the inuence of topography. Key climate zones due to
altitude pass along the crest of the Greater Caucasus and Transcaucasus transverse uplift to the head. Climate zones due to altitude
signicantly affect the distribution of heat and moisture within the isthmus. The Greater Caucasus distinguishes two climatic zones: temperate
and subtropical (North Caucasus belongs to the temperate zone, the Caucasus to the subtropical). Mountains divide the territory and the
uplift of the mountainous regions of the Caucasus gives rise to a lot of areas with local peculiarities of climate, which leads to an exceptional
diversity of habitats, and exceptional diversity of ora and fauna. The number of plant species in the Caucasus is more than 6000 (wheras the
vast territory of the European part of the USSR only has 3500), and there are 130 species of mammals. Particularly rich in species are the
forests which grow in Colchis, and in these forests grow a lot of wild edible plants (nuts, fruit, vegetables, etc.) (Grosgeym AA, 1942, 1952).
The favourable climate and abundant food resources of Colchis, judging by the accumulation of Palaeolithic sites especially attracted
primitive people to this area. Colchis was probably the safest haven of fauna, ora and humans during glaciations (Lubin B. J., 1969a, 1974).

18. For the manufacture of stone tools Palaeolithic people found in the Caucasus abundant raw material. Their use of the rock is
extremely varied and at the same time there are some territorial differences in the use of sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Thus, in the middle
part of the Caucasus Isthmus, in the zone of tectonic uplift of the Trans-meridian (the territory of North and South Ossetia, Javakheti and
Armenia), in which there are numerous faults and lava ows, are completely dominated by the Acheulean and Mousterian industries, based
on the lava rocks (andesites, basalts , obsidian). The major Acheulian-Mousterian work sites and archaeological sites, quarries are found
directly on the outputs of the lava rocks in areas of particularly powerful manifestation of magmatism (Armenia, Javakheti). These are the
Satani-Dar, Dzhraber, Fountain in the Ararat valley, the northern foot of the Wet Mountains in Javakheti. To the west and east of the named
area (in Colchis, Black Sea, Kuban region, Dagestan, Azerbaijan) is dominated by int and other sedimentary rocks.

19. Note also that in ashelskoe, people often used rough and tough boulder material, large pebbles, pieces of various siliceous and volcanic
rocks (Azykh, Tsona, Kudaro, Lashe-Balta, Yukari-Salahli, etc.). In the absence of a sufcient number of high quality raw materials such
material was used in part by the Mousterian people (Tsopi, Azykh, Kudaro). In some places, siliceous shales and limestones and mudstones
are widely used (Kudaro, Tsona, Dzhruchula, Taghlar).

20. Siting of early Paleolithic settlements is in connection with fossilisation conditions and paleogeography. Mapping early Paleolithic sites
shows a strong imbalance in the ancient people of the western and eastern half of the Caucasian isthmus, with a discrepancy in the
population of the plains, foothills and mountainous areas, a rare occurrence in this area stands in the open air with undisturbed cultural layer.
This picture reects not only the state of our knowledge, in particular, and fossilised burials of Palaeolithic remains in mountainous country
and the events in the past of the Quaternary of the Caucasian region.

21. Fossilisation circumstances (and severe erosion) are not conducive to the preservation and discovery of palaeolithic sites in the open.
There are particularly poorly preserved traces of Acheulian and Mousterian people in the band of medium and high mountains. Deep in the
mountains of the Greater Caucasus, for example, are known only scarce early Palaeolithic nds in South Ossetia (and Uchelet Fasrag
location at an altitude of 1600-1800 m) and Imeretia (DM Tushabramnshvili on the slopes of the ridge and Racha passes). There are isolated
nds in the same location in lowland areas (for example, nds of A, A. Formozov, Giray near the town of Kropotkin). The overwhelming
majority of early Palaeolithic localities situated in the low foothills and adjacent areas of depression, involved in the area of the last Greater
Doming and Lesser Caucasus Mountains. These are the location of the northern foothills of the Greater Caucasus, the location of the foothills
of the southern slope of the Western and Central Caucasus, the location of the northern foothills of the Lesser Caucasus and foothill areas of
Ganja-Kazakh sloping plain in western Azerbaijan. In the region of the Armenian volcanic highland locations are located mainly in the areas
of intermontane depressions - basins.

22. VM Muratov (1969a), has searched for the geological and geomorphological features of Acheulian localities in the Kuban region, and said
that these last are conned to the area of sustainable Quaternary uplift of a very small amplitude: they reach a narrow band, capturing the
highest part of the Kuban sloping plains and low foothills. North of this band, they are probably buried under a thick layer of new continental
sediments, south in the mountainous areas these could be destroyed by the intense slope washout.

23. On the slopes of the Greater Caucasus, Colchis Acheulean and Mousterian sites (including caves) are known in the mountains up to the
subalpine belt of the mountain-meadow zone, to an altitude of 1600-2100 m above sea level (locations of the cave Uchelet Tsona and Kudaro
in South Ossetia 15-20 km from the Dividing Range, while on the northern slope of the Mousterian and Acheulean nds marked no higher
than the altitude of 1000 m (location north Jurassic depression in Karachaevo-Cherkessia, 60-70 km from the Dividing Range .)

25. There are differences in the extent of the penetration depth of the ancient people into the mountains of the southern and northern slopes
of the Greater Caucasus, but it seems to be explained by glaciologica factors: the Pleistocene glaciation emerged most powerfully on the
northern slope, especially in its central part. During the penultimate glaciation and maximum phase of the last glaciation (the Terek and
bezingiyskogo by EE Milanovskiy) lobes penetrated to the north Jurassic depression here and there, through the Rocky Mountains gorges,
moving north of the latter (Dumitrashko PV, Milanovskiy E. E., 1977)

Text:Abramov et al. (1984)


Late

Paleolithic of the Caucasus

Photo:Abramov et al. (1984)

LatePaleolithicsites -

1- Shirokij mys (LargeCape) - 2 Kamennomostskaja Peshhera (Cave) - 3 - Gubskpj Naves


(Shelter) - 4 - Satanaj Naves (Shelter) (Gubskij Naves VII) - ( VII) 5 - RuslanovaPeshhera
(Cave) - 6 -AtsinskayaPeshhera (Cave) - 7 - Navalisheno - 8 -Hosta - 9 -
AhshtyrskayaPeshhera (Cave) - 10 -Barmysh - 11 -Lechkop - 12 -OkumiI - I 13
-Apiancha(Kep-Bogaz) - (-) 14 - Holodnyj Grot (IceGrotto) (Hupynipshahva) - () 15
-SvanteSavape - - 16 -Sosruko - 17 -Ghali - 18 - Belaja Peshhera (White Cave) - 9 - Grot
Uvarova (Uvarov Grotto) 20 -Sakazhiya - 21 Sagvar-dzhile - - 22 - Devis-Hvreli - - 23
-BneleKlde - - 24-Gvardzhilas-Klde - - 25 -Dzudzuana - 26 -Mgvimevi- 27 - Samgle-
Klde - - 28 -Samertshle-Klde - - 29 -SarekskyNaves (Shelter) - 30-Taro-Klde - -
31 -Togop-Klde - - 32-Hergulis-Klde - - 33- Saga-Cuka - - 34-DamdzhilyI - I 35
-Dzhatkran - 36-Nurnus -
Mapof

Paleolithicsitesin Central Asia and Kazakhstan -

Photo:Abramov et al. (1984)

a -EarlyPaleolithicopen air sites -


- EarlyPaleolithiccaves orgrottoes -
-EarlyPaleolithicquarries and work sites - - LatePaleolithic open air sites -

- LatePaleolithiccaves -
Late Paleolithicquarries and work sites -
-Multilayer, multi dates open air sites -
- Multilayer, multi dates caves -
- Multilayer, multi dates quarries and work sites -

Largesignsindicategroupsof sites,small signsdenote individualsites - ;


.

1 - Yangadzha I,II, Kaskyr-Bulak - I, II, - 2 -Begarslaydag - y 3 -Tomchi-Su,Otalygzov - -,


4 -TeshikTash, Amir-Temir - -, - 5 - Hudzhi - 6 Kuhi-Piez,Kara-Bura - -, - 7
-Karatau Tadzhikskij - , 8 -Ogzi-Kichik - - 9 - Lakhuti - 10 -Shugnou - 11 -Semiganch -
12 -JarKutan - - 13 -Samarkandskaya - 14 -Aman-Kutan - - 15 -Kuturbulak -
16 -Uchtut - : 17 Kairak-Kum - - 18-Hodge-Gore - - 19 -Ferghanasites -
20 - Bozsu - : 21 - Kulbulak - 22 -Khojakent - 23 -Obirakhmat - 24.-Ohna - 25 -
Kapchiga - 26- On-Archa - - 27-Tossor - : 28 - Georgievskij Bugor (George'sHillock) - 29
-Borykazgan,Tanirkazgan - , : 30 -Kara-Su - - 31 -Turlanskypereval (Pass) -
32-Esen-2 - -2 33 - Kyzyl-Nura - - 34-Mangyshlak - 35- Turangareka (river) - 36- Gory
(Mount) Khantau - 37-Jaman-Aibat - - 38 -Obalysan Muzbel - 39- Karabas 3 -
3 40 -Batpak - 41 -Angresor2 - 2 42 - AulKanai,Svinchatka - , 43 -Novo-Nikolsky - -
44 - Peshhera (the cave) -
Photo:Abramov et al. (1984)

References
1. Abramov A., Anikovich M., Bader N., Boriskovsky P., Lubin V., Praslin N., Rogachev A., . , . . , .
. , . . , . . , . . , . . , 1984:Archaeology of the USSR. 1984,
Nauka, Moscow, 1984
2. Abramova Z., 1995:L'Art palolithique d'Europe orientale et de Sibrie., Grenoble: Jrme Millon.
3. Morgan de J., 1909: Extrait de laRevue de l'Ecole d'Anthropologie de Paris, (juin 1909), p. 189-203. Description: 1 vol. (15 p.) ; in-8.