You are on page 1of 58

Declaration

CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this project work is the result of my own original research and that no part of it

has been presented for the award of any other certificate in any institution.

Candidates’ Name……………………………………………… Signature………………………

Date……………………………………………………………

SUPERVISOR DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the preparation and presentation of the project work was supervised in

accordance with the guidelines on the project work laid down by the Institute of Education,

University of Cape Coast.

Supervisor’s Name……………………………………………. Signature……………………….

Date…………………………………………………………….

1
Acknowledgement

Three cheers for Mr. John-Milos Ametefe, for setting a cracking pace and giving me the

inspiration, the space and the charge to release my gift. Not forgetting the extensive editing you did

on the manuscript.

Thanks Dad and Mum for inspiring me with your complete competence in the use of English

Language and your unflinching support to my education both financially and morally.

Gerald, for being my help – mate and for understanding that I am always there for you even though

my time tends to be crowed. You are a pillar in my life and I appreciate you

Thanks to you Ediman for what I learnt from you and for agreeing to help write this project.

Many thank to Gifty, Collins, Bliss, Divine and all the staff of Jasico Demonstration for the

opportunity to learn the rubrics of teaching.

Special thanks to all my friends especially Emmanuel, Rebecca, Bernice, Vincentia, Rita, Richard,

and not forgetting my lovely siblings Esinam, Dzesi and Eleagbe you top them all.

All I have and ever hope to be, I owe it all to you.

To God be all the Glory

1
Dedication

To God Almighty, may you give me the zeal and aspiration to go higher onto the academic ladder.

Table Content

1
DECLARATION..................................................................................................................................................................1
DEDICATION......................................................................................................................................................................3
LIST OF TABLES...............................................................................................................................................................6
LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................................................................................................7
CHAPTER ONE..................................................................................................................................................................8
BODY OF THE PROJECT WORK..................................................................................................................................8
Aims And Objectives...........................................................................................................................................................13
Research Questions..............................................................................................................................................................13
Delimitations........................................................................................................................................................................14
Limitations...........................................................................................................................................................................14
Operational Definition Of Terms.........................................................................................................................................14
CHAPTER TWO...............................................................................................................................................................16
LITERATURE REVIEW..................................................................................................................................................16
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................................16
Teachers and ICT in Education............................................................................................................................................16
The Concept of Technology.................................................................................................................................................19
Technology Integration........................................................................................................................................................20
The Concept of Teacher Beliefs...........................................................................................................................................21
The Concept of Teachers’ Educational Beliefs Related To ICT..........................................................................................22
Role and Importance of ICT in Education...........................................................................................................................25
Increased Access to Education through ICT........................................................................................................................25
Improved Quality of Education through ICT.......................................................................................................................26
Challenges of ICT in Education...........................................................................................................................................27
Teachers and ICT.................................................................................................................................................................28
High Costs and Other Difficulties in the Transition to ICT education................................................................................29
Government Cooperation and Policy Implementation.........................................................................................................29
CHAPTER THREE...........................................................................................................................................................32
METHODOLOGY.............................................................................................................................................................32
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................................32
Research design....................................................................................................................................................................32
Descriptive design................................................................................................................................................................32
Population............................................................................................................................................................................33
Sample population................................................................................................................................................................34
Research instrument.............................................................................................................................................................34
Data Analysis.......................................................................................................................................................................35
CHAPTER FOUR..............................................................................................................................................................36
RESULTS...........................................................................................................................................................................36
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................................36
The teachers’ ICT use profile...............................................................................................................................................37
The teachers’ beliefs about ICT as a teaching and learning tool.........................................................................................40
The Teachers’ belief about ICT integration in education....................................................................................................43
The teacher’s beliefs about ICT and the role of the school, teachers and text books..........................................................46
CHAPTER FIVE................................................................................................................................................................49

2
CONCLUSION...................................................................................................................................................................49
Summary..............................................................................................................................................................................49
Recommendations for Implementation of ICT in Education...............................................................................................51
APPENDIX.........................................................................................................................................................................54
REFERENCES...................................................................................................................................................................61

REFERENCES

3
List of Tables
Table 3:1 Distribution of Teachers from selected Schools...................................................33
Table 3:2 School by School Selections of Teachers...........................................................34
Table 4:1 Teachers’ classification according to their teaching experience................................36
Table 4:2 Teachers’ classification according to their ICT experience.....................................38
Table 4:3 Teacher’s beliefs about ICT as a teaching and learning tool....................................41
Table 4:4 Teachers beliefs about ICT integrating in education.............................................45
Table 4:5. The teacher’s beliefs about ICT and the role of the school, teachers and text books......47

1
List of Figures
Figure 4:1.Teachers’ classification according to their teaching experience..............................37
Figure 4:2 Teachers’ classification according to their ICT experience....................................39
Figure 3:3: The teachers’ ICT use profile.......................................................................40
Figure 3:4 Teacher’s beliefs about ICT as a teaching and learning tool...................................43
Figure 4:5: Teachers beliefs about ICT integrating in education...........................................46
Fig. 4:6: The teacher’s beliefs about ICT and the role of the school, teachers and text books.......48

1
CHAPTER ONE

BODY OF THE PROJECT WORK


Introduction

Technology has become part and parcel of human endeavors. Despite the fact that people in remote

areas do not have formal education on technology, they have joined hands with people living in the

urban areas to gain access to technology education.

With reference to educators and scientist, Information Communication Technology can be defined as

a technology that merges computing with high speed communication links carrying data, sound and

video.

With regards to this, people especially, teachers who happens to be the target of this research, have

mix feelings about ICT as a course and as a tool for teaching.

Though attempts have been made to bring a clear perception about ICT, it is as a result of these that

a research in to “The Beliefs of using ICT as an educational tool among Basic school Teachers in

Jasikan”

Through observation and analysis, it came to light that a large number of teachers in the Jasikan

Township in the northern part of the Volta Region of Ghana do not have interest on the course.

It has also been realized that, pupils in the schools in the Jasikan Township do not have knowledge

about ICT left alone having interest in it.

It is rather unfortunate that, even though the Government, Ministry of education, and the Ghana

Education Service are fighting all odds to introduce the ICT as course in all schools as well as all

aspect of our daily lives, these is not gaining the needed grounds in the rural areas such as Jasikan

township.

1
Research have it that, one only display his dexterity at where he is very comfortable, hence if

teachers do not have any positive interest about ICT, the grounds can not be gained for pupils to

learn the subject in order to acquire the needed solid foundation on which to build on in the near by

future. Not forgetting that, the whole world is advancing with technology and one can not tell what

will happen with technology even tomorrow.

It is in this regards that this piece of work is designed to unveil the perception teachers have about

ICT as a course and as an educational tool in the Jasikan township.

Background to the Study

Educational systems around the world, in both developed and developing countries, are under

increasing pressure to use Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to tech pupils the

knowledge and skills needed for the future.

Since 1990s, a large number of educational initiatives and research have been directed towards ICT

integration in schools in Ghana. Various approaches have been tried. Prominent among them was the

development of technological infrastructure in schools and secondly, the introduction of pilot

projects of ‘One laptop per child ‘programme in two basic schools, thirdly, the production and

infusion in schools a simple ICT based tools for instruction in the urban areas.

According to Policy makers, ICT in schools should lead to significant educational and pedagogical

outcomes, beneficial for both students and teachers

Nowadays, the actual impact of the integration of ICT into everyday classroom practices constitutes

an essential question.

A large amount of research has shown that the use of ICT in education can increase students’

motivation and deepen understanding, promote active, collaborative and lifelong learning, offer

2
shared working resources and better access to information, and help them to think and communicate

creatively (Jonassen, 2000; Webb, 2005).

In other words, ICT appears to change the very nature of teaching and learning. With the emerging

new technologies, the teaching profession is evolving from an emphasis on teacher-centred

instruction into student-centred, interactive learning environments.

In practice, however, established curricula and teaching approaches still remain essentially

unchanged, while technology is usually underused and poorly integrated into the classroom (Cuban,

2001; Ofsted, 2004). It seems that the outcomes of the relevant initiatives are more evident in pupils’

achievement in ICT capability than in applying their skills and knowledge to other subjects across

the curriculum (Ofsted, 2004). Although home access to ICT has been growing rapidly both for

students and teachers, and ICT infrastructure in the schools (computer labs, educational software

disposal, connection to the Internet, etc.) has improved substantially over recent years, teachers do

not appear to make effective use of ICT tools in their instruction.

According to Dexter et al (1999), it seems that their attitudes and skill level still remains an obstacle

for them to adopt and make effective use of ICT

During recent years a large number of initiatives, coming from both the research community and

educational policy makers, have been directed towards the preparation of teachers in order to enable

them to integrate ICT in their everyday educational practice.

Various programmes have been established in the European Union (EU) countries (European

Commission, 2002, 2004), USA (PT3, 1999), Australia (Queensland Government, 2004), the UK

(Ofsted, 2002) and so on, aiming at enhancing teachers’ skills in the pedagogical application of ICT

in instructional and learning processes.

2
According to Vosniadou and Killias, Waston, UNESCO, (2001,2001, 2002 ),designing and

implementing successful ICT teacher preparation programmes is considered to be the key factor to

fundamental, wide-ranging educational reforms.

Until now, most teacher training programmes have been designed to raise teachers’ ICT knowledge

and skill levels, and foster positive attitudes towards ICT as a teaching and learning tool.

Nevertheless, emphasis will be placed on an educational innovation that builds upon the integration

of computers in classroom practice.

According to Watson (2006), the introduction of information and communication

technologies (ICT) is often inspired by a widespread and techno centric belief about the

transformative nature of these new technologies. This assumption assigns to technology the capacity

to support powerful and sophisticated learning environments. Technology is seen as a golden key in

facilitating technology-enhanced, student-centred teaching environments.

According to these authors, technology provides opportunities for access to resources and

tools that facilitate the construction of personal meaning by relating new knowledge to existing

conceptions and understanding. However, the current level of implementation of ICT has not yet

reached critical mass Scrimshaw (2004) and there is a tension between the input of enthusiastic

forerunners and the reality of a more widespread implementation Watson (2006).

This research seeks to examine the beliefs of teachers in the Jasikan Township about the use

of ICT in basic education and to find out the role of personal factors, such as teaching experience,

ICT usage, demographics (gender and age) play in teachers’ beliefs about the use of ICT.

Jasikan, in the Northern part of Volta Region of Ghana, happens to be the area under study. It has a

population of about five thousand. It folks are mainly farmers who cultivate different types of food

crops and even our cash crop cocoa.

2
Despite the fact that they are mainly farmers, some have interest in education and have made it to the

top on the academic ladder.

Jasikan – Buem is the name, the people speak a local dialect known as Lelemi. The word Buem

originates etymologically from an Akans word Buem meaning “open”. This gives clues to be almost

common traditions found amongst the Buem and the Akans.

In the town, schools of different caliber can be found; fourteen primary and JHS, a Senior High and

a tertiary Institution.

Problem Statement

The yawning gap between the rural folks and the urban dwellers is a fact which cannot be

over emphasized and it is imperative that efforts are made towards bridging this gab.

Some scholarly works and West African Examination Council (BECE) results reveal that pupils in

urban schools perform better in examination, than their rural folks.

The relative intelligence exhibited by pupils in urban centers is often associated with the cooperation

of student – centered instruction which is ICT based and moving away from teachers centered

education.

Efforts made by Policy – Makers, NGOs and Stakeholders in education to deepen ICT education

seems to have little impact in the Jasikan District which is the research area being considered for the

study.

Purpose of the Study

1
The rationale of undertaking this project is to examine the extent to which public schools in

the Jasikan township use ICT in Basic Education and propose, using the research findings a better

way of incorporating it into teaching and learning.

The research also seeks to unveil the beliefs of teachers in the town about the use of ICT in

education.

Aims And Objectives

This research work aims at the following objectives

1. To identify how personal factors affect the Teachers’ Beliefs about ICT.

2. To unveil the Teachers’ Beliefs about ICT as a teaching and learning tool.

3. To identify level of ICT experience and demographical factors.

4. To identify Teachers’ Beliefs about ICT integration in education

5. To find out the Beliefs Teachers have about ICT in the educational process.

Research Questions
The research seeks to address the following;

1. Does personal factors affect ones beliefs about ICT education?

2. Do Teachers level of experience with ICT tool influence the use of ICT in education?

3. Do Teachers appreciate the fact that ICT tools can make teaching and learning easier?

4. Do teachers belief about ICT integration in education?

5. Do Teachers have any beliefs about ICT in the educational process?

Delimitations

2
The subject on the ground covers a widely broad spectrum of areas in education. For the

purpose of the study, the research would be restricted to some selected schools in the Jasikan

Township from Kindergarten to Junior High School.

Limitations
Since the research seeks to unveil the beliefs of teachers, some of these teachers would not be

willing to respond fast to the questionnaire issued out to them in time. Others will not even realize

the importance of the questionnaire left alone take good care of it.

However, it will not be surprising to see some questions not answered to enhance more information.

Operational Definition Of Terms

Digital Divide: Refers to the gap between individuals, households, businesses and geographic areas

at different socio-economic levels with regard to both their opportunities to access information and

communication technologies and to their use of the Internet for a wide variety of activities.

Distance Learning: A form of learning that takes place where the teachers and the students are in

physically separate locations.

E-learning: E-learning is learning that is enabled or supported by the use of digital tools and content.

Information and Communications Technology (ICT): Consists of the hardware, software, networks,

and media for the collection, storage, processing, transmission and presentation of information

(voice, data, text, images), as well as related services.

Portal: A Web page, website, or service that acts as link or entrance to other websites on the Internet.

Videoconferencing: A computer-based communications system that allows a group of computer

users at different locations to conduct a virtual conference in which the participants can see and hear

one another as if they were in the same room participating in a real conference.

2
CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

This part of the project work reports brings to the notice of the people who have ever written

on this subject under discussion.

Many authorities suggested laudable ideals to curb this problem. Some which brought out theories or

concepts and gave the use of ICT in education.

1
Teachers and ICT in Education

Teachers’ attitudes towards ICT in education have a significant influence on ICT adoption

and implementation behaviours in the classroom. Teachers in general agree that computers constitute

a valuable tool and they are positive about students’ attainment of ICT knowledge and skills. In

many cases, they perceive ICT as a new subject matter in education rather than a new way of

teaching and interaction between learners and knowledge (Williams et al., 2000). It appears that,

even though they recognize the importance of introducing ICT in education, teachers tend to be less

positive about its extensive use in the classroom and far less convinced about its potential to improve

teaching (Cox et al., 1999; Zhao & Cziko, 2001; Russell et al., 2003).

Although teachers show great interest in and motivation to learn about ICT, their use of ICT tools is

limited and focused on a narrow range of applications, mainly for personal purposes. Most of them

continue to use computers for low-level supplemental tasks such as word processing (lesson plans,

worksheets, assessment tests, registration of grades, etc.) or getting information from the Internet

(Becker, 2000; Williams et al., 2000; Russell et al., 2003; Ofsted, 2004; Waite, 2004). Relatively

few teachers routinely use ICT for instructional purposes and even fewer are integrating ICT into

subject teaching in a way that motivates pupils, enriches learning and stimulates higher-level

thinking and reasoning (Becta, 2004a).

Research also indicates that many teachers have positive attitudes toward technology but they

do not consider themselves qualified to effectively integrate ICT into their instruction (Ropp, 1999).

Lack of adequate training and experience is considered one of the main reasons why teachers have

negative attitudes toward computers and do not use technology in their teaching (Yildirim, 2000).

On the other hand, most findings suggest that teachers with ICT knowledge have a more positive

attitude toward the potential of computers in education

1
According to a study by Shapka and Ferrari (2003), it appears that teachers training to teach

at secondary level had higher self-efficacy than elementary teachers and were less likely to predict

that they would give up or avoid a challenging task. The impact of effective teacher training on ICT

can be measured in terms of changes in attitudes on the part of teachers (Yildirim, 2000; Kumar &

Kumar, 2003; Galanouli et al., 2004) and of students as well (Christensen, 1998).

Recent studies (Hu et al., 2003; Ma et al., 2005) have found that teachers’ perceptions of ICT

usefulness are significant in determining intentions to use ICT in their instruction.

A survey in Greek secondary schools (Jimoyiannis & Komis, 2006) outlined five interrelated factors

which influence teachers’ perceptions about technology and professional development aimed at

integrating ICT in their instruction:

a) continuous ICT support and coordination;

b) ICT pedagogical development enabling teachers to use technology in everydayclassroom practice;

c) partnership (collaboration with specialist teachers and colleagues in the school);

d) availability of sophisticated educational software in schools;

e) ICT infrastructure development in schools.

Various models have been developed aiming at teachers’ preparation for ICT integration in their

classrooms (for example, Rogers, 1995; Russell, 1995; Zhao et al., 2002; Franklin & Sessoms, 2005;

Toledo, 2005). The ‘one shot’ and the ‘one shot plus follow-up’ approaches have not been shown to

2
be effective for teachers’ development in ICT in education (Schrum, 1999; International Society for

Technology in Education, 2002) and yet persist.

The main idea is that true ICT integration in everyday teaching and learning needs to consider

technology, content and pedagogy not in isolation, but rather in the complex relationships in the

system defined by three key components:

a. knowledge of the pedagogy that is applicable to the specific content;

b. knowledge of how subject matter is transformed by the application of technology;

c. knowledge of how technology can support pedagogical goals.

The Concept of Technology

There are several definitions for technology. According to (Ametefe John ICT course Book

for college of Education 1st Edition 2009): It is defined as the use of tools, techniques, materials and

power to apply scientific knowledge for practices or commercial aims. It includes all computer

hardware, software and accessories that can be used in the class room to enhance teaching and

learning Technology lends itself as the multidimensional tool that assists in the teaching and learning

process. Technology is part of children lives. It is transparent. Many homes have computers and

internet connections for the economically advantaged students the school may be the only place

where they will have the opportunity to use a computer and integrate technology in their learning.

Technology is revolutionizing the way we think work and play.

Technology when integrated into the curiosum will revolutionize the learning process.

Teachers Use of Technology

2
a) To search for background information and content materials

b) To gain new ideas and resources already available on line

c) To bring concepts alive through multimedia

d) To have new opportunities to differentiate instruction

e) As a source of lesson plan preparation and presentation.

f) As a way to communicate and to collaborate

g) As a source of needed “tool” and

h) To keep information

Students Use of Technology

a. To search for information

b. To play games and to enter contests

c. To publish and share resources

d. To practice what they have learnt

e. To further explore topics or ideas

f. To interact and be actively engaged in to learn and

g. To learn through direct research and project.

Technology Integration

Integration means bringing of different parts together to combine into one whole.

Technology parts, such as hardware and software together with each subjects-related area of

1
curriculum to enhance learning. Curriculum integration with the use of technology involves the

fusion of technology as a tool to enhance the learning in a content are or multidisciplinary setting.

Technology should become an integral part of how the classroom functions and also become

accessible as all other classroom tools.

Technology can play that powerful role in enhancing students and teacher’s motivation and helping

students and teachers implement projects. Dwyer (1994) found that technology transform the way

teachers taught. With technology the classroom can be changed from one in which the teacher was

the center of attention and use mostly lecture to one in which children become the centre of learning

and children interacted with each other, that is the teacher and the computer.

The Concept of Teacher Beliefs

It is difficult to describe teacher beliefs in unequivocal terms considering the myriad ways

they have been defined in the research literature. However, building on the substantial body of

literature about teacher beliefs and teacher belief systems, a list of shared defining characteristics can

be developed.

A first defining characteristics that teacher beliefs can be considered to be ‘the individual

conceptions about desirable ways of teaching and conceptions about how students come to learn’

(Beijaard, 1998). Those beliefs are grounded in teachers’ personal belief systems and represent

psychologically held understandings, premises, or propositions felt to be true.

The set of someone’s beliefs about the physical, the social world, and the self is clustered in

a belief system (Rokeach, 1976). In fact, belief system seems to consist of an eclectic mix of rules of

thumb, generalizations, opinions, values, and expectations grouped in a more or less structured way.

2
In primary education, examples of belief systems are reflected in teacher-centred and learner-centred

approaches towards teaching (e.g., Jackson, 1986; Schuh, 2004). Second, teacher beliefs are

established by earlier experiences and influenced by the professional context (Pajares, 1992). By the

time students enter teacher education programs, their beliefs are already shaped by their personal

experiences as pupils (Keys, 2007; Pajares, 1992; Raths, 2001). As a result, teachers’ beliefs appear

to be relatively stable and resistant to change.

According to Rokeach (1976), the stability of a belief is also clear when considering the

position of beliefs within the central-peripheral dimension in a person’s belief system. That is to say,

the more a belief is related to other beliefs, the more it is positioned at the centre of the belief system

and the less this belief is subject to change. The former implies that it is important to consider the

mediating impact of beliefs in the adoption process of educational innovations.

This is particularly true when educational innovations centre on classroom related phenomena that

teachers have to deal with as a complex set of interacting variables and processes, related to a variety

of factors such as pupils, parents, colleagues, management, etc. (Bruner, 1996; Uhlenbeck, Verloop,

& Beijaard, 2002). At a micro-level, teachers enter the teaching setting with their personal theories

about teaching and learning, as well as their personal interpretation of the instructional situation

(Shulman, 1987; Uhlenbeck et al., 2002). This reinforces the earlier statement that teachers are

important agents in the concrete implementation of an innovation process within a classroom setting

The Concept of Teachers’ Educational Beliefs Related To ICT

As part of the worldwide proliferation of ICT use in society, ICT has entered the educational

field in a pervasive way and is often credited with the potential to revolutionise a so-called outmoded

educational system Albirini, 2006). ICT is expected to offer both a means to operationalise

2
constructivist principles and to create constructivist learning environments (Bellefeuille, 2006).

Smeets (2005), for example, investigates Dutch primary teachers’ views regarding the potential

contribution of ICT to the creation of powerful learning environments in which the emphasis is laid

on rich contexts and authentic tasks for the pupils, where active and autonomous learning is

stimulated, where cooperative learning is fostered, and where the curriculum is tailored to the needs

and capabilities of individual pupils. Furthermore, educationists expect ICT to help students to meet

the challenges of the fast-changing world (Hawkridge, 1990; Kearns & Grant, 2002). For example,

students need to learn how to seek information, to think critically, and to take initiatives. ICT is

expected to mediate in this process of socialisation and enculturation (Dede, 2000; Lim, 2002).

In order to realize the potential of ICT, national governments have supported ICT’s

integration in education. For example, in the Flemish educational context where this study is based,

cross-curricular attainment targets for ICT have been prescribed for primary education (Ministry of

the Flemish Community, 2007). Here, ICT is no longer seen as a particular knowledge domain, but

rather as a supportive tool to improve teaching and learning. Nevertheless, the current level of ICT-

implementation in primary schools remains rather restricted (Scrimshaw, 2004). In addition, research

evidence also reveals that significant differences can be observed between and within schools in the

way ICT is currently being implemented.

Loveless & Dore, 2002). For example, in reviewing both the municipal and school ICT plans

in Denmark, Bryderup and Kowelski (2002) noticed significant differences between schools

regarding the forms and content of the individual plans, varying from an emphasis on pedagogical

considerations to more instrumental accents. Other differences were found concerning the

description of content and details on how goals were to be achieved. Similar remarks were made in a

2
recent study of Tondeur et al. (2006) on the integration of ICT competency frameworks in Flemish

primary education. Their study revealed that government-imposed ICT competencies do not

automatically result in changes in classroom practices.

Recent research about differences in ICT adoption by teachers is often limited to technology-related

variables, such as ‘computer experience’ (Becker, 2001; Williams, Coles, Wilson, Richardson, &

Tuson, 2000) and ‘attitudes towards computers’ (Albirini, 2006; van Braak, 2001). A general finding

is that computer experience is positively related to computer attitudes. The more experience teachers

have with computers, the more likely they will report positive attitudes towards computers (Rozell &

Gardner, 1999). Positive computer attitudes are expected to foster computer integration in the

classroom (van Braak et al., 2004). Other factors frequently to ICT integration include age (e.g.,

Bradley & Russell, 1997) and gender (e.g., Shapka & Ferrari, 2003).

Many researchers have stressed the ‘gender gap’ in computer use. Studies report e.g., lower

levels of classroom use of computers by female teachers (van Braak et al., 2004).

However, building on the earlier discussion about the relationship between educational innovations

and teacher beliefs, the process of ICT integration cannot solely be explained by referring to

technology-related variables and/or demographic variables. As stated earlier, at a more individual

level, teachers’ educational use of computers can only be fully understood when taking into account

their educational beliefs (Becker, ; Dede, 2000). Recent studies demonstrate that teacher beliefs

about learning and instruction are indeed a critical indicator for the classroom use of computers

(Becker, 2001; Dede, 2000; Ertmer, 2005). On the one hand, research indicates that teacher beliefs

can be barriers to ICT integration (Ertmer, 2005).

On the other hand, findings suggest that highly active computer users seem to adopt a

constructivist position (Becker, 2001). This is in line with Duffy and Jonassen’s statement (1992)

about the strong correlation between ICT use and the constructivist perspective. Yet, individual’s

3
decisions to accept technology is ‘‘affected by multiple key factors or considerations pertinent to the

technology, the user and the organizational context” (Hu, Clark, & Ma, 2003:227). The available

research evidence clearly illustrates that the question of ICT integration cannot only be explained by

referring to teacher demographics or computer proficiency, experience and attitudes. Rather, it

seems to be valid to shift the focus towards a broader debate about the central role and position of

mindsets, assumptions, beliefs, and values of individuals and organizations (Tearle, 2003).

Role and Importance of ICT in Education

A vibrant education sector is fundamental for developing human capital within countries.

With an active and transformative education policy and a supportive infrastructure, the development

of a knowledge-based population can apply itself to sustained and equitable growth. ICT can play a

vital role in increasing access to education as well as providing better quality education. A study

conducted by the International Institute for Communication and Development (IICD) indicated that

80% of its participants felt more aware and empowered by their exposure to ICT in education, and

60% stated that the process of teaching as well as learning were directly and positively affected by

the use of ICT

Increased Access to Education through ICT

ICT is used worldwide to increase access to, and improve the relevance and quality of

education. The unprecedented speed and general availability of information due to ICT extends

educational opportunities to marginalized and vulnerable groups. ICT gives students and teachers

2
new tools with which to learn and teach. Geographical distance is no longer an obstacle to obtaining

an education. It is no longer necessary for teachers and students to be in the same space, due to

innovations of technologies such as teleconferencing and distance learning, which allow for

synchronous learning. If given access and appropriate training in

ICT, the Internet can also provide these groups with an abundance of online learning materials,

covering a wide range of subjects that are up-to-date and produced by cutting-edge technologies.

Thus, teachers and learners are no longer solely dependent on physical media such as printed

textbooks which are often times outdated especially in the developing world. With today’s

technology, one even has the ability to access experts, professionals, and leaders in the field around

the world at any given time.

In addition, many world-leading conventional universities are now offering some of their

academic courses through various ICTs for their distant learners and have established themselves as

dual mode universities. Applications and processes of e-learning include web-based learning,

computer-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaboration, where content is delivered via

the internet, intranet/extranet, audio/ and or video tape, satellite TV and CD-ROM. Although many

developing countries have begun to take initiatives to introduce virtual classrooms at their schools,

the use of e-learning continues to be a challenge for the least developed countries.

Improved Quality of Education through ICT

ICT can enable teachers to transform their practices by providing them with improved

content and more effective teaching methods. Continuous teacher training in updating and enhancing

their methodologies is critical to effective education policy and practice to keep pace with the

2
constant advancement of technology. Through online teaching resources and other interactive

educational materials, teacher development can be greatly improved.

ICT can improve the learning process through the provision of more interactive educational

materials that increase learner motivation and facilitate the acquisition of basic skills. The use of

various multimedia devices such as television, videos and computer software can offer a more

challenging and engaging learning environment for students of all ages.

Twenty-first century education reform policy has been focused on a shift from the traditional

teacher-centered pedagogy to more learner-centered methods. Active, collaborative learning

environments facilitated by ICT contribute to the creation of a knowledge-based student

population.10 In addition; ICT skills that come along with this shift in pedagogy are also useful for

students hoping to transition into today’s job market, which in many countries is increasingly

demanding these skills. Developing a critical mass of knowledge workers with proficient ICT skills

will greatly improve long term economic opportunities.

Education leadership, management and governance can also be improved through ICT by

enhancing educational content development and supporting administrative processes in schools and

other educational establishments. By supporting management and reforming administrative

procedures more effectively, ICT would serve as an incentive for leaders and staff at all levels to

institutionalize its use. Clearly there is great potential for ICT to enhance education around the globe

going forward.

The purpose of the next section of this paper is to identify, address and consider some solutions to

the primary challenges the development community faces in realizing this potential. Specific country

studies were chosen to provide a wide range of perspectives on the realities of ICTE around the

world. The primary focus is on the developing and least developed countries.

2
Challenges of ICT in Education

Countries everywhere are facing similar challenges in implementing ICT in their education

systems. Unfortunately, many local, national and regional government bodies are still not giving

ICTE the attention and priority it deserves despite the benefits it brings. Providing basic access to

ICT to young people living in either impoverished communities or rural locations often neglected by

policy makers is one major challenge being faced.

These areas oftentimes lack basic infrastructure such as classrooms, let alone Internet

connectivity. The availability of quality teachers to apply ICT to the existing education systems is

also in short supply. Bringing long-term, sustainable ICTE reform will also be costly and will

challenge policymakers handling national budget allocations to make difficult decisions in how to

allocate national monetary resources and foreign aid.

Finally, shifting the existing focus from the traditional educational models in place, depending on the

specific country, to one that is ICT driven, will certainly not be easy. The following sections, using

specific country examples, will discuss how these many challenges are being addressed, since

learning from the experiences of others is necessary for policymakers hoping to successfully

implement ICTE in the future.

Teachers and ICT

ICT can improve the quality of education and heighten teaching efficiency through pre-

service training and programs that are relevant and responsive to the needs of the education system.

This will allow teachers to have sufficient subject knowledge, a repertoire of teaching methodologies

and strategies, professional development for lifelong learning. These programs will expose them to

1
new modern channels of information, and will develop self-guided learning materials, placing more

focus on learning rather than teaching.

However, it is important to point out that ICT is used to enhance teaching styles, and should

not replace the role of the teacher. ICT helps create structured and systematic teaching as well as

better school management and organization of ICT usage. Teachers should be provided with

adequate and appropriate support in their classrooms, and be guided by professional standards that

incorporate a code of conduct.

High Costs and Other Difficulties in the Transition to ICT education

As highlighted in the case of Rwanda above, one major obstacle for developing countries, is

dealing with the financial costs of integrating ICT into education. Offering affordable ICT to

underdeveloped regions remains a complex and difficult challenge. Assessing the costs related to

Internet connectivity, for example, varies tremendously between countries and within the countries

themselves.

Another critical issue with the integration of ICTE is the implementation of new technologies

without having analyzed their appropriateness, applicability and impact on various environments and

contexts. In most countries, particularly the least developed ones, they must learn from the

experiences of others, but must also use technology to respond to their own needs and not just follow

trends. It is necessary to focus on training teachers and instructors to use ICT to develop their own

teaching materials and educational content. Considering that a majority of the online content

available is in English, teachers and instructors, as well as outside developers need to make a

meaningful effort to develop learning materials in local languages with appropriate and relevant

content for local situations.

2
Government Cooperation and Policy Implementation

Another challenge that has emerged is the lack of cooperation and coordination between

national government policies and the use of ICT in educational systems. Many government

ministries lack necessary ICT specialists, such as technicians, programmers, engineers and computer

scientists. Those who are available may not understand or are ill-trained to undertake policy and

strategic planning for the inclusion of learning purposes within an educational setting. Aside from

the lack of staff, there are issues with not having the right tools and institutional infrastructure to

address technology and educational issues dealing with learning and teaching. Government

cooperation is necessary for ICT programs to be sustainable. Its cooperation is needed in order to

support the education curriculum system, which is vital for the survival of ICTE. In the attempt to

re-evaluate the education curriculum of countries to include ICT, governments also have to consider

the social context in which they are implementing this new phenomenon. The realities of individual

countries should be considered and the availability of ICT should be made according to the needs

and desires of the countries in order to facilitate appropriate learning and local ownership of

knowledge.

Governments should adopt a coherent national policy framework, not just within the

education field but also encompassing those of other ministries as they are seen as intertwined. As

mentioned above, the support and collaboration of the national government is necessary for the

sustainability of ICT. National government policies must demonstrate political will and champion

the integration of ICTE purposes. These policies must be in line with national development goals

and frameworks. In countries where implementation capacity is weak and miss-use of resources can

be a major problem, ICT can further enable the country to enhance its capacity building efforts and

reduce the opportunity for corruption or allow the corruption to end.

1
In order for the government to reach its development goals and the goals of the international

community which are reflected in the MDGs, it is imperative that the government curb corruption

and increase the nation’s capacity building and improve accountability and transparency. ICT can be

a key enabler for these objectives.

Taking Ghana as an example, in the early stages of ICT implementation, Ghana found

difficulties in establishing a clear policy framework that would define the roles and responsibilities

of all stakeholders involved and provide a sound blueprint for translating educational policy into

practice. The lack of an effective policy framework led to an unmanageable implementation of ICT

in the school systems. The inactivity of various ministries coupled with the lack of human resource

capacity proved to be challenging obstacles for reform in the educational system. Without a coherent

strategy to fully integrate ICT tools into the classroom, ICT projects would not reach their full

potential or remain sustainable on a large scale. Eventually, under the guidance and facilitation

of the Global e-Schools and Communities Initiative (GeSCI), the Ministry of Education carried out a

critical assessment of the existing utilization of ICTE to identify shortcomings as well as hindrances

caused by the state of the educational system. GeSCI has helped the government of Ghana develop a

National ICT in Education Policy based on the countries ICT for Accelerated Developement

(ICT4AD) Policy and its Education Strategic Plan 2003-2015.With a national education policy in

place to integrate ICTE, Ghana is better prepared to tackle the numerous infrastructural and

logistical issues that inhibit any potential progress.

1
CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

Introduction

This chapter deals with the methodology. It looks at the design adopted as well as the target

population, sample population, Research instrument and data analysis.

Research design

The design used for the research was mainly action research and descriptive. Action Research helps

to solve immediate problems through changes; both the pupils and teachers are part of the problems

and solutions hence they become very conscious of their practice. In addition action research helps

to generate new strategies and ideologies to solve current problems.

Descriptive design

It’s a method which specified the way things are used. It involves collecting data in order to

test hypothesis or answer research questions concerning the current state of the subject of the study.

2
Population

The population of this study was teachers in the various basic schools in the Jasikan

Township. In all fourteen schools were involved. This gives a total population of ninety of which

forty seven (47) are male and forty three (43) female. From these the sample population was derived.

Table 3:1 Distribution of Teachers from selected Schools


Name of schools Number of teachers Total

Male Female
Jasico Demo. Kindergarten - 4 4
Jasico Demo. Primary 8 4 12
Jasico Demo. Junior High School 6 2 8
E.P. Kindergarten - 4 4
E.P. Primary 5 5 10
E.P. Junior High School 4 2 6
Kings Presby Kindergarten - 4 4
King Presby Primary 5 4 9
Kings Presby Junior High School 5 2 7
Nuriya Primary 4 2 6
Nuriya Junior High School 2 2 4
St. Francis School Complex 2 3 5
Sunrise School Complex 4 1 5

2
31st Dec. Women Kindergarten 2 4 6
Total 47 43 90

Sample population

The sample population for the research was derived from the target population through

random sampling. In all, five schools with total sample population of forty (40) consisting of twenty

three (23) male and seventeen (17) female.

Table 3:2 School by School Selections of Teachers


Name of schools Number of teachers Total

Male Female
Jasico Demo. Kindergarten - 4 4
Jasico Demo. Primary 8 4 12
Jasico Demo. Junior High School 6 2 8
E.P. Junior High School. 4 2 2

E.P. Primary 5 5 10
Total 23 17 40

Research instrument

The main instrument used for the research was questionnaire. This instrument was chosen

because of its ability to ensure the respondents of the confidentialities and anonymity more so the

respondents can read and understand simple English.

1
The questionnaire consist of four dimension represented in the scale namely;

1. How do teachers evaluate the programme and their training in ICT?

2. What are teachers’ beliefs and perceptions about ICT as a teaching and learning tool?

3. What ate their beliefs about ICT integration in the educational process?

4. What are their perceptions and beliefs about the impact on the role of the school, the teacher

and educational process?

The responses for the various questions were graduated using the Likert – type scale. This consist of

five point scale anchored by SA – strongly agree; A – agree; U – unsure; D – disagree; SD – strongly

disagree.

Data Analysis

The data were analyzed using simple spreadsheet and represented in a tabular form as well as

diagram including pie chart and bar graph.

2
CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS

Introduction

This chapter deals with the results obtained after the questionnaires were gathered. It also

brings to light some intervention measures to be put in place.

Demographic information such as gender, age years of teaching experience, subject specialty, and

type of former ICT training and so on, was also requested. The instrument also included two

questions regarding beliefs about students acquiring basic ICT skills and student using ICT tools for

research and learning across the curriculum. The teachers in the sample responded particularly

positively to the above two items.

Table 4:1 Teachers’ classification according to their teaching experience


Items Years Frequency Percentage %
TE 1 1–2 10 25
TE 2 3–6 5 12.5
TE 3 7 – 10 5 12.5
TE 4 11 – 20 15 37.5
TE 5 21 – 30 5 12.5
Total >30 40 100.0

Figure 4:1.Teachers’ classification according to their teaching experience

1
The teachers’ ICT use profile

A total of twenty teachers in the sample reported ownership of a personal computer at home,

while fifteen teachers had internet connection and five their own personal email account. Some

teachers had attended some training concerning computers and general – purpose software.

Teachers have been distinguished into five groups according to their ICT engagement.

As shown in Table 4 one in two teachers have no previous computer experience before the

programme.

Although the teachers studied showed great interest and motivation to develop their ICT

skills, it was discovered the most active users were restricted to a narrow range of supplemental

tasks, for either personal purpose or supporting their traditional instruction. They were usually

preparing their lessons and getting information from internet, reiterating thus the results of previous

studies. Russell et al, Waite (2003, 2004). Only a small percentage of teachers in the sample used

ICT as a teaching and learning tool incorporated as short episodes into the existing curricula and

their conventional instruction methods. Figure I show the distribution of the teachers related to their

ICT profile.

Approximately five out of ten teachers have a PC at home, while one in three has an Internet

connection and one in four a personal email account. Despite that, only a small percentage of the

teachers use ICT in their instruction and even fewer use ICT as a learning tool. There are also

significant differences in the ways men and female use ICT.

The gender factor still remains critical as far as the teachers’ ICT profile is concerned. As a general

comment, it appears that access to ICT in their school or home environment is not a particular barrier

to the teachers, but the availability of ICT tools does not seem to be a factor favoring or promoting

by itself the teachers’ use of ICT for educational purposes.

1
Table 4:2 Teachers’ classification according to their ICT experience

Computer experience Frequency Percentage %


No experience at all 4 10.0
Use computers rarely 8 20.0

Use computers frequently 8 20.0


Use computers to support traditional instructions 10 25.0
Use computers as a teaching and learning tool 10 25.0
Total 40 100

It was found out that the core subject teachers in the curriculum with the notable exception of

science teachers do not use computers that often. On the other hand Ghanaian Language teachers

reported that ICT use does not occur frequently during their preparation and their instruction.

Teachers were also asked to mention ICT applications that they could use in their instruction. The

majority were not ready to give at least one example while the rest were restricted to presentation

software or internet to support their traditional instruction process. Finally, some teachers referred

only to basic ICT application for administration and teachers preparation purposes.

Figure 4:2 Teachers’ classification according to their ICT experience

1
Figure 3:3: The teachers’ ICT use profile

The teachers’ beliefs about ICT as a teaching and learning tool

1
The second research axis concerns the investigation of teachers’ belief about ICT a teaching

and learning tool. Six items in the questionnaire represent this axis.

The majority of the teachers as in general positive about ICT since they perceive it as a tool for

instruction and learning for every subject in the curriculum and also as a tool that can help students’

critical thinking. It’s interesting, on the other hand, that only few teachers are convinced about the

usefulness and the effectiveness of ICT in the instructional process.

Table 4:3 Teacher’s beliefs about ICT as a teaching and learning tool
Item SA A U D SD

1 2 3 4 5
22. ICT can be a tool for instruction and learning for 50.0 25.0 12.5 5.0 7.5

every subject matter in the curriculum


23.I believe that ICT is useful for administration and 62.5 25.0 5.0 5.0 2.5

teachers’ work preparation (leaflets, exams, test, etc)

24.ICT is impressive but cannot contribute 62.5 25.0 5.0 5.0 2.5

substantially to teaching and learning

25.I believe that ICT cannot contribute to learning 50.0 25.0 12.5 5.0 5.0

because it do not active students

26.I believe that ICT can help students’ critical 57.5 17.5 12.5 10.0 2.5

thinking

27. I need more reasons to be convinced about ICT 62.5 25.5 12.5 0.0 0.0

usefulness in the educational process.

1
The second looks at teachers with neutral beliefs with those who are negative towards the items

above. Teachers were distinguished into three main groups.

The first group is determined by the values corresponding to the teachers that have strongly

positive beliefs about ICT as a teaching and learning tool. It appears that this group is internally

cohesive, since the teachers are strongly positive towards the items in this research axis. In this

group mainly the male teachers, JHS and Up primary educators. Teachers having their own PC, with

low and high teaching experiences and those that attended some training were placed.

The second group is determined by the values corresponding to the teachers with positive and

neutral beliefs about ICT as a teaching and learning tool.

Also placed are teachers who have not been convinced about ICT usefulness in the instructional

process. Mainly female’s teachers are the mostly found ones, those who do not have their own PC

and those teaching the Ghanaian Languages.

The third group comprises teachers with negative beliefs about ICT as a teaching and

learning tool. Placed are teachers who have attended no training in ICT and teachers with the large

years of teaching experiences.

The main conclusion drown is that there is a strong correlation between the values of the

variables determining the three group of teachers. This indicates the network of teachers’ beliefs is

strongly cohesive within every group. This means that the teachers’ beliefs are consistently similar

along the six items of this axis, that is, the teachers responded more or less in the same

way(positively, negatively, or neutrally) to the items given.

2
Figure 3:4 Teacher’s beliefs about ICT as a teaching and learning tool.

The Teachers’ belief about ICT integration in education

The third research axis consisted of six items and concerns teachers’ beliefs about ICT

integration. The greater majority of the teachers perceive ICT as a necessity in our modern society. It

seems that the ICT pedagogical aspect is not clear or prevalent in teachers’ views, although two out

of five recognize the importance of knowing how to organize their instruction and the students’ tasks

using ICT tools.

This axis shows the contradiction between strongly positive and negative teachers as far as

the items concerning ICT integration in education is concerned. It also focuses on the neutral –

negative beliefs axis, since it juxtaposes teachers with neutral attitudes with those who responded

negatively.

However, with the integration of ICT in education, some teachers were found to be negative

and neutral. With this teachers they do not have any training or experience as far as the ICT skills

and knowledge are concerned. Teachers in this category do not have their own PC at home; neither

any training nor most of them are females and the Languages teachers.

It’s not surprising to found out that some teachers have positive beliefs about the integration

of ICT in education. Teachers here are male, those with their own PC and had some training.

In general, teachers having 1 – 10 years of service experience had positive attitude towards

integration of technology into the curriculum.

1
Table 4:4 Teachers beliefs about ICT integrating in education

.
Items SA A U D SD

1 2 3 4 5
28. I believe that I will not be able to use effectively ICT 6.1 24.3 12.3 29.4 27.2

in my job
29. We have to introduce ICT in schools because it will 63.0 18.0 5.0 3.0 11.0

prevail in the future society


30. I am cautious about ICT use in education, because ICT 11.9 37.1 9.4 29.3 12.3

restricts social interaction and isolates people


31. I believe that I will not be able to use ICT in my 5.5 24.5 17.1 30.0 22.7

instruction, because I feel insecure about its application in

education.
32. I should use ICT in my instruction but I do not know 26.0 35.7 13.7 15.3 9.5

1
how to organize and manage students’ learning tasks

33. I want to use computers in the instruction of my


25.9
subject matter, but it frightens me that students are more
9.0
skilled in ICT 16.0 7.0 40.7

Figure 4:5: Teachers beliefs about ICT integrating in education

The teacher’s beliefs about ICT and the role of the school, teachers and text books

The fourth research axis concerns teachers’ beliefs about the changes that ICT could induce,

as far as the role of the school, the teacher and the educational media is concerned. It was found at

that along the items of this axis presented in Table 7, the grater majority of the teachers believe that

ICT will cause substantial changes in the educational process. The majority of the teachers in the

sample believe that ICT will upgrade the role of the teacher. It appears that thee Junior High school

teachers teaching the traditional core curriculum subjects are more reserved as far as the possible

changes in education caused by ICT are concerned.

3
The same approach has also been exhibited by the teachers who are in the middle of the in

teaching career. Those teachers are negative about the changes in the teachers’ role changes in the

school, are class operation, and also changes in the educational media used.

This finding needs further investigation in order to determine the role of other parameters that

influences teachers’ views of the changes in education caused by ICT.

Table 4:5. The teacher’s beliefs about ICT and the role of the school, teachers and text books
Items SA A U D SD

1 2 3 4 5
34. I am afraid that ICT will reduce the teachers’ role, 8.4 19.8 8.9 32.6 30.3

and this will be negative for children’s education.


35. ICT will upgrade teacher’s role making it more 29.9 38.8 13.8 13.2 4.4

substantial
36. I believe that the role of the school will be radically 34.4 39.6 10.7 11.4 3.9

changed in future years because of ICT


37. I belief that the teachers’ role will radically changed 27.1 41.5 9.9 15.8 5.7

in future years because of ICT


38. I belief that textbooks’ preferential role in education 15.0 36.0 12.7 25.1 11.2

will be replaced by new media based on ICT

1
Fig. 4:6: The teacher’s beliefs about ICT and the role of the school, teachers and text books

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION

Summary

Using Gregoire’s Contribution then what direction is integration going if the teachers

themselves have minimal knowledge skills and differing attitudes’. John and Sutherland (2004)

argue that ‘’at the moment we have too much innovation stretch’’ where the gap between pioneers,

and the medium and non-user is idea. For this ‘’long tail ’’ to be shortened new and innovation
2
forms of professional development needs to be instigated’’ He explains that most of the professional

development to date has been based in the idea of ‘’re-tooling’’ that is training is structured to

‘’augment the existing curricular by providing specific training to groups of teacher in the mechanics

of the technology’’ He future argues that what is needed is ‘’What Watsunetal (1999) call a ‘re-

forming’ approach, whereby training is built in a staged process through which teachers have to pass

in order to change their practice’’ Enter (2000) refers to this as ‘’scaffolding’’ teachers through the

adoption and change process.

A few teachers are experimenting the use of ICT intra and intra-subject to enhance pedagogy.

Such practice are likely to take root across the country but in an uneven fashion depending on access

the individuals and groups initiative and support from school administration. The broader

institutionalization of ICT use in teaching and learning with take more time, though the study did

reveal the beginning of promising practices for durability of ICT in schools such as parent

involvement and the creation of school committees responsible for ICT integration.

An obvious start has to be the issue of teacher’s skills. In general most teachers are far less

competent with ICT that their students. Many of those are the age of 45 have had little expansive to

computers until recently and are just learning to handle email addresses.

Concerted training efforts are required to get most academic staff up to a basic standard of computer

competence and this should be a priority.

As Newhouse (1999) points out, ‘’rarely are teachers give the time in encouragement to

reflecting on their beliefs about learning or consider implementing new learning programmers.

According to John and Sutherland (2004) it is important that teachers “engage directly in the process

of learning’’ being offered to students. This helps teachers “get in the inside of the innovation as

2
well as increasing their confidence, competence experience and understanding of the technology and

its pedagogical implications”

In conclusion, although ICT skills of teachers in Ghana as a whole is limited talk less Jasikan

Township, the number of teachers using them is on the rise and so are opportunities to learn hem.

What is observed is the will power teachers have to learn ICT integration build in the experiences

and beliefs, which must be harnessed by government without delay.

Since male teachers have positive beliefs about the use of ICT in education, female teachers and

other traditional subject teachers should be brief and encourage using ICT as a tool for teaching and

learning.

Recommendations for Implementation of ICT in Education

What the experiences of countries pursuing ICT has taught us thus far is that while there is

tremendous potential for broad ranging improvements across many sectors of education through the

use of ICT, the road will certainly not be easy.

It will take a continued commitment form all stakeholders involved to make any kind of substantial

and sustainable changes. It is the hope that the following recommendations, intended for all

stakeholders involved in bringing ICT to the door step of countries around, communities are sectors

will provide a roadmap for long terms success in bringing ICT to our children.

A key to success is to adopt a comprehensive, end-to-end, systematic approach, with a phased and
learn –as-you-go implementation that can be adjusted to adapt to the specific needs and a change
environment. The recommendation have been categorized into the following; Access, Teachers
2
Cost, Government and Policy Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation

A. For Access

1. Special consideration should be given to ICT connectivity and accessibility for educational

purposes. Planning for connectivity infrastructure and regulations should promote and

facilitate educational use of ICT. The trends towards convergence and new mobile platforms

for internet connectivity need to be, fully exploited through innovative policies needs and

partnerships that can help lower cost and expand access.

2. Central and regional digital libraries and resource centres should be developed which can

serve institutions in their respective regions. Access to international library resources,

research databases, and journals should be on behalf or institutions in the region.

3. Public and Private sector education stakeholders must continue to explore the applications of

mobile technology in the education sector. It is essential that the ongoing proliferation of

mobile devices through – out the developing world collaborates with the education sector to

effectively put to good use the mobile phones that so many young students in developing

countries have today.

A. For Teachers

1. It is necessary to focus on training teachers and instructors to use ICT to develop their own

teaching support materials. This approach assures ownership by teachers and instructors and

enhances the usability of products.

2. Teachers should work together with both public and private sectors stakeholders to establish

networks that support them in their transition to ICT based education. Online knowledge

2
sharing networks to facilitate this process need to be established for use by teachers at all

levels.

A. For Cost

1. Any initiative, be it from the government, private sector or civil society, should make

lobbying from more investments in computers a priority. Insufficient access to computers is

one of main obstacle in ICT for education programs. This is particularly relevant for

educational institutions located in rural areas where the school or training institution is the

only access point for computers. Although this will require massive investments in the

infrastructure, it is nevertheless in order to guarantee equal access and over come the digital

divide.

2. If companies from developed countries such as US, should work with local organization, non

profits and small businesses to implement and train local people in new technologies, and

help in implementation through innovation partnerships that can harness complementary

resources and technology solutions to overcome obstacles

A. For Government and Policy Implementation

1. Sustainable partnership between the government private sector and civil society must be built

to offset costs and mitigate the complexities of the integration of ICT education. Good will,

dedication, and flexibility are necessary from all partners to ensure agreement and progress.

2. National policies need to be aligned with policies in education. Though private institution

and civil society can implement their own programs they will not be sustainable without the

support of the national government. It seems thus, thus far in this research, that for ICT to be

effective in education, ICT programs require the support of the national government.

2
3. In countries where government capacity is weak increased efforts are needed from all

stakeholders to curb corruption and increase the nation’s capacity, accountability, and

transparency. With the misappropriation of funds, any limited resources that may be

earmarked to support ICT in education may never be allocated to the intended efforts.

A. Monitoring and Evaluation

Stakeholders working on ICT education implementation at all levels must closely monitor the

progress of their project to ensure that they are progressing and sustainable.

APPENDIX
Questionnaire

Jasikan College of Education

Topic: The Beliefs of Using ICT as an Educational tool Among Basic School Teachers in Jasikan

NB: The Information required will be use strictly for the purpose of this study and will be treated

confidential.

You are please requested to provide precise response to the questions.

SECTION A

Please tick the one applicable to you

1. Sex Male [ ] Female [ ]

2. Age…………………………………………

3. Level of Education

1
a. Below SHS [ ]

b. SHS [ ]

c. Cert A [ ]

d. 4yrs Cert A [ ]

e. DBE [ ]

f. HND [ ]

g. Degree [ ]

1. How long have you been in the teaching profession

a. Below 2yrs

b. 2-4yrs

c. 5-7yrs

d. 8-10yrs

e. 10 yrs and above

1. At which level do you teach?

a. K.G

b. Lower/upper primary

c. JHS

1. If lower/upper primary which subject do you teach?

……………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………...

1
……………………………………………………………...

2. If JHS, which subjects do you teach?

……………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………...

3. Do you know about computer

a. Yes

b. No

1. If yes, how long

……………………………………………………………...

2. What is your level of computer proficiency

a. No knowledge about computer

b. Windows and Microsoft office application

c. Desktop publishing and applications

d. Hardware and networking

e. Software and programming

1. Which ICT tool do you use

a. None

b. Mobile phone/desk phone

c. Computer

d. Computer and internet

e. Others specify…………………………………………..

1. Have you ever applied the computer or ICT as a tool in the classroom before?

a. Yes [ ]

1
b. No [ ]

1. If yes, how long

a. Below 2yrs

b. 3-10yrs

c. 11-20yrs

d. 21-30yrs

e. 31 and above

1. If no, why? ........................................................................................................................................

2. Which of the following do you use your ICT tool for?


a. Personal
b. To support traditional instruction
c. As teaching and learning tool
d. Entertainment
1. Do you have a PC at home?
a. Yes
b. No
1. Do you have an internet connection at home?
a. Yes
b. No
1. Do you have a personal email account?
a. Yes
b. No
1. Do you use your ICT tool frequently for personal purpose?
a. Yes
b. No
1. Do you support traditional instruction with your ICT tool?
a. Yes

1
b. No

1. What is your teaching experience with the use of ICT?

a. No experience at all

b. Use computers rarely

c. Use computers frequently

d. Use computers to support traditional instruction

e. Use computer as a teaching and learning tool

SECTION B

The following items should be worded with the key provided beneath by ticking (17-30)

Teachers’ beliefs about ICT as a teaching and learning tool

Item SA A U D SD

1 2 3 4 5
22. ICT can be a tool for instruction and learning for

every subject matter in the curriculum


23.I believe that ICT is useful for administration and

teachers’ work preparation (leaflets, exams, test, etc)

24.ICT is impressive but cannot contribute

substantially to teaching and learning

25.I believe that ICT cannot contribute to learning

because it do not active students

1
26.I believe that ICT can help students’ critical

thinking

27. I need more reasons to be convinced about ICT

usefulness in the educational process.

Key: SA = strongly agree; A= agree; U=unsure; D=disagree; SD= strongly disagree.

Section C

Teacher’s beliefs about integration in education

Items SA A U D SD

1 2 3 4 5
28. I believe that I will not be able to use effectively ICT

in my job
29. We have to introduce ICT in schools because it will

prevail in the future society


30. I am cautious about ICT use in education, because ICT

restricts social interaction and isolates people


31. I believe that I will not be able to use ICT in my

instruction, because I feel insecure about its application in

education.
32. I should use ICT in my instruction but I do not know

how to organize and manage students’ learning tasks

1
33. I want to use computers in the instruction of my

subject matter, but it frightens me that students are more

skilled in ICT

Key: SA = strongly agree; A= agree; U=unsure; D=disagree; SD= strongly disagree.

Section D

Teachers’ beliefs about ICT in the educational process

Items SA A U D SD

1 2 3 4 5
34. I am afraid that ICT will reduce the teachers’ role,

and this will be negative for children’s education.


35. ICT will upgrade teacher’s role making it more

substantial
36. I believe that the role of the school will be radically

changed in future years because of ICT


37. I belief that the teachers’ role will radically changed

in future years because of ICT


38. I belief that textbooks’ preferential role in education

will be replaced by new media based on ICT

1
Key: SA = strongly agree; A= agree; U=unsure; D=disagree; SD= strongly disagree.

REFERENCES

1. Bandura, A. (1986) Social foundation of thought and action: a social cognitive theory

(Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall)

2. Becker, H.J.(2000) Finding from the teaching, learning, and computing survey: is Larry Cuban

right? Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 8 (51). Available online

at://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v8n51(accessed 11 May 2007)

3. Bradley, G & Russell, G (1997) computer experience, school support and computer anxieties,

Educational Psychology, 17 (3), 267 – 284

4. British Educational Communication and Technology Agency (2004a) A review of the research

literature on barriers to the uptake of ICT by Teachers (Becta).Available online at:

http://www.becta.org.uk (accessed 25 October 2006)

5. Cox, M. Perston, C.& Cox, K. (1999) what factors support or prevent teachers from using ICT in

their classroom, paper presented at British Educational Research Association Annual

Conference. University of Sussex at Brighton, 2- 5 September.

6. Cuban, L. (2001) over sold and underused: computers in classroom (Cambridge,MA, Harvard

University Press)

1
7. Dexter, S.L., Anderson, R.E.& Becker, H.J. (1999) Teachers views of computer catalyst for

changes in their teaching practice, journal of Research on computing in Education, 31(3), 221 –

239

8. European Commission (2004) eLearning. Available online at. www.

Europa.eu.int/comm/education/programme/elearning/programme_en html (accessed October

2005)

9. Information Society web site (2003) Http://en.infosoc.org (Accessed 25 October 2005)

10. Jonassen, D.H. (2000) Computers as mind tools for schools (Englewood Cliff, NJ, Prentice

Hall).

11. Lee, K.(1997) Impediment to good computing practice: some gender issues, computers &

Education, 28 (4)251 – 259.

12. Odysseia web site (2000) http:/odysseia. Cti. gr. (accessed 25 October 2006)

13. Office for Standards in