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SANDAN

eXpress Reference Manual

March 1995

Copyright 1995-1999 by Baker Atlas, Western Atlas International, Inc. All rights reserved.
eXpress Reference Manual SANDAN HOME

Table of Contents

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Data Required to Run sandan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Input Curve Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Control File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Running the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Running sandan from the eXpress Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Running sandan in Batch Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Logical Unit Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Parameters Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Selecting Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Define Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Overwrite Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Alpha Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
ALFC Constant Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Lithology Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Failure Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Mud Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Overburden Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Porosity Unit Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Output Mud Curves Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Pore Pressure Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Units System Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Rock Stress Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Relative Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Initial Shear Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Effective Tangential Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Effective Radial Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Average Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Sand Production Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Fracture Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Closure Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

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Actual Mud Pressure Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18


Ideal Mud Pressure Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Maximum Mud Pressure Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Minimum Mud Pressure Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Drawdown Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Failure Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Failure Pressure Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Results of sandan Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Output Curve Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Parameter Control File Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

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OVERVIEW
The eXpress rock mechanics programs provide information about
rock mechanical properties available from the compressional and
shear acoustic slowness logs and the bulk density log, and applies
the information to analyze the rock behavior under increased
downhole pressure conditions.

There are three rock mechanics programs with the following


applications:

1 The mechprop program reconstructs acoustic and density


logs and calculates the dynamic elastic parameters
describing rock mechanical properties.

2 The fracman program uses the elastic parameters to


calculate stresses in the rock and predict migration of
fractures.

3 The sandan program uses the elastic parameters to


estimate formation strength and predict sand production.

The sandan program uses the elastic variables from the mechprop
program to calculate stresses in the rock and the parameters
necessary for analysis of sand production.

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DATA REQUIRED TO RUN SANDAN


Before you execute sandan, provide the following:

Input curve data from a well data file

Parameter assignments, curve redirection, file


selection, and process interval specification in a
control file

Input Curve Data

Input curve data can come from any well data file. Redirect the
input curve data to the input curve names listed in Table 1.

For detailed information about curve selection and redirection, see


Curve Redirection in the Operations Overview.

Table 1: sandan Input Curve Names

Curve Description Units

ALFA Biot's Compressibility Factor

SMOD Shear Modulus 10 +6 psi, 10+3 MPa

BMOD Bulk Modulus 10+6 psi, 10+3 MPa

POIS Poisson's Ratio

VSH Bulk Volume of Shale frac, %

YMOD Young's Modulus 10+6 psi, 10+3 MPa

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Control File

Parameter assignments, curve redirection, file selection, and process


interval specification for sandan are entered in a control file by
filling in fields in the cdeditor screens, or using a text editor.

For more information on... See...

Parameter assignments Selecting Parameters

Curve redirection Curve Redirection in the Operations Overview

File selection the cdeditor section of the eXpress Reference Manual


File Assignment or Well Definition in the Operations
Overview

Process interval specification the cdeditor section of the eXpress Reference Manual
Processing Interval Specification in the Operations
Overview

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RUNNING THE PROGRAM


You can run the sandan program:

from the eXpress desktop

in batch mode from the command line in an eXpress


xterm

Running sandan from the eXpress Desktop

1 From the default eXpress desktop, select

Analysis Acoustics SANDAN

2 Use cdeditor to create a control file by selecting an input


file, editing zones, picking curves, and assigning values to
parameters.

3 Change the logical unit assignments (optional).

a From the cdeditor main menu, select

Run Assignments

b Make your changes.

c Click on Close.

4 Save the control file (optional, but recommended). Select

File Save or File Save As...

5 Run sandan by either:

a Pressing <F5>

b Selecting the Run option from the Run menu

For assistance with parameter selection and assignment, see


Selecting Parameters.

For assistance with cdeditor, see the cdeditor section of the eXpress
Reference Manual.

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Running sandan in Batch Mode

1 Open an eXpress xterm.

2 Run sandan in batch mode from the command line by


using the DOX command as follows:

dox program_name,logical_unit,control_file_name

For example:

dox sandan,4,fd1

where fd1 is the control file and 4 is the logical unit


assignment for the control file.

Logical Unit Usage

The program uses logical units to associate input and output


functions with physical devices and disk files. Logical unit
assignments can be made from the cdeditor Run menu or on the
command line when running in batch mode. The default logical unit
assignments for sandan are listed in the following table. If you do
not make any assignments, the program uses the default set.

Logical Unit Description Default

4 Console or input control file sandan.inp

7 Engineering output listing sandan.eng

8 Message output sandan.msg

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PARAMETERS OVERVIEW
Parameters constrain the program by limiting it to using specified
values or ranges of values for well data. In addition, parameters can
specify curve names and piping and how algorithms run. For a
description of the standard method of parameter entry, see Control
File Syntax in the Operations Overview.

The sandan parameters are grouped into the following categories:

Define Intervals

Overwrite Option

Alpha Option

ALFC Constant Value

Lithology Option

Failure Angle

Mud Weight

Overburden Density

Porosity Unit Option

Output Mud Curves Option

Pore Pressure Gradient

Units System Option

Table 2 summarizes the input parameters recognized by sandan.


See Selecting Parameters for detailed information about each
parameter.

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Table 2: Parameter Name and Description

Default Range
Parameter Description Units
Value Low High

Define Intervals

FILE Input data file name

FILELIST Name of ASCII file that contains a


list of input data files

ZONE An array parameter that lists


processing intervals

Overwrite Option

OWRITE Weel Data File Curve Overwrite 0 0 1


Flag

Alpha Option

ALFAOPT Alpha Option Flag 0 0 2

ALFC Constant Value

ALFAC Constant Alpha Value 0 0 1

Lithology Option

LITH Lithology Option Flag 0 0 1

Failure Angle

FANG Failure Angle 30 0 90 deg

Mud Weight

MUDW Mud Weight 8 1 20 lb/gal,


1000 120 2400 kg/m

Overburden Density

OVBDEN Overburden Density 2.3 1 4 g/cm3

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Table 2: Parameter Name and Description (Continued)

Default Range
Parameter Description Units
Value Low High

Porosity Unit Option

PFLG Porosity Unit Flag 0 0 1

Output Mud Curves Option

MPGFLG Output Mud Curves Flag 0 0 1

Pore Pressure Gradient

PORPG Pore Pressure Gradient 0.476 0.1 1 psi/ft,


10.50 2.2 22 kPa/m

Units System Option

UNITFG Units System Flag 0 0 1

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SELECTING PARAMETERS
In this section, the control file parameters are described in detail
including a description, valid values, defaults, and
recommendations for selection.

The sandan parameters are grouped into the following categories:

Define Intervals

Overwrite Option

Alpha Option

ALFC Constant Value

Lithology Option

Failure Angle

Mud Weight

Overburden Density

Porosity Unit Option

Output Mud Curves Option

Pore Pressure Gradient

Units System Option

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Define Intervals

Note: The following are standard file and depth interval


parameters. For more information on setting these
parameters using cdeditor, see the cdeditor section of the
eXpress Reference Manual. For detailed descriptions of
these parameters, see the Control File Syntax section in the
Operations Overview.

FILE Specify the name of the input data file. For a detailed description see
FILE Parameter in the Operations Overview.

FILELIST Specify the name of the file that contains the list of input data files.
For a detailed description see FILELIST Parameter in the Operations
Overview.

ZONE Define the zone processing intervals. For a detailed description see
ZONE Parameter in the Operations Overview.

Overwrite Option

OWRITE Enter a flag value to indicate the desired results if an output curve
created by actcal processing has the same name as a curve existing
in the well data file.

Enter 0 to prevent an overwrite of curves existing in the well data


file. Enter 1 to overwrite.

Values:
0 = Do not overwrite existing curves
1 = Overwrite existing curves

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Alpha Option

ALFAOPT Enter a flag value to select the input alpha option.

Alpha is a variable used in the determination of pressure gradients


and drawdown pressure. Its value ranges from 0 to 1 and is related
to formation compressibility. It is recommended that alpha be
computed at each depth level based on total porosity. This is done
by using the mechprop program.

Values:
0 = Variable alpha
1 = Constant alpha

Default: 0

ALFC Constant Value

ALFAC Enter a constant different from 0 as alpha value when ALFAOPT is


equal to 1. Alpha used in the processing will have this constant
value. For example, ALFAC=1 causes the closure pressure gradient
equation used in the determination of maximum mud weight to
duplicate the Eaton fracture pressure gradient relationship.

Lithology Option

LITH Enter a flag to indicate the general lithology correlation to use in


determining initial shear strength.

Values:
0 = Sand-shale Sequence
1 = Carbonate-shale Sequence

Default: 0

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Failure Angle

FANG Enter the failure angle value in degrees.

Default: 30 degrees

Mud Weight

MUDW Enter the mud weight in lb/gal or kg/m3.

MUDW is the weight of the mud that is present in the borehole


prior to production. Mud weight used for drilling as obtained from
the log heading is often used as an approximation of this value.

Default: 8 lb/gal or 1000 kg/m3

Overburden Density

OVBDEN Enter the overburden density value in g/cm3.

OVBDEN is the average density of the overburden above the


processed interval extending all the way to surface. If a density log
were available to surface, OVBDEN could be computed. Since this is
rarely the case, it must often be estimated. A value of 2.3 g/cm3
(1 psi/ft) is typically used for sand-shale sequences. A value of
2.55 g/cm3 (1.1 psi/ft) might be more appropriate in a carbonate-
shale sequence.

Default: 2.3 g/cm3

Porosity Unit Option

PFLG Enter a flag value to indicate the porosity and volume unit used.

Values:
0 = percent
1 = fractions

Default: 0

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Output Mud Curves Option

MPGFLG Enter a flag value to select the output mud curves type.

Values:
0 = Mud Pressure Gradient
1 = Mud Weight

Default: 0

Pore Pressure Gradient

PORPG Enter the value of the formation pore pressure gradient in psi/ft or
kPa/m, depending on UNITFG.

PORPG*DEPTH is equal to formation pore pressure. If an accurate


value for this parameter is not known, a salt water equivalent
gradient of 0.476 is typically assumed.

Pore pressure is a critical parameter in accurate determination of


drawdown pressures. If this parameter is incorrect, the predicted
drawdown pressure will definitely be in error.

Default: 0.476 psi/ft or 10.5 kPa/m

Units System Option

UNITFG Enter a flag value to indicate the system of units used.

Values:
0 = English system of units
1 = Metric system of units

Default: 0

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PROCESSING
The sandan processing can be divided into two parts:

Rock Stress Calculations

Sand Production Analysis

All calculation formulas used in the program are for English system
of units. If the input data are in metric units, the output parameters
are automatically converted to the metric units.

Rock Stress Calculations

Relative Stresses

RAT1 = POIS / (1 - POIS)

RAT2 = (1 - 2 * POIS) / (1 - POIS)

RAT3 = (1 - 3 * POIS) / (1 - POIS)

where

Units = none

Initial Shear Strength

SHIN = 0.025 * BMOD * UCS

where

BMOD= bulk modulus input value in 106 psi


UCS = defined by the formula
Units = psi

When the input alpha is variable (ALFAOPT=0):

UCS = YMOD * [45 - (20 * LITH)] * (100 -VSH) + (85 * VSH)

When the input alpha is constant:

UCS = YMOD * (4500 - (2000 * LITH))

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The constant LITH in both expressions is equal 0 for a shale-sand


sequence, and to 1 for a carbonate-shale sequence.

Effective Tangential Stress

TAN = (2 * X) - PMUD - (ALFA * PP),

where

X = (RAT1 * PO) + (ALFA * PP * (1 - RAT1))


PO = OVBDEN*DEPTH is overburden pressure
PP = PORPG*DEPTH is pore pressure
PMUD= MUDW*DEPTH is mud pressure
Units = Psi

Effective Radial Stress

RAD = PMUD - (ALFA * PP)

where

PMUD= MUDW*DEPTH is the mud pressure


PO = OVBDEN*DEPTH is the overburden pressure
Units = Psi

Average Stress

SAVG = (RAD + TAN) / 2

where

Units = psi

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Sand Production Analysis

Fracture Pressure

FP = (2 * RAT1 * PO) + (ALFA * RAT3 * PP)

where

Units = psi

Closure Pressure

CLP = RAT1 * (PO - ALFA * PP) + PP

where

Units = psi

Actual Mud Pressure Gradient

MPA = PMUD / DEPTH

where

Units = psi/ft

Ideal Mud Pressure Gradient

MPI = (SAVG + ALFA * PP) / DEPTH

where

Units = psi/ft

Maximum Mud Pressure Gradient

MPMX = FP / DEPTH

where

Units = psi/ft

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Minimum Mud Pressure Gradient

MPMN = (RADS + ALFA * PP) / DEPTH

where

RADS = SAVG[SAVG*sin(FANG)][SHIN*cos(FANG)]
Units = psi/ft

Drawdown Pressure

DDPR = PP - (RADS + ALFA * PP)

where

Units = psi

Failure Pressure

FLP = [(RAT1*PO)*.5 - (SHIN*.93)] / [1- ALFA + (.5*ALFA*RAT1)]

where

Units = psi

Failure Pressure Gradient

FLPG = FLP / DEPTH

where

Units = psi/ft

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RESULTS OF SANDAN PROCESSING


The sandan program produces the following:

Output curve data written to a well data file.

Information about the execution is written to the


engineering report file assigned to logical unit 7.

Error and warning messages are written to the


message listing file assigned to logical unit 8.

Output Curve Data

The output curves are written to the specified well data file. Redirect
the output curve data to the output curve names listed in Table 3.

For detailed information about curve selection and redirection, see


Curve Redirection in the Operations Overview.

Table 3: sandan Output Curve Names

Curve Description Units

DDPR Drawdown Pressure psi, kPa

FLPG Failure Pressure Gradient psi/ft, kPa/m

MPA Actual Mud Press. Gradient psi/ft, kPa/m


Actual Mud Weight lb/gal, kg/m3

MPI Ideal Mud Press. Gradient psi/ft, kPa/m


Ideal Mud Weight lb/gal, kg/m3

MPMX Maxim Mud Press. Gradient psi/ft, kPa/m


Maxim Mud Weight lb/gal, kg/m3

MPMN Minim Mud Press. Gradient psi/ft, kPA/m


Minim Mud Press. Gradient lb/gal, kg/m3

RAD Effective Radial Stress psi, kPa

SHIN Initial Shear Strength psi, kPa

TAN Effective Tangential Stress psi, kPA

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EXAMPLES

Parameter Control File Example

The following is a typical sandan parameter control file.

FILE=W00010.XTF ! Well Data File Name


8800.,9050 ! Well Data File Processing Interval

!---------------------- INPUT CURVES ----------------------

ALFA < ALFA, ! Biot's Coefficient [-]


BMOD < BMOD, ! Bulk Modulus [10+6psi]
POIS < POIS, ! Poisson's Ratio [-]
VSH < VSH , ! Bulk Volume of Shale [%]
YMOD < YMOD, ! Young's Modulus [10+6psi]

! -------------------- OUTPUT CURVES --------------------

OWRITE=1 , ! Output Curves written without extension

DDPR > DDPR, ! Drawdown Pressure [psi]


FPG > FPG , ! Fracture Pressure Gradient [psi/ft]
MPA > MPA , ! Actual Mud Press. Gradient [psi/ft]
MPI > MPI , ! Ideal Mud Press. Gradient [psi/ft]
MPMN > MPMN, ! Minim. Mud Press. Gradient [psi/ft]
MPMX > MPMX, ! Maxim. Mud Press. Gradient [psi/ft]
RAD > RAD , ! Effective Radial Stress [psi]
SHIN > SHIN, ! Initial Shear Strength [psi]
TAN > TAN , ! Effective Tangential Stress [psi]

! -------------------- PARAMETERS -----------------------

ALFAOPT= 0, ! Alpha Input: Curve [-]


ALFAC = 0, ! Alpha Input Constant: 0 [-]
LITH = 0, ! Lithology: Sand-shale sequence [-]
MPGFLG = 0, ! Output Mud Curves: press grad [psi/ft]
MUDW = 8.0, ! Mud Weight [lb/gal]
FANG = 30., ! Failure Angle [deg]
OVBDEN = 2.3, ! Overburden Density [g/cm3]
PFLG = 1 ! Porosity and volumes unit [%]

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PORPG = 0.465 ! Pore Pressure Gradient [psi/ft]


UNITFG= 0. ! English Units System

EOZ
END

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