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www.elsevier.com/locate/compchemeng

Bo Li, Bing-zhen Chen *

Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua Uni6ersity, Beijing 100084, Peoples Republic of China

Received 2 January 2001; received in revised form 3 October 2001; accepted 23 March 2002

Abstract

This article addresses a new aspect of the problem of sensor network design, namely the concept of flexibility of sensor network.

Algorithms based on graph theoretical concepts and MINLP methods are developed for analyzing the flexibility of a given sensor

network, designing a flexible sensor network, and upgrading a sensor network to improve its flexibility. Several examples are

reported to illustrate the presented algorithms. Using the proposed approach, one can obtain a flexible sensor network, which is

able to ensure the observability of all the key variables even under some cases in which the original flowsheet changes. 2002

Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nomenclature

C 2n =n(n1)/2

F flexibility of sensor network

FR flexibility demand

k number of sensors that will be used

l number of specified cycles in a process graph

L variable set consisting of all variables in a specified cycle

m number of edges in a process graph

n number of nodes in a process graph

s number of positive node-pair candidates

p number of specified paths in a process graph

P variable set consisting of all variables in a specified path

u number of unmeasured variables in a designed sensor network

impossible to observe all the key variables by directly

In order to simulate, control, and optimize chemical measuring them. The selection of a suitable set of

processes, it is necessary to monitor various kinds of variables to be measured is known as the problem of

variables. However, because of the high cost of sensors sensor network design. Many scholars have made con-

tributions to this problem, and have presented various

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +86-10-627-84572; fax: + 86-10- criteria. Vaclavek and Loucka (1976) first proposed to

627-70304 design sensor networks that can ensure the observabil-

E-mail address: dcecbz@tsinghua.edu.cn (B.-z. Chen). ity of all variables; Kretsovalis and Mah (1987) used a

0098-1354/02/$ - see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 0 9 8 - 1 3 5 4 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 1 1 5 - 1

1364 B. Li, B.-z. Chen / Computers and Chemical Engineering 26 (2002) 13631368

combinatorial search based on the effect of the vari- streams. In short, possible changes in a flowsheet

ances of measurements on the precision of key variables greatly limit the usefulness of sensor networks designed

to design sensor networks. Madron and Veverka (1992) using methods presented in those existing works.

proposed to use cost and overall precision of the system This article concerns the problem of designing sensor

as the objective functions for designing sensor net- networks that can ensure the observability of all the key

works; Meyer, Lann and Koehret (1994) proposed a variables even under cases in which the original flow-

graph-oriented algorithm for designing cost-optimal sheet changes. The concept of flexibility of sensor net-

sensor networks. Ali and Narasimhan (1993) presented work is presented first. Then, the problem of analyzing

the concept of reliability, which is based on sensor the flexibility of a given sensor network is discussed.

failure probability, observability of variables, as well as After that, the problem of designing a flexible sensor

redundancy. They proposed to maximize the minimum network along with considering the cost criterion is

reliability among all variables for nonredundant sensor proposed and solved. Finally, the problem of upgrading

networks that contain minimum set of sensors. Lately, a given sensor network to improve its flexibility is

Ali and Narasimhan (1995) extended their work to discussed. Several examples are included throughout

redundant sensor networks with a specified number of the text.

sensors. Ali and Narasimhan (1996) also proposed to

design sensor networks that maximize the minimum

reliability over all variables for bilinear processes. Sen, 2. Flexibility of sensor network

Narasimhan and Deb (1998) presented a genetic al-

gorithm that can be applied to design nonredundant Due to the changes in the properties of the feed

sensor networks using different objective functions. streams, or because of the improvements in process

Bagajewicz (1997) proposed a MINLP problem to ob- technologies, the original flowsheet may have changes

tain cost-optimal sensor networks for linear processes as follows: addition and/or deletion of streams and/or

subject to constraints on precision, residual precision units. Such changes may have influences on the observ-

and error detectability. The connection between cost- ability of unmeasured variables. Addition or deletion of

optimal and maximum precision mathematical pro- units must result in addition and/or deletion of streams,

gramming models was recently established by and their influences on the observability of unmeasured

Bagajewicz and Sanchez (1999a). Bagajewicz and variables can be ascribed to addition and/or deletion of

Sanchez (1999b) also presented the concept of degree of streams. Hence, only the addition and deletion of

estimability, based on which they proposed to design streams need to be considered.

sensor networks that allow different degrees of es- For the problem of sensor network design, a linear

timability of key variables. process is always represented with an undirected pro-

All the aforementioned works based their study on cess graph that contains an additional environment

the fact that the designed sensor networks can ensure node. In such a process graph, if some unmeasured

the observability of all the key variables in a well- variables form a cycle, all the variables in such an

defined flowsheet. However, as will be shown later, if unmeasured-cycle are unobservable. On the other hand,

the original flowsheet changes because of changes of if there exists no unmeasured-cycle, a proportional

properties of feed streams, or because of improvements subset of the unmeasured variables cannot form a cycle.

in process technologies, some observable unmeasured Thus, when some streams are deleted, it is impossible

key variables may become unobservable without up- for the rest of unmeasured variables to form a new

grading the designed sensor networks. On the other cycle. Hence, the observability of the unmeasured vari-

hand, it is common that whether or not certain streams ables will remain unchanged.

exist in a flowsheet depends upon the feed stream Based on the previous analysis, only the addition of

property, thus, it is unreasonable to place sensors to streams may have influences on the observability of

measure the flow-rates of such types of conditional unmeasured variables. For the purpose of simplifica-

tion, only addition of a single stream is considered in

this article, and all variables are assumed to be key

variables.

To introduce the concept of flexibility of sensor

network, the following example provided by Ali and

Narasimhan (1993) is useful.

2.1. Example 1

Fig. 1. Simplified ammonia process. its process graph that consists of six nodes and eight

B. Li, B.-z. Chen / Computers and Chemical Engineering 26 (2002) 13631368 1365

(2, 4), (2, 5), (2, 6), (3, 4), (3, 5) and (3, 6). The

comparison between these two alternatives shows that

the second network is able to ensure the observability

of all the unmeasured variables in the new flowsheet for

more node-pairs. That is to say, the second one is more

flexible than the first one.

For a given process graph, all of the node-pair

candidates that a new stream probably joins can be

obtained. If a sensor network can ensure the observ-

Fig. 2. Changed ammonia process. ability of all the unmeasured variables when the new

stream joins a node-pair candidate, this node-pair can-

edges. As Ali and Narasimhan (1993) showed, in order didate is defined as a positive one; otherwise, this

to observe all these eight variables, at least three vari- node-pair candidate is defined as a negative one. A

ables should be measured and the unmeasured variables sensor network is more flexible if it has more node-pair

should form a spanning tree of the process graph. For candidates that are positive. Hence, the flexibility of a

instance, if variables (1, 2, 3, 4, 7), which form a sensor network is defined as the ratio of the number of

spanning tree of the process graph, are unmeasured, positive node-pair candidates the sensor network has

then all these unmeasured variables can be estimated over the number of all the node-pair candidates. For a

through the mass balances. process graph that has n nodes and m edges, there are

How does the observability of unmeasured variables altogether C 2n node-pair candidates that the new stream

change if the original flowsheet changes? For instance, probably joins. If a sensor network has s positive

as shown in Fig. 2, suppose that stream 9 which joins node-pair candidates, its flexibility is then given by:

node-pair (1, 3) is added. It is clear that an unmea-

sured-cycle consisting of variables 1, 2, and 9, will be s

F= (1)

formed. Hence, all of these three unmeasured variables C 2n

are unobservable. It can be concluded from this exam-

ple that some unmeasured variables that can be esti- For a nonredundant sensor network, none of the

mated before become unobservable after adding the node-pair candidates is positive, thus, the flexibility of a

new stream. Furthermore, for such a nonredundant nonredundant sensor network is zero. On the other

sensor network, wherever the new stream is introduced, hand, for a sensor network in which all variables are

an unmeasured-cycle will be produced. That is to say, a measured, all the node-pair candidates are positive

nonredundant sensor network cannot be used to ob- candidates, so that the flexibility of an all-measured

serve all the unmeasured variables when a new stream sensor network is one. The flexibility of a redundant

is added to the original flowsheet. In another word, a sensor network lies in the region [0, 1].

nonredundant sensor network is inflexible.

What is the situation with regard to redundant sensor

networks? A redundant sensor network has more mea- 3. Flexibility analysis of a sensor network

sured variables than a nonredundant sensor network,

and the unmeasured variables in a redundant sensor According to the definition of flexibility of sensor

network should not form any cycle of the process network, if either the number of positive candidates or

graph. Consider two redundant sensor networks with the number of negative candidates can be obtained,

different criteria for the ammonia process (Fig. 1). The then it is possible to calculate its flexibility using Eq.

first network has unmeasured variables (1, 2, 3, 4), (1).

while the second one has unmeasured variables (1, 2, 4, Using the property that: if there is a path (i, j )

7). Both of these alternatives have four measured vari- consisting of only unmeasured variables, then the addi-

ables and can ensure the observability of all the unmea- tion of a new stream joining (i, j ) will produce an

sured variables. However, after a new stream is added unmeasured-cycle, it can be deduced that if there exists

to the original flowsheet, the abilities of these two an unmeasured-path between (i, j ), then the candidate

alternatives to ensure the observability of all the un- (i, j ) is a negative one. Hence, if the number of

measured variables become different. For the first one, unmeasured-paths in a process graph is p, then the

only when the new stream joins one of the node-pairs number of the negative candidates is p, and the number

(1, 6), (2, 6), (3, 6), (4, 6) and (5, 6), can the observabil- of the positive candidates is C 2n p. Thus, the flexibility

ity of all the unmeasured variables be assured. In the of the sensor network is given by:

second one, on the other hand, the observability of all

the unmeasured variables can be assured when the new p

F= 1 (2)

stream joins one of the node-pairs (1, 4), (1, 5), (1, 6), C 2n

1366 B. Li, B.-z. Chen / Computers and Chemical Engineering 26 (2002) 13631368

The bigger F is, the more flexible the given sensor Algorithm 1.

network will be. 1. Find all the paths no greater than m k in the

process graph. Suppose that the number of such

paths is p, and the variables in jth path form set Pj.

4. Flexibility design of a sensor network 2. Find all the cycles having no more than mk edges

in the process graph. Suppose that the number of

Considering possible changes of the flowsheet, it is such cycles is l, and the variables in jth cycle form

preferable to design a flexible sensor network while set Lj.

other criteria, such as cost, reliability, and precision, are 3. Solve the MINLP problem (P1)

constrained. In this section, the problem of designing a p

flexible sensor network along with considering the cost min % 5 yi

criterion represented with the number of sensors will be j = 1 i Pj

sensor network which maximizes flexibility with a spe- s.t. 5 yj = 0 , j = 1, 2, , l

i Lj

cified number of sensors will be given.

m

For a process graph having n nodes and m edges, at % yi = mk

least m n+ 1 variables should be measured to ensure i=1

the observability of all variables. Thus, the number of yi = 0, 1 , i= 1, 2, , m

sensors, k, in a flexible sensor network, must be greater

than m n + 1. Based on the flexibility analysis out-

lined in the previous section, the flexibility of a sensor 4. In the solution, the variables such that yi = 0 should

network is maximized when the number of unmea- be measured, and the flexibility of such a sensor

sured-paths in the process graph is minimized. When a network is:

flexible sensor network has k sensors, each of the p

j = 1 i Pj

than m k. Therefore, the number of paths no greater F= 1 2

(4)

C n

than m k in the process graph should be minimized.

Additionally, in order to ensure the observability of all

variables, the unmeasured variables should not form

any cycle. To facilitate this design strategy, a binary

variable y, introduced for each variable, is defined as The first two steps in this algorithm can be processed

follows: using algorithms provided by Yang (1988). The simple

yi =

!

0 if variable i is measured

(3)

MINLP model given in (P1) can be easily solved using

LINGO (LINDO Systems Inc., 2001) or other such

1 if variable i is unmeasured software.

Following Algorithm 1, one can design flexible sen-

According to the definition of yi, the following two sor networks for the ammonia process (Fig. 1) with a

facts can be deduced: if the product of all the binary specified number of sensors. The results are shown in

variables in a path is one, this path is an unmeasured- Table 1. It should be noted that there exist more than

path; if the product of all the binary variables in a cycle one solution having equal flexibility and equal number

is one, this cycle is an unmeasured-cycle. On the other of sensors. Thus, one can choose a solution, which has

hand, if the product of all the binary variables in a a higher reliability or higher precision. However, since

cycle/path is zero, then this cycle/path has at least one that is not the main purpose of this article, the solu-

measured variable. tions listed in Table 1 have been selected randomly.

Based on the above analysis, the strategy of designing

a flexible sensor network with k sensors is given as

follows: 5. Retrofit of a sensor network to improve its flexibility

Table 1

Flexible sensor networks for ammonia process

To enhance the ability of an existing sensor network

to ensure the observability of all variables while the

Number of sensors Unmeasured variables Flexibility flowsheet changes, it is better to analyze the flexibility

of the given sensor network, and to upgrade it to

4 (1, 2, 4, 7) 0.6 improve its flexibility when necessary. One way to

5 (1, 4, 7) 0.733

6 (1, 3) 0.867

upgrade the given sensor network is to redesign it with

7 (1) 0.933 the sensors it has had, and to reach a solution which

maximizes the flexibility using Algorithm 1. Another

B. Li, B.-z. Chen / Computers and Chemical Engineering 26 (2002) 13631368 1367

u

min % (1yi )

i=1

p

s.t. % 5 yi 5 C 2n(1FR) , j=1, 2, , p

j = 1 i Pj

yi = 0, 1 , i= 1, 2, , u

Fig. 3. Simplified flowsheet of a crude oil atmospheric distillation

remain unmeasured, while those for which yi =0

unit.

should be measured.

ness of retrofitting of a sensor network to improve its

flexibility.

5.1. Example 2

atmospheric distillation unit. The designed sensor net-

Fig. 4. Flowsheet after a new stream is introduced. work is given as a nonredundant sensor network, in

which (1, 2, 5, 6, 7) are unmeasured.

Table 2 In order to increase the yields of the light compo-

Results of upgraded sensor networks nents, sometimes there is a need to add a stream that

joins unit 1 and 4, shown as the dashed stream 14 in

Flexibility Unmeasured New measured variables

requirement variables Fig. 4. After the flowsheet changes, an unmeasured-cy-

cle consisting of stream 14, 5, and 6, is produced.

0.2 (1, 2, 6, 7) 5 Therefore, these three variables are unobservable with

0.4 (1, 2, 6, 7) 5 the given sensor network. Furthermore, even an opti-

0.6 (1, 2, 6, 7) 5

mal redundant sensor network with respect to one of

0.8 (1, 2, 5) 6,7

0.9 (1) 2, 5, 6, 7 those criteria presented in the existing works, for in-

stance, cost, reliability, and precision, cannot ensure the

observability of these three variables if stream 5 and 6

way to increase its flexibility is to add a minimum are unmeasured. On the other hand, the existence of

number of sensors. Only the second way needs to be stream 14 depends upon the composition of the feed

discussed here. stream, so it is unreasonable to place a sensor to

Based on the flexibility analysis, to improve the flexi- measure the flow-rate of such kind of stream.

bility of the given sensor network, it is necessary to To improve the ability of the designed sensor net-

reduce the number of unmeasured-paths. For this pur- work to observe all the unmeasured variables after the

pose, a binary variable y, introduced for each unmea- flowsheet changes, it is possible using Algorithm 2 to

sured variable, is defined as follows: increase the flexibility of the sensor network to the

yi =

!

0 if variable i should be measured

(5)

levels listed in the first column in Table 2. The results

are listed in Table 2, and all the upgraded sensor

networks in Table 2 can be used to observe all the

1 if variable i should keep unmeasured

unmeasured variables after stream 14 is introduced. It

For a given sensor network which has n nodes and u should be noted that more than one solution can be

unmeasured variables, the strategy to improve its flexi- obtained by solving model (P2), and the results listed in

bility to FR is given as follows: Table 2 are selected randomly.

An upgraded sensor network in which variables 1 is

Algorithm 2. the new measured variable, whose flexibility is 0.333,

1. Obtain all the unmeasured-paths in the process can also meet the first flexibility level. However, it

graph with the given sensor network. Suppose that cannot ensure the observability of all the unmeasured

the number of such paths is p, and the variables in variables when stream 14 is introduced. To make the

jth unmeasured-path form set Pj. upgraded sensor networks more useful, the unmea-

1368 B. Li, B.-z. Chen / Computers and Chemical Engineering 26 (2002) 13631368

sured-cycle consisting of variable 5, variables 6, and broken while designing a flexible sensor network, and

variable 14, should be broken with the upgraded sensor corresponding constraints should be added to the

networks. Thus, the corresponding constraints should MINLP models (P1) and (P2). This modification of

be added to the MINLP model (P2). Solving the MINLP models makes the method of designing flexible

modified MINLP model, one can obtain upgraded sen- sensor networks more useful.

sor networks that meet the flexibility demands and can In summary, the flexibility of sensor network is a

ensure the observability of all the unmeasured variables criterion as important as other criteria, such as cost,

when stream 14 is introduced. reliability, precision, and so on. More solutions that are

useful can be reached by considering this aspect while

designing sensor networks, especially for processes

whose flowsheets are likely to change.

6. Discussion and conclusion

sensor network design, the most fundamental one is to References

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observable unmeasured key variables become unobserv- Ali, Y., & Narasimhan, S. (1993). Sensor network design for maxi-

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network, which does not accommodate those possible cal Engineering Journal, 39 (5), 820 828.

changes, is greatly decreased. In this article, the influ- Ali, Y., & Narasimhan, S. (1995). Redundant sensor network design

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measured variables are taken into account for the Ali, Y., & Narasimhan, S. (1996). Sensor network design for maxi-

problem of sensor network design. The flexibility of mizing reliability of bilinear processes. American Institute of

sensor network is presented as a new concept for sensor Chemical Engineering Journal, 42 (9), 2563 2575.

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