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# Maharashtra Institute of Technology, LABORATORY MANUAL

Practical Experiment Instruction Sheet
EXPERIMENT TITLE :Study of R-L-C series circuit.

## EXPERIMENT NO.11 : MIT(T)/ETC/Basic Electrical Engineering /Manual No.1

FY(All) DEPARTMENT: Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering
LABORATORY : Basic Electrical Engineering Location Part I Page 50

## Aim: Study of R-L-C series circuit.

Apparatus: 1.Single phase variac 8Amp, (0-270V) 2.Rheostat 500, 1.7A 3. Inductor (Variable)
5Amp, 250V. Rating 4. Capacitor 400V Rating at 50Hz 5. AC Ammeter (0-1A) 6. AC Voltmeter
(0-150-300V) 7. Prongs One pairs
Theory :
The series RLC circuit above has a single loop with the instantaneous current flowing through the loop
being the same for each circuit element. Since the inductive and capacitive reactances XL and XC are

a function of the supply frequency, the sinusoidal response of a series RLC circuit will therefore vary
with frequency, . Then the individual voltage drops across each circuit element of R, L and C element
will be out-of-phase with each other as defined by:
I =Imaxsin(wt )

Circuit Diagram

Prepared By: Mr. S.S. Chate Approved By: Dr. G.S. Sable
Maharashtra Institute of Technology, LABORATORY MANUAL
Practical Experiment Instruction Sheet
EXPERIMENT TITLE :Study of R-L-C series circuit.

## EXPERIMENT NO.11 : MIT(T)/ETC/Basic Electrical Engineering /Manual No.1

FY(All) DEPARTMENT: Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering
LABORATORY : Basic Electrical Engineering Location Part I Page 51

The instantaneous voltage across a pure resistor, VR is in-phase with the current.
The instantaneous voltage across a pure inductor, VL leads the current by 90o
The instantaneous voltage across a pure capacitor, VC lags the current by 90o
Therefore, VL and VC are 180o out-of-phase and in opposition to each other.

## Relationship of voltage & current

This means then that we can not simply add together VR, VL and VC to find the supply voltage, VS

across all three components as all three voltage vectors point in different directions with regards to the
current vector. Therefore we will have to find the supply voltage, V S as the Phasor Sum of the three

component voltages combined together vectorially. Kirchoffs voltage law ( KVL ) for both loop and
nodal circuits states that around any closed loop the sum of voltage drops around the loop equals the
sum of the EMFs. Then applying this law to the these three voltages will give us the amplitude of the
source voltage, VS.

Prepared By: Mr. S.S. Chate Approved By: Dr. G.S. Sable
Maharashtra Institute of Technology, LABORATORY MANUAL
Practical Experiment Instruction Sheet
EXPERIMENT TITLE :Study of R-L-C series circuit.

## EXPERIMENT NO.11 : MIT(T)/ETC/Basic Electrical Engineering /Manual No.1

FY(All) DEPARTMENT: Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering
LABORATORY : Basic Electrical Engineering Location Part I Page 52

As the three vector voltages are out-of-phase with each other, XL, XC and R must also be

out-of-phase with each other with the relationship between R, XL and XC being the vector sum of

## these three components thereby giving us the circuits overall impedance

Z = R 2+( XL XC )2
And X = XL XC.
If VL < VC i.e. XL < XC, X(Negative), Z decreasing, current decreasing, p.f. Leading
If VL = VC i.e. XL = XC, (Series resonance condition), X = 0, Z = R, Current maximum at U.P.F.
If VL > VC i.e. XL > XC, X will be positive, Z increasing, current decreasing, p.f. lagging.
Observation Table:
Sr I (Amp) VR VL (Volt) VC (Volt) VR+L (Volt) VT (Volt)
No. (Volt)

Calculations:
Sr. No. XL = VL / I () L = XL / (H) ZT = VT / I ()

For simplicity only, the resistance of inductor coil has been ignored.

Prepared By: Mr. S.S. Chate Approved By: Dr. G.S. Sable
Maharashtra Institute of Technology, LABORATORY MANUAL
Practical Experiment Instruction Sheet
EXPERIMENT TITLE :Study of R-L-C series circuit.

## EXPERIMENT NO.11: MIT(T)/ETC/Basic Electrical Engineering /Manual No.1

FY(All) DEPARTMENT: Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering
LABORATORY : Basic Electrical Engineering Location Part I Page 53

## Sample Calculations ( For second reading):

1) XL = VL / I =
2) L = XL / I = H
3) Z = V / I =
4) COS = p.f. = R / Z
5) Plot phasor diagram.
6) Plot the graphs. Phasor diagram

## Conclusion: Various relations for V, I, Z and power factors are studied.

Prepared By: Mr. S.S. Chate Approved By: Dr. G.S. Sable