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8.441. Evaporacin de jugo de tomate al vaco.

Se concentra el jugo de tomate con


12% de slidos en peso hasta 25% de solido en un evaporador de tipo pelcula. La
temperatura mxima permisible para el jugo de tomate es 135F, que ser la
temperatura del producto.

(La alimentacin entra a 100F) se usa vapor de agua saturado a 25 lb/ pul2 abs
como medio de calentamiento.

El coeficiente total de transferencia de valor V es 600btu/h pieF y el area A es 50


pies2 se estima que la capacidad calorfica de la alimentacin CP es 0. 95btu/lbmF.
Desprecie cualquier elevacin del punto de ebullicin que exista calcule la velocidad
de alimentacin del jugo de tomate al evaporador.

CPF = 95btu/lbmF v=

F= Xv = 0

Xf = 0.12

Tf = 100F T1=135F P=

5 = 4,410.56 lbm/h Xp = 0.25

Ps = 25lm/pulg2

Ts = 240F

Sc

V = 600btu/h pieF

A = 50 pies2

Q absorb = Q cedido

Fcp (T1 T2) + V (Hv - hv) = S (H5 h5)

S = VAt

S = VAt = (600but/hpieF) (50pies2) (240F 100F)


(1.160.7btu/lbm 208.44btu/lbm)

5 = 4,410.56lbm/h
Q absorbido = Q cedido
Fcpf (T1 Tf) + V (Hv hv) = 5 (H5 h5)

F (0.95btu/lbmF) (135F 100F) + V (1,119.85btu/lbm-102.97btu/lbm)


= (4,410.56lbm/h) (1160.7 208.44btu/lbm)
33.25 F + 1,016.88 V = 4,199, 999.866
(66.25) (2.083 P) + (1016.88) (1,083P) = 4,199,999.866
69.26 P + 1,101.28104 P = 4,199.999.866
P = 4,199,999.866 = 3,588.08lbm/h
1,170.54104

Interpolar para Hv y hv con 135F


X1 130 y1 1117.8 y1 97.98 hv = 1,119.85
135
X2 140 y2 1121.9 y2 107.96 Hv = 102.97

Balance
F = v+p fxf = pxp V = 3,885.89lbm/h
FP=V F (0.12) = P(0.25)
2.083P-P = V
F = P(0.25) = 2.083 P F = 7,473 97 lbm/h
1.083 P = V 0.12

EPE1 = 1.87x + 6.22x2


EPE1 = 1.78 (0.133) + 6.22 (0.133)2
EPE1 = 0.347F

Cp1 = 4.19 2.35 (x)


Cp1 = 4.19 2.35 (0.133)
Cp1 = 4.502

Efecto 2
L1 c L 1
(28,049.44) (0.133) = (10,979.98) c L2
0.207 = xL3

EPE2 = 1.78 (0.207) + 6.22 (0.207)2


EPE2 = 0.635C

Cp2 = 4.19 2.35 (0.207)


Cp2 = 5.39

Efecto 3
L2 x L 2 = L 3 x L 3
(10,979.98) (0.207) = (4,536) x L3
0.5 = x L3

EPE3 = 1.78 (0.5) 7 6.22 (0.5)2


EPE3 = 2.445

Cp3 = 4.19 2.35 (0.5)


Cp3 = 3.015

T = Ts T3 ( EPE)
TT = 121.1 51.54 (0.347 + 0.635 + 2.445)
TT = 66.1

T1 = 1/
u1
1/ + 1/u1 + 1/u3
u1

T2 = 66.1 1/
3123
1/ 1 + 1/1136
3123 + /1987

T2 = 66.1 1/
1987 = 19.53
1/ 1 1/
3123 + /1987 + 1136

T2 = 66.1 1/
1136 = 34.15
1/ 1 1
3123 + /1987 + /1136

T1 = Ts T1
T1 = Ts - T1
T1 = 121.1 1242 = 108.68

T2 = T1 T2
T2 = Ts - T1
T2 = 108.68 19.53 = 89.15

T3 = T2 T3
T3 = T2 T3
T3 = 89.15 34.15 = 55
Flujo Relacin x cp T it h >

F 22,680 0.1 3.955 26.7C

V1 22,680 L1 108.68 2,689.56 455.72 2,233.84

V2 L1 L2 89.15 2,658.623 372.84 2,285.78

V3 L2 4,536 51.54C 2,599.12 226.01 2,373.11

L1 0.133 4.502

L2 0.207 5.38

L3 4,536 0.5 3.015 54

S 121.1C 2,707.88 508.19 2,199.69

Problema No. 1. Determine las reas de calefaccin, las temperaturas de ebullicin y la


economa en un evaporador de triple efecto que concentra una disolucin de NaOH desde
10% hasta el 50% en peso. El vapor de calefaccin del primer efecto es vapor saturado a 6
atm, y el vapor procedente del tercer efecto condensa a 30, han de considerarse los
siguientes valores para los coeficientes globales de transferencia: U1 1200, U2 1200, U3
1200 Kcal/hm. En alimentacin contra corriente con regmenes de alimentacin de
5000Kg/h a una temperatura de 30.

L1=
XL1= 0.5

S=
Ps = 6 atm = 607.8 KPa
Ts = 159
Cps = 1.84 KJ/Kg K

T3 = 30
F = 5000 Kg/h
Xf = 0.10
Tf = 30

1.013105 1
6 1
1000
= 607.8

Y1 155 X1 543.1
Ts 159 Ym= 67.8
Y2 160 X2 617.8

Balance de calor
Q ENTRA=QSALE
Efecto 1: 22 + ( ) = 1 1 + 11
Efecto 2: 33 + 1(1 1 ) = 22 + 22
Efecto 3: + 2(2 2 ) = 33 + 33

6 atm * 1.013x105 Pa * 1kPa = 607.8 kPa


1 atm 1000 Pa
C
Y1 155 x1 543.1
Ts = 159C 607.8
Y2 160 X2 617.8

Balance
F=V1+V2+V3+L1 F L1 = V1 + V2 + V3
E x F = L1 x L1 5000 10000 = V1 + V2 + V3
(5000) (0.10) = L1 (0.5) 4,000 = 1,333.33 de V e
500 = L1 3 Cada evaporador
0.5
1,000kg / h L1
Flujo Relacin x cp T it h >

F 5,000 0.1 30 65

V1 L2 1,000 116 2,700.46 486.726 2,213.734

V2 L2 1,000 73 2,631.9 305.55 2,326.35

V3 L3 L2 30 2556.3 125.79 2,430.51

L1 5,000 L3 0.5 585.6

L2 1,000 1.5 437.5

L3 0.29 135
S 159 2756.96 671.208 2,085.752

Efecto 1
L2 = V1 + L 1 L2 x L 2 = L 1 x L 1
L2 = 1,333.33 + 1,000 (333.33) x L2 = (0.5) (1,000)
L2 = 333.33 xL2 = 1.5

Efecto 2
L3 = L 2 + V2 L3 x L 3 = L 2 x L 2
L3 = 333.33 + 1,333.33 (1,666.7) xL3 = (333.33) (1.5)
L3 = 1,666.7 xL3 = 0.29

TT TS T3
TT = 159C = 129

T1 = TT 1/
u1 = 129 1/ w 1
13,807.7 /m K
1/ 1/ 1/ 1/13,807.7 1/ 1
u1 + u2 + u3 + 13,807. + /13,807.7

1,200 Kcal * 1000 cal * 1h * 1m2 = 0.033cal


Hm2C 1kcal 3,600s 10,000cm2 5cm2C

0.033cal/5 cm2C * 1BTU/hpie2F = 2,431.66BTU/hpieF


1.3571x10-4cal/scm2C

2,431.66BTU/hpie2F * 5.6783w/m2k = 13,807.69w/m2R


1BTU/hpie2F

T1 = 43
T2 = 43
T3 = 43

TT T1 = Ts T1
T1 = Ts - T1
T1 = 159 43 = 116

T2 T1 = T1 T2
T2 = T1 - T2
T2 = 116 43 = 73
T3 T2 = T3
T3 = T2 - T3
T3 = 76 43 = 30

Estalpias
TV1 = 116 H H
X1 115 y1 2699.0 y1 482.48
XM 116 2,700.46 486.726
X2 120 y2 2706.3 y2 503.71

Tv2 = 73 H h
X1 10 y1 2626.8 y1 292.98
73 2,631.9 305.55
X2 75 y2 2635.3 y2 313.93

TS = 159
X1 155 y1 2.752.4 y1 671.208
X2 160 y2 2758.1 y2 675.55

1) L2 = L1 + V1 2) L3 = L2 + V2 3) F = L3 + V3
V1 = L2 1,000

2) L3hL3 + V1 (HV2 hv2) = V2 Hv2 + L2 hL2


L3 (135) + (L2 1,000) (2,213.734) = (L2 L2) (2631.9) + L2 (437.5)
135 L3 + 2,213.734 L2 2,213.734 = 2631.9 L3 2631.9 L2 + 437.5 L2
- 2,496.7 L3 + 4,408.134 L2 = 2,213.734

3) FhF + V2 (HV2 hV2) = V3 HV3 + L3 HL3


(5,000) (65) + (L3 L2) (2,326.35) = (5,000 L3) (2556.3) + L3 (135)
325,000 + 2,326.35 L3 2,326.35 L2 = 12,781,500 2556.3 L3 + 135 L3
4,747365 L3 2,326.35 L2 = 12,456.500

- 2,496.9 L3 + 4,408.134 L2 = 2,213.734 4,7473.65


4,747.64 L3 2,326.35 L2 = 12,456.500 2,496.9
1 5,119.614.17 L2 = 3.1113 X 1010
L2 = 2,057.79

- 2,496.9 L3 + (4,408.134) (2,057.79) = 2,213.734


- 2,496 L3 + 9,071,014.064 = 2,213.734
L3 = 3,632.02

1) L2 HL2 + S(HS hS) = V1 HV1 + L1 hL1


(2,057.79) (437.5) + S(2,085.752) = (2,057.79-1000) (2,700.46) +
(1,000) (585.6)
900,283.125 + S(2,085.752) = 2,856,519.583 + 585.600
S (2,085.752) = 2,541,836.458

S = 1,218.67

Q1 = S>S
Q1 = (1,218.67) (2,085.752) = 2,541,843.39RJ/h
2,541,843.39 RJ * 1000j * 1h = 706,067.61 W
H 1RJ 3600S

A1 = Q
V1 T1
A1 = 706,067.41 W = 1,189 M2
13.807.69W/m2k 43

Q2 = V1 > v1
Q2 = (1,057.79) (2,213.734) = 2, 341,665.688KJ/h
2, 341,665.688 KJ * 1000J * 1b = 650,462.59 w
H 1KJ 3600s

A3 = 1,017,280,545w = 1.71 m2
13,807.69w/m2k 43

E = V1 + V2 + V3 =1,057.79 + 1,574.23 +,1367.98 = 3.28


5 1,218.67