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ABSTRACT

This the design and construction of anti-water drowning system which makes use

of drowning sensor switch controlled from beneath the water level to alert

monitors when the user is being drown. When the user wares the device at hand

the sensors is activated by body contact, which is the users pressed the toggle

button it will send a wireless signal alerting the managers that he is being drown by

water, so that they can come for rescuer.

This devices when powered, it will be activated so if the users press the danger

command the microcontroller controlling the device will sends a command

wirelessly through and infrared radio wave as a pulse to the monitor telling the

devices to activate alarm so that the managers can be alerted to come and rescuer

him/her.

This devices is found in swimming pools as a life saving devices.

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background study

This is the design and construction of an anti-drowning system which is used in

swimming pools to alert water system managers when an individual is being drown

by water. This system makes user of a water proofed toggle switch, a

microcontroller, and infrared radio wave transmitting module, a dc battery of 9v

and an infrared receiver, a buzzer and LED indicators.

Drowning from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Drowning is defined as respiratory impairment from being in or under a liquid.[1] It

is further classified by outcome into: death, ongoing health problems and no

ongoing health problems.[1] Using the term near drowning to refer to those who

survive is no longer recommended.[1] Drowning occurs more frequently in males

and the young.[2]

Drowning itself is quick and silent, although it may be preceded by distress which

is more visible.[3] Generally in the early stages of drowning very little water enters

the lungs: a small amount of water entering the trachea causes a muscular spasm

that seals the airway and prevents the passage of both air and water until

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unconsciousness occurs. This means a person drowning is unable to shout or call

for help, or seek attention, as they cannot obtain enough air. The instinctive

drowning response is the final set of autonomic reactions in the 2060 seconds

before sinking underwater, and to the untrained eye can look similar to calm safe

behavior.[3][4] Lifeguards and other persons trained in rescue learn to recognize

drowning people by watching for these movements.[3]

In 2013 there were about 1.7 million cases of drowning.[5] Unintentional drowning

is the third leading cause of unintentional injury resulting in death worldwide. In

2013 it was estimated to have resulted in 368,000 deaths down from 545,000

deaths in 1990.[6] Of these deaths 82,000 occurred in children less than five years

old.[6] It accounts for 7% of all injury related deaths (excluding those due to natural

disasters), with 91% of these deaths occurring in low-income and middle-income

countries.[7] In many countries, drowning is one of the leading causes of death for

children under 12 years old. For example, in the United States, it is the second

leading cause of death (after motor vehicle crashes) in children 12 and younger.[2]

The rate of drowning in populations around the world varies widely according to

their access to water, the climate and the national swimming culture.

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Signs and symptoms

Drowning is most often quick and unspectacular. Its media depictions as a loud,

violent struggle have much more in common with distressed non-swimmers, who

may well drown but have not yet begun to do so. In particular, an asphyxiating

person is seldom able to call for help.[3] The instinctive drowning response covers

many signs or behaviors associated with drowning or near-drowning:

Head low in the water, mouth at water level

Head tilted back with mouth open

Eyes glassy and empty, unable to focus

Eyes open, with fear evident on the face

Hyperventilating or gasping

Trying to swim in a particular direction but not making headway

Trying to roll over on the back to float

Uncontrollable movement of arms and legs, rarely out of the water.

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1.2 Statement of problem

Life is one of the most cherished gift in the world and should not be joked with

while comparing it with other side of the world so saving it at all cost is every

human priority.

In swimming, casualties are common so for this reason technology has to

provide solutions and devices which will help protect life in cost of swimming

to avoid death.

1.3 Aim and objectives

The aim of this project is to design and construct an anti-drowning system

which is use in waters to alert water system managers about a casualty.

1.4 Scope of the project

In this project a student should be able to understand the need for an anti-

drowning system, how it works, the electronic design and implementation and

different stages of the design.

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1.5 Project limitations

a. It can only work when the user is still struggling

b. It limited by signal strength and type of transmission which involves infrared

due to the cost of radio transmission using inductive model.

c. It is limited to only infrared

1.6 Significance of the project

Many design makes use of heart rate monitor but works or alert managers

when the user is already choked and the pulse rate is reduced.

But in the cost of my design, it was made to work by the user pressing a toggle

switch which is attached to the body and sending message to the users.

1.7 Project report organizations

Chapter one carries the introduction, aim and objective, scope of study, limitation

of the work, significance and the project report organization of the work. Chapter

two carries the literature review of the work along with other reviews of the

project. Chapter three carries the project design methodology and steps which lead

to the construction of the project. Chapter four testing the project design,

observation and Bill of engineering. Chapter five carries summary and conclusion.

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CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIWE

2.1 Already existing systems

Pool safety camera

Pool Safety Cameras are video monitoring systems designed to reduce drowning

deaths in public and private pools.[1]

Classification

Aquatics video monitoring systems are broken into two categories:

Passive

Active

Passive systems provide lifeguards with views of below water swimmer activity and

behaviour. The views are displayed at the lifeguard position/chair allowing them to

incorporate them into their 10:20 scan to help with early identification of an

incident developing or abnormal events occurring. They are primarily a means of

addressing the physical limitations of viewing through glare and into blind spots in

the swimming pool tank. They are designed to make the lifeguards job easier.

Active systems are designed to further help lifeguards in an attempt to address the

physical limitations imposed by the human factor.

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Monitoring systems are further broken into three broad classes:

Viewing aids

Remote monitoring

Computer-aided drowning detection.

Viewing aids

Viewing aids are typically underwater video cameras for lifeguards to see various

views underwater simultaneously without having to move. They can be used for all

types of swimming pools. Cameras can view areas which would otherwise be

obstructed. These passive systems while providing additional vision for the

lifeguards can also distract them from scanning the pool because of the moving

images on the monitor next to them. All cameras are recorded in real-time and the

below water cameras are normally paired with above water cameras providing

face-to-body matching if there is an incident where a swimmer needs to be

identified but may not show their face below the water (for example paedophilia).

Remote monitoring

Remote monitoring is the next step in video surveillance of swimming pools. It uses

the same technology as the viewing aids class, and includes recording and storage

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capability. Remote monitoring is effective in documenting the chain of events

surrounding any questionable situation. If used as a location from which to actively

monitor the pool, these systems face limitations. Users must remain alert, viewing

the screen without distraction for hours at a time. Screen placement for active

monitoring means that response time may be increased due to the nature of a

single location from which to respond. Active monitoring with this system also

means an increase in manpower costs, as the majority of US state's aquatic safety

laws will not authorize using this system in lieu of lifeguards on the deck.

Remote monitoring includes the recording of video for insurance purposes, to

prove that there was no negligence on the part of the pool operator, or the staff

(e.g. evidence of horseplay, drunkenness, etc., leading up to an incident). These

systems are primarily limited to documenting the course of events for later review

due to the difficulties of adapting to active monitoring usage.

Computer-aided drowning detection

Computer-aided drowning detection systems, such as the Poseidon System and

Drowning Early Warning System (DEWS) are the most technologically advanced

category in aquatics video monitoring. These feed the video from the cameras into

a computerized monitoring software package capable of tracking the activity of

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swimmers and alerting staff if swimmers exhibit known behaviors associated with

drowning. These systems are mainly limited to static water pools, and are not yet

operational in the chaotic environment of a wave pool, whirlpool, jacuzzi, or other

motion-based novelty rides. Being video-based, neither system is capable of

operating in dark-water environments such as lagoons, lake-fronts or beach fronts.

Active monitoring systems attempt to provide the benefits of the video monitoring

and remote monitoring classes of systems coupled with the additional benefit of

another "set of eyes" watching over swimmers.

2.2 Related designs

A. Anti-theft system

An anti-theft system is any device or method used to prevent or deter the

unauthorized appropriation of items considered valuable. Theft is one of the most

common and oldest criminal behaviors. From the invention of the first lock and key

to the introduction of RFID tags and biometric identification, anti-theft systems

have evolved to match the introduction of new inventions to society and the

resulting theft of them by others. Anti Theft

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Under normal circumstances, theft is prevented simply through the application and

social acceptance of property law. Ownership is often indicated by means of visual

marking (license plates, name tags). When clear owner identification is not possible

and when there is a lack of social observance, people may be inclined to take

possession of items to their own benefit at the expense of the original owner.

Motive and opportunity are two enabling factors for theft. Given that motives for

theft are varied and complex and are generally speaking not within the control of

the victim, most methods of theft prevention rely on reducing opportunities for

theft.

2.3 Comparison with the already existing on

Many design makes use of heart rate monitor but works or alert managers

when the user is already choked and the pulse rate is reduced.

But in the cost of my design, it was made to work by the user pressing a toggle

switch which is attached to the body and sending message to the users.

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CHAPTER THREE: DESIGN METHODOLOGY

3.1 Project specification

In this project we are to design and implement anti water drowning which makes

use of wireless transmission to transfer alert signal to the water managers when

somebody is about to be drown by water.

3.2 Block diagram of the project

Fig 3.1 Block diagram of the circuit

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3.3.1 Functions of each block

This triggers the microcontroller to transfer signal to the receive side

This microcontroller triggers the transfer module to transfer data to the receiver

The transfer module transfer the signal to the receiving point.

3.4 Design pattern

This includes the stages passed for the design and construction of this project.

3.5 Information Gathering

The link which enhanced my knowledge to the design and construction of this

project was as a result my curiosity, some which was gotten from the internet

research I did, some from the school environment, from the already existing

product which was the main source of my knowledge on how to go about the

project then others was from my teacher and supervisor etc. all this information I

gathered for the design and construction of this project.

3.6 Design pattern

In the designation of this project, we employed different design pattern to run a

test of this design to checkout for its perfection when fully designed. From the
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origin of the design, from the list of the circuit symbol, the way they operate help

me to have a better design of this project were employed different strategies to

run the test operation for each component for clarifications and better

understanding of them.

3.7 Design procedure

Before the design we first of all have our design designed using some simulation

software like the professional schematic designer, eagle, livewire and proteuslite

which they all gave use the same out analysis of the circuit. Then I made my circuit

diagram (complete schematic of my design) and debugged the complete design

which gave me a full highlight and hint of the physical operation of the design.

3.8 Design processes

The procedures that lead to the complete designs of this project followed gradual

processes first:

3.8.1 Choice of component

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The choice of component depends on the design circuit requirement, were the

components to be used depends on circuit connections and operation

requirement.

3.8.2 Component layout

Component layout is the layout for each component according to the location of

the component symbol. This helps to allocate components to fit the operation of

the circuit which is dependent on the circuit diagram.

3.8.3 Component mounting

Component mounting or placing is the art or process of placing the components in

the required fittings to enable lead soldering of the components to the circuit

printed or Vero boards before inter connecting the components depending on the

circuit connections.

3.8.4 Soldering and clearing

Soldering of the components is very essential to electronic circuit design as it helps

to hard hold the component leads from falling off from the circuit which can cause

permanent damage to the component circuitry.

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Clearing always cause before comes after soldering, as it is the process of removing

tiny segmented leads which could cause bridges to the circuit network leading to

burnt and fire outbreak from the circuit.

3.8.5 Running cross check

Running check after any circuit design is required as it gives no room for errors after

design. This also helps to correct the network errors and enhance operation as

required after design.

3.9 Project testing

Project testing is the art of placing the design in a running mode for test and

operation analysis, this helps to show the designer that how accurate his/her work

is and encourage upgrading the present design when dealing with that type of

design.

Packaging is the art of covering the inner structure of design using some natural

inspirational art and copies of an already existing design in other to convince the

viewer for recommended comment. Packaging involves the covering of the inner

nature of a design which only through its look sends a message to anybody who

gaze at it what it really is. The appearance of any design one made is a thing to be

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consider important as it is the only way which a product sells itself without human

recommendations, in this project packaging is one of the vital part of this design

because the design which is considered here is a prototype of anti-drowning alert

system.

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CHAPTER FOUR: DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING

4.1 Design procedures

4.1.1 Information gathering

The knowledge of how to design of anti-water drown system did not just came from

anywhere even due a lot of information came through inspirations of different

ways (bio devices: Magxim Electronics journal on Electronics & psychological effects

3 Edition 2012 for things to be down there is a source of information via knowledge

which is not only on teachings but also with metal physical inspiration). Different

sources where visited in other to get the clear view of how to design an RF based

intruder system, this ways include internet sites where a lot of information of

different designs can be archived. Come to school premises where the knowledge

is being passed from teachers to students. Others include pea groups and book

reading etc.

4.1.2 Project resource centers

This includes:

a. internet resource centers

b. experimental aids and observation

c. Teachers and lectures

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d. And digital electronics by J.K Mehta

4.1.1 Choice of Materials

The materials I used were from the information I got from the internet and I have

to develop the work through the source I found online that is treating the same

case.

The circuit diagram used is the diagram which was design as a prototype but also

works to revive some information about the circuit analysis of the devices which I

later entered more design like the alarm unit and the infrared radio wave for the

infrared sensor to give a better operation of the device.

4.2 Circuit diagram of the design

Fig 4.1 Circuit diagram of the project

4.2.1 Circuit diagram analysis

4.3 Design implementation steps

Here, we are to show the various steps took while trying to archive a working

system (prototype system) of a biosensor system.


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4.3.1 Component listing

a. Microcontroller (Atmel89s52)

b. Voltage regulator (7805)

c. Resistors(1k,10k,4k7,5k6)

d. Transistor (c1815, Mosfet irf3205)

e. Rectifier diode (1n5408)

f. Buzzer (12v)

g. Infrared receiver

4.4 Component analysis and descriptions

Here, the whole components is discussed. The choice of component was obtained

from the circuit diagram analysis which visually illustrates the various component

connection between each other, from there the components used was named and

given values form the parameters and so from there we obtained our choice of

components. This is feather analysis in the circuit diagram analysis.

4.4.1 Diode Rectifier

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A diode is an electrical device allowing current to move through it in one direction

with far greater ease than in the other. The most common kind of diode in modern

circuit design is the semiconductor diode, although other diode technologies exist.

Semiconductor diodes are symbolized in schematic diagrams such as Figure below.

The term diode is customarily reserved for small signal devices, I 1 A. The term

rectifier is used for power devices, I > 1 A.

Fig 4.1 Semiconductor diode schematic symbol: Arrows indicate the direction of

electron current flow.

When placed in a simple battery-lamp circuit, the diode will either allow or prevent

current through the lamp, depending on the polarity of the applied voltage. (Figure

below)

Fig 4.2 Diode operation: (a) Current flow is permitted; the diode is forward biased.

(b) Current flow is prohibited; the diode is reversed biased.

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When the polarity of the battery is such that electrons are allowed to flow through

the diode, the diode is said to be forward-biased. Conversely, when the battery is

backward and the diode blocks current, the diode is said to be reverse-biased. A

diode may be thought of as like a switch: closed when forward-biased and open

when reverse-biased.

Oddly enough, the direction of the diode symbol's arrowhead points against the

direction of electron flow. This is because the diode symbol was invented by

engineers, who predominantly use conventional flow notation in their schematics,

showing current as a flow of charge from the positive (+) side of the voltage source

to the negative (-). This convention holds true for all semiconductor symbols

possessing arrowheads: the arrow points in the permitted direction of

conventional flow, and against the permitted direction of electron flow.

Diode behavior is analogous to the behavior of a hydraulic device called a check

valve. A check valve allows fluid flow through it in only one direction as in Figure

below.

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Fig 4.3 Hydraulic check valve analogy: (a) Electron current flow permitted. (b)

Current flow prohibited.

Check valves are essentially pressure-operated devices: they open and allow flow

if the pressure across them is of the correct polarity to open the gate (in the

analogy shown, greater fluid pressure on the right than on the left). If the pressure

is of the opposite polarity, the pressure difference across the check valve will

close and hold the gate so that no flow occurs.

Like check valves, diodes are essentially pressure- operated (voltage-operated)

devices. The essential difference between forward-bias and reverse-bias is the

polarity of the voltage dropped across the diode. Let's take a closer look at the

simple battery-diode-lamp circuit shown earlier, this time investigating voltage

drops across the various components in Figure below.

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Fig 4.4 Diode circuit voltage measurements: (a) Forward biased. (b) Reverse biased.

A forward-biased diode conducts current and drops a small voltage across it,

leaving most of the battery voltage dropped across the lamp. If the battery's

polarity is reversed, the diode becomes reverse-biased, and drops all of the

battery's voltage leaving none for the lamp. If we consider the diode to be a self-

actuating switch (closed in the forward-bias mode and open in the reverse-bias

mode), this behavior makes sense. The most substantial difference is that the diode

drops a lot more voltage when conducting than the average mechanical switch (0.7

volts versus tens of millivolts).

This forward-bias voltage drop exhibited by the diode is due to the action of the

depletion region formed by the P-N junction under the influence of an applied

voltage. If no voltage applied is across a semiconductor diode, a thin depletion

region exists around the region of the P-N junction, preventing current flow. (Figure

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below (a)) The depletion region is almost devoid of available charge carriers, and

acts as an insulator:

Fig 4.5 Diode representations: PN-junction model, schematic symbol, physical part.

The schematic symbol of the diode is shown in Figure above (b) such that the anode

(pointing end) corresponds to the P-type semiconductor at (a). The cathode bar,

non-pointing end, at (b) corresponds to the N-type material at (a). Also note that

the cathode stripe on the physical part (c) corresponds to the cathode on the

symbol.

If a reverse-biasing voltage is applied across the P-N junction, this depletion region

expands, further resisting any current through it. (Figure below)

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Fig 4.6 Depletion region expands with reverse bias.

Conversely, if a forward-biasing voltage is applied across the P-N junction, the

depletion region collapses becoming thinner. The diode becomes less resistive to

current through it. In order for a sustained current to go through the diode; though,

the depletion region must be fully collapsed by the applied voltage. This takes a

certain minimum voltage to accomplish, called the forward voltage as illustrated in

Figure below.

Fig 4.7Inceasing forward bias from (a) to (b) decreases depletion region thickness.

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For silicon diodes, the typical forward voltage is 0.7 volts, nominal. For germanium

diodes, the forward voltage is only 0.3 volts. The chemical constituency of the P-N

junction comprising the diode accounts for its nominal forward voltage figure,

which is why silicon and germanium diodes have such different forward voltages.

Forward voltage drop remains approximately constant for a wide range of diode

currents, meaning that diode voltage drop is not like that of a resistor or even a

normal (closed) switch. For most simplified circuit analysis, the voltage drop across

a conducting diode may be considered constant at the nominal figure and not

related to the amount of current.

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Actually, forward voltage drop is more complex. An equation describes the exact

current through a diode, given the voltage dropped across the junction, the

temperature of the junction, and several physical constants. It is commonly known

as the diode equation:

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The term kT/q describes the voltage produced within the P-N junction due to the

action of temperature, and is called the thermal voltage, or Vt of the junction. At

room temperature, this is about 26 millivolts. Knowing this, and assuming a

nonideality coefficient of 1, we may simplify the diode equation and re-write it

as such:

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You need not be familiar with the diode equation to analyze simple diode circuits.

Just understand that the voltage dropped across a current-conducting diode does

change with the amount of current going through it, but that this change is fairly

small over a wide range of currents. This is why many textbooks simply say the

voltage drop across a conducting, semiconductor diode remains constant at 0.7

volts for silicon and 0.3 volts for germanium. However, some circuits intentionally

make use of the P-N junction's inherent exponential current/voltage relationship

and thus can only be understood in the context of this equation. Also, since

temperature is a factor in the diode equation, a forward-biased P-N junction may

also be used as a temperature-sensing device, and thus can only be understood if

one has a conceptual grasp on this mathematical relationship.

A reverse-biased diode prevents current from going through it, due to the

expanded depletion region. In actuality, a very small amount of current can and

does go through a reverse-biased diode, called the leakage current, but it can be

ignored for most purposes. The ability of a diode to withstand reverse-bias voltages

is limited, as it is for any insulator. If the applied reverse-bias voltage becomes too

great, the diode will experience a condition known as breakdown (Figure below),

which is usually destructive. A diode's maximum reverse-bias voltage rating is

known as the Peak Inverse Voltage, or PIV, and may be obtained from the
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manufacturer. Like forward voltage, the PIV rating of a diode varies with

temperature, except that PIV increases with increased temperature and decreases

as the diode becomes cooler -- exactly opposite that of forward voltage.

Fig 4.7 Diode curve: showing knee at 0.7 V forward biases for Si, and reverse

breakdown.

Typically, the PIV rating of a generic rectifier diode is at least 50 volts at room

temperature. Diodes with PIV ratings in the many thousands of volts are available

for modest prices.

Types of diode

There are many different types of diodes that are available for use in electronics

design. Different semiconductor diode types can be used to perform different

functions as a result of the properties of these different diode types.

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Semiconductor diodes can be used for many applications. The basic application is

obviously to rectify waveforms.

Backward diode: This type of diode is sometimes also called the back diode.

Although not widely used, it is a form of PN junction diode that is very similar to

the tunnel diode in its operation. It finds a few specialist applications where its

particular properties can be used.

BARITT diode: This form of diode gains its name from the words Barrier Injection

Transit Time diode. It is used in microwave applications and bears many similarities

to the more widely used IMPATT diode.

Gunn Diode: Although not a diode in the form of a PN junction, this type of diode

is a semiconductor device that has two terminals. It is generally used for generating

microwave signals.

Laser diode: This type of diode is not the same as the ordinary light emitting diode

because it produces coherent light. Laser diodes are widely used in many

applications from DVD and CD drives to laser light pointers for presentations.

Although laser diodes are much cheaper than other forms of laser generator, they

are considerably more expensive than LEDs. They also have a limited life.

Light emitting diodes: The light emitting diode or LED is one of the most popular

types of diode. When forward biased with current flowing through the junction,
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light is produced. The diodes use component semiconductors, and can produce a

variety of colours, although the original colour was red. There are also very many

new LED developments that are changing the way displays can be used and

manufactured. High output LEDs and OLEDs are two examples.

Photodiode: The photo-diode is used for detecting light. It is found that when light

strikes a PN junction it can create electrons and holes. Typically photo-diodes are

operated under reverse bias conditions where even small amounts of current flow

resulting from the light can be easily detected. Photo-diodes can also be used to

generate electricity. For some applications, PIN diodes work very well as photo

detectors.

PIN diode: This type of diode is typified by its construction. It has the standard P

type and N-type areas, but between them there is an area of intrinsic

semiconductor which has no doping. The area of the intrinsic semiconductor has

the effect of increasing the area of the depletion region which can be useful for

switching applications as well as for use in photodiodes, etc.

PN Junction: The standard PN junction may be thought of as the normal or

standard type of diode in use today. These diodes can come as small signal types

for use in radio frequency, or other low current applications which may be termed

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as signal diodes. Other types may be intended for high current and high voltage

applications and are normally termed rectifier diodes.

Schottky diodes: This type of diode has a lower forward voltage drop than ordinary

silicon PN junction diodes. At low currents the drop may be somewhere between

0.15 and 0.4 volts as opposed to 0.6 volts for a silicon diode. To achieve this

performance they are constructed in a different way to normal diodes having a

metal to semiconductor contact. They are widely used as clamping diodes, in RF

applications, and also for rectifier applications.

Step recovery diode: A form of microwave diode used for generating and shaping

pulses at very high frequencies. These diodes rely on a very fast turn off

characteristic of the diode for their operation.

Tunnel diode: Although not widely used today, the tunnel diode was used for

microwave applications where its performance exceeded that of other devices of

the day.

Varactor diode or varicap diode: This type of diode is used in many radio

frequency (RF) applications. The diode has a reverse bias placed upon it and this

varies the width of the depletion layer according to the voltage placed across the

diode. In this configuration the varactor or varicap diode acts like a capacitor with

the depletion region being the insulating dielectric and the capacitor plates formed

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by the extent of the conduction regions. The capacitance can be varied by changing

the bias on the diode as this will vary the width of the depletion region which will

accordingly change the capacitance.

Zener diode: The Zener diode is a very useful type of diode as it provides a stable

reference voltage. As a result it is used in vast quantities. It is run under reverse

bias conditions and it is found that when a certain voltage is reached it breaks

down. If the current is limited through a resistor, it enables a stable voltage to be

produced. This type of diode is therefore widely used to provide a reference voltage

in power supplies. Two types of reverse breakdown are apparent in these diodes:

Zener breakdown and Impact Ionisation. However the name Zener diode is used

for the reference diodes regardless of the form of breakdown that is employed.

Semiconductor diodes are widely used throughout all areas of the electronics

industry from electronics design through to production and repair. The

semiconductor diode is very versatile, and there are very many variants and

different types of diode that enable all the variety of different applications to be

met.

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Diode as a rectifier

Rectifier circuits may be single-phase or multi-phase (three being the most

common number of phases). Most low power rectifiers for domestic equipment

are single-phase, but three-phase rectification is very important for industrial

applications and for the transmission of energy as DC (HVDC).

Half-wave rectification

In half wave rectification of a single-phase supply, either the positive or negative

half of the AC wave is passed, while the other half is blocked. Because only one half

of the input waveform reaches the output, mean voltage is lower. Half-wave

rectification requires a single diode in a single-phase supply, or three in a three-

phase supply. Rectifiers yield a unidirectional but pulsating direct current; half-

wave rectifiers produce far more ripple than full-wave rectifiers, and much more

filtering is needed to eliminate harmonics of the AC frequency from the output.

Fig 4.8 Half-wave rectifier

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The no-load output DC voltage of an ideal half wave rectifier for a sinusoidal input

voltage is:

Where: Vdc, Vav - the DC or average output voltage,

Vpeak, the peak value of the phase input voltages,

Vrms, the root-mean-square value of output voltage.

Full-wave rectification

A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant

polarity (positive or negative) at its output. Full-wave rectification converts both

polarities of the input waveform to pulsating DC (direct current), and yields a higher

average output voltage. Two diodes and a center tapped transformer, or four

diodes in a bridge configuration and any AC source (including a transformer without

center tap), are needed.[3] Single semiconductor diodes, double diodes with

common cathode or common anode, and four-diode bridges, are manufactured as

single components.

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4.9 Graetz bridge rectifier: a full-wave rectifier using 4 diodes.

For single-phase AC, if the transformer is center-tapped, then two diodes back-to-

back (cathode-to-cathode or anode-to-anode, depending upon output polarity

required) can form a full-wave rectifier. Twice as many turns are required on the

transformer secondary to obtain the same output voltage than for a bridge

rectifier, but the power rating is unchanged.

Fig 4.10: Full-wave rectifier using a center tap transformer and 2 diodes.

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Fig 4.11: Full-wave rectifier, with vacuum tube having two anodes.

The average and root-mean-square no-load output voltages of an ideal single-

phase full-wave rectifier are:

Very common double-diode rectifier vacuum tubes contained a single common

cathode and two anodes inside a single envelope, achieving full-wave rectification

with positive output. The 5U4 and 5Y3 were popular examples of this configuration.

Diode Bridge

xxxviii
Fig 4.12 Detail of a diode bridge, rated at 1000 Volts x 4 Amperes, a handmade

diode bridge. The wide silver band on the diodes indicates the cathode side of the

diode.

A diode bridge is an arrangement of four (or more) diodes in a bridge circuit

configuration that provides the same polarity of output for either polarity of input.

When used in its most common application, for conversion of an alternating

current (AC) input into a direct current (DC) output, it is known as a bridge rectifier.

A bridge rectifier provides full-wave rectification from a two-wire AC input,

resulting in lower cost and weight as compared to a rectifier with a 3-wire input

from a transformer with a center-tapped secondary winding

4.4.2 Transistors

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Fig 4.13transistor images

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals

and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three

terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one

pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current through another pair of

terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the

controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors

are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated

circuits.

The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and

is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Following its development in 1947 by

American physicists John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley, the

transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and
xl
cheaper radios, calculators, and computers, among other things. The transistor is

on the list of IEEE milestones in electronics, and the inventors were jointly awarded

the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for their achievement.

Simplified operation

Fig 4.14 a simple circuit diagrams to show the labels of a npn bipolar transistor.

(C1815)

The essential usefulness of a transistor comes from its ability to use a small signal

applied between one pair of its terminals to control a much larger signal at another

pair of terminals. This property is called gain. It can produce a stronger output

signal, a voltage or current, that is proportional to a weaker input signal; that is, it

can act as an amplifier. Alternatively, the transistor can be used to turn current on

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or off in a circuit as an electrically controlled switch, where the amount of current

is determined by other circuit elements.

There are two types of transistors, which have slight differences in how they are

used in a circuit. A bipolar transistor has terminals labeled base, collector, and

emitter. A small current at the base terminal (that is, flowing between the base and

the emitter) can control or switch a much larger current between the collector and

emitter terminals. For a field-effect transistor, the terminals are labeled gate,

source, and drain, and a voltage at the gate can control a current between source

and drain.

The image to the right represents a typical bipolar transistor in a circuit. Charge will

flow between emitter and collector terminals depending on the current in the base.

Because internally the base and emitter connections behave like a semiconductor

diode, a voltage drop develops between base and emitter while the base current

exists. The amount of this voltage depends on the material the transistor is made

from, and is referred to as VBE.

xlii
Types

PNP P-channel

NPN N-channel

BJT JFET

BJT and JFET symbols

P-channel

N-channel

JFET MOSFET enh MOSFET dep

JFET and IGFET symbols

xliii
Fig 4.15 Transistors are categorized by

Semiconductor material (date first used): the metalloidsgermanium (1947) and

silicon (1954) in amorphous, polycrystalline and monocrystalline form; the

compoundsgallium arsenide (1966) and silicon carbide (1997), the alloysilicon-

germanium (1989), the allotrope of carbongraphene (research ongoing since 2004),

etc.see Semiconductor material

Structure: BJT, JFET, IGFET (MOSFET), insulated-gate bipolar transistor, "other

types"

Electrical polarity (positive and negative): npn, pnp (BJTs); n-channel, p-

channel (FETs)

Maximum power rating: low, medium, high

Maximum operating frequency: low, medium, high, radio (RF), microwave

frequency (the maximum effective frequency of a transistor is denoted by the term

, an abbreviation for transition frequencythe frequency of transition is the

frequency at which the transistor yields unity gain)

Application: switch, general purpose, audio, high voltage, super-beta, matched pair

Physical packaging: through-hole metal, through-hole plastic, surface mount, ball

grid array, power modulessee Packaging

Amplification factor hfe, F (transistor beta)[33] or gm (transconductance).


xliv
Thus, a particular transistor may be described as silicon, surface-mount, BJT, np

n, low-power, high-frequency switch.

4.4.3 Infrared Sensor

Fig 4.16 infrared transmitter receiver image

Detecting Obstacle with IR (Infrared) Sensor

The basic concept of IR (infrared) obstacle detection is to transmit the IR signal

(radiation) in a direction and a signal is received at the IR receiver when the IR

radiation bounces back from a surface of the object.

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Here in the figure the object can be any thing which has certain shape and size,

the IR LED transmits the IR signal on to the object and the signal is reflected back

from the surface of the object. The reflected signals is received by an IR receiver.

The IR receiver can be a photodiode / phototransistor or a ready made module

which decodes the signal.

In order to implement the IR obstacle detection, we need to understand the

following

We need to understand how to transmit IR signal using commercially available

electronic components. Same way we also need to understand the IR receiver.

My main focus in this document is to explain the implementation of IR based

obstacle detection in detail.

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IR Transmitter

In general, the basic building block of any IR transmitter is modulation of the

information signal with carrier signal, because the receiver modules which are

available off-the-shelf are made for a particular carrier frequency. So it is clear that

when you chose a particular IR receiver module, you also need to transmit the the

modulated wave with the same carrier frequency of that of a IR receiver module.

Modulating a 38 Khz carrier signal

ON state = 10ms

OFF state = 90ms

The figure above explains the modulation process, this is similar to OOK(ON-OFF

Keying) modulation, where the carrier signal is ON for certain period of time.

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When transmitting a signal for obstacle detection, it is necessary that the carrier

signal is transmitted for a short while and remains OFF for longer period of time.

If the transmission of the carrier signal is prolonged, in other words, instead of

having a short transmission period(10 milliseconds in our case, as explained in the

figure) of carrier signal, if we have it for a long period of time then the receiver

module will treat it as a noise and ignores receiving the transmitted signal.

4.4.4 Battery Power Supply and Lm7805

Fig 4.16 a sample circuit of a power supply using 7805 voltage regulator

A regulated power supply is very much essential for several electronic devices due

to the semiconductor material employed in them have a fixed rate of current as

well as voltage. The device may get damaged if there is any deviation from the fixed

xlviii
rate. The AC power supply gets converted into constant DC by this circuit. By the

help of a voltage regulator DC, unregulated output will be fixed to a constant

voltage. The circuit is made up of linear voltage regulator 7805 along with

capacitors and resistors with bridge rectifier made up from diodes. From giving an

unchanging voltage supply to building confident that output reaches uninterrupted

to the appliance, the diodes along with capacitors handle elevated efficient signal

conveyal.

Description:

As we have previously talked about that regulated power supply is a device that

mechanized on DC voltages and also it can uphold its output accurately at a fixed

voltage all the time although if there is a significant alteration in the DC input

voltage.

ICs regulator is mainly used in the circuit to maintain the exact voltage which is

followed by the power supply. A regulator is mainly employed with the capacitor

connected in parallel to the input terminal and the output terminal of the IC

regulator. For the checking of gigantic alterations in the input as well as in the

output filter, capacitors are used. While the bypass capacitors are used to check

the small period spikes on the input and output level. Bypass capacitors are mainly

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of small values that are used to bypass the small period pulses straightly into the

Earth.

A circuit diagram having regulator IC and all the above discussed components

arrangement revealed in the figure below.

Regulated Power Supply Circuit

4.4.5 Microcontroller (Atmel89s52)

The AT89s52 is a low powered 5V microcontroller, high performance cmos 8-bit

microcomputer with 8Kbytes of flash programmable, 32bit IO ports and erasable

read only memory (EEPROM). The device is manufactured using Atmel`s high

density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry

standard MCS-51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip flash allows the program

memory to be reprogrammed in system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory

programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with flash on a monolithic chip,

l
the Atmel AT89s52 is a powerful microcomputer, which provides a highly flexible

and cost effective solution to many embedded control application.

The AT89s52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and

support two software selectable power saving modes. The idle mode stops the CPU

while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to

continue functioning. The power down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes

the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset

Fig4.17 Pin configuration of AT89S52

Features of AT89S52

Programmable serial channel

Compatible with MCS-51TM product

8Kbytes of in-system Reprogrammable flash memory - Endurance: 1,000

write/Erase cycles

li
Fully static operation:0Hz to 12MHz

Three-level program memory lock

256x 32-bit external RAM

32 programmable I/O lines

Two 16-bit timer/counters

Six interrupt sources

Low-power idle and power-down modes.

Fig 4.18: Block diagram of AT89s52 internal circuitry

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Pin description

Vcc

Supply voltage.

GND

Ground.

Port 0

Port 0 is an 8-bit open-drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can

sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as

high impedance inputs. Port 0 may also be configured to be the multiplexed low

order

Address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this

mode P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash

programming, and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External

pull-ups are required during program verification.

Port 1

Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output

buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins they are

liii
pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins

that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal

pull-ups. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash

programming and verification.

Port 2

Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output

buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins they are

pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins

that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal

pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external

program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16-bit

addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, it uses strong internal pull-ups when

emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses

(MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register.

Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during

Flash programming and verification.

Port 3

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Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output

buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are

pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs,

Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of

the pull-ups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the

AT89S51 as listed below.

Alternate functions of port 3

Table 4.1: port 3 pin functions

Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification.

RST

Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running

resets the device.

lv
ALE/PROG

Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during

accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG)

during Flash programming. In normal operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of

1/6 the oscillator frequency, and may be used for external timing or clocking

purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to

external Data Memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of

SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC

instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has

no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode.

PSEN

Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. When the

AT89C51 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice

each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each

access to external data memory.

EA/VPP

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External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device

to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to

FFFFH.

Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on

reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also

receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming,

for parts that require 12-volt VPP.

XTAL1

Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating

circuit.

4.4.7Resistors

Resistance is the property of a component which restricts the flow of electric

current. Energy is used up as the voltage across the component drives the current

through it and this energy appears as heat in the component.

Resistance is measured in ohms; the symbol for ohm is an omega .

1 is quite small for electronics so resistances are often given in k and M .

1 k = 1000 1 M = 1000000 .

lvii
Resistors used in electronics can have resistances as low as 0.1 or as high as 10

M .

Resistors connected in Series

Combined resistance in series: R = R1 + R2

This can be extended for more resistors: R = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + ...

Note that the combined resistance in series will always be greater than any of the

individual resistances.

Fig 4.19 Resistor connected in series

When resistors are connected in series their combined resistance is equal to the

individual resistances added together. For example if resistors R1 and R2 are

connected in series their combined resistance, R, is given by:

lviii
R1 + R2

Resistors connected in Parallel

Fig 4.20 Resistors Combined resistance of connected in


R=
parallel two resistors in parallel: R1 R2

When resistors are connected in

parallel their combined resistance is less than any of the individual resistances.

There is a special equation for the combined resistance of two resistors R1 and R2:

For more than two resistors connected in parallel a more difficult equation must

be used. This adds up the reciprocal ("one over") of each resistance to give the

reciprocal of the combined resistance, R:

1/R=1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3

lix
The simpler equation for two resistors in parallel is much easier to use!

Note that the combined resistance in parallel will always be less than any of the

individual resistances.

How to read Resistor Colour Codes

Table 4.2 Resistor color code

Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Gray White

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

The mnemonic

Bad Boys Ravish Only Young Girls But Violet Gives Willingly

Black is also easy to remember as zero because of the nothingness common to

both.

lx
Fig4.21 Resistor color code representation

First find the tolerance band, it will typically be gold ( 5%) and sometimes silver

(10%). Starting from the other end, identify the first band - write down the number

associated with that color; in this case Blue is 6. Now 'read' the next color, here it

is red so write down a '2' next to the six (you should have '62' so far.) Now read the

third or 'multiplier' band and write down that number of zeros.

In this example it is two so we get '6200' or '6,200'. If the 'multiplier' band is Black

(for zero) don't write any zeros down. If the 'multiplier' band is Gold move the

decimal point one to the left. If the 'multiplier' band is Silver move the decimal

point two places to the left. If the resistor has one more band past the tolerance

band it is a quality band.

Read the number as the '% Failure rate per 1000 hour' this is rated assuming full

wattage being applied to the resistors. (To get better failure rates, resistors are

lxi
typically specified to have twice the needed wattage dissipation that the circuit

produces) 1% resistors have three bands to read digits to the left of the multiplier.

They have a different temperature coefficient in order to provide the 1% tolerance.

At 1% most error is in the temperature coefficient - i.e. 20ppm.

4.4 Component gathering

The list of the component used was given so I have to go to the market to porches

some of them alongside with the sensor which is to be used for the design

4.4.1 Component testing

Before the design and implementation phase, the system built has to be tested for

Durability, Efficiency, and Effectiveness and also ascertain if there is need to modify

this design. The system was first assembled using a breadboard. All components

were properly inserted into the breadboard from whence some tests were carried

out at various stages.

lxii
Similar components like resistors were packed together. Other components

includes capacitor, preset switches, transformer, diodes (rectifier) LED, transistor,

voltage regulator etc

Reference was made to resistor color code data sheet to ascertain the expected

values of resistors used. Each resistor was tested and the value read and recorded.

Also for transistor test the DMM was switched to the diode range with the symbol

The collector, base and emitter junctions were tested in the following order. The

collector, emitter and base pins were gotten from the data analysis on power

transistor.

To ensure proper functioning of components expected data, the components were

tested using a digital multimeter (DMM). Resistors were tested to ensure that they

were within the tolerance value. Faulty resistors were discarded .The 78LS05

voltage regulator was also tested, the resulting output was 5.02v which is just a

deviation of 0.20v from the expected result of 5.00v.The LEDs were tested to

ensure that they were all working properly.

TRANSFORMER TEST (STEP-DOWN)

lxiii
Expectedly, the transformer was rated 240v/15v, 2000mA. From the mains power

supply, the primary coil received 220v input; the output was measured to be 17.75v

using a DMM.

Test data on transformer has it that the resistance of the primary windings for step

down transformer is higher than that of the secondary side. This was ascertained.

A. 4.5.6 Led

Blue, green, and red LEDs in 5 mm diffused

case

Working principle Electroluminescence

Oleg Losev (1927)[1]

Invented James R. Biard (1961)[2]

Nick Holonyak (1962)[3]

lxiv
First production October 1962

Pin configuration Anode and cathode

Electronic symbol

Parts of an LED. Although unlabeled, the flat bottom surfaces of the anvil and post

embedded inside the epoxy act as anchors, to prevent the conductors from being

forcefully pulled out via mechanical strain or vibration.

lxv
A bulb-shaped modern retrofit LED lamp with aluminium heat sink, a light diffusing

dome and E27 screw base, using a built-in power supply working on mains voltage

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a pn

junction diode, which emits light when activated.[4]

When a suitable voltage is applied to the leads, electrons are able to recombine

with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This

effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light (corresponding to

the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the

semiconductor.

An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2) and integrated optical components

may be used to shape its radiation pattern.[5]

Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962,[6] the earliest LEDs emitted

low-intensity infrared light. Infrared LEDs are still frequently used as transmitting

elements in remote-control circuits, such as those in remote controls for a wide

variety of consumer electronics. The first visible-light LEDs were also of low

intensity, and limited to red. Modern LEDs are available across the visible,

ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness.

lxvi
Early LEDs were often used as indicator lamps for electronic devices, replacing small

incandescent bulbs. They were soon packaged into numeric readouts in the form

of seven-segment displays, and were commonly seen in digital clocks.

Recent developments in LEDs permit them to be used in environmental and task

lighting. LEDs have many advantages over incandescent light sources including

lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved physical robustness, smaller

size, and faster switching. Light-emitting diodes are now used in applications as

diverse as aviation lighting, automotive headlamps, advertising, general lighting,

traffic signals, camera flashes and lighted wallpaper. As of 2015, LEDs powerful

enough for room lighting remain somewhat more expensive, and require more

precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of

comparable output.

LEDs have allowed new text, video displays, and sensors to be developed, while

their high switching rates are also used in advanced communications technology.

lxvii
4.5 Design Steps

This are the various steps we took on the design of this project

4.5.1 Component placing and wiring

Here, the whole components were place into the vero board according to its

position in the circuit diagram, the legs were bend to avoid living its space and to

avoid it from failing off.

4.5.2 Component soldering

The components were solder using a soft thick lead oxide and the component

connections was done with a tiny flexible wire we got from a networking cable to

join one component to the other according to the circuit diagram.

4.6 Embedded software integration

After the design of the circuit the microcontroller was programmed to control the

whole circuit with the software program running inside of it.

Software Development Process

In writing the software for this project a modular approach was employed.

This made it easier to check for errors and debug the program. Three major tools

were used in the development process; the keil C51 compiler was used to translate

lxviii
from the source code into the object code. The SDCC was employed to link the

program while the PACKIHX did the conversion from binary to hex.

Choice of Programming Language

My implementation programming language for this project is ANSI C programming

language, reason being the fact that it combines the elements of high level

languages with the functionalism of assembly language. C allows the manipulation

of bits, bytes and addresses. Also C codes are portable which means that it is

possible to adapt software written for one type of computer to another.

Nevertheless, a special feature of ANSI C is that it allows the direct manipulation

of bits, bytes, words and pointers. This suits it to system-level programming, where

these operations are common.

4.6.1 Programming language

This is an executable written commands which a computer can understand when

translated to binary format by a compiler.

4.6.2 Programming steps

Program Entry and Editing

lxix
After the design of the software, a text editor is employed to enter the source code

into the disk file. As noted earlier, the text editor also functions to correct error in

the program. The text editor used is KEIL C51 compiler and text editor.

4.6.3 Design program source code

#include "AT89x52.h"

#include "string.h"

#define lcd P2

sbit en = P3^6;

sbitrs = P3^7;

unsignedinta,b;

unsigned char lcdcode[] = {0x38, 0x0e , 0x01, 0x06, 0x80 } ;

lxx
charnextline[]= {0xc0};

char left = 0x18;

voidmsdelay(unsigned int time)

unsignedm,n ;

for(m=0;m<time;m++)

for(n=0;n<time;n++);

4.6.4 Compilation of the source code (Language-assembly-hexadecimal or

machine code)

After writing the program in the editors environment, the software was use to

compiler the entire program to generate a hex file which will be burn into the

microcontroller.

4.6.7 Burning of the hex file into the microcontrollers

In burning the hex into the microcontroller, we have to use an in system

programmer known as ISP programmer which will now read and verifier the

lxxi
microcontroller design nomenclature and then will copy the hex codes into the

microcontroller.

4.6.8 Inserting the microcontroller into the hardware design

Then after that the microcontroller will now be inserted into the circuit for testing.

4.7 Circuit test

After the implementation of the circuit diagram it has to be powered and checked

for accurate functionality before coupling and packaging.

The design makes use of 9v battery which was converter to dc using a diode rectifier

and a capacitor filter to get an accurate dc from the voltage supply unit.

4.8 Packaging

As a prototype design, we have to copy an existing system which makes use of a

robotic motion detector system.

4.9 Final test

The final test was undergone for proper function and design usage.

lxxii
CHAPTER FIVE

DESIGN TEST AND INTEGRATION

5.1 APPLICATIONS OF THE PROJECT

This devices is use in various places like the following.

a. In hospitals

b. In clinic centers

c. In military health issues

d. In sports

e. In security places

f. Etc.

5.2 COMPONENT TESTING AND OBSERVATIONS

System Testing and Integration

After the design and implementation phase, the system built has to be tested for

Durability, Efficiency, and Effectiveness and also ascertain if there is need to modify

this design. The system was first assembled using a breadboard. All components

were properly inserted into the breadboard from whence some tests were carried

out at various stages.

To ensure proper functioning of components expected data, the components were

tested using a digital millimeter (DMM). Resistors were tested to ensure that they

lxxiii
were within the tolerance value. Faulty resistors were discarded .The 78LS05

voltage regulator was also tested, the resulting output was 5.02v which is just a

deviation of 0.20v from the expected result of 5.00v.The LEDs were tested to

ensure that they were all working properly.

5.2.1 Test plan and Test data

This chapter entails an overall system testing of the integrated design of the voltage

measurement device. The testing and integration is done to ensure that the design

is functioning properly as expected thereby enabling one or even intended users

for which the project was targeted for, appreciate its implementation and equally

approaches used in the design and integration of the various modules of the

project.

However, this involves checks made to ensure that all the various units and

subsystems function adequately. Also there has to be a good interface existing

between the input/output unit subsystems.

When the totality of the modules was integrated together, the system was created

and all modules and sections responded to as specified in the design through the

power supply delivering into the system designed.

lxxiv
5.2.2 Components Test

Similar components like resistors were packed together. Other components

includes capacitor, preset switches, transistor and display unit

Reference was made to resistor color code data sheet to ascertain the expected

values of resistors used. Each resistor was tested and the value read and recorded.

Also for transistor test the DMM was switched to the diode range with the symbol

The collector, base and emitter junctions were tested in the following order. The

collector, emitter and base pins were gotten from the data analysis on power

transistor.

Table 5.1 Test for Transistor

Black probe Red probe

1st test on pins Collector Base

2nd test on pins Emitter Base

5.2.3 System Test

The system was powered and operated upon using several possibilities but we used

battery. They include depressing more than one button at the same time and

lxxv
noting the output responses of the system hardware. The system allows only one

input at a time.

5.2.4 Other Tests

Light emitting diode (LED) emits rays when forward biased .For capacitors the DMM

was switched to the 22uf range and the capacitors were inserted into the slot

provided for it by the meter.

5.2.5 EXPERIMENTED RESULT VS ACTUAL RESULT

Table 5.2 Experimented Value/ Actual value

COMPONENTS EXPERIMENTED ACTUAL UNIT TOLERANCE

VALUE VALUE

Resistor 10000 10000

2000 2000

220 218 5%

10000 9980

lxxvi
Capacitor 10 10.20 f

10 10.15 f

30 29.82 f

Transistor Rbe 520 550

Rbc 510 548

Display 5.00 5.02 V

5.3 Performance Evaluation

From the table above, shows the range between the expected value and the actual

value can be tolerated. As a result of this the drift in expected value has no critical

effect on the system design since the result current range was not also exceeded,

also the operational voltage range was not exceeded.

lxxvii
CHAPTER SIX

SUMMARY

6.1 Summary and Conclusion

This section of this project report forms the concluding part of the write up and

takes a look at some of the problems encountered during the progressive job on

the system and also brings in suggestions for further improvement and/or

enhancement for the system design.

6.2 Summary of Achievement

The design and development of this project has really been challenging, as I have

been faced with choices far beyond what I expected. But in the long run the result

paid off.

After the complete design of the system, the deviation between the expected result

and the actual result was very close. The performance and efficiency was beyond

expectation and from every ramification, the design of the project was a success.

6.3 Problems Encountered and Solution

lxxviii
During the course of the design of this system, there were series of problems which

came in the way of achieving the design goals of this project, most of them where

over come via share troubleshooting, in some cases some parts require redesigning

and the software debugging also created a bit of a problem.

One major setback of this project is the availability of components required to build

the hardware of the system. In most cases I had to look through electrical catalogs

to obtain replacements of some of the components which are not available in the

market.

After developing the software for the microcontroller, it was very difficult to find a

firm/individual to help program the chip (burning the embedded software on to

the chip). This posed serious problem as it brought about delay in the design time

and it was also costly, this also affected the overall cost of the system.

The final packaging of the design was also another trouble, as this actually caused

problems on the circuit board. Such problems include partial contact within the

circuit board, between components and also with the wiring. This was actually one

of the most challenging aspects of the circuit implementation phase. Due to this

fact, there was a lot of soldering and de-soldering to ensure that the circuit was

well implemented.

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6.4 Suggestions for further improvement

It will be more appreciated if the system is designed to have integrated voice output

playback with video capture.

6.5: Conclusion

Going through the planning, flow process, design and software implementation the

system had really been a tough one; but on the whole it has been a chance to show

case a little bit of craftsmanship.

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Reference

a) Also called burglar alarms, security systems, alarm systems, intrusion

detection systems, or perimeter detection systems.

b) Bill Waters. "How Motion Sensors Work with a Security System".

theHomeSecurityAdviser.com.

c) "Bowmark Capital backs 32 million MBO of CSL DualCom". 12 Jan 2012.

d) Sampson, Rana, False Burglar Alarms 2nd Edition (PDF), US Department of

Justice / Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, ISBN 1-932582-04-

e) U.S. Patent #3,482,037

f) "City of Reno : Newsroom : Council Approves Changes to Alarm Ordinance".

Reno.gov. 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2011-12-06.

g) Harrelson, Chuck, Audio Verification Equals More Apprehensions, EH

Publishing, retrieved May 17, 2014

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