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Addiction: Eating Disorder

1.0 Introduction

Addiction is a condition that results when a person ingests a substance (e.g., alcohol,
cocaine, nicotine) or engages in an activity (e.g., gambling, sex, shopping) that can be
pleasurable but the continuation of which becomes compulsive and interferes with ordinary
responsibilities and concerns, such as work, relationships, or health. People who have developed
an addiction may not be aware that their behavior is out of control and causing problems for
themselves and others.

An eating disorder is an addiction to have a skinny body. An eating disorder is a psychological


disorder that has the characteristics of the disruption of eating patterns and ways to control
weight. When entering adolescence, especially during puberty, adolescents become
very concern on weight gain, especially young women, because they have added the amount of
fatty tissue, so it is easy to become obese when they consume high-calorie foods. In fact many
women wanted look slim and lean. Presuming that being thin will make them happy, successful,
and popular. A person with eating disorders has a problem with body image. This means that
they see themselves already have the mindset (thinking that has been imprinted in the brain) that
their bodies are not ideal. They find his body fat, a lot of fat here and there and unsightly.

In the view of Erikson, adolescents are at a period of identity crisis ( crisis of identity ), it
encourages teens to seek their identity (identity), the way to fulfill his desire to be an individual
that is "perfect", intellectually, the personality, as well as in physical appearance. To be able to
appear attractive and appealing to the opposite sex, then one of the efforts is trying to have the
ideal body shape, for example by adjusting the diet. However, often a lot of teenagers who are
haunted by fears and worry that it will suffer a failure of the effort. A person with an eating
disorder may start consume less or more than usual, but at a certain stage, the desire to eat less or
more spiraling out of desire (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2005).

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2.0 Type of Eating Disorder

There are two main types of eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The third
category is "other eating disorders not otherwise specified '(EDNOS - eating disorders not
otherwise specified), which include some variation of eating disorders. Most are similar to
anorexia or bulimia but with slightly different character. Binge-eating disorder, which received
an increase in the number of research and media attention in recent years, is one type of EDNOS
(APA, 2005).

2.1 Norexia Nervosa


According to the DSM-IV, anorexia nervosa (AN) is meant by is an unwillingness to assign
weight approximately 85% of that predicted, excessive fear to gain weight, and does not
menstruate for three consecutive cycles. AN divided to two types. In restricting-type anorexia
type, these individuals lose weight by dieting sake only without overeat (binge eating) or
vomiting again (purging). They too are limiting the consumption of carbohydrates and fat-
containing meal. When someone were the type of binge-eating/ purging, such individuals overeat
and then vomit it back it intentionally (APA, 2005). Patients with anorexia always felt
overweight when in fact they are already very thin. They eat very little (less than 1000 calories
per day), exercise excessively, and regurgitate food, taking drugs laxatives and diuretics to lose
weight. Although anorexia are more common in teenage girls and young women, anorexia can
also occur in men, children and the elderly. People with anorexia are often not willing to admit
that what happened is a disease. Due to consume less food than required, generally those
suffering from malnutrition characterized by bones and brittle nails, hair loss, dry skin and
pale. In women, anorexia can cause amenorrhea for at least three consecutive months. Another
sign is a low body temperature, low blood pressure, and heart rates are low can continue to be
heart rhythm disturbances and heart failure. Kidney and brain also cannot work properly. Not a
few cases of anorexia cause death.

2.2 Bulimia Nervosa

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Bulimia nervosa (BN) is described by recurrent episodes overeat (binge eating) and then with the
compensatory treatment (vomiting, fasting, recreation, or a combination thereof). Overeating is
accompanied by subjective feelings of loss escort when eating. Vomiting intentional or excessive
recreation, as well as misuse of laxatives, diuretics, amphetamines and thyroxin may also occur
(Chavez and Insel, 2007). DSM-IV BN distributed to the two forms of purging and non-purging.
On the type of purging, the people brings back food intentionally or abusing laxatives, diuretics
or enemas. In type no purging, the individual is using other means other than the methods used in
the purging type, such as fasting or excessive recreation. People with bulimia eat to excess and
then compensate by purging by forcing oneself to vomit or bowel movement, taking laxatives,
excessive exercise, or fasting. The difference overeating on bulimia and overeating in general is
on bulimia accompanied by a sense of guilt. Bulimia is also more common in women and usually
begins in adolescence or young adulthood. Half of the women who develop anorexia also suffer
from bulimia. Bulimia can cause electrolyte imbalances, dehydration and heart problems, and
even death.

2.3 Binge-eating Disorder


According to DSM-IV criteria for binge-eating disorder (BED) requires episode of overeating, as
BN, but what distinguishes BED with BN is BED does not involve any action against the
behavior of overeating, such as regurgitating food, the use of laxatives and recreation
exaggerated ( Kay and Tasman, 2006). Binge eating disorder is a condition in which people loses
control and eat too much. Another name of binge eating disorder is compulsive overeating,
emotional eating, or food addiction. Binge usually begins in 20s and occurs more in women.
Overeating on a binge is usually triggered by a bad mood. However, it is not uncommon binge
also cause feelings of guilt in people after eating a lot. Binge cause health problems such as
overweight or obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and others.

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3.0 Symptoms

These symptoms vary depending on the type of disorder is experienced, including:


Bulimia nervosa. When suffering from bulimia disorder, a person experiences a loss of
control when eating so repeatedly eating foods in large quantities and then took it back (eating
and purging). This is done to reduce the excess calories of guilt, shame and fear of excessive
weight gain. How that is done usually by forcing herself to vomit and exercising too
hard. Symptoms of bulimia are the use of weight loss supplements to extremes, use of laxatives,
diuretics or enemas taking the drug regularly. People with bulimia tend to assess deficiencies in
herself too hard, even though normal weight or slightly in excess. Many people with bulimia also
restrict eating in the daytime thereby increasing the amount of food in the evening, then vomited
back.

Binge eating disorder. When suffering from this disorder, a person is usually eaten in
large quantities and feeling out of control with her diet. The patients eat faster and more when
you're not hungry and continue despite already full. As only the bulimia, the sufferer will feel
disgusted with himself and shame for his behavior, but the patient does not attempt to exercise
excessively or regurgitate food. Patients usually tend to eat alone so that the disorder is not
known by others.

Anorexia nervosa. This disorder is indicated by low weight is not normal, felt very
afraid if you gain weight and have the wrong perception about weight or body shape
itself. Anorexics strive to maintain food intake to maintain weight and body shape which
sometimes can die of starvation. Other symptoms of anorexia may include: a thin body,
insomnia, excessive fatigue, dizziness, blue nails, brittle nails and hair, constipation, dry skin,
and irregular heartbeat.

Other eating disorders ;


Eating everything (pica) is the habit of eating non-food materials, such as soap,
cloth, talcum powder, or soil. The eating habits of all of this can lead to medical complications,
such as poisoning, problems in the intestine or infection. Eating these materials are not good for

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the level of development and are not part of particular culture or practice of life in society. These
disorders often appear together with other disorders, such as autism spectrum or mental
retardation.
Rumination disorder. The symptoms are spit it back new food repeatedly
swallowed. The food is put back into the mouth without prior nausea or vomiting. Moreover, this
disorder can make someone malnutrition and common for small children and people with mental
retardation.

Restrictive food intake disorder. Symptoms of this disorder are the person does
not want to eat and avoid foods with certain characteristics related to the senses, such as color,
texture, smell, or taste. These symptoms related to fear choked after eating, not for fear of excess
weight.

4.0 Causes

Eating disorders can be due to many things, among others:

Public pressure. The success and value of a person is often confused with a slim
body. Pressure groups and the views of people in the media can trigger the desire to strive to
have a lean body.
Some people have genes that can trigger the development of eating disorders. Someone
who has a parent or sibling who suffers from eating disorders tend to be at risk as well.
Emotional and psychological problems. People with eating disorders usually have
emotional and psychological issues that trigger they have this condition. Patients may have low
self-esteem, perfectionism, impulsivity, or disturbed relationships with family members or
friends. In addition, eating disorders can also be triggered by circumstances that are full of
pressure and bad experiences (such as sexual harassment, intimidation, or the loss of a close).
Besides the things above, there are a number of factors that may increase the risk of someone
having an eating disorder, including:

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Age. Teenage girls or young women ranging in age from the 20s were more likely to
suffer from this disorder than men.
Profession. Athletes, actors, models are also at high risk of eating disorders due to lose
weight demanded by the job.
Psychological disorders. A person with psychological disorders, such as depression,
stress, anxiety or obsessive-compulsive attitude tended to suffer from eating disorders.
Diet unnatural. Someone who diet excessively tends to experience an eating disorder.
5.0 Consequences

Eating disorders can cause a variety of complications. The more severe and longer eating
disorder is experienced, the more serious complication that can be experienced, including:
Inhibition of the growth of the body.
Psychological disorders, such as depression and anxiety, or even the intention to commit
suicide.
Serious health problems.
The decline in school performance or a decrease in the quality of work.
The destruction of social relationships.
Dead.

If patients experience any of the symptoms of suspected complications from an eating disorder,
you should see a physician or psychologist / psychiatrist to get treatment.

6.0 Treatment

Treatment of eating disorders is usually carried out by a team that includes doctors, psychologists
or psychiatrists, nutritionists, and all are experienced in eating disorders. The treatment is carried
out based on the types of interference experienced but if the disruption had life-threatening
condition, it requires hospitalization. Treatment for this disorder is primary is also called
psychotherapy or talk therapy to replace unhealthy habits become healthier. One is cognitive
behavioral therapy (cognitive behavioral therapy). This therapy mainly, done for patients with
bulimia and binge eating disorder. Cognitive behavioral therapy would change a person's view

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when faced with a situation, including the search for problem solving and healthy way to cope
with the pressure which in turn can change a person's attitude for the better.

Another type of talk therapy that can be done is interpersonal therapy, which focuses on issues
related to relationships with other people, family therapy that involves the entire family to
discuss the disruption experienced by patients, the relationship between them and the effects of
these disorders on the family. In addition both therapies, also conducted diet therapy to help a
person regain and maintain a healthy diet. This therapy is done by dietitians and physicians,
especially for patients with less weight due to eating disorders. Providing drugs may be
considered. Although drugs can not cure an eating disorder, but it can help to control the desire
to eat a lot, vomiting, or excessive anxiety concerning diet and food. Drugs given generally are
antidepressants and antianxiety. Support of family and friends are very important to the success
of treatment in patients with eating disorders.

7.0 Prevention Strategies

Although it is very difficult to prevent all cases of anorexia but early treatment once symptoms
appear is to help people fall into more severe conditions. Early education about healthy habits
and a positive outlook on the food and also helps prevent the appearance of a more severe state
of an eating disorder.

i. Avoid situations that can be stressful. If stress appears, we shall be able to overcome the
stress experienced in ways that positive discussions with friends, exercising, and so on.
Do not let the stress of protracted and overcome the negative ways such as eating too
much, especially if accidentally brings back food that has been eaten.
ii. Allowing youself to eat on time and regularly. Eating regularly will not make fat, in fact
people are overweight because restrain the appetite so that eating it will overeat, eat
regularly can prevent this.
iii. Accept your body and what we are and be yourself. Do not compare ourselves with the
body and others. Additionally, hang out with people who can accept us as it is. Positive
environment can make us positive, and vice versa.
iv. Do not trust and promote the ad false that thin and weight loss is good, while body fat
and weight is bad.

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v. Plenty of exercise. As the saying goes in a healthy body there is a strong soul, in
addition to nourish the body exercise can also eliminate stress.
vi. Family therapy can also be given to patients who have severe. Therapy is done so that the
patient feels himself worthy and accepted by the family and society without having to
lose weight.
vii. If you have a family member or friend with low confidence, a severe diet or not satisfied
with the appearance, consider speaking to him about this. Even if you do not have the
ability to prevent eating disorders occur, you can talk about a healthier lifestyle.

8.0 Conclusion

An eating disorder is a different attitude towards foods that cause a person to change behavior
and eating habits. This can be a serious condition that negatively impacts on health, emotions
and one's ability in various areas of life that are important. A person with an eating disorder are
too focused on body weight and body shape, so make the unhealthy choice in terms of food and
in turn potentially affect the body's ability to obtain adequate nutrition. An eating disorder can
also interfere with the functioning of the heart, digestive system, bones, teeth, and
mouth. Moreover, this condition can lead to serious life-threatening complications. Patients are
usually able to return to more healthy eating habits after a proper diagnosis from a doctor. Some
people sometimes deny having this problem, but there are a few symptoms that can be a sign that
someone is suffering from an eating disorder. People with eating disorders will generally use
food and diet as a way to overcome the problems in their lives. Many of them think that the food
is a source of comfort or stress reliever while weight loss is considered as a way to be accepted
by friends and family. Therefore, people should also participate in the lives of teenagers who
were growing up. Do not give a bad impression to them, be careful in speaking when talking to
them, and give a little praise to boost their confidence.

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References

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Rajawali Pers.

Gangguan Makan (Termasuk Binge Eating, Anorexia & Bulimia), Gejala & Pengobatan
Gangguan Makan http://psychcentral.com/disorders/eating_disorders

Ho, T. F., Tai B. C., Lee, E.L., Cheng, S., Liow P. H., 2006. Prevalence and Profile of Females At
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Islam and Eating Disorders in the Muslim Word http://waragainsteatingdisorder.com

Makino, M., Tsuboi, K., Dennerstein, L., 2004. Prevalence of Eating Disorder : A Comparison of
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