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YANGON CIRCULAR RAILWAY LINE

UPGRADING PROJECT
IN THE REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF
MYANMAR

Environmental Impact Assessment Report

(Draft Final)

October 2016

Myanma Railways
Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project


in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar

Environmental Impact Assessment Report (Draft Final)

CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Page
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................1
1.1 Project Proponent ............................................................................................................................1
1.2 Purpose of the Study .......................................................................................................................1
1.3 Implementation Organization for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) ..................................1
1.4 Overall Schedule of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) ......................................................1
CHAPTER 2 POLICY, LEGISLATION AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ........................... 2-1
2.1 Legislations relevant to environmental conservation .................................................................. 2-1
2.2 Regulations for Environmental Impacts Assessment (EIA) ........................................................ 2-2
2.3 Projects Environmental and Social Standards ............................................................................ 2-6
2.4 Institutional Framework .............................................................................................................. 2-9
CHAPTER 3 EXISTING BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS OF THE
PROJECT AREA ............................................................................................................ 3-1
3.1 Social Environment ..................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.2 Natural Environment ................................................................................................................... 3-5
3.3 Environmental Pollution ........................................................................................................... 3-11
3.4 Specific Conditions relevant to Yangon Circular Railway Line ................................................ 3-14
CHAPTER 4 PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND ALTERNATIVE SECTION ...................................... 4-1
4.1 Project Background ..................................................................................................................... 4-1
4.2 Objectives of Project ................................................................................................................... 4-2
4.3 Project Location .......................................................................................................................... 4-2
4.4 Outline of Project ........................................................................................................................ 4-3
4.5 Project Alternatives ................................................................................................................... 4-11
CHAPTER 5 RESULTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCOPING ............................................................ 5-1
5.1 Contents of Environmental and Social Consideration Study ...................................................... 5-1
5.2 Key Potential Environmental and Social Impacts and Mitigation Measures ................................ 5-1
5.3 Terms of Reference for EIA Investigation ................................................................................... 5-8
CHAPTER 6 FIELD SURVEY RESULTS .......................................................................................... 6-1
6.1 Air Quality Survey ...................................................................................................................... 6-1
6.2 Water Quality Survey .................................................................................................................. 6-5
6.3 Soil Quality Survey ................................................................................................................... 6-13
6.4 Noise and Vibration Survey ...................................................................................................... 6-18
CHAPTER 7 ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT FORECAST......................................... 7-1
7.1 Summary of Environmental Social Impact Assessment .............................................................. 7-1
7.2 Air Pollution .............................................................................................................................. 7-10

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7.3 Water Pollution .......................................................................................................................... 7-10


7.4 Waste ......................................................................................................................................... 7-11
7.5 Soil Contamination .................................................................................................................... 7-12
7.6 Noise and Vibration ................................................................................................................... 7-13
7.7 Offensive Odor .......................................................................................................................... 7-14
7.8 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity ................................................................................................... 7-14
7.9 Hydrological Situation and Drainage Condition ....................................................................... 7-15
7.10 Topography and Geographical Features .................................................................................... 7-16
7.11 Involuntary Resettlement .......................................................................................................... 7-16
7.12 Poverty ...................................................................................................................................... 7-17
7.13 Indigenous People and Ethnic Minority .................................................................................... 7-17
7.14 Local Economy such as Employment and Livelihood .............................................................. 7-18
7.15 Surrounding Land Use and Utilization of Local Resources ...................................................... 7-18
7.16 Water Usage .............................................................................................................................. 7-18
7.17 Existing Social Infrastructure and Services............................................................................... 7-19
7.18 Equality of Benefits and Losses and Equality in the Development Process ............................. 7-19
7.19 Local Conflicts of Interests ....................................................................................................... 7-19
7.20 Cultural Heritage ....................................................................................................................... 7-20
7.21 Gender ....................................................................................................................................... 7-20
7.22 Childrens Right ........................................................................................................................ 7-20
7.23 Infectious Diseases such as HIV/AIDS ..................................................................................... 7-21
7.24 Working Conditions including Occupational Health and Safety ............................................... 7-21
7.25 Traffic Accident ......................................................................................................................... 7-21
7.26 Climate Change ......................................................................................................................... 7-22
7.27 Hazardous Materials and Oil Management ............................................................................... 7-23
CHAPTER 8 MITIGATION MEASURES AND ENVIRONMANTAL MANAGEMENT AND
MONITORING PLAN ................................................................................................... 8-1
8.1 Environmental Management Approach ....................................................................................... 8-1
8.2 Mitigation Measures and Environmental Management Plan ...................................................... 8-2
8.3 Environmental Monitoring Plan .................................................................................................. 8-8
8.4 Institutional Framework ............................................................................................................ 8-12
8.5 Budget Estimation for the Environmental Management and Monitoring ................................. 8-14
8.6 Project Implementation Schedule .............................................................................................. 8-16
CHAPTER 9 PUBLIC CONSULTATION AND DISCLOSURE ........................................................ 9-1
9.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 9-1
9.2 Methodology and Approach ........................................................................................................ 9-1
9.3 Outline of Stakeholder Meetings in the Scoping Stage ............................................................... 9-2
9.4 Outline of the Stakeholder Meeting in the EIA Report Preparation Stage .................................. 9-2
9.5 Further Consultation .................................................................................................................... 9-5
9.6 Disclosure .................................................................................................................................... 9-5
CHAPTER 10 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................ 10-1

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10.1 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................... 10-1


10.2 Recommendation of the YCR Line Upgrading Project ............................................................. 10-2

APPENDIX 1 GAPS OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL CONSIDERATIONS BETWEEN


MYANMAR LEGISLATION AND JICA GUIDELINES

APPENDIX 2 DETAILED DATA OF FIELD SURVEY RESULTS

APPENDIX 3 RECORDS STAKEHOLDER MEETINGS

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List of Tables
Page
Table 1.2-1 EIA Team Formation...................................................................................................................1
Table 1.4-1 Schedule for EIA Study (As of September, 2016) ......................................................................2
Table 2.1-1 Laws and Regulations on Environment .................................................................................. 2-1
Table 2.2-1 IEE and EIA Project List for Railway-related Projects........................................................... 2-3
Table 2.2-2 International Conventions/Agreements ................................................................................... 2-4
Table 2.4-1 Target Value of Water Quality for the Project ......................................................................... 2-6
Table 2.4-2 Noise Level set in NEQG ....................................................................................................... 2-8
Table 3.1-1 Some Data about Land and Demographic Conditions of 19 Townships ................................ 3-1
Table 3.1-2 Population of 19 Townships.................................................................................................... 3-2
Table 3.1-3 Percentage of Different Religions by Townships.................................................................... 3-3
Table 3.1-4 Percentage of Different Races by Townships ......................................................................... 3-3
Table 3.1-5 Occupation Status ................................................................................................................... 3-4
Table 3.1-6 Occurrence of Infectious Diseases by Townships ................................................................... 3-5
Table 3.2-1 Result of Tree Census ............................................................................................................. 3-9
Table 3.2-2 Protected Areas and their Locations in Myanmar ................................................................. 3-10
Table 3.2-3 Monthly Temperatures and Rainfall of Kaba-aye Station in Yangon (1981-2010)............... 3-11
Table 3.2-4 River Water Quality Data in Yangon..................................................................................... 3-12
Table 3.2-5 Water Quality in Channels Crossing the YCR Line .............................................................. 3-12
Table 4.4-1 Operation and Effect Indicator................................................................................................ 4-5
Table 5.2-1 Scoping Matrix ....................................................................................................................... 5-1
Table 5.2-2 Preliminary Mitigation Measures ........................................................................................... 5-6
Table 5.3-1 Terms of Reference in EIA Investigation ................................................................................ 5-9
Table 6.1-1 Air Quality Survey Location ................................................................................................... 6-1
Table 6.1-2 Duration for Air Quality Survey ............................................................................................. 6-2
Table 6.1-3 Parameter and Measurement Equipment for Air Quality Survey ........................................... 6-3
Table 6.1-4 Ambient Air Quality (Daily Average) at A-1 .......................................................................... 6-3
Table 6.1-5 Ambient Air Quality (Daily Average) at A-2 .......................................................................... 6-4
Table 6.2-1 Parameters for Water Quality Survey ..................................................................................... 6-5
Table 6.2-2 Sampling Points for Water Quality Survey ............................................................................. 6-5
Table 6.2-3 Analysis Method of Water Sampling ..................................................................................... 6-10
Table 6.2-4 Survey Results of Water Quality ........................................................................................... 6-12
Table 6.3-1 Parameters for Soil Quality Survey ...................................................................................... 6-13
Table 6.3-2 Sampling Points for Soil Quality Survey .............................................................................. 6-13
Table 6.3-3 Analysis Method of Soil Sampling ....................................................................................... 6-17
Table 6.3-4 Soil Quality Survey Results .................................................................................................. 6-17
Table 6.4-1 Parameters for Noise and Vibration Survey.......................................................................... 6-18
Table 6.4-2 Survey Schedule ................................................................................................................... 6-20
Table 6.4-3 Methodology for Measuring Railway Noise......................................................................... 6-21
Table 6.4-4 Methodology for Measuring Railway Vibration ................................................................... 6-21

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Table 6.4-5 Result of Sound Exposure Level........................................................................................... 6-22


Table 6.4-6 Result of Railway Noise Measurement................................................................................. 6-23
Table 6.4-7 Result of Vibration Exposure Level ...................................................................................... 6-23
Table 7.1-1 Summary of Environmental and Social Impacts of YCR Line Upgrading Project................. 7-3
Table 7.1-2 Summary of Environmental and Social Impacts..................................................................... 7-6
Table 7.13-1 Ethnicity of PAHs ............................................................................................................... 7-17
Table 7.25-1 Annual CO2 Reduction by the Project ................................................................................ 7-23
Table 8.2-1 Summary of Environmental Management Plan (Pre-Construction Stage) ............................. 8-2
Table 8.2-2 Summary of Environmental Management Plan (Construction Stage) .................................... 8-3
Table 8.2-3 Summary of Environmental Management Plan (Operation Stage)......................................... 8-6
Table 8.2-4 Summary of Environmental Management Plan (Decommissioning Stage)............................ 8-7
Table 8.2-5 Summary of Environmental Management Plan (Closure Stage and Post-closure Stage) ....... 8-8
Table 8.3-1 Environmental Monitoring Plan (Pre-construction stage) ...................................................... 8-9
Table 8.3-2 Environmental Monitoring Plan (Construction stage) ............................................................ 8-9
Table 8.3-3 Environmental Monitoring Plan (Operation Stage) .............................................................. 8-10
Table 8.3-4 Environmental Monitoring Plan (Decommissioning Stage) ................................................. 8-11
Table 8.3-5 Environmental Monitoring Plan (Closure& Post Closure Stage) ......................................... 8-12
Table 8.5-1 Estimated Budget for implementing the EMP ...................................................................... 8-14
Table 8.5-2 Estimated Budget for Implementing the EMoP .................................................................... 8-15
Table 8.6-1 Implementation Schedule for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project ................ 8-16
Table 9.3-1 List of Stakeholder Meetings in the Scoping Stage ................................................................ 9-2
Table 9.4-1 Outline of the Second Stakeholder Meeting for the Entire Section of YCR ........................... 9-3

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

List of Figures
Page
Figure 3.2-1 Overview of Topography of YCR ......................................................................................... 3-6
Figure 3.2-2 Soil Map of Yangon Region .................................................................................................. 3-7
Figure 3.2-3 Major Trees along YCRL ...................................................................................................... 3-8
Figure 3.2-4 Climograph of Kabaaye Station in Yangon (1981-2010) .................................................... 3-11
Figure 3.3-1 Existing Drainage System of YCR line ............................................................................... 3-14
Figure 3.3-2 Poor Drainage Conditions in YCR line ............................................................................... 3-14
Figure 3.4-1 Railway and Road Network in Yangon City ....................................................................... 3-15
Figure 4.1-1 Number of Registered Vehicles in Yangon Region ............................................................... 4-1
Figure 4.3-1 Map of the Location of Project Area ..................................................................................... 4-3
Figure 4.4-1 Priority of Train Operation Plan during Construction ........................................................... 4-6
Figure 6.1-1 Locations of Air Quality Survey ........................................................................................... 6-1
Figure 6.1-2 Air Quality Survey at A1 ....................................................................................................... 6-2
Figure 6.1-3 Air quality survey at A2 ........................................................................................................ 6-2
Figure 6.1-4 Wind Direction and Wind Speed at A-1 ................................................................................ 6-4
Figure 6.1-5 Wind Direction and Wind Speed at -2- ................................................................................. 6-5
Figure 6.2-1 Locations of Water Quality Sampling Points ........................................................................ 6-6
Figure 6.2-2 Water Sampling at W1........................................................................................................... 6-7
Figure 6.2-3 Water Sampling at W2 ........................................................................................................... 6-7
Figure 6.2-4 Water Sampling at W3 ........................................................................................................... 6-7
Figure 6.2-5 Water Sampling at W4 ........................................................................................................... 6-8
Figure 6.2-6 Water Sampling at W5........................................................................................................... 6-8
Figure 6.2-7 Water Sampling at W6 ........................................................................................................... 6-8
Figure 6.2-8 Water Sampling at W7........................................................................................................... 6-9
Figure 6.2-9 Water Sampling at W8........................................................................................................... 6-9
Figure 6.3-1 Location of Soil Quality Survey Points............................................................................... 6-14
Figure 6.3-2 Soil Sampling at S1 ............................................................................................................. 6-14
Figure 6.3-3 Soil Sampling at S2 ............................................................................................................. 6-15
Figure 6.3-4 Soil Sampling at S3 ............................................................................................................. 6-15
Figure 6.3-5 Soil Sampling at S4 ............................................................................................................. 6-15
Figure 6.3-6 Soil Sampling at S5 ............................................................................................................. 6-16
Figure 6.3-7 Soil Sampling at S6 ............................................................................................................. 6-16
Figure 6.4-1 Location of Noise and Vibration Level Measurement Point ............................................... 6-19
Figure 6.4-2 Aerial and Surrounding Photo of West-A-1 ........................................................................ 6-19
Figure 6.4-3 Aerial and Surrounding Photo of East -A-1 ......................................................................... 6-20
Figure 6.4-4 Aerial and Surrounding Photo of East -B-1......................................................................... 6-20
Figure 8.4-1 Organizational Structure of PMU for the YCR Upgrading Project ..................................... 8-13
Figure 9.4-1 Second Stakeholder Meeting for the Entire Section of YCR ................................................ 9-3

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List of Abbreviations

AAS Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy


ABS Automatic Block System
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
ARP Abbreviated Resettlement Plan
ATS-S Automatic Train Stop System
B/D Basic Design
BOD Biological Oxygen Demand
CLS Closure Stage
CO Carbon Monoxide
COD Chemical Oxygen Demand
CS Construction Stage
DEMU Diesel Electric Multiple Unit
DMU Diesel Multiple Unit
DO Dissolved Oxygen
DS Decommissioning Stage
EC Electrical Conductivity
ECC Environmental Compliance Certificate
ECD Environmental Conservation Department, MONREC
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
ESIA Environmental and Social Impact Assessment
EMP Environmental Management Plan
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
F/S Feasibility Study
FDS Final Disposal Site
FOB Foot Over Bridge
GHG Greenhouse Gas
GOM Government of Myanmar
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
IEE Initial Environmental Examination
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resource
JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency
LOS Level of Service
MOAI Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation
MOALBI Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Breeding and Irrigation for farmland and crop production
MOECAF Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry
MONREC Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation
MR Myanma Railways
NEQG National Environmental Quality (Emission) Guidelines
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
NO Nitrogen Monoxide
NO2 Nitrogen dioxide
ODA Official Development Assistance
OHS Occupational Health and Safety
OP Operational Policy
OS Operation Stage
PAH Project-Affected Household
PAP Project-Affected People
PCCD Pollution Control and Cleansing Department
PM Particulate Matter
PMU Project Management Unit
PoS Post Closure Stage
PrS Pre-Construction Stage
RBE Rail Bus Engines
ROW Right of Way
SIA Social Impact Assessment
SO2 Sulfur Dioxide
TDS Total Dissolved Solid
TSP Total Suspended Particulates

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TSS Total Suspended Solid


WHO World Health Organization
YCDC Yangon City Development Committee
YCR Yangon Circular Railway
YRG Yangon Regional Government
YUTRA The Comprehensive Urban Transport Master Plan of the Greater Yangon

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1. Project Proponent
Project Proponent is Myanma Railways (MR) whose contract address is shown below:

U Htun Aung Thin, General Manager, Lower Myanmar Administration


Lower Myanmar Administration Office
Lower Block, Thein Phyu Road, Botahtaung Tsp, Yangon, Myanmar
Tel: +951 298631, Fax: 01-298594
E-mail: tunaungthin20@gmail.com

2. Title of Project
The name of Project is the Yangon Circular Railway Line (YCR Line) Upgrading Project
(hereafter referred to as the Project) for which the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
was conducted in accordance with Environmental Impact Assessment Procedure (No.
616/2015) (herein after referred to as the EIA Procedure).

3. Background of the Project


The Yangon Circular Railway Line is expected to perform as a spine urban transit system in
Yangon. The YCR Line whose length is approximately 46km, is a part of the railway network
in Myanma Railways under the Ministry of Transport and Communications (MOTC).

The transportation demand in Yangon City will continue to increase as the economy and
population growth. The transport model developed by the Comprehensive Urban Transport
Master Plan of the Greater Yangon (YUTRA) forecasts almost doubled mechanized trips,
from 4.9 million trips in 2013 to 9.5 million trips by 2035. Under such circumstances,
improvement of the YCR Line is considered as one of the most important transport
development projects in the Yangon Region, which was actually stated in the Myanmar
Development Cooperation Forum, held in January 2013. Alleviation of the traffic congestion
on roads paralleling the railway line is expected after improvement of YCR Line, which
generates some significant economic benefit in terms of savings in travel time, vehicle
operating costs, reduction of greenhouse gases, etc.

In this context, the Government of Myanmar (GOM) has officially requested support from the
Government of Japan with regard to the YCR Line Upgrading Project, through provision of a
Japanese ODA loan. The components requested by GOM include installation of a new signaling
system for the section between Yangon Station and Ma Hlwa Gone Station of the Yangon
Circular Railway (about 44 km) excluding a 2-km section between KP0+600 of the western
side and KP1+400 of the eastern side of Yangon Central Station and procurement of new Diesel
Electric Multiple Units (DEMUs).

The Environmental and Social Considerations study has been conducted in process of the
feasibility study (F/S) and basic design (B/D) stage of the Project. This EIA report has been
developed and updated based on the outputs of these past and on-going studies in line with
the EIA procedure in Myanmar and JICA Guidelines for Environmental and Social
Considerations (2014).

4. Project Description
4.1 Project Area
The Project area is shown in Figure 1. The Project section except for the new DEMU
procurement covers whole Yangon Circular Railway Line (46 km in total).

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Source: JICA Study Team

Figure 1 Location of the Project Area

4.2 Project Components/Activities


Detailed explanations of each of project activities are described in Chapter 4 and the overall
scope of the Project is shown below.

a) Installation of new signaling system (including automatic level crossings)


b) Procurement of new rolling stock
c) Re-alignment of the rail track
d) Track and roadbed works
e) Drainage system improvement
f) Railway bridge rehabilitation
g) New foot over bridge (FOB) installation
h) Level crossing works
i) Safety fence installation works
j) Station improvement works
k) Small building works (signal equipment building, level crossing watchman hut, etc.)
l) Depot facilities
m) Power supply

The Project components consist of improvement of signaling system and procurement of new
DEMUs as an initial step towards modernization of the YCR Line. While, other works which
are required prior to execution of the components including civil work (drainage system,
fence, rail bridge rehabilitation, roadbed, etc.), track work (rail welding, track irregularity
improvement, etc.), power supply work, station work (high height platform), depot work, etc.
will be carried out by MR using its own budget. New DEMU which will be procured by the
Rolling Stock Procurement Works as part of the Project will be used in the YCR Line as a
whole.

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

5. Baseline Study
The current environmental and social conditions in and around the Project area are shown in
Table 1. Field surveys of air quality, water quality, soil quality and noise and vibration were
conducted in and/or near the Project site. The other information on natural and social
environment was collected through the literature survey, reconnaissance survey and partially
from the socio-economic survey for the ARP.

Table 1 Current Environmental and Social Conditions in/around the Project Area
Item Description
I. Living Environment (Pollution Status)
1) Air Quality The monitoring survey of SO2, NO2, NO, CO, PM2.5, and PM10 for the ambient
air quality was conducted nearby two stations (one station is in urban area and
another one is in sub-urban area) of YCR Line for continuous seven days in
each of the location. PM2.5 and PM10 exceeded the National Environmental
Quality (Emission) Guideline Value in both survey points while NO2 level was
almost lower than the Guideline Value.
2) Water Quality Surface water samples were collected at six survey points of the creeks and
wastewater samples were collected at two survey points of the existing Depot.
In terms of effluent standard specified to railway facilities, TSS was
significantly higher than guideline value in every sampling point. Also, high
concentration of oil and grease was monitored in wastewater from the outlet of
the drainage channel in Insein DRC. At some points, total nitrogen, total
phosphorus and Iron also exceeded the guideline values to be compared. The
other measured parameters of surface water were within the range of guideline
value.
3) Soil Quality Totally, 6 points of soil samples were taken from the existing DRC and
expanded new DRC. More than 600 mg/kg of Iron (Fe) was detected at all
points. The other measured parameters complied with the generally permitted
level.
4) Noise and Vibration The baseline level of railway noise and vibration was confirmed in the survey
at two points of the eastern section and at one point of the western section of
YCR Line. The result ranged from 53 dB to 58 dB in the daytime and from 50
to 57 in the nighttime.
II. Natural Environment
1) Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity In the project area, almost all of the land along the YCR Line was highly
urbanized except some limited area in the north is used as an agricultural land.
Along the YCR Line, many trees were planted by MR for providing the
shading and visual amenity for train passengers and residents. According to
field survey, trees observed along the YCR Line include Malaysia Padauk,
Seinban, Malzali, Bandar, Kokko, Mango, Mahogany, Teak trees, etc.
2) Meteorology/Temperature and The City of Yangon is located in tropical monsoon climate, characterized by three
Rainfall distinct seasons, namely, summer (March to middle of May), rainy (Middle of
May to middle of October), and cool (Middle of October to February) seasons.
The mean monthly temperature is highest in April with 30.7 C (87.3 F) and
lowest in January with 25 C (77F). Rainfall in the City of Yangon is short in
duration and intensity and such a high intensity of rainfall is a major cause of
inundation problems in downtown Yangon. The study area abundantly receives
rain from May to October.
3) Topography/Hydrology The Yangon Railway Line runs in an area which is surrounded by three rivers.
This area consists of low flat land alleviated by the Yangon River and Bago
River and a hill area formed by an anticline continues from the north. The hill
area is located in the central area of Yangon and is surrounded by the lowland
area.
Most of Yangon area consists of fluvial flood plain which is associated with the
area lies in the delta of the Ayeyawaddy River and along Yangon, Hlaing and
Bago rivers and Nga Moeyeik Creek. According to the reports from MR, the main
flood cause in YCR is localized flood inundations in urban areas, but not river
floods or cyclones, etc. In addition, it is noted that the flooded railway sections
are observed in the southern part of YCR, namely Ma Hlwa Gone Station and
Hledan Station, of which the topographic features are flat.
4) Soil There are several soil types in Yangon Region: (1) meadow soils and meadow
alluvial soils, (2) clay and clay swampy soils, (3) swampy soils, (4) lateritic soils,
(5) yellow brown forest soils, (6) dune forest and beach sand, (7) mangrove forest

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Item Description
soils, (8) saline swampy meadow and gray soils. Of them, mostly found soil types
in the Project area are (1) meadow soils and meadow alluvial soils, and (2) lateritic
soils
III. Social Environment
1) Population Along the YCR Line, local communities are living in 19 Townships; Tar Mwe,
Pazuntaung, Mingalar Tahung Nyunt, Dagon, Botahtaung, Babe Dan, Kyauk Ta
Dar, La Thar, Lanmataw, Ahlone, Myeemyin Daing, Sanchung, Kamayut, Hlaing,
Mayankone, Insein, Mingaladon, North Okkalapa and Yan Kin. Lammadaw
Township has the highest population density, Pazun Taung Township follows as
the second highest and Mingaladon Township has the lowest.
2) Ethnicity Most of the people who live in 19 Townships are Bamar, followed by Rakhine
and Kayain.
3) Religion More than 80% of the people living in 19 townships are Buddhists, followed by
Islamic and Christian.
4) Land Use A number of building structures for residential and business activities is
observed within the ROW. Small-scale farming activities are found along the
YCR Line, using shallow ponds, cultivating water vegetables as small-scale
business activities of local people residing near the YCR Line.
5) Drainage System According to draft Feasibility Study Report of the YCR Line Upgrading
project (Sept 2015), the existing flow end of drainage of YCR is natural river
and pond. The existing drainage systems of YCR which were made by brick
wall have been installed along the railway partially. It is not feasible to
eliminate the possibility of flood event by the Project. It also requires the
improvement work of MR and cooperation with YCD.
6) Solid Waste Management Solid waste in Yangon City is generated from typical waste generators such as
residential areas, offices, and other commercial activities. The solid waste is
collected by the Pollution Control and Cleansing Department (PCCD) of
YCDC. The collected solid wastes are then transported to seven final disposal
sites (FDSs) including large scale (FDSs) such as Htantabin FDS and Htwae
Chaung FDS which are open dump sites.
7) Expected Scale of Resettlement Since the Project sites are mostly within ROW of MR and all the Project area is
public land, no land acquisition is required for the Project. However, some
structures such as house and shop along railway section, located within ROW of
MR, would be affected by the Project. In addition, some water logged spaces
within ROW of MR rented from MR for cultivation of vegetables would also be
affected by the Project. As of early August 2016, the number of expected PAHs is
30PAHs (137 persons). In addition, informal movable vendors selling vegetables
and other goods who are observed in some major stations such as the Da Nyin
Gone Station and Thamine Station will need be relocated.
Source: EIA Study Team

6. Summary of the Environmental and Social Impact Assessments


Environmental and social impacts on YCR Line Upgrading Project are predicted and
evaluated based on project description and results of baseline survey. The summary of
environmental and social impact assessments on the Project during Pre-Construction Stage
(PrS), Construction Stage (CS), Operation Stage (OS), Decommissioning Stage (DS), Closure
Stage (ClS) and Post Closure Stage (PoS) are shown in Table 2. The impacts of pollution,
natural environment and social environment including health and safety, and others were
classified as A to D in accordance with the following criteria, assuming no specific measures
towards the impacts are taken:

A-: Significant negative impact is expected, if any measures are not taken against the impact.
A+: Significant positive impact is expected.
B-: Negative impact is expected to some extent, if any measures are not taken against the impact.
B+: Some positive impact is expected.
C: Impacts are not clear and further examination is needed.
D: No impact is expected.

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Table 2. Assessment of the Impacts


Assessment Result
Cl
Item Pr Assessment
CS OS DS S/P
S
oS
Pollution Control
Air pollution D B- B- B- D CS: An earthwork construction, loading and unloading materials as
/B+ well as operation of construction machines and vehicles will generate
dust and emission gases that will deteriorate the ambient air quality.
OS: Increased impact of emission gas from diesel engines of
locomotives on air quality is expected because of increased operation
of trains. However, the cumulative impact might be decreased because
a new DEMU to be procured would have a better energy efficiency and
reduce exhaust gas emission.
DS: Any negative impact is expected to be limited because dust and
emission gases from demolition works will be generated within narrow
area near the site on a temporary basis.
Water pollution D B- B- B- D CS: Water pollution is expected due to the following pollutant
generation from construction work, although temporarily; (i) Run-off of
muddy water including soils from small scale of cutting, filling and
excavation of earthmoving work, (ii) Wastewater from a construction
office and other construction-related buildings and (iii) Spilling over of
toxic materials such as oil and lubricants.
OS: Maintenance and inspection works may generate polluted water,
especially that is contaminated by oil and grease.
DS: Water pollution is expected due to discharging of turbid water and
wastewater from construction office and other facilities. However, the
impact is temporary and limited.
Waste D B- B- B- D CS: Generation of soil and construction waste is expected relatively a
small scale since it is an upgrading project. The waste will include
existing devices that will be replaced after renewal of level crossing,
signals and telecommunication system.
OS: The solid waste from railway related facilities will be generated but
disposed in a proper way according to rules and regulations of YCDC.
DS: Solid waste will be generated from the dismantling of railway-
related infrastructure but the impact is expected to be limited as all
solid wastes will be disposed at designated disposal site by MR.
Soil contamination D D B- D B- OS: Soil contamination at depot would happen because of spilling and
infiltration of oil and grease as well as other toxic substances.
ClS/PoS: Soil contamination might remain and it should be checked.
Noise and D B- B- B- D CS: Impact of noise and vibration from construction machineries is
vibration /B+ expected but they will be specific and temporary events.
OS: Major impact of noise and vibration due to increase in the
frequency of train operation and speed is expected. On the other hand,
the safety wall to be installed along a railway track will serve as a
sound barrier and track and roadbed works will muffle railway noise
and vibration. The overall impact need to be checked by a monitoring.
DS: Impact of noise and vibration from demolition works of railway line
is expected to be small because noise and vibration caused by
construction works are specific and temporary events.
Offensive odor D C D D D CS: Offensive odor might occur around the construction site of
drainage system improvement due to excavation and dredging of mud
in the drainage channels or creek. However, the possibility is unknown.
Ground D D D D D Impact is not expected.
subsidence
Natural Environment
Protected area D D D D D The project site does not include any protected area such as national
parks, wildlife reserves or forest reserves.

5
Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

Assessment Result
Cl
Item Pr Assessment
CS OS DS S/P
S
oS
Flora, fauna & D B- D D D CS: It is expected hundreds of trees along the railway track will be cut
biodiversity or removed. Impacts on flora, fauna and biodiversity are expected to
be limited and temporary because trees observed along the YCR Line
are commonly found in public parks, other greenery areas and along
the roads in Yangon City.
Hydrological D C C D D CS: It is unknown whether drainage improvement works will affect a
situation/drainage hydrology and other drainage system around the project site.
system OS: A drainage condition of YCR Line will be better after improvement
of drainage system. However, it is unknown whether drainage
improvement works will affect a hydrology and other drainage system
around the project site.
Topography & D D D D D No large-scale alteration of land is expected due to construction work.
Geographical
Features
Social Environment
Involuntary B- B- D D D PrS/CS: Due to the project activities of new FOB installation, level
resettlement crossing works, safety fence installation, power supply and other small
building works, a certain number of structures including houses/shops
and project affected persons(PAPs) will be negatively affected.
However, no land acquisition is expected. Expected number of
PAHs/PAPs is 30 households/137 persons. Thus, MR as a project
proponent has prepared an Abbreviated Resettlement Action Plan
(ARP) and plans to provide necessary compensation and support of
resettlement to these PAPs.
Poverty B- B- D D D PrS/CS: Due to removal and relocation of structures to be affected and
/B+ /B+ disturbance of vendor business activities, income of some PAPs and
vendors might be decreased temporarily. On the other hand, the
Project may create more and more employment opportunities for local
people including vulnerable group/the poor.
Indigenous people C D D D D In the census and socio-economic survey that was conducted in June-
& ethnic minority July 2016, indigenous people were not found in the project area. The
census survey for the ARP found that some Kayin, Shan, Muslim,
Hindu and other people other than the majority of Burmese in the
Project area. However, the impact on those minorities that would occur
in pre-construction stage is expected not very significant but currently
uncertain since it requires more detailed information of the respective
households.
Local economy B- B- A+ D D PrS/CS: During construction period of safety fence installation,
such as /B+ /B+ improvement of station facilities and other railroad works, vendors
employment and business activities at stations and along railway tracks will be stopped
livelihood or obstructed. Appropriate measures to continue their business
activities will need to be considered. On the other hand, some
temporary employment opportunities of residents for construction work
is expected.
OS: Through this Project, the existing YCR Line will be improved to
provide faster and safer service, which may give rise to more
convenience and comfort to passengers as well as making easier
access to working places and social services. In addition, passengers
delivering and selling agricultural products to consumers by train will
also be benefitted. These may result in improvement living condition
and acceleration of local economy growth.
(Surrounding) land D D D D D The project sites are mostly within ROW of MR along YCR and the
use and utilization project will not alter any (surrounding) land use and utilization of local
of local resources resources.
Water usage D D D D D Impact on water usage is not expected because water consumption for
construction and demolition work will be small.

6
Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

Assessment Result
Cl
Item Pr Assessment
CS OS DS S/P
S
oS
Existing social D B- D D D CS: During a construction work period of new level crossing system
infrastructures and and other surrounding facilities, vehicle drivers and foot passengers
services will have some inconvenience and have to wait or use other roads
resulting in considerable congestion of road traffic at some locations
temporarily. It will also entail difficult accessibility between places in
surrounding area. An appropriate construction schedule and
arrangement will be required to minimize the traffic congestion and
confusion. In addition, there might be some inconvenience for YCR
Line users due to a railway operation limit for construction work on or
around railway tracks.
Equality of benefits B- D D D D The project itself intends to improve railway transport, which is major
and losses and portion of public transport in Yangon City. However, there would be
equality in the some misdistribution of benefit and damage between residents to be
development resettled and the general public/passengers.
process
Local conflicts of C C D D D PrS/CS: Some local conflicts that might be derived from informal
interests occupants to be affected by this YCR upgrading project and the other
informal occupants in MR land. Additionally, there would be some
conflicts between the PAUs who will be compensated and assisted by
the YCR project and informal occupants to be assisted by the YRGs
Squatter Clearance Plan regarding their entitlement packages.
Cultural heritage D D D D D The Kyee Myint Daing Railway Station and Yangon Central Railway
Station are registered as a Heritage Site of YCDC. However, YCR Line
upgrading works will not involve renovation of these historical buildings
or affect the cultural heritage.
Landscape D D D D D No law-based designated areas are found around the project areas
and change in existing landscape is expected to be negligible in all
project phases.
Gender D D B+ D D Any gender issues that would be caused by Project are not anticipated
in all stages of project activity. On the other hand, in operational stage,
the station facility improvement including the barrier free measures and
installation of lighting pole will improve safety for female passengers.
Childrens right D D B+ D D The project will not cause any adverse impact on childrens rights. On
the other hand, the accessibility to education and other services for
children will be improved by Project.
Infectious diseases D B- D B- D CS/DS: Risks for infectious diseases might be increased due to influx
such as HIV/AIDS of construction/demolition workers into the project area.
OS: In the operation stage, train operation and maintenance works will
be operated by existing MR staffs and risks for infectious diseases are
not anticipated due to influx of workers.
Working conditions D B- D B- D CS/DS: The construction and demolition works would involve
including occupational health and safety risk of accidents and diseases during
occupational construction/demolition work.
health and safety
Others
Traffic accident D B- B- D D CS: Some illegal encroachment such as crossing railways by walk and
/B+ occupation on railway yard with temporary huts, kiosks and vendors
are expected along the YCR Line sections. Not only construction
works but also those local people might get involved in accident on the
construction site. It shall be well controlled and managed by several
means such as an installation of notice board, security guard and
proper barricading.
OS: An increase in the frequency of trains and speed may result in an
increase in risk of traffic accidents. The installed safety fence,
installation of level crossings and automatic bars will minimize these
accidents. Further measures against railway accidents by MR will be
required.

7
Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

Assessment Result
Cl
Item Pr Assessment
CS OS DS S/P
S
oS
Climate change D B- B- B- D CS/DS: Greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 due to construction
/B+ vehicles and machines will be generated on a small scale and
temporarily.
OS: GHG emission will be increased by increased frequency of trains
on upgraded YCR Line. On the other hand, renovation of YCR Line
may attract more passengers due to faster and safer operation than
existing train operation. This will enhance modal shift to railway
transport from road transport, that will result in reduction of GHGs.
Hazardous D B- B- B- D CD/DS: Construction or demolition work may pose the potential for
materials and oil release of fuel or hazardous substance that is used for equipment or
management construction/demolition work.
OS: Fueling stations have a potential risk of soil and water resource
contamination due to leaks and spills of fuel. Hazardous materials
such as solvents, acids and alkalis may also be used in maintenance
work of locomotives and rolling stocks.
Note:
A-: Significant negative impact is expected, if any measures are not taken against the impact.
A+: Significant positive impact is expected.
B-: Negative impact is expected to some extent, if any measures are not taken against the impact.
B+: Some positive impact is expected.
C: Impacts are not clear and further examination is needed.
D No impact is expected.
PrS: Pre-construction Stage, CS: Construction Stage, OS: Operational stage, DS: Decommissioning Stage,
CIS: Closure Stage, PoS: Post-closure Stage
Source: EIA Study Team

7. Environmental Mitigation/ Management and Monitoring Plan


7.1 Environmental Mitigation and Management Plan
The categories evaluated as A- or B- in accordance with the results of the impact
assessment, mitigation of its measures for each of project stages separately pre-
construction stage, construction stage, operation stage, decommissioning stage and closure
and post-closure stage are shown in Tables 3 to 7.

Table 3. Environmental Mitigation and Management Plan (Pre Construction Stage)


Expected Environmental Implemented Managed Supervised
Category Item Mitigations Measures
and Social Impacts by by by
Social Involuntary Resettlement or/and Compensation for MR MR YRG and
environment resettlement relocation of buildings affected structures and YCDC
and other assets, standing crops and
involving some changes assistance of livelihood
in livelihood of PAPs restoration to be
elaborated in the
entitlement matrix of
updated ARP
Ethnic minority The minority of PAPs Special attention to be MR MR YRG and
could fall in socially paid to minority PAPs. YCDC
vulnerable groups and The situation needs be
might face a difficulty confirmed through the
due to resettlement or monitoring program of
other social impacts. ARP and adequate
measures will be
considered if necessary.
Poverty/ Local Loss of income Compensation for MR MR YRG and
economy such opportunity of some affected structures and YCDC
as employment PAPs due to standing crops and
and livelihood resettlement and shop support of livelihood

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

Expected Environmental Implemented Managed Supervised


Category Item Mitigations Measures
and Social Impacts by by by
owners, vendors or restoration that will be
farmers to be affected elaborated in the
by Project entitlement matrix of
updated ARP
Equality of There would be some 1) Information disclosure MR MR YRG and
benefits and misdistribution of benefit and close YCDC
losses and and damage between communication with local
equality in the residents to be resettled communities
development and the general 2) Development of
process public/passengers. grievance redress
mechanism
Local conflicts Local conflicts that 1) Information disclosure MR MR YRG and
of interest might be derived from and close YCDC
informal occupants to communication with local
be affected by this YCR communities
upgrading project and 2) Development of
the other informal grievance redress
occupants in MR land. mechanism
Additionally, there would
be some conflicts
between the PAUs who
will be compensated
and assisted by the
YCR project and
informal occupants to
be assisted by the
YRGs Squatter
Clearance Plan
regarding their
entitlement packages.
Source: EIA Study Team

Table 4. Environmental Mitigation and Management Plan (Construction Stage)


Expected Environmental Implement Managed Supervised
Category Item Mitigations Measures
and Social Impacts ed by by by
Pollution Air pollution Air pollution caused by 1) Sprinkling water at Contractor MR MONREC
control emissions gas from construction site
construction machine and 2) Proper storage of
vehicle, dust from construction materials
construction works and including covering sand
materials as well as and gravel that are easily
construction traffic diffused into the
atmosphere
3) Covering bulk materials
during transportation
4) Regular maintenance
of construction machines
and vehicle reduce
emissions
Water 1) Discharging turbid 1) Discharging turbid Contractor MR MONREC
pollution water from construction water through
site sedimentation ponds or
2) Generation of domestic after simple turbid water
waste water from treatment
temporary construction 2) Installation of
office or related facilities temporary septic tanks or
other wastewater
treatment facility for
workers

9
Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

Expected Environmental Implement Managed Supervised


Category Item Mitigations Measures
and Social Impacts ed by by by
Waste 1) Surplus soil waste and 1) Reduce, reuse and Contractor MR YCDC and
other waste from recycle of construction MONREC
construction and other type of waste
2) Waste of existing 2) Disposal of waste in a
devices replaced with proper way
newly installed devices 3) Installation of
such as old signaling temporary sanitation
devices, bricks, ballast, facility such as septic tank
etc. at construction office and
3) Solid and liquid wastes other facilities
discharged from
temporary construction
office and other facilities
Noise and Impacts of noise and 1) Installing noise barrier Contractor MR MONREC
vibration vibration by construction and selecting low-noise
machineries and vehicles equipment as needed,
especially near the
residential area and/or
sensitive receptor
2) No construction
activities with heavy
equipment during night
time if there are any
sensitive receptors
nearby
3) Prior notice of
construction schedule
near the residential area
Offensive Offensive odor due to Consideration of Contractor MR MONREC
odor excavation or dredging in additional mitigation
drainage channels or measures depending on
creek an odor source and
condition
Natural Flora, fauna Loss of trees and other Replanting trees in Contractor MR MONREC
Environm and plant species suitable area as needed and YCDC
ent biodiversity based on prior
consultation with
MONREC and YCDC
Hydrological Potential impacts on 1) Site patrol Contractor MR YCDC and
situation/drain hydrological situation or 2) Consideration of local
age system drainage condition additional mitigation authorities
surrounding of YCR Line measures if any issues in charge
due to improvement of are confirmed of the site
drainage system of YCR
Line
Social Involuntary Resettlement or/and Compensation and MR MR YRG and
Environm resettlement relocation of buildings and assistance of livelihood YCDC
ent other assets, involving restoration that will be
some changes in elaborated in the
livelihood of PAPs entitlement matrix of
updated ARP
Poverty Loss of income Compensation and MR MR YRG and
opportunity of some PAPs support of livelihood YCDC
due to resettlement or restoration that will be
construction works elaborated in the
entitlement of updated
ARP

10
Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

Expected Environmental Implement Managed Supervised


Category Item Mitigations Measures
and Social Impacts ed by by by
Local Impact on livelihood of 1) Compensation and 1) MR 1) MR YRG and
economy such some PAPs and vendors assistance of livelihood 2) YCDC 2) YCDC YCDC
as by construction works or restoration that will be for for
employment the safety fence to be elaborated in the considerati considerati
and livelihood installed for operation. entitlement matrix of on of on of
updated ARP for PAPs alternative alternative
2) Appropriate measures markets markets
for relocated vendors
such as providing an
alternative market space
Existing social 1) Road traffic congestion 1) Advance 1) & 3) MR Police
infrastructure in surrounding area announcement of Contractor force,
and services during construction period construction schedule 2) & 4) MR YRG,
of level crossing and 2) Time shift of YCDC and
other facilities construction work to be local
2) Inconvenience for YCR decided by MR, if authority
Line users due to a possible
limited railway operation 3) Preparation and
for construction work implementation of the
Traffic Management Plan
by the Contractor
including arrangement of
watchmen and detour
road signs
4) Providing alternative
transportation services
such as public buses by
MR, if needed
Local conflicts Conflicts among local 1) Information disclosure MR MR YRG,
of interest people including PAPs, and close communication YCDC, and
other informal occupants with local communities local
in MRs YCR land but not 2) Development of authority
affected by this YCR grievance redress
upgrading project. mechanism
Infectious Risks for infectious Awareness of public Contractor MR MOH
diseases such diseases due to inflow of health for workers and
as HIV/AIDS construction workers local communities
Working 1) Accidents in the 1) Compliance with Contractor MR Ministry for
condition operation of construction requirement of Labor Law Labour,
including machinery and other 2) Preparation of a safety Immigratio
occupational works and health management n and
health and 2) Risk of occupational plan and enlighten Population
safety health and safety for occupational safety to and MOH
workers in case of severe workers
working conditions 3) Providing proper
personal protective
equipments (PPEs) such
as helmet, safety jacket,
gloves and safety shoes
for workers

11
Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

Expected Environmental Implement Managed Supervised


Category Item Mitigations Measures
and Social Impacts ed by by by
Others Traffic The risk of accidents 1) Enlightening local 1) & 2) MR MR Police
accident would be higher for residents and passengers 3) force,
passengers, informal for safety education to Contractor YRG,
occupants and other prevent from accidents YCDC and
nearby residents due to 2) Installation of safety local
their habits of crossing fences and frequent authority
railway lines by walk and inspection along railway
occupation on railway tracks to prevent illegal
yards with shops, huts occupants
and vendors 3) Manage the
construction site to
prevent local people from
entering the site by
barricading and the site
security gate.
Climate GHG emissions from Saving on electricity in Contractor MR MONREC
change construction vehicles and construction sites and
machines office such as vehicle idle
reduction
Hazardous Spoil of fuel or hazardous 1) Training workers on Contractor MR MONREC
materials and substance that is used for appropriate handling of
oil construction work fuels and chemicals
management 2) Measures for spill
control and leakage
control system
Source: EIA Study Team

Table 5. Environmental Mitigation and Management Plan (Operation Stage)


Expected
Implement Managed Supervis
Category Item Environmental and Mitigations Measures
ed by by ed by
Social Impacts
Pollution Air pollution Impacts of air Utilization of better MR MR MONRE
control pollutants from equipment and more C
increased number of pollution control devices
trains
Water Generation of waste Proper treatment of waste MR MR MONRE
pollution water containing oil water by installation of C
and grease through waste water treatment plant
light-maintenance or other mean
activities in depot
Waste Generation of 1) Proper disposal of waste MR MR YCDC
municipal solid waste according to YCDCs and
in stations and instruction MONRE
common passenger 2) Collection and separation C
areas of waste in the trains and
stations
Soil Soil contamination 1) Proper management and MR MR MONRE
contamination which is caused by control of leakage of oil and C
leakage of oil and grease in the depot
grease by running 2) Regular maintenance of
trains and in depot railcars

12
Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

Expected
Implement Managed Supervis
Category Item Environmental and Mitigations Measures
ed by by ed by
Social Impacts
Noise and Railway noise and 1) Regular maintenance of MR MR MONRE
vibration vibration due to wheels and tracks to reduce C
increase in the noise from contact between
frequency of train wheel and rail.
operation and speed 2) Installing sound barrier to
reduce noise disturbance in
a sensitive area
2) Consideration of other
measures depending on a
site conditions and
receptors
Social Accidents Railway accidents of Enlightening passengers MR MR MONRE
environment passengers and local and local residents about C
people traffic safety specific to
railways
Others Climate GHG emissions from 1) Efforts to improve rail MR MR MONRE
change diesel engines and energy efficiency such as C
train operation an Eco-driving
2) Evaluation of GHG
emissions from railway
business and development
of strategies to reduce GHG
emissions from rail services
in the future
Hazardous Spoil of fuel or 1) Training workers on Contractor MR MONRE
materials and hazardous substance appropriate handling of C
oil that is used for fuels and chemicals
management construction work 2) Measures for adequate
spill control and leakage
control system
Source: EIA Study Team

Table 6. Environmental Mitigation and Management Plan (Decommissioning Stage)


Expected
Implement Managed Supervis
Category Item Environmental and Mitigations Measures
ed by by ed by
Social Impacts
Pollution Air pollution Impact of air pollution 1) Sprinkling water Contractor MR MONRE
controls caused by demolition around the site and C
works of railway near residential area
facilities related with 2) Proper storage of
YCR Line materials related to
demolition works that
are easily diffused
into the atmosphere
3) Covering bulk
materials during
transportation to
disposal site

13
Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

Expected
Implement Managed Supervis
Category Item Environmental and Mitigations Measures
ed by by ed by
Social Impacts
Water pollution 1) Discharging turbid 1) Discharging turbid Contractor MR MONRE
water from water through C
construction site sedimentation ponds
2) Generation of 2) Installation of
domestic waste water portable toilets or
from temporary temporary septic
construction office or tanks for workers
related facilities 3) Preparing
discharged water
treatment system
Waste 1) Generating solid 1) Reduce, reuse and Contractor MR MONRE
waste from recycle of waste C
dismantling of railway 2) Waste disposal in a
facilities proper way including
2) Solid and liquid segregation of waste
wastes by temporary 3) Installation of
construction office temporary sanitation
and other facilities facility such as septic
tank
Noise and vibration Impacts of noise and 1) Installing noise Contractor MR MONRE
vibration by barrier and selecting C
demolition works low-noise equipment
as needed
2) No construction
activities with heavy
equipment during
night time if there are
any sensitive
receptors nearby
3) Prior notice of
demolition work
schedule near the
residential area
Social Infectious diseases Risks of infectious Trainings and Contractor MR MOH
Environmen such as HIV/AIDS diseases due to inflow awareness on public
t of workers for health for workers
demolition works of
YCR Line
Working condition 1) Accidents in the 1) Compliance with Contractor MR Ministry
including operation of requirement of Labor for
occupational health machinery and other Law Labour,
and safety demolition works 2) Preparation of a Immigrati
2) Risk of safety and health on and
occupational health management plan Populatio
and safety for workers and enlighten n
in case of severe occupational safety to
working conditions workers
3) Providing a proper
personal protective
equipment such as
helmet, safety jacket,
gloves and safety
shoes for workers as
needed

14
Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

Expected
Implement Managed Supervis
Category Item Environmental and Mitigations Measures
ed by by ed by
Social Impacts
Others Hazardous Spoil of fuel or 1) Training workers on Contractor MR MONRE
materials and oil hazardous substance appropriate handling C
management that is used for of fuels and chemicals
demolition work 2) Measures for
adequate spill control
and leakage control
system

Source: EIA Study Team

Table 7. Environmental Mitigation and Management Plan (Closure Stage and Post-closure
Stage)
Expected Environmental Mitigations Implement Managed Supervis
Category Item
and Social Impacts Measures ed by by ed by
Pollution Soil contamination Residual impact of soil Remediation of Contractor MR MONRE
contamination from contaminated soil C
maintenance works in with proper
depot and other activities treatment, of any
contamination is
found
Source: EIA Study Team

7.2 Environmental Monitoring Plan


Environmental Monitoring Plan including monitoring items, location, frequency and
responsible organization at the pre-construction stage, construction stage, operation stage,
decommissioning stage and close& post closure stage are shown in Table 8 to Table 12. The
project proponent (MR) will submit the monitoring report to MONREC periodically as per
the EIA Procedure.

Table 8. Environmental Monitoring Plan (Pre-Construction Stage)


Supervised
Category Monitoring Item Location Frequency Monitored by
by
Common 1) Review and update of the Environmental Project area Once before Contractor MONREC
Mitigation and Management Plan and commencement (Managed by
Environmental Monitoring Plan based on the of construction MR)
detailed project design work
2) Preparation of safety management plan for
construction phase
Social 1) Progress of implementation of ARP Project area Once before MR YRG and
environment 2) Complaints received from local people and commencement local
related to through the grievance redness mechanism of surrounding of construction authorities
resettlement the Project work
and others
Source: EIA Study Team

Table 9. Environmental Monitoring Plan (Construction Stage)


Supervised
Category Monitoring Item Location Frequency Monitored by
by
Common Progress of conducting mitigation measures Project area Monthly and Contractor MR
quarterly during (managed by
construction MR)
period
Air quality 1) Site patrol Representative 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
2) Checking received complaints from point(s) of 2) Whenever (managed by
residents construction received MR)

15
Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

Supervised
Category Monitoring Item Location Frequency Monitored by
by
3) Monitoring of air quality, if needed site(s) 3) When
needed
Water quality 1) Site patrol Creeks 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
2) Monitoring of parameters stipulated by nearby 2) Biannually (managed by
National Environmental Quality(Emission) construction MR)
Guideline site(s)
Waste 1) Site patrol and housekeeping at Construction 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
construction site site(s) 2) Monthly (managed by
2) Checking waste-disposal method MR)
Noise and 1) Site patrol Construction 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
vibration 2) Received complaints from residents site(s) 2) Whenever (managed by
3) Monitoring the noise and vibration level, if received MR)
required considering received complaints and 3) When
sensitive receptors etc. needed
Cutting of trees 1) Check of species and number of trees that Construction 1) Quarterly Contractor MONREC
need be cut site(s) 2) Once or more (managed by and YCDC
2) Prior consultation with administrative MR)
authorities in charge of (MONREC and YCDC)
Social Progress of implementation of ARP Project area Monthly and MR YRG and
environment and Quarterly local
related to surrounding authority
resettlement
Existing social 1) Received complaints from residents Construction 1) Whenever Contractor YCDC
infrastructure 2) Physical observation of road traffic site(s) and received (managed by
and services condition surroundings 2) Every day of MR)
3) Interviewing/discussing with Traffic Police construction
period
3) When
necessary
Infectious 1) Report of workers disease Construction 1) Quarterly at Contractor MOHS and
diseases such 2) Record of awareness activities site(s) minimum (managed by local
as HIV/AIDS 2) Quarterly MR) authority
Working 1) Site patrol Construction 1) Monthly at Contractor Ministry for
condition 2) Record of implementing the safety and site(s) minimum (managed by Labour,
including health management plan 2) Quarterly MR) Immigration
occupational and
health and Population
safety
Traffic accident 1) Site patrol Construction 1) Monthly at Contractor Police force
2) Record of accidents site(s) minimum (managed by and YCDC
3) Record of safety-awareness campaign and 2) Monthly MR)
other measures 3) Monthly
Hazardous 1) Site patrol to check a condition of handling Construction 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
materials and or storing hazardous materials site(s) 2) Quarterly (managed by
oil 2) Record of training on handling hazardous MR)
management materials for workers
Source: EIA Study Team

Table 10. Environmental Monitoring Plan (Operation Stage)


Supervised
Category Monitoring Item Location Frequency Monitored by
by
Common Progress of conducting mitigation measures Project area Monthly and MR MONREC
every quarterly and other
for the first 3 related
years after agencies
starting of the
operation stage
Air quality 1) Site patrol Along the 1) Monthly MR MONREC
YCR Line

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Supervised
Category Monitoring Item Location Frequency Monitored by
by
Water quality Monitoring of parameters stipulated by Discharged Every six MR MONREC
National Environmental Quality(Emission) point from months for the
Guideline depot first 3 years
after starting of
the operation
stage
Waste 1) Site patrol to check the waste management Railway Every three MR MONREC
in stations, railcars and other related facilities stations and months for the and YCDC
2) Check of waste-disposal method other related first 3
facilities years after
starting of the
operation stage
Soil 1) Site patrol Depot 1) Monthly MR MONREC
contamination 2) Monitoring of soil quality if the 2) When
contamination is suspected. needed
Noise and Noise and vibration level 2 monitoring Every six MR MONREC
vibration stations or months for the
more along first 3
the YCR Line years after
starting of the
operation stage
(24 hours
continuous
monitoring for
each frequency)
Traffic 1) Records of accidents Around the 1) Monthly MR Police force
accidents 2) Record of safety-awareness campaign and YCR Line 2) Every six and YCDC
other measures area months for the
first 3
years after
starting of the
operation stage
Hazardous 1) Record of training on handling hazardous Project area Quarterly for the MR MONREC
materials and materials for workers first 3
oil 2) Record and condition of handling or storing years after
management hazardous materials starting of the
operation stage
Source: EIA Study Team

Table 11. Environmental Monitoring Plan (Decommissioning Stage)


Supervised
Category Monitoring Item Location Frequency Monitored by
by
Common Progress of conducting mitigation measures Project area Monthly and Contractor MR
Quarterly during (managed by
decommissionin MR)
g period
Air quality 1) Site patrol Representativ 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
2) Received complaints from residents e point of 2) Whenever (managed by
3) Monitoring of air quality, if needed decommission received MR)
ing work 3) When
site(s) needed
Water quality 1) Site patrol Discharged 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
2) Monitoring of parameters stipulated by point from 2) Biannually (managed by
National Environmental Quality(Emission) decommission MR)
Guideline ing work
site(s) and
other project-
related area

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Supervised
Category Monitoring Item Location Frequency Monitored by
by
Waste 1) Site patrol and housekeeping at Decommissio 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
construction site ning work 2) Monthly (managed by
2) Checking waste-disposal method site(s) MR)
Noise and 1) Site patrol Decommissio 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
vibration 2) Received complaints from residents ning work 2) Whenever (managed by
3) Monitoring of noise and vibration level, if site(s) received MR)
required considering received complaints 3) When
needed
Infectious 1) Report of workers disease Decommissio 1) Quarterly at Contractor MOHS and
diseases such 2) Record of awareness activities ning work minimum (managed by local
as HIV/AIDS site(s) 2) Quarterly MR) authority
Working 1) Site patrol Decommissio 1) Monthly at Contractor Ministry for
condition 2) Record of implementing the safety ning work minimum (managed by Labour,
including management plan site(s) 2) Quarterly MR) Immigration
occupational and
health and Population
safety
Traffic accident 1) Site patrol Decommissio 1) Monthly at Contractor Police force
2) Record of accidents ning work minimum (managed by and YCDC
3) Record of safety-awareness campaign and site(s) 2) Monthly MR)
other measures 3) Monthly
Hazardous 1) Site patrol to check a condition of handling Decommissio 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
materials and or storing hazardous materials ning work 2) Quarterly (managed by
oil 2) Record of training on handling hazardous site(s) MR)
management materials for workers

Source: EIA Study Team

Table 12. Environmental Monitoring Plan (Closure& Post Closure Stage)


Supervised
Category Monitoring Item Location Frequency Monitored by
by
Soil Monitoring of soil quality (pH, TPH (Total Depot Once MR MONREC
Contamination Petroleum Hydrocarbon), Cd, Pb, Cr(VI), Hg,
Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, As, Se and others as
needed)
Source: EIA Study Team

8. Public Consultation and Disclosure


In fulfillment of the public consultation for the Project, four stakeholder meetings in total
were held so far. Since the preliminary scope of the Project targeted only on the western
section of YCR, the first and second ones focused on the public consultation regarding the
draft outputs of Project plan and IEE-level study for the western section. After the scope of
Project was extended to the whole section of YCR, the third and fourth time stakeholder
meeting, namely the first and second stakeholder meeting for the entire section of YCR were
organized. The first one, that was considered as a stakeholder meeting in the scoping stage
was held to intend to explain the brief project plan as well as the preliminary result of
environmental and social impact assessment to 120 attendees in April 2015. In the second
stakeholder meeting for the entire section of YCR that was organized with participation of
161 attendees including local stakeholders, parliament members, NGO and mass media, etc.
in July 2016, MR explained the outline of project plan as well as the summary of draft EIA
report and answered to questions and comments from the stakeholders. The outline of the past
stakeholder meetings is described as below. The detailed records are shown in the Appendix 3.

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Table 13. List of Stakeholder Meetings for the Project


No. Title Date Venue Summary
1 1st stakeholder 13:00 pm to 16:00 Ruby Hall- - Attendance: total 132 persons including
meeting for the pm, August 7th, Asia Plaza the local residents, government
western section Thursday 2014 Hotel, officials, NOGs etc.
of YCR Yangon - The preliminary project plan and
scoping result for IEE study were
presented.
2 2nd stakeholder 13:00 pm to 16:00 Yuzana - Attendance: total 176 persons including
meeting for the pm, September Garden PAPs, news media, government
western section 23rd, Tuesday Hotel, officials, NGOs etc.
of YCR 2014 Yangon - The updated Project plan and draft
result of IEE study for western section
were presented.
3 1st stakeholder 13:00 pm to 16:00 Yuzana - Attendance: total 120 persons including
meeting for the pm, May 12, Garden PAPs, local interest people,
entire section of Tuesday 2015 Hotel, government officials, members of
YCR Yangon Parliament of Yangon Region etc.
- The updated Project plan and draft
result of IEE study for the entire
section of YCR were presented.
4 2nd stakeholder 13:00 pm to 15:30 Yuzana - Attendance: total 161 persons including
meeting for the pm, 12 July 2016 Garden PAPs, local interest people,
entire section of Hotel, government officials, members of
YCR Yangon Parliament of Yangon Region etc.
- The draft output of updated EIA report
for the entire section of YCR were
presented.
Source: EIA Study Team

9. Conclusions and Recommendation


9.1 Conclusions
According to the result of the EIA study for the YCR Line Upgrading Project, conclusion is
drawn is follows;

1) In terms of living environment, most of the impacts are controlled and limited in and
around the project area. The key negative impacts such as emission of air pollutants
such as gas and dust, degradation of surface water quality and generation of noise and
vibration are expected. However, planning and implementation of appropriate
environmental mitigation measures in the EMP such as sprinkling water to specific area
of construction site (e.g. FOB construction site) for dust prevention, and to limit the
mobilization of construction vehicles for prevention of emission gas, and to prepare the
appropriate construction schedule to prevent noise generation during the night time will
minimize these negative impacts.
2) In terms of natural environment, YCR Line does not pass through any protected area or
reserved forest areas or natural forests in the City. Almost all of the land along the YCR
Line was highly urbanized except some limited areas in the north. The lands along the
northern section of the YCR Line are still used for agricultural activities. Most of plants
along the YCR Line are also found commonly in public parks, other greenery areas and
along the roads in the Yangon City. Since there are over thousand trees within the MR
fence line, and not all, but partially these trees will be cleared for the construction work.
To minimize the impact, the number of tress to be cleared needs to be minimized as
much as possible by reconfirming the site specific requirement, and replanting the
affected trees in the project area needs to be considered wherever possible.
3) In terms of social environment, the project sites are mostly within MR's land/ROW and
no land acquisition is required for the Project. However, most structures such as houses

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and shops along railway section, although located within ROW of MR can be affected
partially by the project during the pre-construction stage and the construction stage of
the project. In addition, some water logged spaces within MRs land/ROW rented from
MR for cultivation of vegetables can also be affected by the project. Safety fence
installation along the YCR Line which is one of project components will indirectly
affect and stop vendor activities in Thamine station, Da Nyin Kone station and Kanbe
station until MR and other respective government bodies such as YCDC and YRG
arrange alternative space and facilities so that these vendors can continue their
livelihood/business activities.
4) In addition, passengers delivering and selling agricultural products to consumers by
train will also be benefitted indirectly. These may result in overall improvement living
condition and acceleration the growth of local economy.
5) On the other hand, after upgrading of YCR Line, the existing YCR transport services
will be upgraded to faster and safer, which may give rise to more convenience and
comfort to passengers as well as making easier access to working places, schools, social
services, shopping and other daily life activities. Especially, it will also contribute to
improvement of traffic congestion of Yangon city if the number of train users is
increased.
6) In addition, there are some other social impacts of the YCR Line upgrading project.
Some impacts on occupational/health and safety including rail safety are expected
during the project implementation as well as the operation. However, these impacts will
be overall minimized with appropriate mitigation and management plan and by
complying with national and international occupational health and safety guidelines.
Especially, safety for passengers needs to be ensured by providing the educational
program on safety awareness to passengers and local residents during the construction
and operation stages.
7) Moreover, the existing railway service will be temporarily disturbed during the
construction since the number of the trains could be reduced depending on the
construction plan such as construction work on night window time or live line
construction work with the partial single track operation. The inconvenience for
passengers needs to be minimized to the extent possible by providing the prior notice of
the construction plan to passengers and if necessary, alternative transportation for
railway passengers.
8) Lastly, since the YCR Line is located in the middle of Yangon City, the traffic will be
disturbed during the construction stage especially in the central business district. To
minimize the impacts and the inconvenience of general public and local residents, the
specific traffic management plan need to be prepared.

In consideration of the result of the EIA study for the project, the Environmental Management
Plans (EMPs) including adequate mitigation measures to reduce the negative impacts and
Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) are proposed for each stage of the project.

9.2 Recommendation
The YCR Line is expected to perform as a spine urban transit system in Yangon since Yangon
City has encountered the increased demand of transportation and heavy traffic congestion. In
order to increase an efficiency of passenger transport capacity and upgrade the safe and
comfortable public transport service by rehabilitating and replacing the existing railway
facilities and the rolling stock, the improvement of the YCR Line is considered as one of the
most important transport development projects in the Yangon region.

There are 2 other challenges for implementation of this project beside the above-mentioned
specific measures. Firstly, it is suggested that MoTC, MR, MoTC, YRG, YCDC and related
townships mutually work closely together to move forward with the Project plan. In order to
fulfill this objective and required performance, the Project requires to cooperate with related
parties including the local government (e.g. YRG and YCDC) and communities and to take a

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sufficient consideration for potential inconvenience and issues on social and environmental
aspects. For example, the civil-work period would involve some temporal inconvenience to
passengers and residents along railway due to construction works and partially-restricted
operation of YCR. It is crucial to announce the construction plan in advance and provide an
alternative transportation as needed to avoid confusion. The installation of signaling system
entails flood countermeasures which need to be secured with the good performance of public
drainage system to be managed by YCDC. The safety measures in railway track and platform
such as the installation of safety fence and safety awareness program targeting passengers and
residents should be practiced so that a risk of railway accidents can be minimized even after
the train speed is increased. The alternative market and resettlement of PAHs also needs to be
implemented in consultation with YRG and YCDC.

Secondly, it is suggested that MR will comply with the proposed Environmental Mitigation
and Management Plans in implementing for all stages of the Project. For the Project, the civil
work will be funded by the Government of Myanmar, and installing signaling system and
procurement of DEMU will be funded by the JICA. Since the JICA loan project requires
environmental and social considerations or compliance of safety, health and environment
requirements at the international level, wherever there is a significant gap between the
national requirements and the international requirements, the gap filling measure needs to be
adopted by the Project Proponent/Executing Agency.

As Myanmar is moving forward with the momentum to become a better and improved nation,
it is essential to have secure, reliable and efficient transportation facilities in the largest city.
The railway system has the lowest emission level per user, is the cheapest mode of land
transportation, has the largest capacity of mobility and is the most convenient and reliable
way of travelling. Thus, it is recommended that the improvement of the existing aged railway
system is vital for the development process of Myanmar.

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Project Proponent
Project Proponent is Myanma Railways (MR) whose contract address is shown below:

U Htun Aung Thin, General Manager, Lower Myanmar Administration


Lower Myanmar Administration Office
Lower Block , Thein Phyu Road, Botahtaung Tsp, Yangon, Myanmar
Tel: +951 298631, Fax: 01-298594
E-mail: tunaungthin20@gmail.com

1.2 Purpose of the Study


This EIA study aims (1) to assess the environmental and social impacts to be caused by the
Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project which covers whole Yangon Circular
Railway Line (approximately 46 km in total) except for the new DEMU procurement and
(2) to prepare the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) including mitigation measures to
reduce and minimize the negative impacts to be caused by the Project and Environmental
Monitoring Plan (EMoP).

1.3 Implementation Organization for Environmental Impact Assessment


(EIA)
This EIA study was conducted by E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd., which was sub-
contracted by Oriental Consultant Global Co., Ltd. on behalf of the JICA Study Team for the
Environmental Impact Assessment Study on the Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading
Project. The members of the EIA team are listed in Table 1.2-1. The contact address is shown
as follows:

- E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.


- No. 99, Myakanthar Lane, Nyein Chanyay Street, 10 Miles, Pyay Road, Sawbwargyigone,
Insein Township, Yangon, 11011, Myanmar
- Tel: +95-1-667953, Fax: +95-1-6667953
- http://www.eguardservices.com

Table 1.2-1 EIA Team Formation


Sr. Name Position Background
1 U Aye Thiha Team Leader of EIA study B.Sc., (Forestry), M. Sc., (Natural
Resources Management)
2 Daw Yinn Mar Swe Deputy Team Leader of EIA B. Agr. Sc, M.Sc., (Agricultural
Hlaing study Development Studies)
3 U Soe Min Environmental Expert BE (Civil), Master of Engineering
(Environmental Technology &
Management)
4 Daw Thein Mwe Khin Environmental Specialist B.Sc., (Forestry),
5 Daw Ei Ei Mon Social Specialist B. Agr. Sc, M.Sc., (Regional and
Rural Development Studies)
6 U Myat Thu Kyaw Project Associate B.Sc., (Forestry)
Source: EIA Study Team

1.4 Overall Schedule of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)


The Environmental Impact Assessment Procedure (hereinafter referred to as the EIA
Procedure) was issued by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental
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Conservation (MONREC) on 29 December 2015. This procedure defines the detailed legal
steps of the EIA in Myanmar including preparation of the scoping report, preparation of the
EIA/IEE report, EMP and EMoP, public involvement, approval of the EIA/IEE report by
MONREC, and the monitoring process. In this connection, the scoping report of this project
has been submitted to MONREC by MoTC on 2nd June 2016, and this report was prepared as
a final draft EIA report in accordance with the EIA Procedure. After receiving comments from
review team members under MONREC, the final EIA report will be submitted accordingly.
The current schedule for this EIA study is described in Table 1.4-1.

Table 1.4-1 Schedule for EIA Study (As of September, 2016)


2016
Item Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Collection &
review of
relevant info.
Scoping
Report
Preparation
Submission
of Scoping
Report to
MONREC by
MoTC
Field Survey
(Env. Quality
& Social
Survey)
EIA Report
Preparation
Stakeholder
Meeting
Submission
of Draft EIA
Report
(Planned)
Public
Disclosure
(Planned)
Source: EIA Study Team

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CHAPTER 2 POLICY, LEGISLATION AND INSTITUTIONAL


FRAMEWORK
2.1 Legislations relevant to environmental conservation
Major legislations relevant to environmental conservation are shown in Table 2.1-1.

Table 2.1-1 Laws and Regulations on Environment


Title of Laws and Regulations Year
1. Constitution and Environmental Policy
Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar 2008
Myanmar National Environmental Policy 1994
National Sustainable Development Strategy 2009
2. Environmental Conservation
Myanmar Environmental Conservation Law 2012
Environmental Conservation Rules 2014
Environmental Assessment Procedures 2015
3. Biodiversity and Natural Conservation
Wildlife Protection Act 1936
Myanmar Marine Fisheries Law 1990
Fresh Water Fisheries Law 1991
The Law Relating to Aquaculture 1989
Forest Law 1992
Animal Health and Development Law 1993
Protection of Wildlife and Conservation of Natural Area Law 1994
Conservation of Water Resources and River Law 2006
National Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan in Myanmar 2012
4. Urban Development and Management
The City of Rangoon Municipal Act 1922
City of Yangon Development (Amendment) Law 1996
City of Yangon Development Law 1990
The City of Yangon Municipal Amendment Act 1961
5. Land Acquisition and resettlement
The Upper Burma Land and Revenue Regulation 1889
The Land Acquisition Act 1894
Transfer of Immovable Property Restriction Act 1947
Land Nationalization Act 1953
Disposal of Land Tenancies Law 1963
Transfer of Immovable Property Restriction Law 1987
Farmland Law 2012
Farmland Rules 2012
Vacant, Fallow, Virgin Land Management Law 2012
Vacant, Fallow, Virgin Land Management Rules 2012
6. Pollution Control and Occupational Health
Factory Act 1951
Standing Order 2_95 Occupational Health Plan 1995
Standing Order 3_95 Water and Air Pollution Control Plan 1995

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Title of Laws and Regulations Year


Occupational Safety and Health Law (Draft) 2012
The Science and Technology Development Law 1994
Myanmar Mines Law 1994
Source: YUTRA Project Team (2014)

2.2 Regulations for Environmental Impacts Assessment (EIA)


(1) National Environmental Policy
Though Myanmar has recently enacted the Environmental Conservation Law in 2012 and the
Environmental Conservation Rules in 2014, the National Environmental Policy was
proclaimed earlier through the gazette in accordance with Notification No. 26/94 dated 5
December 1994.

(2) Environmental Conservation Law (2012)


The principal law governing environmental management in Myanmar is the Environmental
Conservation Law, which was issued in March, 2012 (The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law
No.9/20/2130rh). The law stipulates that government bodies are in charge of environmental
conservation as well as their relevant roles and responsibilities. It touches on water, noise,
vibration and solid waste qualities but does not provide specific standards to be met.

It also mentions that any new development project must perform a system of Environmental
Impact Assessment (EIA) and Social Impact Assessment (SIA) in order to find out whether or
not a project or activity to be undertaken by any government department, organization or
person may cause a significant impact on the environment or not. In the context of project
development, it is important to note that the law adopts the notion of 'Polluter Pays Principle'
as it implies that the project proponents are responsible for covering all environmental and
social costs generated by the project.

The law serves as the basis for founding of Environmental Conservation Department (ECD)
under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation (MONREC), both
of which will be explained later. Following the Environmental Conservation Law are two
legal instruments: Environmental Conservation Rules (2014) and EIA Procedures (2015).

(3) Environmental Conservation Rules (2014)


Environmental Conservation Rules provide a platform to bridge the Environmental
Conservation Law with more specific and practical rules and guidelines including EIA
Procedures and environmental quality standards, The rules stipulate that the Ministry of
Environmental Conservation and Forestry will adopt and carry out the environmental impact
assessment system which includes determination of categories of plans, business or activity
that requires Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The system will also stipulate the
categories which are required to conduct the Initial Environmental Examination (IEE).
Environmental Conservation Rules also provide a platform for developing Environmental
Quality Standards.

(4) EIA Procedures (2015)


1) Outline of the Procedures
The objectives of the EIA procedures are to provide a common framework for EIA reporting
and to ensure that EIA reporting is in line with legal requirements, good practices and
professional standards. Concrete steps to be followed in conducting and accessing EIA are
stipulated in the EIA Procedures.

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a) All development projects in Myanmar are subject to an environmental screening process


through which projects will be judged to determine if they require any environmental review
and, if so, at which level (i.e. IEE or EIA).
b) EIA includes an environmental management plan and a social impact assessment report.
c) Describe the environmental and social baseline data of the study area as well as the changes
that will occur during and after project implementation
d) Public participation is essential for the Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) and
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), with the inclusion of an Environmental
Management Plan (EMP).
e) Analyze project alternatives and define measures that will minimize negative environmental,
social and health impacts and maximize benefits to affected communities;
f) Propose environmental, social and health management and monitoring plans to ensure that
the requests from the government and the communities of the project proponent are
implemented.
g) EIA Review Committee is formed to give recommendations to the Minister of MONREC
from an environmental point of view on whether to approve the EIA report or not. The
Minister makes the final decision based on this recommendation.
h) Members of the EIA Review Committee will be selected by the Minister of MONREC and
will include persons from the industry, academia, and civil society, as well as government
officials.
i) Involuntary resettlement is carried out under the responsibility of a Respective Regional
Government and hence will not be included in the EIA Procedures.

2) EIA/IEE requirements for Transportation Sector


According to categorization of economic activities for assessment purposes (which is
described in Annex A of EIA Procedures), Railways and Tramways (including construction
and maintenance of rail infrastructure and operation of rolling stock) more than 5 km in
length as well as locomotives and other railway rolling material manufacturing, repairing and
assembling whose capacity is more than 100 vehicles/a is categorized as EIA projects as
shown in Table 2.2-1.

Table 2.2-1 IEE and EIA Project List for Railway-related Projects
Criteria for IEE Type Criteria for EIA Type
No. Type of Economic Activity
Economic Activities Economic Activities
Metal, Machinery and Electronics
90 Locomotives and Other Railway Rolling Material - 100 vehicles/a
Manufacturing, Repairing and Assembling
Transportation
123 Railways and Tramways (construction and Length < 5 km Length 5 km
maintenance of rail infrastructure and operation of
rolling stock)
Source: Environmental Impact Assessment Procedure, 2015

(5) National Environmental Quality (Emission) Guidelines (2015)


The objective of these national guidelines is to provide the basis for regulation and control of
noise and vibration, air emissions, liquid discharges from various sources. According to these
guidelines, all projects subject to EIA procedure have to comply with and refer to applicable
national guidelines /standards or international standards adopted by the ministry. In addition,
project proponent shall be responsible for the monitoring of their compliance with general and
applicable industry- specific guidelines as specified in the EMP and ECC (Environmental
Compliance Certificate).

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(6) International Treaties and Conventions related to Environment


Main conventions and agreements pertaining with the project activities ratified by the country
are described in the following table.

Table 2.2-2 International Conventions/Agreements


No. Agreement/ Convention Description
1. The Kyoto Protocol (KP) 1997 An international treaty, under the United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change (UNFCC) that commits State Parties to reduce
worldwide greenhouse gas emissions such as a carbon dioxide, methane,
nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, etc.
2. Stockholm Convention on An international environmental treaty which was signed in 2001 and
Persistent Organic Pollutants, effective from May 2004. Aim of this convention is to prohibit and phase
2011 out intentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and to adopt a
number of measures to reduce releases of unintentional POPs and, where
feasible, ultimate elimination.
3. The Ramsar Convention, 1971 An international treaty consisting of 164 contracting parties for the
the conservation and wise use of wetlands through national actions, and
international cooperation as a contribution towards achieving sustainable
development.
4. Convention on Biodiversity Objectives of this convention are for conservation of biological diversity,
(United Nations) , 1992 the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of
the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. According
to Article 14 of this convention, each contracting party shall introduce
impact assessment of its proposed projects that are likely to have
significant adverse effects on biological diversity with a view to avoiding
or minimizing such effects and, where appropriate, allow for public
participation in such procedures.
5. Asia Least Cost Green House Gas Objectives of ALCGHS are:
Strategy (ALCGHS), 1998 1) to develop national, regional capacities for the preparation of Green
House Gas (GHG) inventories
2) to help identify GHG abatement options, and
3) to prepare a portfolio of abatement projects for each country
6. Agenda 21 of the United Nations The developmental and environmental objectives of Agenda 21 require a
Conference on Environment and substantial flow of new and additional financial resources to developing
Development UNCED, 1992 countries, in order to cover the incremental costs for the actions they have
to undertake to deal with global environmental problems and to accelerate
sustainable development. Conservation and management of resources for
development are described in section II of the Agenda 21.
Source: EIA Study Team

(7) Reference to JICA Guidelines


The internationally-funded Project is generally subject to international safeguard policies as
duly recognized in Myanmar. This project is required to conform to JICA Environmental and
Social Guidelines (2010) (hereinafter referred to as JICA Guidelines) based on the loan
agreement between Myanmar Government and Japanese Government. The gaps between the
policies of Myanmar legislations including the EIA Procedures and those of JICA Guidelines
were analyzed as presented in APPENDIX 1.

(8) The State Level - Constitution


The State Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar was ratified and
promulgated by the National Referendum held in May 2011. In the Constitution, some of the
provisions related to the urban planning and land management are summarized as follows:

The Union is the ultimate owner of all lands and natural resources in the area. (Section 37)
Citizens are given the right for private property. (Section 37);

The Union guarantees the right to ownership and the use of property. (Section 372);

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Every citizen has the duty to assist the Union in preserving and safeguarding the cultural
heritage, conserving the environment, striving for the development of human resources, and
protecting and preserving the public property. (Section 390).

(9) Rangoon Development Trust Act (1920)


In 1920, the Rangoon Development Trust Act was enacted under the British rule. This
resulted in the establishment of Rangoon Development Trust in 1921, with powers that
include the followings:

- Purchase/acquisition of immovable property;


- Project development planning and land management;
- Levy of revenue taxes and lease fees of land
- Purchase, lease, and transfer of land and management through other methods; and
- Establishment of laws, regulations, and instructions as necessary.

The Rangoon Development Trust, based on the Act, conducted long-term and short-term
leases of land, and thus allowed use of land, and conducted issuance of land lease licenses,
permits and abrogates for construction, industrialization, agriculture, and other special
purposes.

(10) States Housing Rehabilitation and Town and Villages Development Board Act (1951)
In 1951, three years after the independence, the States Housing Rehabilitation and Town and
Villages Development Board Act was promulgated in order to solve the shelter problem
occurring at the time as people were moving in to Rangoon from rural areas in large numbers.

The act stipulated that the provision of shelter would be performed through town and village
development projects and public housing rehabilitation projects along with systematic
management process.

Any land (or building, if it exists on the land) could be acquired through the Land Acquisition
Act (1894)

This act enabled town and village development, supervision of public housing rehabilitation,
management and improvement of land management, and others on the nationwide basis.

(11) Urban Rent Control Act (1952, amended in 1960)


Shortly after the World War II, a large number of people migrated to the cities and the issue of
housing became serious and acute. This Act regulated the rents in the urban areas to a low and
affordable level. This Act is still in effect, keeping the housing rents in the urban areas to a
considerably low level so that proper maintenance of rented properties has become
economically unbearable for most property owners.

(12) Farmland Law (2012)


The Law is to be accompanied by Farmlands Bylaws and Vacant, Fallow, and Virgin Lands
Management Bylaws to be approved by the Union Government. The Farmland Law enables
all farmers across the country to enjoy land use rights, in which the farmer can register.

(13) Land Acquisition Act (1894)


In this law, it is stipulated that the government holds rights to take over land provided that
compensation is made to the original land owner. No private ownership of land is permitted
and that all land must be leased from the Union State.

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It should be noted that there is no land acquisition for this project, the involuntary
resettlement of informal occupants will be planned in consultation with relevant authorities
such as YCR and YCDC by considering the JICA Guidelines.

(14) Other Related Laws and Regulations


The legislative system inherited from the colonial period is highly comprehensive. The
following laws and rules are listed according to specific concerns to the human settlement
sector.

- Towns Act, 1870;


- Lower Burma Towns and Village Act, 1894;
- Municipal Act, 1898;
- Land Revenue Manual, 1907;
- Land Rules, 1922;
- City of Rangoon Municipal Act, 1924;
- Underground Water Rules, 1941;
- Requisitioning (Emergency Provisions), 1947;
- Land Nationalization Act, 1953;
- Town Planning Act (Draft Proposal), 1961;

2.3 Projects Environmental and Social Standards


2.3.1 Environmental Quality (Emission) Guideline
MONREC formulated the National Environmental Quality (Emission) Guidelines (NEQG) in
December 2015. It is noted that only the guideline values for air emissions, effluent
(wastewater), and noise level are set in NEQG, but other standards have not been set yet as of
June 2016. In the YCR line upgrading project, the project proponent shall basically apply
quantitative target values that have been set in NEQG for ambient air quality, water quality
(waste water) and noise. Each quantitative value to be applied for the project is described
below.

(1) Air Quality


General guideline values for air emissions are described in current NEQG and the project
shall apply theses guideline values for air quality parameters such as SO2, NO2, particulate
matters (PM10 and PM2.5).

(2) Water Quality


In current NEQG, Guideline values cover for wastewater, storm water runoff, effluent and
sanitary discharges as general application for projects during operation phase and site runoff
and wastewater discharges for construction phase. In this survey for the project, it is
considered that the effluent level generated from the depot will be compared with guideline
values for railway facilities. On the other hand, the other locations will be compared with
guideline values for construction phase because the possible deterioration of water quality to
be affected by the construction work will need to be considered and monitored in the creeks
near the YCR line area as shown in Table 2.4-1.

Table 2.4-1 Target Value of Water Quality for the Project


Guideline value (NEQG) *1
No Water Analysis Parameters Unit
Railway*2 General *3 Construction*4
1 pH - 6-9 6-9 6-9
2 EC S/cm NG NG NG
3 DO mg/L NG NG NG
4 Water-T C < 3 (T-increase) < 3 (T- increase) NG

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Guideline value (NEQG) *1


No Water Analysis Parameters Unit
Railway*2 General *3 Construction*4
5 Turbidity NTU NG NG NG
6 TSS mg/L 50 50 50
7 COD mg/L 250 250 125
8 BOD mg/L NG 50 30
9 Oil and Grease mg/L 10 10 10
10 Total N ppm 15 NG 10
11 Total P ppm 5 2 2
12 Total Coliform CFU/100ml NG 400 400
13 TDS mg/L NG NG NG
14 Cyanide mg/L 1 1 NG
15 Phenols ppm 0.5 0.5 NG
16 Zinc (Zn) mg/L 2 2 NG
17 Chromium (Cr) ppm 0.5 0.5 NG
18 Arsenic (As) ppm 0.1 0.1 NG
19 Copper (Cu) ppm 0.5 0.5 NG
20 Mercury (Hg) ppm 0.01 0.01 NG
21 Cadmium (Cd) ppm 0.1 0.1 NG
22 Lead (Pb) ppm 0.2 0.1 NG
23 Nickel (Ni) ppm 0.5 0.5 NG
24 Iron (Fe) ppm 3 3.5 NG
25 Fluoride mg/L 20 20 NG
26 Ammonia mg/L 10 10 NG
27 Hexavalent Chromium (Cr (Vi)) mg/L 0.1 0.1 NG
28 Silver (Ag) mg/L 0.2 0.5 NG
29 Sulfide mg/L 1 1 NG
30 Aluminum (Al) mg/L 3 NG NG
31 Tin(Sn) mg/L 2 NG NG
32 Selenium (Se) mg/L NG 0.1 NG
Note: *1 National Environmental Quality (Emission) Guidelines, 2015
*2 Guideline value for effluent level for railways to be applied for maintenance facilities
*3 Wastewater, Storm Water Runoff, Effluent and Sanitary Discharges (general application)
*4 Guideline value for site runoff and wastewater discharges (construction phase)
Source: MONREC, National Environmental Quality (Emission) Guidelines (NEQG), 2015

(3) Noise
1) Noise level set in NEQG
According to the NEQG that has been prescribed by Ministry of Environmental Conservation
and Forestry on 29th December, 2015, under Chapter 1 (General Provision), Section 1, sub-
section 1.3 mentioned the following requirement for noise levels;

2) Noise Levels
Noise prevention and mitigation measures should be taken by all projects where predicted or
measured noise impacts from a project facility or operation exceed the applicable noise level
guideline at the most sensitive point of reception. Noise impacts should not exceed the levels
shown below, or result in a maximum increase in background levels of three decibels at the
nearest receptor location off-site.

In NEQG, the noise level is set as shown in Table 2.4-2 and noise prevention and mitigation
measures should be taken by all projects where the predicted or measured noise impacts from
a project facility or operation exceed the applicable noise level guideline at the most sensitive
point of reception. Noise impact should not exceed the levels shown below, or result in a
maximum increase in background levels of three decibels at the nearest offsite receptor
location.

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Table 2.4-2 Noise Level set in NEQG


One Hour LAeq (dBA)
Receptor Daytime (7:00-22:00) Night Time (22:00-7:00)
(10:00-22:00 for public holidays) (22:00-10:00 for public holidays)
Residential, institutional,
55 45
educational
Industrial, commercial 70 70
Source: NEQG (December 2015)

It is noted that NEQG does not mention a guideline value to be specified for railway noise.

3) Japanese Guidelines for Railway Noise


As a reference, according to Environmental Quality Guidelines for Conventional Railway
Noise (Ministry of the Environment, Japan, 1995), the noise level guideline is specified as
follows;

In the event of a new construction or large-scale modification of general railway, the


following noise levels shall be achieved at 1.2 m above the ground in the open air along the
railway line and at a position 12.5 m away in horizontal distance from the center line of the
near side track.

a) For a new construction, the equivalent noise level shall be 60 decibels or less in daytime
(7:00 22:00) and 55 decibels or less in nighttime (22:00 07:00 on the following day).
b) For a large-scale modification, the noise level shall be improved compared with the level
prior to the modification.

Thus, the noise impact to be caused by YCR upgrading project will be evaluated in
comparison to these noise levels recorded in the survey as a baseline data.

(4) Vibration
There are no guidelines for vibration regulated by NEQG and no railway-specific vibration
guidelines in Japan. The vibration level in the field survey of the project will be referred as a
baseline data in pre-construction stage and used for comparison in the construction and/or
operation stage.

2.3.2 Social Standards


The project sites are mostly within ROW of MR along YCR. Thus, all the lands are public
land and no land acquisition is required for the Project. However, some structures such as
house and shop along railway section, located within ROW of MR and in the areas for ROB
reconstruction, would be affected by the Project. In addition, some water logged spaces within
ROW of MR rented from MR for cultivation of various kinds of vegetable would also
affected by the Project.

Therefore, the occurrence of involuntary resettlement and generation of Project Affected


Units (PAUs) and Project Affected Persons (PAPs) are anticipated due to the Project.
Accordingly, losses such as structure, asset, and business activity are expected and
appropriate compensation and resettlement assistance for PAUs and PAPs are required with
respect to extent and kind of the losses. Based on the on-site preliminary survey conducted in
the past years, less than 200 PAHs were estimated.

Currently in Myanmar, there is no law stipulating land acquisition and resettlement


comprehensively. Since the Project is to be classified as Category B in accordance with the
JICA Guidelines for Environmental and Social Considerations (April 2010) and the World
Banks Safeguard Policy OP 4.12, an abbreviated resettlement plan (ARP) is to be prepared

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including the results from demographic and socio-economic census, loss of properties,
computation of costs and budget for compensation and relocation.

2.4 Institutional Framework


2.4.1 Environmental Management on YCR Line Upgrading Project
Implementation of environmental management for the Project involves many participants.
These participants have different positions, responsibilities, and interests. In particular, the
Myanma Railway (MR) supported by Ministry of Transport and Communications (MOTC) as
a project proponent and line-governmental agencies shall be responsible for protecting the
environment and the people who benefit from the environment.

Major players and rules for the Project are described below:

MR: is the project proponent and leading executing body for the Project, and has the
responsibility to manage environmental protection. Its function is to conduct environmental
management by MR or by representative (generally a consultant is appointed).

MOTC: functions as the supervisor of MR. MOTC shall act to coordinate with MR to
implement the Environmental Management Plan, especially resettlement and social issues
that require cooperation among various concerned bodies.

The Engineer (Consultant): will be appointed by MR to design and supervise the


construction works. In addition, the engineer shall come from the environmental
management section who is in charge of monitoring the contractors activities on behalf of
MR.

The Contractor: will be appointed by MR to perform the construction works. The major
executing body for environmental protection shall be the contractors responsibility under
MR instruction through the engineer. The contractor is obligated to implement and strictly
follow the environmental plan, which is based on the EIA and also has the consent of the
engineer.

Line Agencies: Local government (e.g., district administrator for resettlement) and the
Environmental Conservation Department will cooperate with MR for supervising
management activities. Other line agencies such as MOALBI (Ministry of Agriculture,
Livestock, Breeding and Irrigation for farmland and crop production) will also coordinate
with MR.

Communities and Other Stakeholders: Residents/Communities will be affected by the


Project, with both positive and negative impacts. The Project shall consider their lives and
minimize negative impacts. In addition, the Project has the responsibility to ensure that the
environmental management plan can be implemented adequately. Therefore, the information
concerning the project implementation such as the construction schedule, the results of the
monitoring survey and job opportunities shall be informed to the public appropriately.

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CHAPTER 3 EXISTING BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL


CONDITIONS OF THE PROJECT AREA
3.1 Social Environment
(1) Population and Demography
Yangon City is the commercial capital of Myanmar. The city or YCDC area covers 33 out of
the 45 townships of Yangon Region. Yangon Region is the most densely populated and most
urbanized region of Myanmar, with around 70% of its population living in the Yangon city
area. About 14% of Myanmars population lives in the Yangon Region.

According to Provisional result of the Population and Housing Census of Myanmar (2014),
Yangon City has the largest population with 5,209,541 people, followed by Mandalay with
1,225,133 people. These include all populations living in the townships which make up the
city. The population density of Yangon is 723 persons/km2 followed by Mandalay at
206 persons/km2. Along the Yangon Circular Railway Line, local communities are living in
19 townships-Tar Mwe, Pazuntaung, Mingalar Tahung Nyunt, Dagon, Botahtaung, Babe Dan,
Kyauk Ta Dar, La Thar, Lanmataw, Ahlone, Myeemyin Daing, Sanchung, Kamayut, Hlaing,
Mayankone, Insein, Mingaladon, North Okkalapa and Yan Kin. Administration map including
19 townships. Among 19 townships, in terms of land area, Mingaladon Township is by far the
largest and North Okkalapa Township comes next and Lammadaw Township is the smallest.
But Lammadaw Township has the highest population density, Pazun Taung Township is the
second highest and Mingaladon Township is the lowest as shown in Table 3.1-1. Populations
of 19 townships are shown in Table 3.1-2.

Table 3.1-1 Some Data about Land and Demographic Conditions of 19 Townships
Population
Above Sea Population
Population* Growth Population
Name of Area* Level Density*
No. Rate*
Township (Highest)*
2011 (2000-2011) 2011 2014** 2014***
km 2
m person %/year person/km2 person person
1 Tarmwae 4.79 9.1 191,114 3.1 39,899 158,877 165,348
Pazun
2 1.01 4.5 52,810 3.2 52,287 45,316 48,245
Taung
Mingalar
3 Taung 5.06 0.0 155,767 2.7 30,784 131,310 132,209
Nyunt
Bo Ta
4 2.38 43.9 49,134 0.53 20,645 40,133 40,849
Htaung
5 Dagon 11.65 17.1 24,492 -3.7 2,102 19,907 29,796
6 Babe Dan 8.84 36.6 100,695 0.4 11,391 30,421 33,264
Kyauk
7 0.71 2.3 34,794 1.8 49,006 27,971 29,796
DaTar
8 La Thar 0.81 6.1 34,125 0.37 42,130 30,426 24,926
9 Lanmadaw 0.76 2.1 43,137 0.5 56,759 35,468 47,123
10 Ahlone 2.69 2.4 52,810 3.2 19,632 53,501 55,412
Kyeemyin
11 10.77 15.2 115,841 2.2 10,756 95,031 111,566
Daing
12 Sanchaung 2.47 15.2 105,208 2.3 42,594 85,578 99,772

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Population
Above Sea Population
Population* Growth Population
Name of Area* Level Density*
No. Rate*
Township (Highest)*
2011 (2000-2011) 2011 2014** 2014***
km2 m person %/year person/km2 person person
13 Kamayut 5.52 15.4 87,881 0.45 15,920 74,104 84,368
14 Hlaing 13.7 1.8 151,014 -0.81 11,023 124,344 160,018
15 Mayangone 25.33 30.5 205,403 0.89 8,109 186,897 198,038
16 Insein 35.07 45.7 311,200 2.0 8,874 254,404 305,670
17 Mingaladon 113.36 0.0 288,858 4.1 2,548 144,367 332,520
North
18 22.69 9.1 333,484 4.5 14,697 276,020 332,869
Okkalapa
19 Yan Kin 5.02 24.4 125,909 1.3 25,081 65,680 70,992
Total 272.63 - 2,463,676 - - 1,879,755 2,302,781
Source: *: SUDP (2013) "Yangon Township Data Sheet"
**: Township Information of General Administration Department Office (March, 2014)
***: Provisional results of the 2014 Population and Housing Census of Myanmar (www.dop.gov. mm)

Table 3.1-2 Population of 19 Townships


Total Population Male: Average
Name of No of
No Female Ratio Households
Township Total Male Female Households
(1: no.) Size
1 Tarmwae 165,348 74,821 90,527 1.21 35,268 4.43
2 Pazun Taung 48,245 22,023 26,222 1.19 10,195 4.4
Mingalar Taung
3 Nyunt 132,209 62,441 69,768 1.12 25,916 4.68
4 Bo Ta Htaung 40,849 19,292 21,557 1.12 8,352 4.38
5 Dagon 29,796 13,814 15,982 1.16 6,109 4.21
6 Babe Dan 33,264 15,154 18,110 1.2 6,564 4.76
7 KyaukDaTar 29,796 13,814 15,982 1.16 6,109 4.21
8 La Thar 24,926 10,711 14,215 1.33 4,470 4.03
9 Lanmadaw 47,123 20,149 26,974 1.34 8,639 4.2
10 Ahlone 55,412 25,556 29,856 1.17 10,933 4.44
Kyeemyin
11 Daing 111,566 52,753 58,813 1.11 23,041 4.63
12 Sanchaung 99,772 44,262 55,510 1.25 20,753 4.20
13 Kamayut 84,368 36,787 47,581 1.29 16,262 4.45
14 Hlaing 160,018 74,958 85,060 1.13 32,751 4.48
15 Mayangone 198,038 93,487 104,551 1.12 38,737 4.63
16 Insein 305,670 146,698 158,972 1.08 61,692 4.52
17 Mingaladon 332,520 159,084 173,436 1.09 66,231 4.40
18 North Okkalapa 332,869 155,953 176,916 1.14 64,876 4.82
19 Yan Kin 70,992 32,755 38,237 1.18 14,617 4.57
Total 2,302,781 1,074,512 1,228,269 1.18 461,515 4.44
Source: Provisional Result of the 2014 Population and Housing Census of Myanmar (www.dop.gov.mm)

(2) Religion and Races


Yangon is the most ethnically diverse city in the country and the primary religions practiced
in Yangon are Buddhism, Christianity, Hindusm, and Islam. According to the townships data

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of Yangon City (2014), majority of people in 11 townships which are related with YCR Line
are Buddhist as shown in Table 3.1-3. Different races that are living in townships related with
the YCR Line are shown in Table 3.1-4.

Table 3.1-3 Percentage of Different Religions by Townships


No. Township Buddhist Christian Hindu Islam Other Total
1. Tarmwae 119,025 6,168 5,583 28,025 76 158,877
2. PazunTaung 39,301 544 1,322 3,962 187 45,316
3. MingalarTaungNyunt 91,261 2,525 10,625 26,781 118 131,310
4. Bo Ta Htaung 32,249 1,449 1,067 5,319 49 40,133
5. Dagon 17,958 1,059 278 612 - 19,907
6. Babe Dan 14,183 389 1,607 14,242 - 30,421
7. KyaukDaTar 18,947 1,258 1,087 6,679 - 27,971
8. La Thar 27,103 518 71 90 - 27,782
9. Lanmadaw 32,870 1,303 89 206 - 35,468
10. Ahlone 49,399 2,772 188 1,142 - 53,501
11. KyeemyinDaing 92,649 1,862 258 235 - 95,301
12. Sanchaung 76,141 5,102 1,027 3,109 199 85,578
13. Kamayut 77,012 4,987 1,286 1,083 - 84,368
14. Hlaing 113,639 2,314 4,015 2,911 1,429 124,344
15. Mayangone 158,416 23,957 1,657 2,867 - 186,897
16. Insein 226,914 21,749 1,275 4,459 7 254,404
17. Mingaladon 205,120 19,014 7,075 10,987 58 242,254
18. North Okkalapa 263,099 4,518 2,442 5,608 354 276,021
19. Yan Kin 67,974 1,374 1,283 361 - 70,992
Source: Township Information of GAD Office (2014)

Table 3.1-4 Percentage of Different Races by Townships


Kachin Kayah Kayin Chin Mon Burma Rakhine Shan Other
No. Township (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
1. Tarmwae 0.29 0.025 1.113 0.489 1.16 79.26 4.21 0.81 12.63
2. PazunTaung 0.30 0.01 0.95 0.55 0.71 84.09 1.84 0.98 10.57
3. MingalarTaung 0.19 0.009 0.75 0.29 0.44 73.87 1.57 0.51 22.44
Nyunt
4. Bo Ta Htaung 0.18 0.00 1.76 0.80 72.08 0.85 2.41 0.69 0.00
5. Dagon 0.60 0.04 4.11 1.28 0.51 89.97 1.53 1.98 0.00
6. Babe Dan 0.07 0.06 1.10 0.38 0.38 32.69 2.02 0.46 62.83
7. KyaukDaTar 0.29 0.01 1.72 1.58 0.95 91.29 1.29 1.08 0.00
8. La Thar 0.47 0.25 6.82 0.57 1.1 85.9 1.66 3.23 0.00
9. Lanmadaw 0.24 0.002 2.75 0.54 0.29 94.32 0.93 0.87 0.21
10. Ahlone 1.03 0.17 5.67 0.74 1.00 78.07 1.30 0.90 10.90
11. KyeemyinDaing 0.16 0.00 2.09 0.21 0.24 95.15 0.27 0.24 1.70
12. Sanchaung 1.56 0.05 1.42 0.90 0.38 84.31 1.68 1.26 1.58
13. Kamayut 0.32 0.12 2.42 0.65 0.76 92.26 1.92 0.31 1.24
14. Hlaing 0.18 0.04 2.23 0.76 0.86 91.74 2.33 0.86 1.01
15. Mayangone 0.06 0.04 3.13 0.15 0.23 94.35 1.21 0.33 0.19
16. Insein 0.17 0.02 8.45 0.75 0.38 88.60 1.22 0.30 0.12
17. Mingaladon 0.18 0.06 1.27 0.8 0.67 95.44 1.29 0.24 0.04
18. North Okkalapa 0.09 0.01 1.31 0.07 0.39 93.41 1.01 0.11 3.6
19. Yan Kin 0.12 0.02 1.23 0.12 0.21 96.82 1.24 0.13 0.11
Source: Township Information of GAD Office (2014)

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(3) Cultural Resources


In 1996, the Yangon City Development Committed created a Yangon City Heritage list of old
buildings and structures in the city that cannot be modified or torn down without approval. In
2010, the Ministry of Culture further announced 16 ancient pagodas in Yangon Region which
are recognized as cultural heritage sites. The Shwedagon Pagoda is recognized as both an
Ancient Monument Zone and Protected and Preserved Zone and the other 15 are listed as
Ancient Monument Zone.

(4) Occupational Status


According to information from the Township General Administration Department Offices, the
occupational status of the targeted townships shows that an average of about 86% of the
workable persons is employed and 21% unemployed. The breakdowns for each targeted
townships are shown in Table 3.1-5.

Table 3.1-5 Occupation Status


No. of No. of No. of % of % of
Name of Total
No. workable Employed Unemployed Employed Unemployed
Township Population
person Person person person person
1 Tar Mwe 158,877 101,146 75,488 25,658 74.6% 25.4%
2 Pazuntaung 45,316 n.a n.a n.a n.a n.a
Mingalar Taung
3 131,310 73,728 59,026 14,702 80.1% 19.9%
Nyunt
4 Botahtaung 40,133 n.a n.a n.a n.a n.a
5 Dagon 19,907 12,500 14,576 881 73.2% 4.1%
6 Babae Dan 30,421 13,027 10,515 2,512 80.7% 19.3%
7 Kyauk Ta Dar 27,971 19,314 13,581 5,733 70.3% 20.5%
8 La Thar 30,426 n.a n.a n.a n.a n.a
9 Lanmataw 35,468 28,649 23,484 5,165 82.0% 18.0%
10 Ahlone 53,501 43,000 33,200 9,800 77.2% 22.8%
11 Kyeemyin Daing 95,031 43,201 38,290 6,911 88.6% 16.0%
12 Sanchaung 85,578 53,577 48,455 5,122 90.4% 9.6%
13 Kamayut 74,104 n.a n.a n.a n.a n.a
14 Hlaing 124,344 94,210 65,947 28,263 70.0% 30.0%
15 Mayangone 186,897 n.a n.a n.a n.a n.a
16 Insein 254,404 113,540 101,123 12,417 89.1% 10.0%
17 Mingaladon 828,586 135,452 34,004 101,448 79.8 20.2
18 North Okkalapa 144,401 192,928 111,419 81,509 58.0 42.0
19 Yan Kin 65,680 43,399 22,312 21,087 51.4 48.6
Total and Average (%) 2,432,355 967,671 651,420 321,208 86.3% 21.9%
Source: Township Information of General Administration Department Offices (March, 2014)

(5) Occurrence of Infectious Diseases


The number of people by townships who suffered diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Diarrhea, Tuberculosis
(TB), Dysentery and Hepatitis, are shown in Table 3.1-6.

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Table 3.1-6 Occurrence of Infectious Diseases by Townships


Diseases
HIV/AIDS Diarrhea Tuberculosis Dysentery Hepatitis
No Township Affected Mortal Affecte Mortal Affecte Mortal Affecte Mortal Affect Mortal
Rate ity d Rate ity d Rate ity d Rate ity ed ity
Rate Rate Rate Rate Rate Rate
1. Tar Mwe - - 33 1 154 - 19 - - -
2. Pazuntaung - - 25 - 188 - 7 - - -
3. Mingalar Taung 8 - 61 - 101 - 5 - - -
Nyunt
4. Pabedan - - 1 - 110 - - - - -
5. Dagon - - - - 72 3 - - - -
6. Latha - - 13 - 73 - - - - -
7. Lanmadaw - - - - 127 - - - - -
8. Hlaing 22 - 24 - 6 5 - - 78 -
9. Mingalardon - - 59 1 - - 1 - - -
10. North Okalapa 10 - 135 - 248 - 6 - - -
11. Insein 5 - 185 - 434 4 1 - - -
Source: Township Information of GAD Office (2014)

3.2 Natural Environment


(1) Topographic Condition
The City of Yangon lies along the Yangon River between around 1706 and 1635N latitude
and between 9558 and 9624 longitude, east of the Ayeyarwaddy River delta. Yangon City
is located 34 km upstream from the mouth of Yangon River. Yangon City has low hills which
are long and narrow spur of Pegu Yoma Hill Range in the central area running in the N-S
direction with an average height of 30 m and degenerates gradually into delta plains in
eastwards and westwards.

The Yangon Railway Line runs in an area which is surrounded by three rivers. The Yangon
River runs on the southern side of the area. The Yangon River is one of the tributaries of the
Ayarwaddy (Irrawaddy) River. The Hlaing River runs along the western side of the area and
the Pazundaung Creek runs in the east.

This area consists of low flat land alleviated by the Yangon River and Bago River and a hill
area formed by an anticline continues from the north. The hill area is located in the central
area of Yangon and is surrounded by the lowland area.

The Yangon Circular Railway Line runs along the foot of the hill area. Yangon Central Station
is located on the south end of the hill and the railway line crosses the south end of the hill
running east-west. At the west side of the loop, the circular railway line runs in the north-
south direction and the western section runs on some low land areas and the west foot of the
hill. At the north part of the loop, direction of the line runs in the east-west, crosses a part of
the hill area. At the eastern side of the loop, the railway line runs in the north-south direction
along the lowland area. The lowland areas located on both the east and west sides of the loop
are used as rice paddy, housing land or swamp.

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Source: JICA Study Team (2014)


Figure 3.2-1 Overview of Topography of YCR

(2) Hydrology (flooding)


Most of Yangon area consists of fluvial flood plain which is associated with the area lies in
the delta of the Ayeyawaddy River and along Yangon, Hlaing and Bago Rivers and Nga
Moeyeik Creek. The point where Yangon and Bago Rivers meet is close to the central
business district and all the main ports, approximately 34 km away from the mouth of the
Yangon River dispersing into the Gulf of Mottama, the northern part of the Andaman Sea.

Floods in Myanmar usually occur during two distinct periods: from June to August and from
late September to October, with the largest intensity observed in August at the peak of the
monsoon season.

Floods in the Greater Yangon area can be classified into three types:

- River flood
- Localized flood inundations in urban areas due to a combination of such factors as cloud
burst, poor infiltration rate and poor drainage infrastructure etc.; and in rural areas due to
descript dams, dykes and levees.
- Floods due to cyclone and storm surge.

According to the reports from MR, the main flood cause in YCR is localized flood
inundations in urban areas, but not river floods or cyclones. It is noted that the flooded
railway sections are observed in the southern part of YCR, namely Ma Hlwa Gone Station
and Hledan Station, of which the topographic features are flat. This suggests that the vertical
alignment along these sections should be raised to at least higher than the past experienced
water levels in order to avoid flooding the track structure.

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(3) Soil
There are several soil types in Yangon Region: (1) meadow soils and meadow alluvial soils,
(2) clay and clay swampy soils, (3) swampy soils, (4) lateritic soils, (5) yellow brown forest
soils, (6) dune forest and beach sand, (7) mangrove forest soils, (8) saline swampy meadow
and gray soils. Of them, mostly found soil types in the project area are (1) meadow soils and
meadow alluvial soils, and (2) lateritic soils. Soil map of Yangon is shown in Figure 3.2-2.

Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (MOAI)


Figure 3.2-2 Soil Map of Yangon Region

(4) Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity


Myanmar is a country with great variety of habitats and ecosystems supporting a rich
biodiversity. According to FAO 2010, about 48% of the mainland is covered by forests. The
important habitat types represented in Myanmar are forests, wetlands, and the marine habitat.

Project area is within the boundary of the Yangon City and there is no designated area such as
forest reserve in the vicinity of the YCR Line.

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The vegetation in the corridor of impact along YCR is consist of grass, bush and trees. The
major tree species along the YCR Line are shown in below pictures. According to preliminary
field surveys, plants which are commonly found along the YCR Line are Malaysia Padauk,
Malzali, Bandar, Binga, Sein Pan, Mahogani, Kokko etc. They were planted to provide the
shading and the visual amenity for train passengers and residents. Among them there are one
plant species which are categorized as threatened plant species in IUCN Red List, namely
Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla). It is sub-categorized as vulnerable ones, which means it
is under the condition of less threatened than critically endangered or endangered species in
the Red List. However, it is not formally authorized as threatened species by Forest
Department of MONREC. In fact it is planted and also found commonly in public parks, other
greenery areas and along the roads in the Yangon City. On the other hand, Planted Teak
(Tectona grandis) trees, which are prohibited to export without permission from Forestry
Department of MONREC, are found along the YCR. Teak trees are also found commonly in
greenery areas and along the roads in the Yangon City.

Malaysia Padauk Binga Malzali


(Acacia auriculiformis) (Mitragyna rotundifolia) (Cassia siamea)

Bandar (Indian Almond) Sein Ban Kokko


(Terminalia catappa) (Delonix regia) (Albizia lebbek)

Mahogany Kyun (Teak) Ashok


(Swietenia macrophylla) (Tectona grandis) (Polyalthia loongifolia)
Source: Feasibility Study Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project, 2015
Figure 3.2-3 Major Trees along YCRL

The trees in the Corridor of Impact are identified in more detail by the tree census survey from 30
June 2016 to 2 July 2016 as shown in Table 3.2.1.

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Table 3.2-1 Result of Tree Census


No. Name Number of tree
1 Ear Leaf Accacia 512
2 Almond Tree 109
3 Banyan 11
4 Binga 15
5 Bombay-ebony 89
6 Cedrela Tree 13
7 Chittaung Wood 10
8 Coconut 17
9 Cotton Tree 5
10 Cutch Tree 4
11 Ebony Tree 16
12 Eucalyptus 19
13 Eugenia 2
14 Fig 14
15 Golden Mohur Tree 44
16 Guava Tree 1
17 Gum-kino Tree 89
18 Indian Laburnum 14
19 Indian Trumpet 3
20 Iron Wood Tree 1
21 Jack Fruit 34
22 Lagerstromia 34
23 Large Deciduous Tree 1
24 Lead Tree 3
25 Limonia Tree 3
26 Lumbayao 1
27 Mahogany 22
28 Mango 84
29 Marian 2
30 Morinda Tree 1
31 Neem 4
32 Oil-palm 1
33 Palm 5
34 Papaya 4
35 Parrot Tree 2
36 Pinky Butterfly Tree 11
37 Rain Tree 205
38 Red Cotton Tree 1
39 Silk Cotton Tree 101
40 Sit 3
41 Star-flower Tree 19
42 Tamarind 19
43 Teak 126
44 Unknown 25
45 Yellow Cheese Wood 50
Total 1749
Survey date: 30.6.2016-2.7.2016
Source: JICA Stuy Team, 2016

(5) Protected Areas and Parks


In Myanmar, the Protection of Wildlife, Wild Plants and Conservation of Natural Area Law
was enacted in 1994. There are at present 40 protected areas in Myanmar including wildlife
and bird sanctuaries, national parks, and nature reserves as shown in Table 3.2-2. The Hlawga
Wildlife Park which is situated in Mingaladon Township is the only protected area in Yangon
Region. It is watershed protection forest which was created in 1982 by the Forest Department
to provide environmental education facilities, protect the forest and the catchment area of
Hlawga Lake.

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Table 3.2-2 Protected Areas and their Locations in Myanmar


No. Name General Location
1 Pidaung Wildlife Sanctuary Kachin State
2 Shwe-U-Daung Wildlife Sanctuary Mandalay Region and Shan State
3 Pyin-O-Lwin Bird Sanctuary Mandalay Region
4 Moscos Islands Wildlife Sanctuary Taninthayi Region
5 Kahilu Wildlife Sanctuary Karen State
6 Taunggyi Bird Sanctuary Shan State
7 Mulayit Wildlife Sanctuary Karen State
8 Wethtikan Bird Sanctuary Magwe Region
9 Shwesettaw Wildlife Sanctuary Magwe Region
10 Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary Sagaing Region
11 Kelatha Wildlife Sanctuary Mon State
12 Thamihla Kyun Wildlife Sanctuary Ayeyar-wady Region
13 Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary Sagaing Region
14 Minwuntaung Wildlife Sanctuary Sagaing Region
15 Hlawga Park Yangon Region
16 Inlay Wetland Bird Sanctuary Shan State
17 Moeyongyi Wetland Bird Sanctuary Bago Region
18 Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park Sagaing Region
19 Popa Mountain Park Mandalay Region
20 Meinmahla Kyun Wildlife Sanctuary Ayeyarwady Region
21 Lampi Island Marine N. Park Taninthary Region
22 Hkakaborazi National Park Kachin State
23 Loimwe Protected Area Shan State
24 Parsar Protected Area Shan State
25 Natmataung National Park Chin State
26 Lawkananda Wildlife Sanctuary Mandalay Region
27 Indawgyi Wetland Wildlife Sanctuary Kachin State
28 Kyaikhtiyoe Wildlife Sanctuary Mon State
29 Minsontaung Wildlife Sanctuary Mandalay Region
30 Hukaung Valley Wildlife Sanctuary Kachin State
31 Kyauk Pan Taung Wildlife Sanctuary Chin State
32 Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary Kachin State
33 Rakhine Yoma Elephant Range Rakhine State
34 Panlaung-pyadalin Cave Wildlife Sanctuary Shan State
35 Maharmyaing Wildlife Sanctuary Sagaing Region
36 Lenya National Park Taninthary Region
37 Taninthary National Park Taninthary Region
38 Bumhpabum Wildlife Sanctuary Kachin State
39 Hukaung Valley Wildlife Sanctuary (extension) Kachin State
40 Taninthayi Nature Reserve Taninthayi Region
Source: SUDP, JICA (2013)

(6) Land Use


Myanmar has total land area of approximately 676,578 km2 and its land use of arable land is
14.9%. According to Yangon Land Use Data (2008), more than 80% is occupied with each of
3.5% and 1.5% is occupied with residential area, green area, recreation area and commercial
area. It is noted that all of upgrading works for this project will be within ROW of MR along
YCR and some portion along approach roads of ROBs are owned by YCDC. Thus, all the
lands are public land and no land acquisition is required for the Project.

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(7) Climate
The City of Yangon is located in tropical monsoon climate, characterized by three distinct
seasons, namely, summer (March to middle of May), rainy (Middle of May to middle of
October), and cool (Middle of October to February) seasons.

The mean monthly temperature is highest in April with 30.7 C (87.3 F) and lowest in
January with 25 C (77 F). Rainfall in Yangon City is short in duration and intensity and such
a high intensity of rainfall is a major cause of inundation problems in downtown Yangon. The
study area abundantly receives rain from May to October. The meteorological data at the
Kaba-aye Station as representative of Greater Yangon are shown as follows.

Table 3.2-3 Monthly Temperatures and Rainfall of Kaba-aye Station in Yangon (1981-2010)
Total
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec /Avg
Rainfall
1.0 4.0 12.0 38.0 325.0 566.0 608.0 571.0 393.0 201.0 61.0 7.0 2787
(mm)
Maximum
33.2 35.2 36.8 37.5 34.1 30.8 30.3 30.0 31.0 32.2 33.1 32.5 33
Temp: (C)
Minimum
16.7 18.3 21.1 23.8 24.3 23.6 23.2 23.3 23.2 23.1 21.3 17.7 22
Temp: (C)
Mean Temp
25.0 26.8 29.0 30.7 29.2 27.2 26.8 26.7 27.1 27.7 27.2 25.1 27
(C)
Source: Meteorology and Hydrology Department, Kabaaye Station Yangon

40.0 700.0
35.0 600.0
30.0 500.0

Rainfall (mm)
Temperature (C)

25.0
400.0
20.0
300.0
15.0
10.0 200.0

5.0 100.0
0.0 0.0
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

Source: Meteorology and Hydrology Department, Kabaaye Station Yangon


Figure 3.2-4 Climograph of Kabaaye Station in Yangon (1981-2010)

3.3 Environmental Pollution


(1) Air Quality
Stationary sources such as factories and houses and mobile sources such as road traffic and
railway traffic are found as the air pollutant emission sources in Yangon city area. The
vehicular emission from cars is the dominant factor in Yangon. According to the ambient air
quality monitoring data reported by YCDC, the air quality monitoring data that were
measured in commercial areas, residential areas, and industrial zones in Yangon City from
2007 2008 and in sub-urban areas in Dagon Myo Thit South in 2010 2011, the 24-hour
average concentrations of NO2 and SO2 representing the residential, commercial and
industrial zones in Yangon are below the WHO Guideline values. However, total suspended
particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10) at the three representative sites were higher

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than the WHO Guideline values. Higher values of TSP and PM10 were recorded in the
industrial area than in the residential and commercial areas. The main reason for the
exceedance with TSP and PM10 WHO guidelines will be due to the fugitive dust generated
from community activities such as vehicular movement and construction activities.

(2) Water Quality


As a tipical surface water quality in Yangon, the water quality data in Pazundaung Creek and
Bago River can be referred as shown in Table 3.2.3. On the other hand, the past survey in the
feasibility study of YCR Line Project found that the water quality in the creek and chaneels
coring the YCR Line generally shows high COD and BOD ash shown in Table 3.2.5.

Table 3.2-4 River Water Quality Data in Yangon


Result
Parameter Unit
Pazundaung Creek Bago River
pH - 7.7 - 7.8 7.4- 8.0
BOD mg/l 2 - 2.5 2 - 2.5
SS mg/l 62 - 78 60 - 65
DO mg/l 3.5 - 3.9 6.2 6.7
COD mg/l 2.2 - 7.0 1.5 4.4
Note: Measurement at New Thaketa Bridge Consutruction site (Mingalar Taung Nyunt Township), Novemebr
2013.
Source: JICA YUTRA (2014)

Table 3.2-5 Water Quality in Channels Crossing the YCR Line


1 2 3 4 5
Creek
Khine Creek
Ye near
No. Parameters Unit Shwe Yoe Gyi near
Kyaw Thiri-
Wa Creek Insein
Creek myaing
Creek Depot
St.
1 pH (On Site) pH 7.1 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.3
2 pH (Lab Test) 7.7 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.7
3 DO (On Site) mg/l 9.3 8.7 7.4 7.9 8.6
4 DO (Lab Test) mg/l 6.6 6.8 6.2 6.4 6.4
5 EC (On Site) S/cm 347.7 485.6 620 317.6 461.5
6 EC (Labe Test) S/cm 327 459 590 204 437
7 Temperature C 26.5 26.4 26.4 26.3 26.5
8 Turbidity NTU 52 60 70 77 79
9 SS mg/l 90 98 128 135 138
10 COD mg/l 64 96 64 64 96
11 BOD mg/l 12 30 21 18 21
12 Oil and Grease mg/l 11.7 5.2 1.2 0.4 3.8
Source: JICA Study Team, Feasibility Study Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project, 2015

(3) Ambient Noise


An ambient noise level near the railway track and sensitive receptor such as monastery and
school was confirmed as part of the environmental baseline data survey on the YCR line
(2014).

The baseline noise level along the YCR line was found as to be 55-60 dB. Compared with
National Environmental Quality (Emission) Guidelines, the noise level between 55 70 dB is
applied to areas used for industrial, commercial area.

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Table 3.2-5 Result of Ambient Noise Level Measurements beside the Railway Line
Distance from the Daytime Nighttime
No. Location
Railway Line (6 am 10 pm) (10 pm 6 am)
1 Near Pyay Lan Station 3.5 m 57.9 51.2
2 Near Oakkyin Station 4m 57.9 50.8
Source: JICA Study Team, Feasibility Study Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project, 2015

Table 3.2-6 Result of Ambient Noise Level Measurements at Background Level and Sensitive
Receptors (BLSRs)
Distance from the Daytime Nighttime
No. Location Point No.
Railway Line (6 am 10 pm) (10 pm 6 am)
Islam Temple near Pa Zun Taung
1 BLSR-1 4m 57. 33 58.7
Station
2 School near Pyay Lan Station BLSR-2 5m 67. 8 61. 3
B.E.H.S School near Kyee Myint
3 BLSR-3 6m 63. 2 55. 9
Daing Station
A monastery near Thamine
4 BLSR 4 4m 55. 6 54.6
Myothit Station
A monastery near Thirimying
5 BLSR 5 100 m 59.6 48.5
Station
Source: JICA Study Team, Feasibility Study Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project, 2015

(4) Solid Waste


Solid waste in Yangon City is generated from typical waste generators such as residential
areas, offices, and other commercial activities. The solid waste is collected by the Pollution
Control and Cleansing Department (PCCD) of YCDC. The collected solid wastes are then
transported to seven final disposal sites (FDSs) including large scale such as Htantabin FDS
and Htwae Chaung FDS which are open dumping sites. Since there is no treatment before
dumping them, there is a concern that untreated leachate may cause deterioration of the
ground water.

(5) Existing Drainage System


The heavy rainfall in a short time period during the rainy season in Yangon frequently causes
over the railway facilities and other problems such as malfunction of signaling control system.
Some factors that causes the flooding in railway tracks are as follows;

i) no drainage facilities and lack of drainage capacity due to damaged drainage and/or
improper drainage design
ii) decrease in drainage capacity due to accumulation of garbage and rubbish, and soil
deposition,
iii) low capacity of city drainage and river systems.

According to draft F/S report of the Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading project (Sept.
2015), the existing flow end of drainage of YCR is natural river and pond. The existing
drainage systems of YCR which were made by brick wall have been installed along the
railway partially. It is not feasible to eliminate the possibility of flood event by the Project. It
also requires the improvement work for drainage system outside of YCR Line to solve some
causes of flood. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the flood risk by drainage improvement
work of MR and cooperation with YCD. Existing drainage system of YCR line and some of
poor drainage locations are shown in Figure 3.3-1 and Figure 3.3-2, respectively.

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Figure 3.3-1 Existing Drainage System of YCR line

Mud Pumping at Da Nyin Gone Station Drain Pit Cleaning at Da Nyin Gone Station
Figure 3.3-2 Poor Drainage Conditions in YCR line

3.4 Specific Conditions relevant to Yangon Circular Railway Line


(1) Road network and crossings (intersections)
The YCR Line runs from the Yangon Central Station northward up to the Da Nyin Gone
Station. Along the section, the upper Kyee Myin Daing Road and the Baho Road run in
parallel with the YCR Line. Major types of land use along this section include Central
Business District (CBD) near the Yangon Central Station, densely populated housing areas
along the rail line, variety of commercial activities along the roads, a relatively large market
at the Da Nyin Gone Station.

From Da Nyin Gone Station, the YCR Line runs eastward to Mingaladon Station in the
suburban area of Yangon. The lands along this section are still used as farming lands. The
Yangon International Airport is located close to the YCR Line.

The YCR Line runs southward from the Mingaladon Station to YCRL up to the Ma Hlwa
Gone Station in urban area of Yangon. Along this section residential, commercial use are
dominant along the Kabar Aye Pagoda Road and the Wai Za Yan Tar Road, while small scale
farming activities are also found both sides of the YCR Line.

Major roads crossing YCR Line in the western section are Ahlon Road, Bargayar Road,
Hledan Road, Hanthawadddy Road, Hlaing River Road, Baint Naung Road, Khaye Pin Road,
while those in the eastern section are the Myo Part Road, Parami Road, Yadanar Road,
Thingangyun Road. Many of the crossing points are grade separated, while there are serious
traffic congestion problems, accordingly possible problems from vehicular emission at the at-
grade intersections are shown in Figure 3.4-1.

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 3.4-1 Railway and Road Network in Yangon City

(2) Land Use


1) Building in the MRs right of way (ROW)
A number of building structures for residential and business activities are observed within the
ROW of the Yangon Central Station, the Insein Station, etc. In many cases, they do not have
any official documents or approval to use such lands from MR. However, they have already
established their communities some time ago. For example, some large housing and
commercial buildings are found near the Okkalapa Station. Such buildings might be obstacles
to modernize the existing YCR Line, but they must be treated properly according to the newly
introduced environmental and social consideration guideline in Myanmar.

2) Farming activities
Small-scale farming activities are found along the YCR Line, using shallow ponds, cultivating
water vegetables as small-scale business activities of local people residing near the YCR Line.

3) Vendors activities
Vendors selling vegetables and other goods are observed in some major stations such as the
Da Nyin Gone Station and Thamine Station. Many of them have a permission from MR to
sell their commodities in the station area. Temporal open markets are also held at some major
stations of YCR Line such as the Da Nyin Gone Station. Those people will be affected by the
YCR Line upgrading project positively and negatively at the same time.

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The number of informal movable vendors at stations are counted in the ARP Survey as shown
in Table 3.4-1.

Table 3.4-1 Informal Movable Vendars at Stations


Number of
No. Area
PAUs/PAHs
1 Da Nyin Gone Station 183 vendors
2 Thamine Station 131 vendors
3 Kanbe Station 12 vendors
4 Kyee Myint Daing Station 17 vendors
Survey date: May-July 2016

(3) Existing social consideration of the YCR Line


The YCR has been used by low-income vegetable peddlers as well as urban commuters and
students. The vegetable peddlers mainly use the YCR in the morning to carry their products.

Another social issue could be splitting local communities. Many residents and other people
cross the YCR almost freely at any places to reach other side. This should not be allowed
once the YCR is upgraded to maintain the safety of residents and rail passengers. Fencing
along the YCR shall be made as part of the YCR upgrading project, which, however, may
cause splitting the local communities along the YCR.

(4) Expected scale of PAUs and PAHs


The project sites are mostly within ROW of MR along YCR and some portion along approach
roads of ROBs are owned by YCDC. Thus, all the lands are public land and no land
acquisition is required for the Project.

However, some structures such as house and shop along railway section, located within ROW
of MR, would be affected by the Project. In addition, some water logged spaces within ROW
of MR rented from MR for cultivation of vegetables would also be affected by the Project.

As of early August 2016, the number of expected PAHs is 30 PAHs (137 persons), many
PAUs/PAHs are affected partially such as a fence, a part of their shop or house or a part of
farm land. The further details are described in the Updated ARP. However, the number of
PAUs/PAHs will be continuously reviewed as fine-tuning is on-going.

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CHAPTER 4 PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND ALTERNATIVE


SECTION
4.1 Project Background
The city of Yangon, with a population of about 5.21 million as of 2014 according to the year
2014 Census Survey, is the largest economic center of the country, and has been experiencing
rapid urbanization recently. With the recent economic reform and corresponding deregulation,
the number of imported cars (mainly passenger cars and motorcycles) has increased sharply.
According to the Comprehensive Urban Transport Master Plan of the Greater Yangon
(YUTRA), the number of registered vehicles in the Yangon Region dramatically increased
from 260,000 cars in 2011/2012 to some 370,000 cars in 2012/2013 as shown in Figure 4.1-1.
Imported used cars are used mainly for personal commuting purposes, and the Yangon
residents are now suffered from serious traffic congestion day by day. While the number of
private cars has increased, the service level of public bus has remains almost the same as
before. Public buses in the city have been kept crowded, but majority of the people have no
alternative modes of public transport.

Source: YUTRA, JICA (2013)


Figure 4.1-1 Number of Registered Vehicles in Yangon Region

The Yangon Circular Railway Line (the YCR Line) is expected to perform as a spine urban
transit system in Yangon. However, the modal share of railway remains low. The modal share
of mechanized modes of transport in the Greater Yangon area is as follows: 63.8% by bus,
10.5% by car/van, 9.9% by taxi, 3.2% by water transport, 1.7% by truck, and 1.4% by rail.
Because motorcycles are banned in the city, bus trip is comparatively large among other
modes. Since access transport means (e.g. feeder bus services to the rail stations) are provided
insufficiently, there is almost no choice for the majority of the residents other than crowded
buses for their whole travel. Less attractive level of service of the YCR Line is resulted in a
small share of rail trip as well.

The transportation demand in Yangon City will continue to increase as the economy and the
population grows (from 7.4 million in 2014 to over 10 million in the Yangon Region in 2035).
The transport model developed by YUTRA forecasts almost doubled mechanized trips, from
4.9 million trips in 2013 to 9.5 million trips by 2035. Under such circumstances, improvement
of the YCR Line is considered as one of the most important transport development projects in
the Yangon Region, which was actually stated in the Myanmar Development Cooperation
Forum, held in January 2013.

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Alleviation of the traffic congestion on roads paralleling the railway line is expected after
improvement of YCR Line, which generates some significant economic benefit in terms of
savings in travel time, vehicle operating costs, reduction of greenhouse gases, etc. It is also
expected to contribute to improvement of the MRs business performance through increased
patronage.

In this context, the Government of Myanmar (GOM) has officially requested support from the
Government of Japan with regard to the Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (the
Project), through provision of a Japanese ODA loan. The components requested by GOM
include installation of a new signaling system for the section between Yangon Station and Ma
Hlwa Gone Station of the Yangon Circular Railway (about 44 km) excluding a 2-km section
between KP0+600 of the western side and KP1+400 of the eastern side of Yangon Central
Station and procurement of new Diesel Electric Multiple Units (DEMUs).

In response to this request, MR will carry out necessary work in advance using MRs budget
on the civil and track work, station platform, power supply, depot and workshop for
installation of the new signaling system and DEMUs. However, technical support is required
from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in designing those elements
including the civil and track work, power supply, station platforms, DEMU depot and related
equipment for smooth installation of the new signaling system and DEMU operation. In this
regard, the technical support from JICA in doing basic design for the necessary work prior to
the installation of the signaling system and procurement of new DEMUs has been provided
upon request of MR from 2014.

The Environmental and Social Considerations study has been conducted in process of the
feasibility study (F/S) and basic design (B/D) stages. Since the Initial Environmental
Examination (IEE)-level study was required in line with JICA Guidelines prior to an
enactment of EIA Procedure and the Project originally scoped only the western section of
YCR, the IEE study targeting the western section was conducted. After the Project scope
extended to the entire section of YCR, the IEE report for the entire section of YCR was
developed.

This EIA report has been developed and updated based on the outputs of these past studies in
line with EIA procedure in Myanmar and JICA Guidelines.

4.2 Objectives of Project


The objective of the Project is to improve the level of services of the Yangon Circular
Railway Line by rehabilitating and modernizing the existing railway and the related facilities,
and replacement of rolling stock that will be operated in the Yangon Circular Railway Line,
thereby contributing to the social and economic development of Myanmar.

4.3 Project Location


The Project area is shown in Figure 4.3-1. The Project section except for the new DEMU
procurement covers whole Yangon Circular Railway Line (46 km in total).

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 4.3-1 Map of the Location of Project Area

4.4 Outline of Project


4.4.1 Urgency of the Project
It is understood that the safety level of MR has been decreasing in the last decade. On average
642 rail accidents occurred in a year during the last 10 years in MR as a whole (including the
YCR Line), which is roughly almost two accidents per day on average. Derailment consists
88.2% of the total rail accidents. Derailment within station area accounts 22.0% and
derailment between stations accounts 66.2% on average of the total accidents in the last
decade. The deformation of the track due to heavy rainfall in the rainy season is one of the
main causes of such derailment. In addition, about three train collisions occur every year on
average.

MR is responsible for safe rail operations to prevent from such rail accidents and for
improvement of the existing rail system including the YCR Line to a reliable transport means.

With regard to the YCR Line, the particular issues are summarized as follows:

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a) Decreasing level of service (speed, punctuality, riding comfort, cleanness, and safety)
Operation of the YCR Line commenced in January 1959. After about half century since the
commencement, the existing train operation speed has fallen down to almost half (15 kph) of
that of the opening year because of the deteriorated tracks and limited partial rehabilitation of
signaling & telecommunication system and other facilities.

b) Increasing demand
The population in the city has been growing. The existing rail system in Yangon carries about
75,000 passengers per day, while an improved YCR Line (by the Project) is expected to carry
about 700,000 passengers or more per day in 2030.

Corresponding technical problems with regard to the particular issues of the YCR Line are
summarized as follows:

c) Deterioration of infrastructure, equipment, system and railcars


In almost all aspects the existing rail and related facilities need improvement, including
roadbed, rail track, signaling, telecommunication, level crossings, train control system, and
rolling stock.

d) Insufficient maintenance work of the track and other facilities


Because of the limited technical capacity in terms of skilled workers and machine, the level of
maintenance work has remained at low level. Introduction of mechanical maintenance
methods with modern machines is required to achieve a decent maintenance work level.

e) Aged rolling stock


The existing MRs railcars are not attractive to majority of the Yangon residents because of its
low performance and comfort level and unfavorable design for vulnerable people. The interior
of the railcars are not properly designed nor furnished for commuting users, and its ride
comfort is far below the desired level as a transit system of the international gateway city of
Myanmar.

f) Bottleneck section
Priority in the current train operation is given to the long distance train, namely the Yangon
Mandalay Line. The train operation of the YCR Line is sometimes disturbed by this operation
because there is a cross-over rail segment between Pa Zun Taung Station and Yangon Central
Station. The YCR Line has to wait until the Yangon-Mandalay Line trains pass this segment.
This crossing operation needs to be removed by changing track layout or grade separation.

g) Increasing road traffic volume crossing the manually operated level crossings
All of the existing level crossings along the YCR Line (27 in total) are manually operated by
MR staff. Closing time of the level crossings tends to be longer because of the manual
operation and selfish behavior of car drivers. Sometimes railcars need to stop at a level
crossing because of never-ending car passing. Replacement of the existing level crossing
system with automated level crossings is needed to improve the level of safety.

h) Deteriorated station buildings


Almost all of the existing stations are timeworn and heavily deteriorated. There are no decent
facilities such as toilet, ceiling of platform, benches, and passenger information board, which
resulted in low level of the passenger service.

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i) Insufficient inter-modality
A rail station is expected to be an intermodal hub in the city in general. In case of the YCR
Line, there is no such rail station other than the Yangon Central Station. The connectivity with
other modes of transport is inferior and its catchment area is limited to the walking distance.
In order to increase the rail passenger catchment area, provision of inter-modal facilities such
as bus terminal, taxi bay, car parking, and feeder services is necessary.

j) Traffic congestion
The paralleling roads along the YCR Line are the major arterial roads in the city, namely Pyay
Road, Insein Road, Baho Road, and Waizayandar Road. The traffic congestion and traveling
time on these roads have been increasing. Improvement of the YCR Line is expected to
contribute to the improvement of the traffic environment along the major arterial road.

In conclusion, the YCR Line needs major and urgent improvement and modernization of
passenger services in almost every aspect as one of the safe and reliable spine transit system
in the Yangon metropolitan area.

4.4.2 Operation and Effect Indicator


Table 4.4-1 describes the present and targeted indicators showing the railway operations
performance and efficiency to be improved under the objective of Project.

Table 4.4-1 Operation and Effect Indicator


Present Target
Indicators Unit
(Year 2015) (Year 2022)
Daily Ridership (No. of Passenger) No. of pax. 73,100 263,000
Passenger-km/day pax.-km/day 850,200 2,140,000
Operation Interval (Rush Hour) min. 15 - 45 10 - 12
YCR Train Operation Number/day train/day 122 175
Passenger Train-km/day train-km/day 2,860 4,100
Maximum Speed km/hr 48 60
Schedule Speed km/hr 15 26
Travel Time of Passenger Train min. 170 110
Note: The target indicators are the tentative as of April 2016.
Source: JICA Study Team

4.4.3 Project Components/Activities


(1) Overall components
The overall scope of the Project is shown below.

a) Installation of new signaling system (including automatic level crossings)


b) Procurement of new rolling stock
c) Re-alignment of the rail track
d) Track and roadbed works
e) Drainage system improvement
f) Railway bridge rehabilitation
g) New foot over bridge (FOB) installation
h) Level crossing works
i) Safety fence installation works
j) Station improvement works
k) Small building works (signal equipment building, level crossing watchman hut etc.)
l) Depot facilities

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m) Power supply

The Project components, which are financed by Japanese ODA loan, consist of improvement
of signaling system and procurement of new DEMUs as an initial step towards modernization
of the YCR Line. While, other works which are required prior to execution of the components
covered by the Japanese ODA loan, including civil work (drainage system, fence, rail bridge
rehabilitation, roadbed, etc.), track work (rail welding, track irregularity improvement, etc.),
power supply work, station work (high height platform), depot work, etc. will be carried out
by MR using its own budget. New DEMU which will be procured by the Rolling Stock
Procurement Works as part of the Project will be used in the YCR Line as a whole.

(2) Basin Design


1) Design Requirements and Condition
a) Rolling Stocks Gauge and Construction Gauge
The maximum height and width of the current construction gauge and car gauge are
maintained as it is. Partial enlargement of the construction gauge and car gauge is adopted in
order to meet the design of new DEMU. The edge of high height platform is set 1,525 mm
from the track center to keep 115 mm clearance from car gauge.

b) Design Axle Load


It is planned that the existing design axle load, 12.5 ton, is applied.

c) Basic Requirements for Train Operation Plan during Construction


Following policy is applied for Train Operation Plan during Construction
- Priority should be given to live line construction work during night window time.
- If live line construction work during night window time is difficult, live line
construction work with partial single track operation is applied.

Source JICA Study Team


Figure 4.4-1 Priority of Train Operation Plan during Construction

2) Installation of new signaling system


The signaling works as a part of the Project starts from the west side of Yangon Central
Station, passing though Da Nyin Gone Station, to the west side of Pa Zun Taung Station (44.0
km in total), which covers most of the Yangon Circular Railway Line (46.0 km in total). The
section from Da Nyin Gone Station through Yangon Central Station to Pa Zun Taung Station
(2.0 km in total) is covered by the Project for installation of Railway Operation Control
Center System and Safety Equipment.

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The signaling system will be improved mainly by the following components:

- Automatic level crossing: 25 automatic barrier level crossings will be replaced with the
existing man-operated level crossing to save train running time and increase the safety
for pedestrians. Response Light of Barrier will be installed instead of existing gate
signal. When the barrier is closed completely, the response light of barrier turns on.
- Automatic Block System (ABS): A direct current track circuit system will be improved
because the current blocking system is significantly deteriorated.
- Automatic Train Stop System (ATS-S): It will newly be installed.
- Interlocking system: An interlocking system in major stations other than the Yangon
Central Station will be replaced with electronic interlocking devices or relay
interlocking (for small stations) system. (Note: Interlocking systems in Yangon Central
Station will be replaced by the JICA Grant Aid.)

3) Procurement of new rolling stock


The existing diesel locomotives and passenger coaches used for the YCR Line are very old
and deteriorated. A limited number of used Diesel Multiple Units (DMUs) and Rail Bus
Engines (RBEs) imported or donated from Japan are also used at present. However, because
of insufficient maintenance of the majority of the existing rolling stock, the level of service of
the YCR Line is far below the expectation of the Yangon residents.

In order to attract more residents to use the railway, it is necessary to introduce modern rolling
stock of higher performance in terms of safety, ride comfort, running speed, travel time, easy
maintenance, etc. Since electrification of the YCR Line is not scheduled in the near future,
non-electrified system, such as DEMUs shall be introduced in the initial stage of
modernization of the YCR Line. Use of Diesel Electric Multiple Units (DEMUs), instead of
using a train being composed of a locomotives and passenger coaches, makes MR easier in
operating passenger trains on the YCR Line because there is no need to do shunting operation
at terminal stations. Currently 11 train sets and 66 cars DEMU are planned to be procured for
YCR Line.

4) Re-alignment of the Rail Track


Minor fine-tuning of track alignment is required due to the following reasons.

- Fine-tuning of Horizontal Alignment: There are some sections which violate MR


standard for clearance between tracks drastically. These sections should be improved to
keep safety clearance.
- Fine-tuning of Vertical Alignment: There are some sections which require raising the
vertical alignment in consideration of flooding in flat areas. A track raising work will be
performed by ballast filling.

5) Track and Roadbed Works


Because of serious irregularity of the existing track, the existing trains need to run at low
speed. In order to achieve the target maximum running speed of 60 kph of this Project, the
existing track should be improved before introduction of new rolling stock. The track and
roadbed works includes the following components;

- Weeding of the rail track: In the place where PC sleepers and fastener are covered with
weeds, a weeding work is required to improve a drainage system in the track.
- Removal of garbage in track area: A considerable amount of garbage is left in and
around YCR Line. It should be removed by cooperation with YCDC
- Supplying of ballast: Supplying of ballast will be needed in the place of 60% of the
route length of YCR, especially for the section where ballast of track shoulder is
insufficient.

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- Rail replacement: It is recommended to replace all of the fastening in the YCR be


replaced to assure safety 60 kph operation and proper working of new signal system.
- Sleepers replacement: A number of PC sleepers need to be replaced because of crack,
damage by derailment and remainder of wooden sleepers after removal turnout.

6) Drainage system improvement


The heavy rainfall in a short time period during the rainy season (from June to September) in
Yangon frequently causes flooding over the rail facilities and other problems such as
malfunction of signaling control system (due to shirt-circuit of track circuit). The following
factors are considered to cause the flooding in railway track;

Reason 1: No drainage facilities and lack of drainage capacity due to damaged drainage
and/or improper drainage design
Reason 2: Decrease in drainage capacity due to accumulation of garbage and rubbish,
and soil deposition.
Reason 3: Inflow from out of YCR Line area
Reason 4: Unfavorable terrain which tend to gather rain water
Reason 5: Low capacity of city drainage and river systems

It is not feasible to eliminate the possibility of flood event by the Project because it also
requires the improvement work for drainage system outside of YCR Line to solve some
causes of flood. Thus, the Project aims to reduce the flood risk by drainage improvement
work of MR and cooperation with YCDC. Thereby, a probability of flooding can be almost
eliminated in some area while other area still suffers from a flood but an inundation time will
be shortened.

The improvement work of drainage system in YCR Line will be conducted by the following
design concept.

- In a cutting area where soil material was cut out to make way for railway line or a flat
area in terms of cross section with no slope to the track side, a side drain for both sides
of track will be introduced.
- In the other area where has one-side slope, side drain for one side of track or no drain
will be introduced.
- If there is no space for constructing side drain, a track center drain will be introduced.

7) Railway bridge rehabilitation


The following rehabilitation works are prioritized in order as the scope of bridge work.

a) Deteriorated steel girders shall be replaced/repaired as soon as possible.


b) Aged or weathered steel girders shall be repaired/reinforced and painted at a factory.
c) Aged and/or damaged abutments/Piers shall be repaired as a first-aid treatment.

A total of 27 bridges are selected as a target of this rehabilitation.

8) New foot over bridge (FOB) installation


The following two types of FOB will need to be installed.

- New FOB between stations: At present, there are many illegal pedestrian crossings to
connect with both side of railway line. However, all the illegal crossings will be closed
by safety fence completely because train operation speed is increased drastically. As
substituting for the illegal crossings, new FOB should be installed in order to avoid
community severance.

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- New FOB in stations: Some stations have no FOB at present. However, FOB will be
essential basically after the improvement work, because crossing by walking on the
track will need be prohibited more strictly due to high speed train operation and
introducing high-height platform.

Total 40 of new FOB will be installed to the following locations in principal:

- Between stations: locations where are existing illegal pedestrian crossings (In case many
crossings located closely, these are integrated.).
- Inside station: stations having no FOB at present. In case there is any substituted way,
no new FOB is planned.
- Some FOBs inside station are planned for common use.

9) Level crossing works


New automated level crossing system will be installed for 25 level crossings in YCR. In order
to enhance the improvement effect, pavement improvement work for these level crossings is
essential. The level crossing structure will be selected from three options; Concrete
Embedded type, Pre-cast Concrete Block type, and Asphalt Pavement type, where a precast
concrete block type is recommended from the viewpoint of constructability (construction
speed) and maintainability.

10) Safety fence installation works


The new fences along a part of YCR Line will be installed for safety purpose, not for property
separation sign. The safety fence line was determined at B/D stage for the design purpose and
social environmental study purpose. At first, the fence line is provided as given conditions for
design works. cables, drainages, signal equipment and all the other devices and facilities shall
be accommodated within the fence line. In addition, the fence line is used to define the project
area in order to identify the Projected Affected People(s). Under these purposes, the safety
fence line was designed based on the following policy.

- Fence line shall be at least 2.5 m away from the track center.
- Utilize the existing fence/ barriers as much as possible.
- Minimize the narrow sections (offset distance of 2.5 m) as much as possible.
- Secure as wide land as possible where the conditions allow.
- For saving cost, no fencing section is considered in the northern part of YCR (between
Golf Kwin St. and Kyite Ka Lae St.).

However, it should be noted that actual fence line can be adjusted during the construction
stage under the following conditions;

- Land belongs to MR.


- No people will be affected by adjusting the fence line.

It is planned that brick wall type and wire type of fence will be installed depending on the
population density of area in surrounding of an installed section.

11) Station improvement works


The station improvement works entail raising of railway platform. The other improvement of
station facility may be taken into consideration.

- Raising the level of railway platform: All of the existing rolling stock used for the YCR
Lines services shall be replaced with new rolling stock and used DMUs in the Project.
Floor height of the new rolling stock is higher than the existing station platform.
Accordingly, all of the station platforms need to be improved (elevated) in order to

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provide easy boarding and alighting for rail passengers. This improvement is also
necessary to reduce the boarding/alighting time (time duration for stoppage).
- Station Facility Improvement: The installation of barrier free measure such as a warning
tile at platform edge, ramp for wheelchair use, platform bench, solar lighting pole, new
WC (Water Closet) and new platform shed are considered.

12) Small building works (signal equipment building and level crossing watchman hut)
The small building works are composed of signal equipment building and level crossing
watchman hut.

- New signal house: In order to implement the new equipment for the new signal system,
it is necessary to construct new signal houses in the available space with size of
approximately 6.5 m x 15 m at selected five stations; Kyee Myint Daing, Insein, Da
Nyin Gone, Mingalardone and Pa Ywat Sate Gone Stations.
- Level crossing watchman hut: Basically, an existing watchman hut which will not be
removed due to the construction work for installation of automatic level crossing system
will be repaired. The other watchman huts which will be removed by installation of
automatic level crossing system will be reconstructed.

13) Depot facilities


The YCR-DEMU will be maintained in the Insein Expansion Depot, while heavy
maintenance of YCR-DEMU will be carried out in the Ywathagyi Depot and Workshop. The
Insein Expansion Depot which will undertake a daily inspection, monthly inspection, stabling
fuel supply and water supply is located nearby the existing Insein Depot and currently under
construction as of May 2016. Since the detailed design (D/D) of the track layout and
buildings for Insein Expansion Depot has been completed and its civil work is already
commenced, the scope of the Project does not include the basic design of this depot, but
installation of the following equipment is considered as necessary and proposed by the Project.

- Air blower booth with dust collector


- Battery charger
- Insulation resistance tester
- LO analyzer kit
- Cooling water supply device with Water distilling equipment
- Fuel supply stand, and
- Water treatment equipment

Although the environmental and social considerations for Insein Expansion Depot will be
considered and handled separately from this EIA, some suggestions will be highlighted in the
following chapters.

On the other hand, the environmental and social considerations for Ywathagyi Depot and
Workshop which will undertake the semi overhaul and overhaul works is considered in
Yangon-Mandalay Railway Improvement Project. The EIA report for Yangon-Mandalay
Railway Improvement Project was developed in MYT-Plan (The Survey Program for the
National Transportation Development Plan in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, JICA,
2013) and recognized by MOECAF which is currently changed to MONREC after its
submission by MOTC.

14) Power supply


A new signaling power supply for the YCR Line is required for enough supply stability. This
includes the power supply to

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- interlocking system of 5 block stations, namely Kyee Myint Daing, Insein, Pa Ywat Sate
Gone, Mingalardone, and Da Myin Gone Stations,
- block signals, and
- level crossings

As these facilities are located dispersively, cables for power supply are required to be placed
along the line.

Although most of the works are covered by the Japanese ODA loan, the power receiving
equipment and low voltage distribution line to the signal house in the five block stations are
to be installed under the works by MR budget.

4.5 Project Alternatives


Project alternatives are analyzed to consider the future of railway transportation in Yangon
City in the F/S stage. The improvement plan of YCR Line was compared with zero-option
(without project) and the other option of constructing new railway line as described below. As
a conclusion, in order to improve railway transport in Yangon City area there is no other
measures than renovation of existing YCR Line. Therefore, implementing the Project is
justified.

4.5.1 Alternative 1: Without Project


No improvement work of railway network in Yangon will be implemented in this option.
Without any development work, any construction cost as well as resettlement and new
potential adverse impacts due to construction and expansion of corridor of impact are not
required and expected. However, the following issues will remain and/or become serious.

- The deterioration of Level of Service (LOS) of YCR cannot be stopped. The existing
condition of YCR Line will be left in lower running speed, inconvenient, uncomfortable
and unsafe resulting in worsening the performance as main public transportation of the
city.
- The congestion of Yangon City road network will be worse as the traffic volume is
further increased in the future. The YCR Line will not be able to perform its important
function of public transportation without any improvement.

As a conclusion, the development of YCR and surrounding area along YCR cannot be
expected anymore and will be left behind in this time of on-going and forthcoming economic
growth in Yangon.

4.5.2 Alternative 2: Construction of new railway line


An option of constructing a new railway line was raised to satisfy the required demand of
railway transportation. However, this alternative is unlikely to materialize in consideration
with following factors:

- A large amount of anticipated construction cost


- Requirement of land acquisition/resettlement in considerable scale to secure land for
new railway line
- Necessity to adjust the city development plan
- Generating considerable confusion of existing social infrastructure and services,
especially in densely populated and traffic congested urban area; although extent of the
factors depend on location and alignment of railway line.

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4.5.3 Alternative 3: Improvement of YCR Line


At present MR provides train operation service every day on the circular line. However, it
seems becoming difficult to maintain level of LOS in terms of travel speed, safety, punctuality,
and comfort because of deteriorating infrastructure and other causes. These concerns indicate
the substantial necessity of improvement of YCR Line, rather than Without-Project plan.

Compared with another alternative of construction of new railway line, the improvement of
the existing YCR Line does not entail a large scale of land acquisition, resettlement,
earthwork and construction cost to be derived from land acquisition and earthwork, as well as
confusion or disconnection of existing social infrastructure and service.

Although the improvement work will require a limited resettlement and involve a certain
amount of adverse impact on natural resources and living environment such as a cutting of
trees, making noise and vibration, causing water and air pollution as well as inconvenience
due to limited train operation in the construction period, the scale of these impacts will be
relatively smaller than the construction plan of new railway line and they can be mitigated by
countermeasures.

One of the most beneficial advantages is the significant improvement of urban transportation
and related economic conditions. In addition, a modal shift from vehicles to trains encourages
reduction of traffic congestion, air pollution and CO2 emissions. Even though an increase in
the frequency of trains and speed may result in an increase in risk of traffic accidents,
installation of level crossings and automatic bars can minimize these accidents. This
alternative plan will make sure to solve the above deterioration of the LOS. On the whole, the
advantage and necessity of this plan will outweigh the other alternative options.

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CHAPTER 5 RESULTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCOPING


5.1 Contents of Environmental and Social Consideration Study
(1) Environmental Category
The Project is deemed Category B in accordance with JICA Guidelines for Environmental
and Social Considerations (April 2010). On the other hand, this Project is categorized as EIA
Type Project by Myanmar Government because more than 5 km of renovation project of
railway shall conduct an EIA in accordance with the EIA Notification of Environmental
Impact Assessment Procedures (2015).

(2) Setting of Environmental Components and Items


To grasp whole features of possible environmental impacts caused by the project, it is
necessary to identify and evaluate environmental components and items, which compose of
environmental and social considerations, one by one and to integrate the impacts. In addition
to the direct and immediate impacts of the Projects, the derivative, secondary, and cumulative
impacts as well as impacts associated with indivisible projects will also be assessed with
regard to environmental and social considerations, so far as it is rational to do so.
Environmental impacts will be assessed based on the JICA Guidelines for Environmental and
Social Considerations and relevant Environmental laws and Regulations of Myanmar.

5.2 Key Potential Environmental and Social Impacts and Mitigation Measures
(1) Scoping Matrix for Environmental and Social Impact
Impact matrix is useful to examine preliminary scoping of anticipated impacts on
environment due to the project in earlier stage of planning. The results of preliminary scoping
for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project are summarized in Table 5.2-1.
Abbreviations in the column of the Rating of below table which are meant for different stages
of project are - PrS: Pre-construction Stage, CS: Construction Stage, OS: Operation stage,
DS: Decommissioning Stage, ClS: Closure Stage, PoS: Post-closure Stage.

Table 5.2-1 Scoping Matrix


Rating
No Item Expected Impact
PrS CS OS DS ClS PoS
Pollution Control
1 Air D B- B- B- D D [PrS]: Few impacts are expected.
pollution [CS]: An earthwork construction, loading and unloading materials as
well as construction machines and vehicles will generate dust and
emission gases that will deteriorate the ambient air quality.
[OS]: Air pollution during the operation period will come from the
operation of more locomotive, as number of train operating on the
line will grow from current condition. However, air pollution from
running of railway transport would be lower amount of air pollutant
emission than road traffic due to reduction of air pollutant generation
such as PM and NOx.
[DS]: Temporary negative air pollution by decommissioning work
activities is expected.
[ClS&PoS]: Few impacts are expected.
2 Water D B- B- B- D D [PrS]: Few impacts are expected.
pollution [CS]: Water pollution is expected due to following pollutant
generation from construction work, although temporarily: (i) Run-off
of dirty water including soils from cutting, filling and excavation of
earthmoving work. (ii) Wastewater from worker' camps and
construction office. (iii) Spilling over of toxic materials such as oil

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Rating
No Item Expected Impact
PrS CS OS DS ClS PoS
and lubricants.
[OS]: Generation of wastewater containing oil and grease at the
railway facilities is expected.
[DS]: Water pollution is expected due to the pollutant generation from
decommissioning work, although temporarily.
[ClS&PoS]: Few impacts are expected.
3 Waste D B- B- B- D D [PrS]: Few impacts are expected.
[CS]:
- Generation of soil, sand and construction waste is expected with a
small scale, if any.
- Waste of existing devices will be generated after renewal of level
crossing, signals and telecommunication system
[OS]: Generation of solid waste from railway line and related
facilities is anticipated.
[DS]: Waste of existing devices will be generated after
decommissioning of railway line and related facilities.
[ClS&PoS]: Few impacts are expected
4 Soil C B- B- B- B- B- [PrS]: In existing condition, soil contamination is expected from
contamin leakage of toxic materials such as lubricating oil from trains engines
ation in Depot and other facilities sites. Impacts will be assessed based on
the baseline survey results.
[CS]: Soil contamination is expected from leakage of toxic materials
such as lubricating oil from construction vehicles and machines.
[OS]: Soil contamination is expected from leakage of toxic materials
such as lubricating oil from running trains engines.
[DS]: Soil contamination is expected from decommissioning works
during this stage such as leakage of toxic materials such as lubricating
oil from vehicles.
[ClS]&[PoS]: Residual soil contamination would be expected during
this stage.
5 Noise and D B- B- B- C D [PrS]: Few impacts are expected.
vibration [CS]: During this stage, noise and vibration due to construction works
including the vehicles and diesel generators will be generated.
[OS]: Train operation will cause a noise and vibration generation to
vicinity along the YCR Line.
[DS]: Generation of noise and vibration from machines and vehicles
which are used for decommissioning works is expected.
[PoS]&[CIS]: Few impacts are expected
6 Offensive D C D D D D [PrS]: Few impacts are expected.
odor [CS]: Offensive odor would occur around the construction site due to
excavation and dredging of mad in the drainage channels or creek in
some sections during the construction. However, the possibility is
unknown and it will be examined.
[OS - Pos]: Few impacts are expected.
7 Ground D D D D D D According to project components, renewals of existing circular
subsidenc railway line will not entail any factors that may cause the ground
e substance such as a pumping of a large volume of groundwater.
Therefore, impact is not expected.
Natural Environment
8 Protected D D D D D D No protected area like designated conservation zone is observed in the
area proposed project area along the YCR Line. Therefore, impacts are not
expected.
9 Flora, D B- D D D D [PrS]: In general, precious and endangered fauna and flora species are
fauna and not found in the project site according to previous field survey.
biodiversi [CS]: During construction phase, cutting or removal of trees which
ty are within the project area may spoil existing environment with
greenery and amenity.
[OS - PoS]: Few impacts are expected.
10 Hydrologi D B- B- B- D D [PrS]: Few impacts are expected.
cal [CS]: Wastewater generation with construction work may raise
situation/ additional negative impacts to result in poorer condition and

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Rating
No Item Expected Impact
PrS CS OS DS ClS PoS
drainage inundation especially in the rainy season.
system [OS]: Railway service area of YCR is located in flat and low land
area. Thus, rise of water level of Yangon River in case of high tide,
flooding and cyclone may bring about inundation of railway facilities
and structures in some sections. Without the improvement works of
drainage in and outside of YCR Line coordinated with YCDC, a
flooding risk will not be reduced.
[DS]: Wastewater generation with decommissioning work may raise
additional negative impacts to result in poorer condition and
inundation especially in the rainy season.
[ClS&PoS]: Few impacts are expected.
11 Topograp D C D D D D [PrS]: Few impacts are expected.
hy and [CS]: No large-scale land alteration is expected due to construction
geographi work. However, construction plans of facilities and structures need to
cal be checked.
features [OS - Pos]: Few impacts are expected.
Social Environment
12 Land B- C D D D D [PrS ]:
acquisitio - All the proposed project areas of YCR Line as are owned by
n and Myanma Railways (MR). Thus, all the land is public land and no
involuntar land acquisition is expected.
y - However, it is expected that generation of a certain number of
resettleme affected structures including houses/shops and Project Affected
nt Persons (PAPs) by the project.
[CS]: If additional resettlement is required in the construction stage
due to the change in design or plan, the impact may occur. It should
be monitored and confirmed.
[OS - PoS]: Few impacts are expected.
13 Poverty B- B- B- D D D [PrS] &[CS]:
/B - Railways communities and huts of the poor are distributed. Due to
+ removal and/or relocation of structures and disturbance of business
activities, poverty level of PAPs is expected to be higher
temporarily.
- On the other hand, the Project may create employment opportunity
of vulnerable group such as the poor and women for construction
work and other associated business.
[OS]: Impacts on income due to relocation of structures and
disturbance of business activities may prolong up to this stage.
[DS - PoS]: Few impacts are expected.
14 Indigenou C C D D D D [PrS - CS]: No ethnic minorities are found in the project site so far.
s people However, impacts will be assessed considering the feature of the
and ethnic society in the project area which will be updated in the Project, if
minority there are any ethnic minorities to be affected by the Project.
[OS - PoS]: Few impacts are expected
15 Local D B- B- D D D [PrS]: Few impacts are expected
economy /B /A+ [CS]: Vendor's business activities in railway yard will be stopped due
such as + to the construction work. On the other hand, temporary employment
employm opportunities for construction work by MR are expected.
ent and [OS]:
livelihood - Vendor's business activities in railway yard will be stopped due to
installation of fences along railway track in order to secure smooth
operation of train and to prevent railway accidents with higher train
speed.
- Upgrading of existing YCR Line will be created faster and safer
railway transportation system, which may give rise to more
convenience and comfort to passengers as well as making easier
access to working place and social services.
- In addition, passengers delivering and selling agricultural products
to consumers by train will be also benefitted. These may result in
improvement living condition and acceleration the growth of local
economy.
[DS -PoS]: No impact is expected

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Rating
No Item Expected Impact
PrS CS OS DS ClS PoS
16 (Surround D C C D D D [PrS]: Few impacts are expected.
ing) land [CS]& [OS]: The upgrading of YCR Line would boost the
use and development along the YCR and stations. However, the impact is
utilization unknown.
of local [DS - PoS]: Few impacts are expected.
resources
17 Water D C D C D D [PrS]: Few impacts are expected
usage [CS]: There is some possibility to use the groundwater for
construction work, if water supply is not available. It will be
confirmed with the Project plan.
[OS]: Few impacts are expected.
[DS]: There is some possibility to use the groundwater for
construction work, if water supply is not available. It will be
confirmed with the Project plan.
[ClS&PoS]: No impact is expected.
18 Existing D B- D D D D [PrS]: Few impacts are expected.
social [CS]:
infrastruct - Due to renewal of level crossing, roadbed improvement works,
ures and drainage works, platform improvement works, and improvement of
services bridges, passengers who are using on those facilities will be
affected.
- The current railway users need to change the transportation during
the stop of railway service for construction work in a certain
section.
[OS - PoS]: Few impacts are expected.
19 Equality C C C D D D [PrS]& [CS]:
of - The project itself intends to improve railway transport, which is
benefits major portion of public transport in Yangon City and may not cause
and losses any misdistribution of benefit and damage to residents and
and passengers.
equality - There is, however, some possibility of misdistribution of benefit and
in the damage, if the project plan including procedures to the
developm implementation including construction work and resettlement
ent matters are not properly disseminated and consulted with concerned
process residents and passengers and other stakeholders. It should be
examined and monitored.
[OS]: The possible adverse impact mentioned above might be
prolonged to the operation stage. It should be examined and
monitored.
[OS - Pos]: Few impacts are expected.
20 Local C C D D D D [PrS]& [CS]:
conflicts - The project itself intends to improve railway transport, which is a
of major portion of public transport in Yangon City and may not cause
interests any local conflict of interests.
- There is, however, some possibility of the conflict, if the project
plan including procedures to the implementation including
construction work and resettlement matters are not properly
disseminated and consulted with concerned residents and
passengers and other stakeholders. It should be examined and
monitored.
[OS - PoS]: Few impacts are expected
21 Cultural D D D D D D In Yangon City, there are many cultural and historical heritage sites.
heritage However, there are no cultural and historical heritage sites along
YCR.
22 Landscap D D D D D D There is no law based designated areas around the project areas.
e Change in existing landscape is expected to be negligible in all
project phases.
23 Gender C C C D D D [PrS]&[CS]&[OS]: Significant impacts are not expected. However,
impacts will be assessed considering the feature of the society in the
project area which will be updated in the Project.
[DS - PoS]: Few impacts are expected

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Rating
No Item Expected Impact
PrS CS OS DS ClS PoS
24 Children C C C D D D [PrS]&[CS]&[OS]: Significant impacts are not expected. However,
s right impacts will be assessed considering the feature of the society in the
project area which will be updated in the Project.
[DS - PoS]: Few impacts are expected
25 Infectious D B- D B- D D [PrS]: Few impacts are expected
diseases [CS]: Due to inflow of construction workers, infectious diseases such
such as as STD (Sexually Transmitted Disease) are possible to be spread.
HIV/AID Thus, a risk of infectious disease is anticipated in construction stage.
S [OS]: Few impacts are expected.
[DS]: Due to inflow of construction workers, infectious diseases such
as STD are possible to be spread. Thus, a risk of infectious disease is
anticipated in construction stage.
[ClS&PoS]: Railway Line operation which causes infectious disease
is not expected.
26 Working D B- B- B- D D [PrS]: Few impacts are expected
condition [CS]: In general, many workers will be engaged in construction work
s and stay at workers camps under relatively-poor living conditions.
including Thus, the health and occupational safety of the workers may be
occupatio jeopardized in case of severe working condition and in rainy season.
nal health [OS]: The risk of occupational health for railway workers would be
and safety higher due to the increase in the train speed and operation number.
[DS]: In general, many workers will be engaged in decommissioning
work and stay at workers camps under relatively-poor living
conditions. Thus, the health and occupational safety of the workers
may be jeopardized in case of severe working condition and in rainy
season. Although the project activities will not cause hazard and risks,
migration of workers from other areas may worsen condition of
public security and increase in community awareness.
[ClS&PoS]: Few impacts are expected.
Others
27 Accident B- B- B+/ B- D D [PS] &[CS]
B- - Some illegal encroachment such as crossing railway lines by walk
and occupation on railway yard with huts, shops and vendors along
YCR Line sections. Thus, there is a possibility that there may
happen accidents by running train with even low speed.
- Construction works are in a small scale and heavy construction
machines and vehicles will not be used. Thus, occurrence of
accidents by the work is expected little, if any. However, because the
work space is closed to railway track, there is a possibility that there
may happen accidents by running train with even low speed.
[OS]: Since it may happen accidents by running train with higher
speed of 60 km/h, number of casualty and extent of damage from
accidents will increase considerably. On the other hand, the installed
safety fence will prevent people from entering the railway track and
decrease the risk of accident.
[DS]: There might be some minor accidents inevitable during
operation.
[ClS&PoS]: Few impacts are expected
28 Climate D B- B- B- D D [PrS]: No impact is expected.
change /B+ [CS]: Generation of greenhouse gases such as CO2 due to construction
vehicles and machines is expected in a small scale and temporary.
[OS]:
- The emission of greenhouse gas from railway operation would be
increased because the number of train will be increased.
- Renovation of YCR Line may give rise to faster and safer operation
than existing train operation. This will enhance modal shift to
railway transport from road transport which generate much lower
emission of CO2 than road transport, and results in reduction of
greenhouse gases generation such as CO2.
[DS]: Generation of greenhouse gases such as CO2 due to vehicles and
machines which are used for decommissioning work is expected in a
small scale and temporary.

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Rating
No Item Expected Impact
PrS CS OS DS ClS PoS
[ClS&PoS]: Few impacts are expected.
Note:
A-: Significant negative impact is expected, if any measures are not taken against the impact.
A+: Significant positive impact is expected.
B-: Negative impact is expected to some extent, if any measures are not taken against the impact.
B+: Some positive impact is expected.
C: Impacts are not clear and further examination is needed.
DNo impact is expected.
PrS: Pre-construction Stage, CS: Construction Stage, OS: Operation stage, DS: Decommissioning Stage, ClS: Closure
Stage, PoS: Post-closure Stage
Source: JICA Study Team

(2) Proposed Mitigation Measures


Mitigation measures, which may avoid, minimize, eliminate and/or reduce above mentioned
negative or potentially negative impacts, should be examined for respective project stages in
order that the project can achieve intended objectives with minimizing accompanied
environmental and social negative impacts. Table 5.2-2 shows the preliminary mitigation
measures for the impact items which are evaluated as A-, B- or C in the scoping matrix.
It will be updated and elaborated in ESIA report.

Table 5.2-2 Preliminary Mitigation Measures


No Item Mitigation Measures
Pollution Control
1 Air [CS]&[DS]
pollution - Load of vehicles transporting fine materials such as sand, soil and waste to and from the project
site will be covered to reduce the release of dust.
- Generators and other equipment which might generate an emission gas will have to be shut
down when not in use.
[OS]
- The emissions from the railway operation will be controlled not to exceed International
/National Air Quality Standards.
- The utilization of better equipment and more pollution control devices will help to further
reduce air pollution.
2 Water [CS]&[DS]
Pollution - Turbid wastewater from construction area shall be disposed to designated site.
- Domestic wastewater shall be treated properly.
[OS]
- Proper treatment of effluent from railway facilities should be installed or maintained to comply
with related regulations.
3 Waste [CS] & [DS]
- The waste generated from the construction work should be disposed according to YCDCs
instructions.
[OS]
- The solid waste generated from railway-related facilities should be disposed according to
YCDCs instructions.
4 Soil [PrS]&[CS]&[DS]&[ClS]&[PoS]
contaminati - The possibility of soil contamination will be examined in the ESIA study.
on - To ensure against chances of soil pollution during construction phase, all waste including oil
and grease will be stored and disposed in designated site.
[OS]: In order not to occur soil contamination, better equipment and devices will be used to
prevent of leakage of toxic materials such as lubricating oil from running trains engines and
others. In addition, regular checking to train engines will have to be done.
5 Noise and [CS]&[DS]
vibration - Installing noise barrier and using low- noise equipment need to be considered.
- Construction works during night time and at the early hours of day time should be avoided if
there are any sensitive receptors nearby.
[OS]: Installing noise barrier along the YCR Line to reduce noise pollution from the running
train.

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No Item Mitigation Measures


6 Offensive [CS]: The level of offensive odor should be monitored and mitigation measures will be
odor considered depending on an odor source.
Natural Environment
7 Flora, fauna [CS]
and - Cutting trees should be avoided or relocated as much as possible.
biodiversity - For cutting, removal or replanting trees along railway track prior consultation with YCDC and
MONREC should be conducted.
- After removal of trees, replanting of trees for shading and visual amenity will be planned, as
needed.
8 Hydrologica [CS]&[OS]&[DS]
l - In case of strong rain in short time accumulating rain water in surrounding area may flow into
situation/dra some railway section, where land level is lower than surrounding area with poor drainage
inages condition, resulting in inundation. Thus, in such sections, establishment of proper drainage
system system or improvement is necessary to avoid inundation.
- The improvement of public drainage system outside of Project area should be consulted with
YCDC.
9 Topography [CS]: It shall be considered based on the results of ESIA.
and
geographica
l features
Social Environment
10 Land [PrS]&[CS]
acquisition - Expected number of PAPs is less than 200 in terms of persons to be subject to resettlement.
and Thus, MR as a Project proponent should prepare Abbreviated Resettlement Action Plan (ARP)
involuntary and provide necessary compensation and support of resettlement to these PAPs by consultation
resettlement with them through stakeholder meetings and Compensation Committee.
- In addition, trees and electric poles along railway track should be removed, relocated or
replanted by MR after necessary permit from concerned authorities, if any.
- Detailed features should be referred to Abbreviated Resettlement Plan (ARP).
11 Poverty [PrS]&[CS]&[OS]: The appropriate assistance should be considered in the ARP.
12 Indigenous [PrS]&[CS]: The appropriate assistance should be considered in the ARP as needed.
people and
ethnic
minority
13 Local [CS]&[OS]
economy - Appropriate measures such as making space and/or facilities for vendors to sell goods near
such as railway yard of stations and sections enabling to continue their business activities should be
employment considered by MR and relating organizations such as YCDC. It will be considered in ARP.
and
livelihood
14 (Surroundin [CS]&[OS]
g) land use - The land use needs to be properly managed by the authorities in charge of.
and
utilization
of local
resources
15 Water usage [CS]&[DS]
- The mitigation measures will be evaporated based on the result of ESIA.
16 Existing [CS]
social - To avoid or minimize traffic disturbance and nuisance to local people and communities,
infrastructur following measures will be conducted: 1) Prior to construction work, inform contents of the
es and construction work and schedule, 2) Time shift of construction work. 3) Education of traffic
services safety and manner to construction workers and drivers, 4) Raise the traffic signal and arrange
watchmen on approach road. 5) Provision of alternative transportation services such as public
buses. 6) Setting staff in charge of complaints.
17 Equality of [PrS]&[CS]&[OS]
benefits and - It will be considered based on the result of ESIA.
losses and
equality in
developmen
t process

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No Item Mitigation Measures


18 Local [PrS]&[CS]
conflicts of - Consultation with stakeholders including local residents, community organizations etc., should
interests be planned from an early stage to obtain understanding and consent among the stakeholders in
order to avoid local conflict of interests.
- Consider preference of employment to local residents and the poor for construction works.
- MR should set up a section in charge of public communication and complaints from peoples.
19 Gender [PrS]&[CS]&[OS]: It will be considered based on the result of ESIA.
20 Childrens [PrS]&[CS]&[OS]: It will be considered based on the result of ESIA.
right
21 Infectious [CS]&[DS]: In order to prevent spreading of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, awareness
diseases training to workers will be provided.
such as
HIV/AIDS
22 Working [CS]& [DS]
conditions - In the construction work contractor should comply with requirement of Labor Law.
including - Preparation of safety management plan and enlighten occupational safety to construction
occupationa workers.
l health and - Tangible safety considerations shall be prepared for individuals involved in the project. (i) The
safety installation of safety equipment and management of hazardous materials. (ii) Any worker and
personnel who enter into construction sites have to bear safety shoes, hats and earplugs for
construction works.
- Monitoring health condition and occupational safety of workers.
[OS]
- MR will comply with requirement of Labor Law.
- Safety rules should be followed.
Others
23 Accident [PrS]&[CS]&[DS]
- Suitable planning and management over construction work to prevent and minimize the number
and consequences of accidents.
- Collect and analyze cases and causes of accidents.
- Enlighten workers and local residents to prevent accidents by training and adequate notice.
[OS]
- Enlightenment railway operation safety to conductors and passengers as well as residents.
- Collect cases and causes of railway accidents.
- Install fences along railway track to stop encroachment such as crossing railway lines by walk
and occupation on railway yard in order to prevent traffic accidents by train operation.
- Installation of safety fence besides the railway track
24 Climate [CS]&[DS]
change - Generators and other equipment which might generate an emission gas will have to be shut
down when not in use.
[OS]
- The modal shift to railway transport from road transport will moderate the impact of greenhouse
gases in total.
Note: PrS: Pre-construction Stage, CS: Construction Stage, OS: Operation stage, DS: Decommissioning Stage,
ClS: Closure Stage, PoS: Post-closure Stage
Source: JICA Study Team

5.3 Terms of Reference for EIA Investigation


The detail study for the potential environmental and social impact items which were identified
in the scoping process in Chapter 5 will be conducted in the EIA investigation phase. Among
EIA investigation items, the baseline status of air quality, water quality, soil quality and noise
and vibration will be confirmed by field survey and laboratory analysis. On the other hand,
the ARP study including the census, asset inventory and social economic surveys will provide
the useful information on social-economic baseline s of PAPs to this EIA investigation. The
detailed Terms of Reference for EIA investigation in draft is shown in Table 5.3-1.

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Table 5.3-1 Terms of Reference in EIA Investigation


No. Item Survey Item Survey Method Survey Point/Target Area
Pollution control
1 Air pollution Measurement of ambient air Air quality 2 locations along YCR Line
quality *(SO2, NO, NO2, measurement by
PM10, PM2.5, CO), Wind instrument
Speed, Wind direction, (Site measurement:
Temperature 24 hrs for 1 week for
each location)
2 Water pollution Water quality (pH, EC, DO, Sampling and -
Water Temp, Turbidity, measurement by field
TSS, COD, BOD, Oil and equipment and
grease, T-N, T-P, total laboratory analysis
coliform, TDS, Cyanide,
Phenols, Zn,
Chromium(Vi), As, Cu, Hg,
Cd, Se, Pb, Ni, Fe, Fluoride,
Cyanide(total), Total
Chromium, Ammonia,
Silver, Sulphide, Aluminum
and Tin)
3 Waste Measures to manage the Interview and/or -
solid waste document analysis
4 Soil contamination Soil quality (pH, TPH Sampling and 6 samples in the railway-related
(Total Petroleum measurement by field facilities
Hydrocarbon), Cd, Pb, equipment and
Cr(Vi), Hg, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, laboratory analysis
Mn, As, Se)
5 Noise and vibration Railway noise and vibration Field measurement 3 locations along YCR Line
level
6 Offensive odor Possibility to occur an Interview and/or -
offensive odor document analysis
Natural Environment
7 Flora, fauna and - Referring to the result of Interview and/or Along YCR Line
biodiversity asset inventory survey in document analysis
ARP study for tree
census data
- Check of Projects
design and drawing to
identify the affected trees
8 Hydrological Confirmation of Projects Interview and/or Along YCR Line
situation/drainages design document analysis
system
9 Topography and Confirmation of Projects Document analysis Along YCR Line
geographical design
features

Social Environment
10 Land acquisition Analysis of socio-economic Document analysis Project Affected Persons (PAPs)
and involuntary condition and livelihood based on the outputs of along YCR Line and/or around
resettlement status to be affected by the ARP study the Project area
Project
11 Poverty ditto ditto ditto
12 Indigenous people ditto ditto ditto
and ethnic minority

13 Local economy ditto ditto ditto


such as employment
and livelihood

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No. Item Survey Item Survey Method Survey Point/Target Area


14 (Surrounding) land ditto ditto ditto
use and utilization
of local resources
15 Water usage ditto ditto ditto
16 Existing social Condition of existing social Document analysis ditto
infrastructures and infrastructures and services
services around the project area
17 Equality of benefits Analysis of socio-economic Document analysis ditto
and losses and condition and livelihood based on the outputs of
equality in the status to be affected by the ARP study
development Project
process
18 Local conflicts of ditto ditto ditto
interests
19 Gender ditto ditto ditto
20 Childrens right ditto ditto ditto
21 Infectious diseases Analysis of general risk of Document analysis Around Project area
such as HIV/AIDS infectious diseases and
community/occupational
health
22 Working conditions Analysis of possible Document analysis -
including working conditions and
occupational health safety management
and safety
Others
23 Accident Analysis of accident risk Document analysis -
and safety management
24 Climate change Analysis of possible Document analysis -
emission source
Note: Survey items for air quality and water quality are described in accordance with National Emission Guidelines
(2015)
Source: EIA Study Team

Based on the result of EIA investigation and environmental and social impact forecast,
environmental mitigation and management and monitoring plan will be developed. All these
results will be included in an EIA Report which will contain the following terms of reference
according to EIA Procedure.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
CHAPTER 1 Introduction
CHAPTER 2 Policy, Legislation and Institutional Framework
CHAPTER 3 Existing Baseline Environmental and Social Conditions of the Project Area
CHAPTER 4 Project Description and Alternative Section
CHAPTER 5 Results of Environmental Scoping
CHAPTER 6 Field Survey Results
CHAPTER 7 Environmental and Social Impact Forecast
CHAPTER 8 Mitigation Measures and Environmental Management Plan
CHAPTER 9 Public Consultation and Disclosure
CHAPTER 10 Conclusions and Recommendations

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CHAPTER 6 FIELD SURVEY RESULTS


Some field surveys for EIA investigation were conducted to supplement an existing data of baseline
with air quality survey, water quality survey, soil quality survey and noise and vibration survey. Those
detailed data, laboratory analysis reports and supplemental explanation are shown in Appendix 2.

6.1 Air Quality Survey


6.1.1 Survey Item
The parameters for air quality survey were SO2, NO2, NO, CO, PM2.5, and PM10.

6.1.2 Survey Location


The air quality survey was conducted in two locations, namely A-1 and A-2 which are located
near two Stations of YCR railway line. The details of the location of air quality survey points
are presented in Figure 6.1-1.

Table 6.1-1 Air Quality Survey Location


Location (Latitude and Type of Survey Detailed Description of Survey
Survey Point
Longitude) Point Point
A-1 1656'7.50"N Along the railway line 3 meters away from the railway
96 6'18.37"E line, near Golf Course Station
A-2 1648'25.26"N Along the railway line 1 meter away from the railway
96 7'36.02"E line, 10 meters away from the
fence, near Kyee Myin Daing
Station
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

Source: Google Earth


Figure 6.1-1 Locations of Air Quality Survey

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(2) A1
A1 was set in a flat area, located beside Yangon Circular Railway Line and about 3 m away
from the railway line and about 50 m far from the Golf Course Station. There are residential
houses and military compound nearby this station, the possible emission source other than the
train is mostly from these residential houses.

Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.


Figure 6.1-2 Air Quality Survey at A1

(3) A2
A2 was set in a flat area, located beside Yangon Circular Railway Line and about 1 m away
from the railway line and about 10 m far from the fence. There are residential houses, local
bazaar and a parallel traffic road called upper Kye Myin Daing Road nearby this station, the
possible emission source is mostly from those residential houses and /or running vehicles.

Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.


Figure 6.1-3 Air quality survey at A2

6.1.3 Survey Location


Air quality survey was conducted for seven consecutive days (Late March to Early April
2016). The measurement duration is shown in below Table 6.1-2.

Table 6.1-2 Duration for Air Quality Survey


Sampling point Duration
A-1 24th March -31st March 2016
A-2 1st April 8th April 2016
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

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6.1.4 Survey Method


Sampling and analysis of ambient air quality were conducted by referring to the
recommendation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The
Aeroqual S 500 Gas level monitor and Haz-Scanner Environmental Perimeter Air Station
(EPAS) was used to measure ambient air quality. It was automatically recorded in every one
minute. Measured parameters (SO2, NO2, NO, CO, PM10, PM2.5 and others) are shown in
Table 6.1-3. Sampling pump was operated at 2 L/min. Different analysis methods are
integrated in the instrument, such as Particulates 90 Infrared Light Scattering for particulate
matters (PM10, PM2.5) and electrochemical sensors for toxic gases (CO, NO2, NO, SO2).

Table 6.1-3 Parameter and Measurement Equipment for Air Quality Survey
No. Parameter Equipment
1 Sulfur dioxide (SO2) Aeroqual S 500 Gas level monitor.
2 Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Aeroqual S 500 Gas level monitor.
3 Nitrogen monoxide (NO) Aeroqual S 500 Gas level monitor.
4 Carbon monoxide (CO) Aeroqual S 500 Gas level monitor.
5 Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) HAZ SCANNER TM EPAS Monitoring System
6 Particulate matter 10 (PM10) HAZ SCANNER TM EPAS Monitoring System
7 Wind speed HAZ SCANNER TM EPAS Monitoring System
8 Wind direction HAZ SCANNER TM EPAS Monitoring System
9 Air temperature HAZ SCANNER TM EPAS Monitoring System
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

6.1.5 Survey Result


The air quality data which was recorded in every minute were calculated for average 24-hour
and 1-hour values for further evaluation and to make comparison with corresponding standard
values.

(1) A-1 (near Golf Course Station)


Result of ambient air quality measured at A-1 is presented in below table. It is obvious that
the concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 are higher than the National Environmental Quality
(Emission) Guidelines value issued by Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental
Conservation (MONREC). For gases, comparing with the guideline value, the concentration
of NO2 is almost lower than the guideline value except 24-hour value of the 2nd day which is
slightly higher than the guideline value. The guideline value for SO2 is 20g/m3 (for 24-hour
interval) and the measured value of SO2 was fluctuating mostly around the guideline value.
The wind was mainly blowing from west and southeast as shown in Figure 6.1-4.

Table 6.1-4 Ambient Air Quality (Daily Average) at A-1


Results
CO NO2 NO PM10 PM2.5 SO2
Date For 24
- For 1 hour - For 24 hours For 24 hours
hours
g/m 3
g/m 3
g/m 3
g/m 3
g/m3 g/m3
24 25 March 2016
th- th
923.39 100.33 58.10 119.24 90.14 42.01
25th-26th March 2016 964.03 249.85 66.62 139.40 112.03 18.42
26th-27th March 2016 732.91 164.89 436.90 118.74 83.95 14.13
27th-28thMarch 2016 831.26 131.40 42.39 92.65 66.32 24.44
28th -29th March 2016 686.84 169.21 401.82 103.29 73.48 10.53
29th -30th March 2016 851.84 141.50 368.17 89.99 67.03 27.54
30th-31st March 2016 787.94 189.26 426.31 73.86 46.06 21.37
Guideline value NG 200(1-hour) NG 50(24 hour) 25(24 hour) 20(24 hour)
Note: NG= No Guideline
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 6.1-4 Wind Direction and Wind Speed at A-1

(2) A-2 (near Kyee Myin Daing Station)


Results of ambient air quality measured at A-2 are presented in Table 6.1-4. It is obvious that
the concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 are higher than the National Environmental Quality
(Emission) Guidelines value. Comparing with the guideline value, the concentration of NO2 is
lower than the guideline value while SO2 is higher than the guideline value. Possible reason is
due to garbage burning (including plastic residues) activity and smokes from nearby
residential houses and bazaar during the survey period. It is estimated that most of pollutants
came from this garbage burning activity with low wind speed (2 km/h). The wind was mostly
blowing from south-southeast as shown in Figure 6.1-5.

Table 6.1-5 Ambient Air Quality (Daily Average) at A-2


Results
CO NO2 NO PM10 PM2.5 SO2
Date* For 24
- For 1 hour - For 24 hours For 24 hours
hours
g/m 3
g/m 3
g/m 3
g/m3
g/m3 g/m3
1 -2 April 2016
st nd
543.16 84.61 220.44 61.20 46.27 316.43
2nd -3rd April
1702.57 65.09 218.69 53.27 39.60 284.81
2016
3rd -4th April 2016 3162.66 78.03 797.06 57.31 43.85 239.64
4th-5th April 2016 7538.54 53.88 318.29 58.54 44.05 229.78
5th-6th April 2016 2545.01 46.89 923.99 57.58 43.36 256.40
6th-7th April 2016 2265.44 40.26 730.39 64.86 50.17 216.23
7th-8th April 2016 2354.50 52.67 655.20 71.65 54.07 237.65
Guideline value NG 200(1-hour) NG 50(24- hour) 25(24 hour) 20(24 hour)
Note: NG= No Guideline
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 6.1-5 Wind Direction and Wind Speed at -2-

6.2 Water Quality Survey


6.2.1 Survey Item
Parameters for water quality survey are shown in Table 6.2-1.

Table 6.2-1 Parameters for Water Quality Survey


No. Parameters No. Parameters
1 pH 17 Chromium
2 EC 18 Arsenic (As)
3 DO 19 Copper (Cu)
4 Water temperature 20 Mercury (Hg)
5 Turbidity 21 Cadmium (Cd)
6 TSS 22 Lead (Pb)
7 COD 23 Nickel (Ni)
8 BOD 24 Iron (Fe)
9 Oil and Grease 25 Fluoride
10 Total Nitrogen 26 Ammonia
11 Total Phosphorus 27 Chromium (Cr) (VI)
12 Total Coliform 28 Silver (Ag)
13 TDS 29 Sulfide
14 Cyanide 30 Aluminum (Al)
15 Phenols 31 Tin(Sn)
16 Zinc 32 Selenium (Se)
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

6.2.2 Survey Location


There were eight survey sites for water quality survey. Brief description of sampling points is
presented in Table 6.2-2 and their locations are shown in Figure 6.2-1. The details of each
sampling point are described below.

Table 6.2-2 Sampling Points for Water Quality Survey


Location
No. Survey Area
(Latitude& Longitude)
W.1 Insein DRC (existing Depot) 1652'52.04"N
Outlet of the pump for disposing water 96 6'33.02"E

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Location
No. Survey Area
(Latitude& Longitude)
W.2 Insein DRC (existing Depot) 1652'52.93"N
Outlet of the drainage channel 96 6'31.95"E
Creek between the Danyin Gone Station and Golf Course 1656'16.51"N
W.3
Station 96 5'48.60"E
W.4 Creek between the Kyauk Yay Twin Station and Tan Tar 1653'2.28"N
Lay Station 96 9'15.30"E
W.5 Creek between Myitar Nyunt Station and Ma Hlwa Gone 1648'19.69"N
Station, near Ma Hlwa Gone Station 9610'55.86"E
W.6 KhaingS hwe War Creek; Creek between Heldan Station 1649'56.65"N
and Ka Ma Yut Station 96 7'20.29"E
W.7 Creek between Ka Ma Yut Station and Thirimyaing 1650'52.68"N
Station, near Thirimyaing Station 96 7'5.13"E
W.8 Yoe Gyi Creek; Creek between Oak Kyin Station and 1651'33.50"N
Thamine Station, near Thamine Station 96 6'54.04"E
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

Source: Google Earth


Figure 6.2-1 Locations of Water Quality Sampling Points

(3) W1
W1 is located at Insein DRC (existing Depot). It is at the outlet of the pump for disposing
water.

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Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.


Figure 6.2-2 Water Sampling at W1

(4) W2
W2 is also located at Insein DRC (existing Depot). However, it is at the outlet of the drainage
channel.

Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.


Figure 6.2-3 Water Sampling at W2

(5) W3
W3 is located on the creek between the Danyin Gone Station and Golf Course Station. The
railway line crosses this creek. The width of the creek is about 1 m.

Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.


Figure 6.2-4 Water Sampling at W3

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(6) W4
W4 is located on the creek between the Kyauk Yay Twin Station and Tan Tar Lay Station. It is
near the Thudhamma Road. The width of the creek is about 2 m.

Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.


Figure 6.2-5 Water Sampling at W4

(7) W5
W5 is located on the creek between Myitar Nyunt Station and Ma Hlwa Gone Station. It is
near the Ma Hlwa Gone Station. The width of the creek is about 2.5 m.

Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.


Figure 6.2-6 Water Sampling at W5

(8) W6
W6 is located on the KhaingShwe War Creek. It is between the Heldan Station and Kamayut
Station. The width of the creek is about 1 m.

Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.


Figure 6.2-7 Water Sampling at W6

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

(9) W7
W7 is located on the creek between Kamayut Station and Thirimyaing Station and it is nearer
to Thirimyaing Station side. This creek flows from north to south and width of the creek is
about 3 m.

Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.


Figure 6.2-8 Water Sampling at W7

(10) W8
W8 is located on the Yoe Gyi Creek. It is between the Oakkyin Station and Thamine Station,
nearer to the Thamine Station. The creek flows from east to west and width of the creek is
about 3 m.

Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.


Figure 6.2-9 Water Sampling at W8

6.2.3 Survey Period


Water quality measurement was conducted to confirm the baseline condition of water quality
status of the Project area on 28th March, 2016.

6.2.4 Survey Method


(1) Sampling Method
Water sampling was conducted by using water sampler and samples were put in sterilized
sample containers. Sampling was ensured compliance with recognized standard procedures.
Parameters such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC).
These parameters were measured at each site concurrently with the sample collection.

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(2) Analysis Method


All samples were kept in iced boxes maintaining the temperature at 2-4 C and sent to ISO
TECH, SGS, Occupational and Environmental Health, Plant Protection Dept., Setsco Services
Pte. Ltd, AMIT and Ecological Laboratory. The test method for each parameter is presented in
detail in Table 6.2-3.

Table 6.2-3 Analysis Method of Water Sampling


No Water Analysis Method of Sample pre- Detection
Using Equipment and Methods
. Parameters treatment Limit
1 pH Instrumental Analysis CyberScan pH11- ph/C Meter 0.00 to 14.00 pH
(EUTECH)
2 EC Instrumental Analysis SensION + EC 5 Conductivity 0.01 to 500 mS/cm
Meter (HACH)
3 DO Azide Modification of USA Standard Method 22nd -*
Iodometric Method Edition
4 Water Instrumental Analysis WTW multi-parameter, -
temperature WTW 3430
5 Turbidity Instrumental Analysis 2100Q Turbidity Meter (HACH) 0-1000 NTU (FNU)
6 TSS Photometric Method DR2700 Spectrophoto Meter 5 to 750 mg/L
(HACH)
7 COD Close Reflux, Tirtimetric USA Standard Method 22nd -*
Method Edition
8 BOD 5210 D. Respirometric USA Standard Method 22nd -*
Method Edition (Lovibond)
9 Oil and Grease APHA, AWWA & WEF, Standard methods for the examination 5 mg/L
of water & waste water, 22nded, 2012: 5520 B
10 Total Nitrogen Digestion and distillation Kjeldahls Method 0.001 ppm
Digestion set and stems
distillation set.
11 Total Olsen Method for Alkaline Spectrophotometer 0.001 ppm
Phosphorus & Nutral soil
Bray & Kurtz Method for
acid soil
12 Total Coliform Membrane Filtration Potatest Incubation Kit 0 Cfu/100 ml
Method
13 TDS Instrumental Analysis SensION + EC 5 Conductivity 0 to 500 mg/L
Meter (HACH)
14 Cyanide Colorimetric Method Cyanide Test Kit 0 to 0.20 mg/L
15 Phenols Aminoantipyrine Parlintest Photometer 0-5.0 mg/L
16 Zinc Acid Digestion Method Atomic Absorption 0.1 mg/L and above
Spectroscopy (AAS)
17 Chromium Acid Digestion Method Atomic Absorption 0.1 mg/L and above
Spectroscopy (AAS)
18 Arsenic (As) Acid Digestion Method Atomic Absorption 0.1 mg/L and above
Spectroscopy (AAS)
19 Copper (Cu) Acid Digestion Method Atomic Absorption 0.1 mg/L and above
Spectroscopy (AAS)
20 Mercury (Hg) Acid Digestion Method Atomic Absorption 0.1 mg/L and above
Spectroscopy (AAS)
21 Cadmium (Cd) Acid Digestion Method Atomic Absorption 0.1 mg/L and above
Spectroscopy (AAS)
22 Lead (Pb) Acid Digestion Method Atomic Absorption 0.1 mg/L and above
Spectroscopy (AAS)
23 Nickel (Ni) Acid Digestion Method Atomic Absorption 0.1 mg/L and above
Spectroscopy (AAS)
24 Iron (Fe) Acid Digestion Method Atomic Absorption 0.1 mg/L and above
Spectroscopy (AAS)
25 Fluoride SP ADNS Method DR2700 Spectrophotometer -*
(HACH)
26 Ammonia Distillation Method USA Standard Method 22nd -*
Edition
27 Chromium (Cr) APHA: Pt3500-Cr (B) APHA : Pt3500-Cr (B) 0.1 mg/L
(VI)

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No Water Analysis Method of Sample pre- Detection


Using Equipment and Methods
. Parameters treatment Limit
28 Silver (Ag) Acid Digestion Method Atomic Absorption -*
Spectrophotometer
(AA- 6300 SHIMADZU)
29 Sulfide A&F Iodometric Titration APHA, AWWA & WEF, 5 mg/L
Method Standard methods for the
examination of water & waste
water, 22nd ed, 2012:4500-S2-
30 Aluminum (Al) Lovibond Spectro Direct Lovibond Spectrophotometer -*
Method
31 Tin(Sn) APHA: Pt 3120B 0.009 mg/L and above
32 Selenium (Se) APHA: Pt 3120B 0.045 mg/L and above
* A detection limit was not explained by a laboratory.
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

6.2.5 Survey Result


Survey results of water quality are shown in below table. The value of measured parameters
was compared with general guideline values of National Environmental Quality (Emission)
Guidelines (2015, MONREC). In this survey, it is considered that the wastewater at W1 and
W2 will be compared with guideline values for railway facilities. The other locations will be
compared with guideline values for construction phase because the possible deterioration of
water quality to be affected by the construction work will need to be considered and
monitored in these creeks

In terms of effluent standard specified to railway facilities, TSS was significantly higher than
guideline value in every sampling point. In addition, high concentration of oil and grease was
monitored in W2 (outlet of the drainage channel in Insein DRC). At some points, total
nitrogen and total phosphors also exceeded the guideline values to be compared. However, it
can be generally concluded that most parameters are within the range of guideline value.

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Table 6.2-4 Survey Results of Water Quality


Water Analysis Result Guideline Value*1
No Unit
Parameters W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 Railway*2 General *3 Construction*4
1 pH - 6.4 6.2 6.5 6.4 7.2 7.3 6.9 6.9 6-9 6-9 6-9
2 EC S/cm 305 313 226 326 671 639 959 396 NG NG NG
3 DO mg/L 2.2 0.6 4 Nil Nil Nil 2 1.8 NG NG NG
<3 <3
4 Water-T C 24.9 25.1 25 25 25 25.2 25 25.1 NG
(T- increase) (T-increase)
5 Turbidity NTU 51 72 248 220 172 40 62 68 NG NG NG
6 TSS mg/L 70 93 316 380 352 65 85 92 50 50 50
7 COD mg/L 128 320 96 256 352 192 96 96 250 250 125
8 BOD mg/L 54 88 32 88 90 60 42 44 NG 50 30
9 Oil and Grease mg/L <5 81.4 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 10 10 10
10 Total N ppm 9.8 11.2 8.4 12.6 35.7 30.8 23.8 18.2 15 NG 10
11 Total P ppm 0.12 0.12 0.15 0.37 5.54 4.29 3.77 1.2 5 2 2
12 Total Coliform CFU/100ml 35 30 0 32 28 25 33 38 NG 400 400
13 TDS mg/L 153 156 113 163 335 319 479 198 NG NG NG
14 Cyanide mg/L N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 1 1 NG
15 Phenols ppm 0.47 0.36 0.17 0.3 0.44 0.25 0.18 0.09 0.5 0.5 NG
16 Zinc (Zn) mg/L 0.042 0.066 0.031 0.05 0.045 0.038 0.062 0.069 2 2 NG
17 Chromium (Cr) ppm < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 0.5 0.5 NG
18 Arsenic (As) ppm < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 0.1 0.1 NG
19 Copper (Cu) ppm 0.01 0.006 0.013 0.02 0.015 0.019 0.02 0.019 0.5 0.5 NG
20 Mercury (Hg) ppm < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 0.01 0.01 NG
21 Cadmium (Cd) ppm < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 0.1 0.1 NG
22 Lead (Pb) ppm < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 0.2 0.1 NG
23 Nickel (Ni) ppm < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 0.5 0.5 NG
24 Iron (Fe) ppm 1.785 3.069 0.507 0.51 0.207 < 0.1 < 0.1 0.45 3 3.5 NG
25 Fluoride mg/L 0.8 0.5 1.2 0.7 0.6 1.6 1.8 1.8 20 20 NG
26 Ammonia mg/L 0.19 0.49 0.28 7.7 40.3 30.9 25.1 13.4 10 10 NG
Hexavalent
27 Chromium mg/L <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.1 0.1 NG
(Cr (Vi))
28 Silver (Ag) mg/L < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 0.2 0.5 NG
29 Sulfide mg/L <2 <2 <2 <2 <2 <2 <2 <2 1 1 NG
30 Aluminum (Al) mg/L 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.09 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.03 3 NG NG
31 Tin(Sn) mg/L <0.009 <0.009 <0.009 <0.009 <0.009 <0.009 <0.009 <0.009 2 NG NG
32 Selenium (Se) mg/L <0.045 <0.045 <0.045 <0.045 <0.045 <0.045 <0.045 <0.045 NG 0.1 NG
Note: N.D.= Not Detected and a delection limt is not exmplained by lab, NG= No Guideline
The cell in orange shows the result exceeds the guideline value to be compared with; the guideline value for effluent level forW1 and W2 and guideline value for site runoff and
wastewater discharges (construction phase) for the other locations.
*1 National Environmental Quality (Emission) Guidelines, 2015
*2 Guideline value for effluent level for railways to be applied for maintenance facilities
*3 Wastewater, Storm Water Runoff, Effluent and Sanitary Discharges (general application)
*4 Guideline value for site runoff and wastewater discharges (construction phase)
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd. :

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6.3 Soil Quality Survey


6.3.1 Survey Items
Soil quality measurement was conducted to confirm the baseline condition of soil quality
status of the Project area. Parameters for soil quality survey are presented in Table 6.3-1.

Table 6.3-1 Parameters for Soil Quality Survey


No. Soil Analysis Parameters
1 pH
2 EC
3 Cadmium (Cd)
4 Lead (Pb)
5 Arsenic (As)
6 Mercury (Hg)
7 Copper (Cu)
8 Nickel (Ni)
9 Zinc (Zn)
10 Iron (Fe)
11 Manganese (Mn)
12 Chromium (Cr)
13 Selenium (Se)
14 TPH
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

6.3.2 Sampling Location


Totally 6 points of soil samples were taken from the existing DRC and expanded new DRC.
Exact locations of the sampling points are shown in Table 6.3-2. Out of totally 6 points of soil
sampling, 4 samples were taken from the existing DRC and the other 2 samples were
collected from the new expansion depot.

Table 6.3-2 Sampling Points for Soil Quality Survey


No. Survey Area Location (Latitude& Longitude)
S.1. Insein DRC (existing Depot) 1652'48.99"N, 96 6'34.34"E
S.2 Insein DRC (existing Depot) 1652'48.93"N, 96 6'34.14"E
S.3 Insein DRC (existing Depot) 1652'53.31"N, 96 6'32.14"E
S.4 Insein DRC (existing Depot) 1652'53.39"N, 96 6'32.43"E
S.5 Newly-expanded Insein DRC (new depot under 1652'56.26"N, 96 6'31.00"E
construction)
S.6 Newly-expanded Insein DRC (new depot under 1652'55.26"N, 96 6'31.47"E
construction)
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

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Source: : Google Eearth


Figure 6.3-1 Location of Soil Quality Survey Points

(3) S1
S1 is located at the Insein DRC (existing depot). It is near the entrance of the depot.

Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.


Figure 6.3-2 Soil Sampling at S1

(4) S2
It is located at the Insein DRC (existing depot).

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Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.


Figure 6.3-3 Soil Sampling at S2

(5) S3
It is located at the Insein DRC (existing depot).

Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.


Figure 6.3-4 Soil Sampling at S3

(6) S4
S4 is located at the Insein DRC (existing depot).

Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.


Figure 6.3-5 Soil Sampling at S4

(7) S5
S5 is located at newly-expanded Insein DRC (new depot under construction).

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Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.


Figure 6.3-6 Soil Sampling at S5

(8) S6
It is located at newly-expanded Insein DRC (new depot under construction).

Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.


Figure 6.3-7 Soil Sampling at S6

6.3.3 Survey Period


Soil quality survey was conducted on 28th March, 2016.

6.3.4 Survey Method


(1) Sampling Method
For each sampling point, 50 g of soil sample was collected from 30 cm soil depth by using the
one piece regular soil auger. However, in some locations, soil condition was very hard and
handled ion spade was used for digging the hard soil. Enough information was recorded on
the tags attached to sample bag to identify the location, data of sampling, depth of sampler.
Samples collected were carefully stored in plastic bags and sent to laboratory to determine the
soil quality for each parameter.

(2) Analysis Method


Collected soil samples were sent to Department of Agriculture (Plant Protection Division) and
Setsco Services Ltd, Singapore. The analysis method for each parameter is presented in below
table.

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Table 6.3-3 Analysis Method of Soil Sampling


No. Soil Analysis Parameters Analysis method
1 pH Laboratory used pH meter
2 EC 1:5 (Soil: Water), Laboratory used EC Meter
3 Cadmium (Cd) Acid digestion pre-treatment,
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
4 Lead (Pb) Acid digestion pre-treatment,
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
5 Arsenic (As) Acid digestion pre-treatment,
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
6 Mercury (Hg) Acid digestion pre-treatment,
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
7 Copper (Cu) Acid digestion pre-treatment,
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
8 Nickel (Ni) Acid digestion pre-treatment,
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
9 Zinc (Zn) Acid digestion pre-treatment,
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
10 Iron (Fe) Acid digestion pre-treatment,
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
11 Manganese (Mn) Acid digestion pre-treatment,
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
12 Chromium (Cr) Acid digestion pre-treatment,
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
13 Selenium (Se) US EPA Method
14 TPH US EPA Method
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

6.3.5 Survey Result


Survey results of soil quality are shown in below table. Compared with the soil quality
standard in Thailand as a reference, no parameters exceeded the reference standard.

Additionally, one remark should be made for extremely high concentration of TPH at S3. It
indicates that a soil is contaminated by oil probably because of incineration of waste
containing an oil around S3.

Table 6.3-4 Soil Quality Survey Results


Reference standard
Result in Thailand*1
Soil Analysis Habitat Other
No Unit
Parameters and Purpose
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
Agricult
ure
1 pH - 6.6 6.7 7.21 7.02 8.14 3.6 - -
2 EC ms/cm 0.11 0.25 0.29 0.1 0.39 1.35 - -
3 Cadmium (Cd) ppm 0.55 0.45 0.55 0.5 0.6 <0.1 - -
4 Lead (Pb) ppm 68.15 2.35 50.75 172.5 12.85 0.1 400 750
5 Arsenic (As) ppm <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 3.9 27
6 Mercury(Hg) ppm <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 23 610
7 Copper (Cu) ppm 65.5 104.5 197 142.15 18.75 2.6 - -
8 Nickel (Ni) ppm 11.25 17.25 48.15 12.4 17.3 3.1 1,600 41,000
(soluble (soluble
salts) salts)
9 Zinc (Zn) ppm 98.4 159.45 160.8 149.57 39.15 12.02 - -
10 Iron (Fe) ppm 813 834 873 785.5 773 695 - -
11 Manganese (Mn) ppm 162.95 231.85 453.5 153.25 262.4 37.6 1,800 32,000

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Reference standard
Result in Thailand*1
Soil Analysis Habitat Other
No Unit
Parameters and Purpose
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
Agricult
ure
12 Chromium (Cr) ppm 15.3 20.15 76 25.52 0.35 <0.1 300 640
(Cr(VI)) (Cr(VI))
13 Selenium mg/kg <2.5 <2.5 <2.5 <2.5 <2.5 <2.5 390 10,000
14 TPH mg/kg 274.4 757.8 342,665.7 183.7 52.5 36.3 - -
*1 Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment in Thailand: Notification of National Environmental Board No. 25, B.E.,
2004
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

6.4 Noise and Vibration Survey


6.4.1 Survey Item
Since a past survey did not include a data of railway-specific noise and vibration, a sound
exposure level and vibration exposure level that can mean a noise or vibration impact caused
by railway operation were measured in this EIA investigation.

The measurement items for noise and vibration are described in the table below. Regarding a
noise measurement, A-weighted sound level, which describes a receiver's noise at any
moment in time was recorded. In the event that a train passes, a Sound Exposure Level (SEL
or LAE), which describes a receivers cumulative noise exposure from a single noise event is
derived from the integration of sound noise level. The LAE value contains the same amount of
acoustic energy over a normalised 1-second period as the actual noise event under
consideration. In this survey, LAE values were obtained for each type of assing passenger
trains of YCR in the survey period.

On the other hand for vibration, Vibration Exposure Level for z-direction was obtained from
each event of train passing and the railway vibration was evaluated based on powerlevel-
averaged vibration exposure level for each train type.

Table 6.4-1 Parameters for Noise and Vibration Survey


No. Parameter Measurement Item Unit
1 Railway noise A-weighted sound level (LA) dB
2 Railway vibration Vibradtion level (Lv) dB
Source: JICA Study Team

6.4.2 Survey Location


Layout plan of three locations of survey points for noise and vibration level measurement is
shown in Figure 6.4-1.

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 6.4-1 Location of Noise and Vibration Level Measurement Point

(3) West-A-1
West-A-1 is located between Aung San Station and Da Nyin Gone Station, Aung San Ward,
Insein Township.

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 6.4-2 Aerial and Surrounding Photo of West-A-1

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(4) East-A-1
East-A-1 is located between Da Nyin Gone Station and Golf Kwin Station, No.960,
Danyingone Insein Township.

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 6.4-3 Aerial and Surrounding Photo of East -A-1

(5) East-B-1
East-B-1 is located between Parami Station and Kanbe Station, near the MR housing complex,
Building No.(1) (3) Ward, South Okkalapa Township.

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 6.4-4 Aerial and Surrounding Photo of East -B-1

6.4.3 Survey Period


The measurement of noise and vibration level was conducted by the following schedule.

Table 6.4-2 Survey Schedule


No. Site Name Survey Schedule
1 West-A-1 6:00 am, 3rd Dec 6:00 am, 4th Dec. 2015
2 East-A-1 7:30 am, 4th Dec 7:30 am, 5th Dec 2015
3 East-B-1 9:00 am, 5th Dec 9:00 am, 6th Dec 2015
Source: JICA Study Team

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6.4.4 Survey Method


(1) Methodology
1) Guideline
There are not any guidelines prescribed rules and regulation for measuring noise and vibration
in Myanmar. JIS Z 8731(Method of measurement of noise level) of Japan was used for noise
measurement. JIS C 1510-1:1995(Method of measurement of vibration level) of Japan was
used for vibration measurement. The specific procedure for measuring a railway noise was
guided by s manual on measurement method of conventional railway noise (Ministry of the
Environment, Japan, 2015).

2) Measuring Method
The measuring instrument of noise and vibration level, measurement items and other
specifications are described in Table 6.4-3 and Table 6.4-4.

Table 6.4-3 Methodology for Measuring Railway Noise


Item Specifications
Noise Meter NL-22 and Nl-42 which are complies with JIS C 1509-1: 2005
Electro acoustics -Sound Level Meters- Part 1: Specifications
Measurement Basically 12.5 m and 25 m from the center of the outer railway.
points
Measurement items LA (A-weighted Sound Level)
Other recorded data Date and time, location, train types (freight/passenger) & load
(container/bulk), number of train cars, train length, passage time,
train speed, videos, information on surrounding environment, etc.
Source: JICA Study Team

Table 6.4-4 Methodology for Measuring Railway Vibration


Item Specifications
Vibration Meter Vibration Level Meter VM-53A (Rion) which complies with JIS C
1510-1:1995
Measurement points Basically 12.5 m and 25 m from the center of the outer railway.
Measurement items Lv (vibration level)
Vibration Axis X, Y, Z
Other Recorded Data Date and time, location, train types (freight/passenger) & load
(container/bulk), number of train cars, train length, passage time,
train speed, videos, information on surrounding environment, etc.
Source: JICA Study Team

6.3.5 Survey Result


(1) Railway Noise
The noise impact on receptors which generally means residents along the railway track
depends on the single exposure level and frequency of passing train. In this survey, the sound
exposure level (LAE) was ranged from 80.4 dB to 91.8 dB and LAmax was ranged from 70.0 dB
to 84.0 dB at 12.5 m distance from the center of nearest railway track. Since much more trains
passed through WEST-A-1 and EAST-B-1 than passing trains through EAST-A-1 in daytime
period, the obtained equivalent noise level (LAeq) at 12.5 m distance of WEST-A-1 and EAST-
B-1 showed the higher sound level (around 58 dB) compared with EAST-A-1(53.3 dB). On
the other hand, WEST-A-1 in nighttime period recorded the comparatively higher level of

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LAeq (57.3 dB at 12.5 m) than the levels of EAST-A-1 and EAST-B-1 (around 5051 dB at
12.5 m) due to the difference of train frequency at nighttime.

These equivalent noise values indicate only the impact from the railway noise and do not
include the background noise level when trains do not pass. Therefore, they are not compared
with the noise levels specified in National Environmental Quality (Emission) Guidelines.

Being compared with Japanese Guidelines for a new contraction of general railway as a
reference, the LAeq at only WEST-A-1 in nighttime (57.3 dB at 12.5 m) exceeds the Japanese
Guideline values (55 dB), which implies the increased number of train operation might cause
a certain level of impact on the receptors. However, referring to the Japanese Guidelines for a
large-scale modification, it says that the noise level should be improved compared with the
level prior to the modification. Thus, the noise impact to be caused by YCR upgrading project
should be evaluated in comparison to these noise levels recorded in this survey as a baseline
data.

The sound exposure level (LAE) for each train type, train direction and survey location and the
overall result of railway noise measurement are described in the following tables.

Table 6.4-5 Result of Sound Exposure Level


Powerlevel-average
Number of Average Train LAE LAmax
Train Train Speed (Available Point1 Point2 Point1 Point2
Point Available
type2 Direction Data)
Data
[km/hr] 12.5m 23m/25m* 12.5m 23m/25m*
WEST-A- 1 Clockwise 2 26 91.8 89.5 84.0 80.0
1 1 Anticlockwise 1 20 87.5 86.3 76.4 74.3
2 Clockwise 10 19 90.1 87.7 80.5 78.0
2 Anticlockwise 2 21 88.2 87.5 77.0 75.3
3 Clockwise 8 21 89.0 86.9 78.7 76.6
3 Anticlockwise 4 22 86.9 85.9 76.5 75.1
4 Clockwise 0 - - - - -
4 Anticlockwise 1 29 88.0 87.2 78.4 77.1
5 Clockwise 0 - - - - -
5 Anticlockwise 1 15 85.7 84.2 78.2 75.9
EAST-A-1 1 Clockwise 0 - - - - -
1 Anticlockwise 0 - - - - -
2 Clockwise 2 24 91.8 89.0 81.5 77.9
2 Anticlockwise 1 22 85.7 - 76.8 -
3 Clockwise 3 20 88.6 82.8 79.0 73.6
3 Anticlockwise 6 17 80.4 74.2 70.0 65.8
4 Clockwise 1 9 89.8 - 79.3 -
4 Anticlockwise 0 - - - - -
5 Clockwise 0 - - - - -
5 Anticlockwise 0 - - - - -
EAST-B-1 1 Clockwise 1 16 89.3 85.4 79.7 73.7
1 Anticlockwise 0 - - - - -
2 Clockwise 11 22 90.4 86.0 82.0 76.9
2 Anticlockwise 9 20 86.5 84.1 76.8 72.9
3 Clockwise 11 19 90.3 87.3 82.2 78.8
3 Anticlockwise 10 20 85.6 82.9 77.0 73.3
4 Clockwise 1 6 88.4 85.9 81.5 80.4
4 Anticlockwise 0 - - - - -
5 Clockwise 0 - - - - -
5 Anticlockwise 0 - - - - -
* 23m for WEST-A-1, 25m for EAST-A-1 and EAST-B-1
Note: Train type1 = large locomotive, train type 2 = small locomotive, train type 3 = DMU(Diesel Multiple Unit)
with engines at several cars, train type 4 = DMU with engines at front car and last car, train type 5 = RBE (railbus)
Source: JICA Study Team

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Table 6.4-6 Result of Railway Noise Measurement


LAeq [dB]
Number of Point1 Point2
Point Period Trains 12.5m 23m/25m*
WEST-A-1 Daytime (7:00 - 22:00) 43 58.0 56.2
Nighttime (22:00 - 7:00) 23 57.3 55.7
EAST-A-1 Daytime (7:00 - 22:00) 24 53.3 49.4
Nighttime (22:00 - 7:00) 1 49.7 43.7
EAST-B-1 Daytime (7:00 - 22:00) 48 58.1 54.9
Nighttime (22:00 - 7:00) 4 50.7 47.2
* 23m for WEST-A-1, 25m for EAST-A-1 and EAST-B-1
Source: JICA Study Team

(2) Railway Vibration


In this survey, the vibration exposure level in z-direction was ranged from 52.8 dB to 67.0 dB
at 12.5 m distance from the center of nearest railway track. It is considered that level of
ground vibration for single event of passing train at EAST-B-1 was comparatively higher than
the level at the other points because of softness of ground.

There are no guidelines for vibration regulated by National Environmental Quality (Emission)
Guidelines and no railway-specific vibration guidelines in Japan. The vibration level in this
survey will be referred as a baseline data in pre-construction stage and used for comparison in
the construction and/or operation stage.

The vibration exposure level for each location, train type and train direction are summarized
in Table 6.4-7.

Table 6.4-7 Result of Vibration Exposure Level


Vibration Exposure Level
Number of Average Train Speed
Train Train [dB](LAE, z)
Point Available (Available Data)
type Direction Point 1 Point 2
Data [km/hr]
12.5 m 23 m/25 m*
WEST- 1 Clockwise 3 30 62.3 59.7
A-1 1 Anticlockwise 1 23 59.8 57.1
2 Clockwise 9 23 63.4 55.7
2 Anticlockwise 7 25 61.5 58.2
3 Clockwise 16 23 60.1 55.5
3 Anticlockwise 9 23 59.6 56.6
4 Clockwise 0 - - -
4 Anticlockwise 1 29 63.3 58.5
5 Clockwise 2 21 61.0 55.2
5 Anticlockwise 2 14 60.4 55.1
EAST- 1 Clockwise 0 - - -
A-1 1 Anticlockwise 0 - - -
2 Clockwise 4 22 64.2 55.3
2 Anticlockwise 2 25 57.3 49.1
3 Clockwise 8 21 62.3 55.7
3 Anticlockwise 7 16 53.5 48.1
4 Clockwise 1 9 62.1 54.8
4 Anticlockwise 1 9 52.8 46.3
5 Clockwise 0 - - -
5 Anticlockwise 0 - - -

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Vibration Exposure Level


Number of Average Train Speed
Train Train [dB](LAE, z)
Point Available (Available Data)
type Direction Point 1 Point 2
Data [km/hr]
12.5 m 23 m/25 m*
EAST- 1 Clockwise 1 14 67.0 58.5
B-1 1 Anticlockwise 0 - - -
2 Clockwise 10 19 67.0 57.6
2 Anticlockwise 10 17 63.0 55.0
3 Clockwise 14 19 62.4 55.3
3 Anticlockwise 13 21 61.1 54.0
4 Clockwise 1 6 62.5 56.1
4 Anticlockwise 1 21 59.0 52.9
5 Clockwise 0 - - -
5 Anticlockwise 0 - - -
Note1 : * 23m for WEST-A-1, 25m for EAST-A-1 and EAST-B-1
Note 2: Train type1 = large locomotive, train type 2 = small locomotive, train type 3 = DMU(Diesel Multiple Unit) with
engines at several cars, train type 4 = DMU with engines at front car and last car, train type 5 = RBE (railbus)

Source: JICA Study Team

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

CHAPTER 7 ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT FORECAST


7.1 Summary of Environmental Social Impact Assessment
This chapter describes the potential impacts on the biophysical and social environments
which may occur due to upgrading the YCR Line. The items which were identified A-, B-,
or C in the Scoping Phase (see Table 5.2-1) were investigated and their impact were
assessed. Prediction of the impacts were conducted based on scoping results, the project
components and baseline data including field survey results. Summary of environmental and
social impacts of YCR Line Upgrading Project are shown in tables below.

Table 7.1-1 shows a relation of activities of project components and each potential impact.
Table 7.1-2 includes summarized reasons of impact prediction. The EIA study highlighted the
following major concerns among them, while other details are described after Section 7.2.

Traffic disturbance caused by construction works


The installation work of new level crossing and other surrounding facilities will entail some
construction area where vehicles and pedestrians will be partially restricted or not allowed to
pass the current level crossings. During the construction period, they have to wait for longer
time or use other roads likely resulting in considerable congestion of road traffic. In addition,
the existing YCR passengers will suffer inconvenience due to a limited railway operation
during the construction work. An appropriate construction schedule and arrangement such as
an advance announcement of construction schedule to the neighbourhood and passengers. In
addition, preparation of Traffic Management Plan will be required to avoid or minimize such
traffic congestion and confusion.

Social impacts for PAPs and vendors


Due to the project activities of new FOB installation, level crossing works, safety fence
installation, power supply and other small building works, a small number of structure and
assets including houses and shops will need to be relocated or lost, which will involve the
resettlement. The number of potential Project Affected Households (PAHs) was counted as 30
households (137 persons) except for vendors in the census survey in June July 2016 and no
land acquisition is expected as of early August 2016. The compensation and assistance for
their resettlement and livelihood restoration will be provided based on the entitlement matrix
of updated Abbreviated Resettlement Action Plan (ARP). In addition to social impacts on
PAPs, one remark should be made for vendors who are selling vegetables and other produces
in stations and along railway tracks. Such business activities cannot be continued after
upgrading YCR Line because the safety fence will be installed and anymore encroachment
will not be allowed for safety assurance. Considering economic loss of vendors, it is
important to suggest appropriate measures for relocated vendors such as providing an
alternative market space in consultation with YCDC. This issue will be elaborated in Section
7.2 below.

Safety measures for traffic accidents


Local people walk across and/or along the railway. There is a significant concern that those
trespassers may result in traffic accidents as well as any construction-related accidents.
Especially after upgrading of YCR Line, an increase in the frequency of trains and speed
would raise risk of traffic accidents. The installation of safety fence and level crossings will
minimize these accidents. MR requires further measures against railway accidents such as
installation of notice board and safety education targeting on railway users and
neighbourhood communities.

Railway noise and vibration

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Out of some potential impacts of pollution control, noise and vibration would have the biggest
impact on local communities along the YCR Line, because of increase in the train speed and
frequency of train operation. On the other hand, the safety wall to be partially installed along
the railway track will serve as a sound barrier. Track and roadbed improvement works will
also muffle railway noise and vibration. It is crucial to monitor the noise and vibration level
along the YCR Line to evaluate the actual impacts whether is enhanced by upgrading YCR
Line.

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Table 7.1-1 Summary of Environmental and Social Impacts of YCR Line Upgrading Project
ClS/
Stage PS CS* OS DS
PoS

Operation of railway & maintenance and


Small building works (signal equipment
New foot over bridge (FOB) installation

Demolition works of railway facilities in


building, level crossing watchman hut
(including automatic level crossings)

Overall rating for construction stage


Installation of new signaling system

Procurement of new rolling stock

Drainage system improvement


Project Proponents

Safety fence installation works


Re-alignment of the rail track

Railway bridge rehabilitation

Station improvement works


Track and roadbed works

Level crossing works

Residual impacts
inspection works
Power supply
Basic design

the YCR line


etc.)
Pollution Control
1. Air pollution D B- D B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B-/B+ B- D

2. Water pollution D B- D D D B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- D

3. Waste D B- D D B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- D

4. Soil contamination D D D D D D D D D D D D D D B- D B-

5. Noise and vibration D B- D B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B-/B+ B- D

6. Offensive odor D D D D D C D D D D D D D C D D D

7. Ground subsidence D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

Natural Environment
8. Protected area D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

9. Flora, fauna & biodiversity D D D D D D D B- D B- D D B- B- D D D

10. Hydrological situation/drainage D D D D D C D D D D D D D C C D D


system

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11. Topography & Geographical D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D


Features
Social Environment
12. Involuntary resettlement B- D D D D D D B- B- B- D B- B- B- D D D
13. Poverty B- D D D D D D B- B- B- D D D B-/B+ D D D
/B+ /B+ /B+ /B+
14. Indigenous people & ethnic C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
minority
15. Local economy such as B- B+ D B+ B+ B+ B+ B- B- B- B+ B+ B+ B-/B+ A+ D D
employment and livelihood /B+- /B+ /B+ /B+
16. (Surrounding) land use and D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
utilization of local resources
17. Water usage D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

18. Existing social infrastructures D B- D D D D D B- B- B- D B- D B- D D D


and services
19. Equality of benefits and losses B- D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D
and equality in the development
process
20. Local conflicts of interests C D D D D D D C C C D D C C D D D

21. Cultural heritage D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

22. Landscape D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

23. Gender D D D D D D D D D D D D D D B+ D D

24. Childrens right D D D D D D D D D D D D D D B+ D D

25. Infectious diseases such as D B- D B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- D B- D


HIV/AIDS
26. Working conditions including D B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- D B- D
occupational health and safety
Others D
27. Traffic Accident D B- D B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B-/B+ D D

28. Climate change D B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B-/B+ D D


29 Hazardous materials and oil D B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- B- D D
management

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Note :
A-: Significant negative impact is expected, if any measures are not taken against the impact. (highlightened in gray)
A+: Significant positive impact is expected.
B-: Negative impact is expected to some extent, if any measures are not taken against the impact. (highlightened in gray)
B+: Some positive impact is expected.
C: Impacts are not clear and further examination is needed. (highlightened in gray)
D No impact is expected.
PrS: Pre-construction Stage, CS: Construction Stage, OS: Operation stage, DS: Decommissioning Stage, CIS: Closure Stage, PoS: Post-closure Stage
* The project component of construction of depot facilities is excluded in this table because it is a separate project of MR. Regarding the new Insein depot, YCR Line Upgrading Project
will only target on a procurement and installation of insufficient facilities of new depot, which does not involve construction works.
Source: JICA Study Team

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Table 7.1-2 Summary of Environmental and Social Impacts


Assessment Result
Cl
No Item Pr Assessment
CS OS DS S/P
S
oS
Pollution Control
1. Air pollution D B- B- B- D CS: An earthwork construction, loading and unloading materials as
/B+ well as operation of construction machines and vehicles will generate
dust and emission gases that will deteriorate the ambient air quality.
OS: Increased impact of emission gas from diesel engines of
locomotives on air quality is expected because of increased operation
of trains. However, the cumulative impact might be decreased
because a new DEMU to be procured would have a better energy
efficiency and reduce exhaust gas emission.
DS: Any negative impact is expected to be limited because dust and
emission gases from demolition works will be generated within narrow
area near the site on a temporary basis.
2. Water pollution D B- B- B- D CS: Water pollution is expected due to the following pollutant
generation from construction work, although temporarily; (i) Run-off of
muddy water including soils from small scale of cutting, filling and
excavation of earthmoving work, (ii) Wastewater from a construction
office and other construction-related buildings and (iii) Spilling over of
toxic materials such as oil and lubricants.
OS: Maintenance and inspection works may generate polluted water,
especially that is contaminated by oil and grease.
DS: Water pollution is expected due to discharging of turbid water and
wastewater from construction office and other facilities. However, the
impact is temporary and limited.
3. Waste D B- B- B- D CS: Generation of soil and construction waste is expected relatively a
small scale since it is an upgrading project. The waste will include
existing devices that will be replaced after renewal of level crossing,
signals and telecommunication system.
OS: The solid waste from railway related facilities will be generated
but disposed in a proper way according to rules and regulations of
YCDC.
DS: Solid waste will be generated from the dismantling of railway-
related infrastructure but the impact is expected to be limited as all
solid wastes will be disposed at designated disposal site by MR.
4. Soil contamination D D B- D B- OS: Soil contamination at depot would happen because of spilling and
infiltration of oil and grease as well as other toxic substances.
ClS/PoS: Soil contamination might remain and it should be checked.
5. Noise and D B- B- B- D CS: Impact of noise and vibration from construction machineries is
vibration /B+ expected but they will be specific and temporary events.
OS: Major impact of noise and vibration due to increase in the
frequency of train operation and speed is expected. On the other
hand, the safety wall to be installed along a railway track will serve as
a sound barrier and track and roadbed works will muffle railway noise
and vibration. The overall impact need to be checked by a monitoring.
DS: Impact of noise and vibration from demolition works of railway
line is expected to be small because noise and vibration caused by
construction works are specific and temporary events.
6. Offensive odor D C D D D CS: Offensive odor might occur around the construction site of
drainage system improvement due to excavation and dredging of mud
in the drainage channels or creek. However, the possibility is
unknown.
7. Ground D D D D D Impact is not expected.
subsidence
Natural Environment
8. Protected area D D D D D The project site does not include any protected area such as national
parks, wildlife reserves or forest reserves.

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Assessment Result
Cl
No Item Pr Assessment
CS OS DS S/P
S
oS
9. Flora, fauna & D B- D D D CS: It is expected hundreds of trees along the railway track will be cut
biodiversity or removed. Impacts on flora, fauna and biodiversity are expected to
be limited and temporary because trees observed along the YCR Line
are commonly found in public parks, other greenery areas and along
the roads in Yangon City.
10. Hydrological D C C D D CS: It is unknown whether drainage improvement works will affect a
situation/drainage hydrology and other drainage system around the project site.
system OS: A drainage condition of YCR Line will be better after improvement
of drainage system. However, it is unknown whether drainage
improvement works will affect a hydrology and other drainage system
around the project site.
11. Topography & D D D D D No large-scale alteration of land is expected due to construction work.
Geographical
Features
Social Environment
12. Involuntary B- B- D D D PrS/CS: Due to the project activities of new FOB installation, level
resettlement crossing works, safety fence installation, power supply and other
small building works, a certain number of structures including
houses/shops and project affected persons(PAPs) will be negatively
affected. However, no land acquisition is expected. Expected number
of PAHs/PAPs is 30 households/137 persons. Thus, MR as a project
proponent has prepared an Abbreviated Resettlement Action Plan
(ARP) and plans to provide necessary compensation and support of
resettlement to these PAPs.
13. Poverty B- B- D D D PrS/CS: Due to removal and relocation of structures to be affected
/B+ /B+ and disturbance of vendor business activities, income of some PAPs
and vendors might be decreased temporarily. On the other hand, the
Project may create more and more employment opportunities for local
people including vulnerable group/the poor.
14. Indigenous people C D D D D In the census and socio-economic survey that was conducted in
& ethnic minority June-July 2016, indigenous people were not found in the project area.
The census survey for the ARP found that some Kayin, Shan, Muslim,
Hindu and other people other than the majority of Burmese in the
Project area. However, the impact on those minorities that would
occur in pre-construction stage is expected not very significant but
currently uncertain since it requires more detailed information of the
respective households.
15. Local economy B- B- A+ D D PrS/CS: During construction period of safety fence installation,
such as /B+ /B+ improvement of station facilities and other railroad works, vendors
employment and business activities at stations and along railway tracks will be stopped
livelihood or obstructed. Appropriate measures to continue their business
activities will need to be considered. On the other hand, some
temporary employment opportunities of residents for construction
work is expected.
OS: Through this Project, the existing YCR Line will be improved to
provide faster and safer service, which may give rise to more
convenience and comfort to passengers as well as making easier
access to working places and social services. In addition, passengers
delivering and selling agricultural products to consumers by train will
also be benefitted. These may result in improvement living condition
and acceleration of local economy growth.
16. (Surrounding) land D D D D D The project sites are mostly within ROW of MR along YCR and the
use and utilization project will not alter any (surrounding) land use and utilization of local
of local resources resources.
17 Water usage D D D D D Impact on water usage is not expected because water consumption
for construction and demolition work will be small.

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Assessment Result
Cl
No Item Pr Assessment
CS OS DS S/P
S
oS
18. Existing social D B- D D D CS: During a construction work period of new level crossing system
infrastructures and and other surrounding facilities, vehicle drivers and foot passengers
services will have some inconvenience and have to wait or use other roads
resulting in considerable congestion of road traffic at some locations
temporarily. It will also entail difficult accessibility between places in
surrounding area. An appropriate construction schedule and
arrangement will be required to minimize the traffic congestion and
confusion. In addition, there might be some inconvenience for YCR
Line users due to a railway operation limit for construction work on or
around railway tracks.
19. Equality of benefits B- D D D D The project itself intends to improve railway transport, which is major
and losses and portion of public transport in Yangon City. However, there would be
equality in the some misdistribution of benefit and damage between residents to be
development resettled and the general public/passengers.
process
20. Local conflicts of C C D D D PrS/CS: Some local conflicts that might be derived from informal
interests occupants to be affected by this YCR upgrading project and the other
informal occupants in MR land. Additionally, there would be some
conflicts between the PAUs who will be compensated and assisted by
the YCR project and informal occupants to be assisted by the YRGs
Squatter Clearance Plan regarding their entitlement packages.
21. Cultural heritage D D D D D The Kyee Myint Daing Railway Station and Yangon Central Railway
Station are registered as a Heritage Site of YCDC. However, YCR
Line upgrading works will not involve renovation of these historical
buildings or affect the cultural heritage.
22. Landscape D D D D D No law-based designated areas are found around the project areas
and change in existing landscape is expected to be negligible in all
project phases.
23. Gender D D B+ D D Any gender issues that would be caused by Project are not
anticipated in all stages of project activity. On the other hand, in
operational stage, the station facility improvement including the barrier
free measures and installation of lighting pole will improve safety for
female passengers.
24. Childrens right D D B+ D D The project will not cause any adverse impact on childrens rights. On
the other hand, the accessibility to education and other services for
children will be improved by Project.
25. Infectious diseases D B- D B- D CS/DS: Risks for infectious diseases might be increased due to influx
such as HIV/AIDS of construction/demolition workers into the project area.
OS: In the operation stage, train operation and maintenance works
will be operated by existing MR staffs and risks for infectious diseases
are not anticipated due to influx of workers.
26. Working conditions D B- D B- D CS/DS: The construction and demolition works would involve
including occupational health and safety risk of accidents and diseases during
occupational construction/demolition work.
health and safety
Others
27. Traffic accident D B- B- D D CS: Some illegal encroachment such as crossing railways by walk
/B+ and occupation on railway yard with temporary huts, kiosks and
vendors are expected along the YCR Line sections. Not only
construction works but also those local people might get involved in
accident on the construction site. It shall be well controlled and
managed by several means such as an installation of notice board,
security guard and proper barricading.
OS: An increase in the frequency of trains and speed may result in an
increase in risk of traffic accidents. The installed safety fence,
installation of level crossings and automatic bars will minimize these
accidents. Further measures against railway accidents by MR will be
required.

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

Assessment Result
Cl
No Item Pr Assessment
CS OS DS S/P
S
oS
28. Climate change D B- B- B- D CS/DS: Greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 due to construction
/B+ vehicles and machines will be generated on a small scale and
temporarily.
OS: GHG emission will be increased by increased frequency of trains
on upgraded YCR Line. On the other hand, renovation of YCR Line
may attract more passengers due to faster and safer operation than
existing train operation. This will enhance modal shift to railway
transport from road transport, that will result in reduction of GHGs.
29 Hazardous D B- B- B- D CD/DS: Construction or demolition work may pose the potential for
materials and oil release of fuel or hazardous substance that is used for equipment or
management construction/demolition work.
OS: Fueling stations have a potential risk of soil and water resource
contamination due to leaks and spills of fuel. Hazardous materials
such as solvents, acids and alkalis may also be used in maintenance
work of locomotives and rolling stocks.
Note:
A-: Significant negative impact is expected, if any measures are not taken against the impact.
A+: Significant positive impact is expected.
B-: Negative impact is expected to some extent, if any measures are not taken against the impact.
B+: Some positive impact is expected.
C: Impacts are not clear and further examination is needed.
D No impact is expected.
PrS: Pre-construction Stage, CS: Construction Stage, OS: Operational stage, DS: Decommissioning Stage,
CIS: Closure Stage, PoS: Post-closure Stage
Source: JICA Study Team

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The detailed explanation of method and result of impact prediction will be described
below.

Here a forecast area and period were determined as follows;

[Forecast area]
- Along the YCR Line and in the area of YCR-Line-related facilities such as stations

[Forecast period]
- Pre-construction stage: Basic and detailed design stage and preparation of
construction that would accompany a resettlement and relocation of project affected
buildings
- Construction stage: Period when construction activities of YCR upgrading project are
implemented
- Operation stage: After the commencement of the operation of trains
- Decommissioning stage: Period when demolition works of YCR Line is implemented
- Closure stage and Post-closure stage: After a completion of demolition works of YCR
Line

7.2 Air Pollution


7.2.1 Forecast Item and Method
Impacts on ambient air quality were qualitatively forecasted considering the following
items:

- Emissions and dusts caused by construction activities of the project components of


YCR Line
- Emissions from locomotive engines with railway operations
- Air pollution caused by demolition works during decommissioning stage of YCR Line

7.2.2 Forecast Result


(1) Construction and Decommissioning Stages
Temporary air pollutants from exhaust gas and dust pollution are anticipated by activities
of handlings of construction or demolished materials, small scale of earthworks and use of
construction machineries and vehicles. Such emission can be generated in any civil and
construction and decommissioning works. However, these impacts on air quality would
not be significant and are expected to be limited in terms of scale and period since
nuisances of dust and emission gases by construction and decommissioning works are site
specific and temporary events.

(2) Operation Stage


As the upgraded YCR would be operated more frequently than that under current
operation, more air pollutants such as NO2, SO2, and CO would be generated from diesel
engines with increased number of trains in operation. On the other hand, new locomotives
to be installed, will equip with high-efficiency and low-emission engines. In addition, the
shift from traveling by vehicles to trains will encourage reduction of traffic congestion, air
pollution, and CO2 emission. As a whole, the cumulative impact on air quality might be
positive.

7.3 Water Pollution


7.3.1 Forecast Item and Method
The following impacts on the surface water were qualitatively forecasted:

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

- The quality of wastewater discharged into the creeks and to the surrounding area near
the YCR Line during construction and decommissioning stages
- The quality of wastewater discharged into the creeks caused by maintenance and
inspection works in the operational stage

7.3.2 Forecast Result


(1) Construction Stage
In the construction stage, construction work, especially for the drainage system
improvement and railway bridge rehabilitation might generate water pollutants in
surrounding water body by discharged turbid water from the earthwork. In addition, a
water pollution might be caused by domestic wastewater discharged from construction
office and other facilities that would include the construction workers accommodation.
The leakage of toxic substances such as oil and lubricants also may cause the deterioration
of water quality in the surrounding area.

However, since these impacts are expected to be temporary and site-specific events, it is
considered that there will not be significant environmental impacts on the surrounding
water body. Even so, the water pollution need to be prevented and controlled by
monitoring and managing the actual impacts. In such case, the applicable guideline value
for storm water, effluent and sanitary discharges can be referred in the National
Environmental Quality (Emission) Guidelines (MONREC, 2015).

(2) Operational Stage


The maintenance and inspection works as well as the toilet facilities at stations may
generate more polluted water as the number of trains is increased. However, new
significant pollution load will not be expected since the scope of this project is upgrading
of existing facilities. It is anticipated that there will not be significant impacts on water
quality of surrounding water body in the operation stage.

On the other hand, in the Insein New Expanded Depot that is under construction by other
project of MR, the water treatment system to prevent the water deterioration by oil,
lubricants and other chemicals needs be considered to be installed. In this EIA of the YCR
Line Project, it is recommended that an appropriate measurement against such wastewater
will be taken into consideration for the Insein new depot in order to meet the guideline
value specified by National Environmental Quality (Emission) Guidelines (MONREC,
2015).

(3) Decommissioning Stage


The water quality nearby creeks or drainage canals may temporally be affected by the
solid waste that will be generated during the demolition process. Water used for the dust
suppression and decommissioning facilities during the demolition process will be quite
low when compared to the construction stage. Hence, it is judged that water pollution
during decommissioning stage would not cause a significant environmental impact on the
surrounding area of YCR Line.

7.4 Waste
7.4.1 Forecast Item and Method
Impacts on waste management were forecasted considering the following items and
general waste disposal method in Yangon City:

- Solid waste to be generated from the construction work including foundation works
and excavation works

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- Solid waste to be generated from railway facilities and railway passengers


- Solid waste to be generated from the decommissioning works

7.4.2 Forecast Result


(1) Construction Stage
In the construction stage, foundation works and excavation works will generate sand and
stone waste. The rehabilitation works will also generate the waste of devices and materials
that were used for the existing track, roadbed, ballast, sleepers, bridge and other facilities
to be replaced with the new materials and facilities. However, the generation of soil and
construction waste is expected relatively small scale since it is an upgrading project. Those
wastes will be disposed by the contractor after the segregation. Sand and soil materials
will be reused for earth filling works in other places. Proper waste collecting system will
be developed by contractor(s) and final disposal of waste will be done in accordance with
the rule and instructions of YCDC.

Domestic wastes including solid and liquid wastes will be generated in the construction
office and other related facilities for workers. Proper waste collecting system including the
installation of temporary septic tank for sewage waste will be developed by contractor(s).
A final disposal of waste will be done in accordance with the rule and instructions of
YCDC.

Hence, it is considered that waste generated from construction works would be well
controlled, and would not cause any significant environmental impacts on the surrounding
area of YCR Line.

(2) Operation Stage


In the operation stage, generation of solid waste from operating railway line and related
facilities is anticipated. After the increase in the rail passengers, the amount of general
waste to be disposed by passengers will also be increased. It is recommended to place the
trash boxes in stations and encourage the passengers to dispose their waste in the proper
place, not to litter their garbage on the railway track or anywhere around. The collected
waste will be disposed by MR in accordance with the rule and instruction of YCDC.
Hence, it is considered that waste issue will not cause any significant environmental
impacts on the surrounding area of YCR Line and be well managed by MR under
instruction of YCDC.

(3) Decommissioning Stage


During the decommissioning stage, the dismantling of railway related infrastructure such
as railway tracks, level crossings and railway signal will result in huge quantities of solid
waste. The waste will consist of demolition debris such as concrete, metal, and wood. In
addition, most of the demolition waste can be considered as inert waste and no harmful to
the environment. After considering the possibility of reuse, all of solid wastes will be
disposed at designated disposal site by MR.

Hence, it is considered that demolition waste will be well controlled, and would not cause
any significant environmental impact on the surrounding area of YCR Line.

7.5 Soil Contamination


7.5.1 Forecast Item and Method
Impacts on soil contamination were forecasted considering the following matters and
referring to the soil quality survey results:

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

- Soil contamination caused by operation of maintenance works on upgraded YCR Line


- Residual soil contamination after termination of operation of YCR Line

7.5.2 Forecast Result


In the field result of soil quality survey in Section 6.3.5, it should be noted that relatively
high level of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) was detected near the depot. The
sampling sites included the open burning site where the oil-contaminated waste is
incinerated. Although there is no specific guideline value for remediation of oil
contaminated soil and the existing Insein Depot is out of scope of this EIA, it implies that
the railway maintenance activities may cause the oil contaminated soil. Considering soil
contamination not only by oil but also by the other pollutants might remain after the
closure of railway operation, the soil quality needs be checked in the closure and post-
closure stage in order to develop an appropriate remediation plan if any issues are
identified.

7.6 Noise and Vibration


7.6.1 Forecast Item and Method
The items that were examined to forecast the impacts by noise and vibration are:

- Noise and vibration generated by construction work of YCR Line upgrading project.
- Noise and vibration increased by operating trains on upgraded YCR Line.
- Noise and vibration generated by demolition work of YCR Line upgrading project

These impacts were qualitatively forecasted considering the period and type of
construction work and the existence of sensitive receptors along the railway line.

7.6.2 Forecast Result


(1) Construction and Decommissioning Stages
Mobilization, loading and unloading materials by transporting vehicles may lead to an
increased noise disturbance. Operation of heavy equipment and vehicles usually accelerate
the noise level during the construction and decommissioning stages. These impacts occur
not only at the construction and decommissioning sites, but also along the transport route.
However, it is expected that those impacts be limited in terms of duration of noise and
vibration generation and area of noise and vibration exposure. Hence, it is considered that
construction and decommissioning works of upgrading YCR Line would not cause
significant disturbance on the surrounding residents of YCR Line. The noise and vibration
level will need be well controlled by contractor(s) applying ordinary countermeasures that
will be elaborated in the EMP.

(2) Operational Stage


Increase in the frequency of train operation and speed will generally result in the increase
in noise and vibration disturbance in the operational stage. The train operation number will
be increased from 122 train/day in 2015 to 175 train/day in 2022 as a target. The
scheduled train speed will be increased from 15 km/h to 26 km/h. Especially in the area
where the residential house is located just close to the railway tracks, the residents would
suffer from more noise and vibration. On the other hand, the improvement of railway track
and roadbed will enable to buffer and mitigate the railway noise and vibration. Since it is
difficult to forecast the balance of these positive and negative effects, the actual noise and
vibration level after the upgrading of YCR Line need to be monitored.

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In terms of noise level, referring to the Japanese Guidelines for a large-scale modification
of railway, it is suggested that the noise level should be improved compared with the level
prior to the modification.

7.7 Offensive Odor


7.7.1 Forecast Item and Method
The following item was qualitatively examined to forecast the impact

- Offensive odor caused by upgrading of YCR Line in construction stage.

7.7.2 Forecast Result


During the improvement work of existing drainage system, offensive odor may occur
around the construction site due to excavation and dredging of mud in the drainage
channels or creeks in some sections at temporary and specific time. However, the
probability is unknown because it depends on the site condition and wind effect. The
generation of offensive odor will need to be monitored by a regular site surveillance in
order to take an appropriate measures as needed.

7.8 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity


7.8.1 Forecast Item and Method
The items examined to forecast the impacts are shown below:

- Loss of trees along the YCR Line due to installation of safety fence and other facilities
and associated civil work
- Loss of important species and/or their habitats caused by upgrading of YCR Line

The impact forecast on flora, fauna and biodiversity was conducted as follows:

- To estimate the type and number of trees along the YCR Line and to examine impact
on trees by referring to proposed area of Project activities/components to upgrade the
YCR Line

7.8.2 Forecast Result


Almost all of the land along the YCR Line was highly urbanized except some limited
areas in the north where the land along the northern section of the YCR Line is still used
as agricultural land. Therefore, the cutting of trees in the construction stage will be the
main concern in terms of impact on flora and fauna. There are more than one thousand of
trees in the existing and planned fence line. Trees observed along the YCR Line are
Malaysia Padauk, Seiban, Malzali, Bandar, Kokko, Mango, Banana, etc. as mentioned in
Section 3.2 (4). Among them, Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylia) is categorized as
vulnerable in IUCN Red list, which means it is under the condition of less than critically
endangered or endangered species in the Red List.

However, according to Forest Department of MONERC, Mahogany (Swietenia


macrophylia) is not formally authorized as threatened species in Myanmar. In fact, it is
planted and also found commonly in public parks, other greenery areas and along the
roads in Yangon City. On the other hand, Teak (Tectona grandis) trees observed along the
YCR is considered as precious tree and it is prohibited to export without permission from
Forestry Department of MONREC, while they are also commonly found in greenery areas
and along the roads in Yangon City.

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Therefore, there will be no significant impact on endangered trees. Besides hundreds of


trees may need to be cut or trimmed to secure the installation of rail facilities or safety
fence and construction workspace as well as good view of locomotive drivers. As the
cutting trees will be avoided as much as possible and minimized, it is considered that the
impact on flora, fauna and biodiversity is limited.

Regarding the permission of cutting trees, in case that the project is owned by a private
owner and under the administration of YCDC, the project owner firstly should clarify the
number and species of trees to be cut due to the project and confirm with the Forest
Department of MONREC and Regional Environmental Conservation Department of
MONREC to ask for any instructions and proceedings. Especially, cutting of any restricted
trees such as Teak generally requires the approval from Forest Department. Secondly, the
project owner should get the confirmation from Department of Park in YCDC.

On the other hand, in case of the YCR Upgrading Project to be implemented by MR under
MoTC, MR is exempt from some steps as mentioned above. MR will be able to cut down
trees without claiming an approval from those departments as a practical proceeding.
However, for the YCR work, it is recommended that the prior consultation with these
related departments be made to receive their comments and recommendations that would
include the replantation of trees.

7.9 Hydrological Situation and Drainage Condition


7.9.1 Forecast Item and Method
The changes of water drainage volume before and after the upgrading the YCR Line are
qualitatively forecasted as an impact on hydrological condition.

7.9.2 Forecast Result


(1) Construction Stage
The existing drainage channels in YCR Line serve as a receiver of storm water and sewage
from the surrounding area and they are connected to the other drainage lines in Yangon
City. However, it is not clear that the construction and rehabilitation of drainage could
cause a burden to the existing drainage capacity in the surroundings or not. It will be
examined in the further detailed design stage.

(2) Operational Stage


Drainage condition of YCR Line will be better after improvement of drainage system and
raising up the railway track. Although it is difficult to eliminate all possibilities of flood
event only by the Project because it also requires the improvement work for drainage
system outside of YCR Line to solve some causes of flood, a flood inundation time will be
shortened in some areas. It is judged that hydrological situation and drainage condition
will enjoy the positive impact in the operational stage of YCR Line. Furthermore, it is
expected to minimize the flooding risk cooperated by drainage improvement work in the
city area by YCDC.

(3) Decommissioning Stage


Since the drainage capacity in the YCR Line will be much improved by the rehabilitation
work of this Project, the significant problem to be caused by the decommissioning work
will not be expected.

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7.10 Topography and Geographical Features


7.10.1 Forecast Item and Method
The item examined to forecast the impacts is shown below:

- The change on topographical and geographical features by construction works were


predicted considering the expected works and project components of upgrading the
YCR Line

7.10.2 Forecast Result


The Project will involve very limited cutting and heightening work of the foundation. It is
unlikely to cause slope failures or landslides from planned civil work such as a
rehabilitation of railway bridges and drainage improvement works. Hence, it is considered
that topographical and geographical features on the surrounding area of YCR Line will
mostly remain as of current condition. It would not cause a significant impact on
topographical and geographical features in the surrounding area.

7.11 Involuntary Resettlement


7.11.1 Forecast Item and Method
The impact by the involuntary resettlement along the area of YCR Line was examined
considering the expected scale of resettlement, type of affected assets, and other potential
social impacts to be derived from resettlement.

7.11.2 Forecast Result


All the proposed activities will be done within the areas MR land or government land and
no land acquisition is expected. However, some structures such as house and shops that
are located within the Corridor of Impact (COI), would be affected by the Project. A
certain number of Project Affected Persons (PAPs) will be generated due to the project
activities of safety fence installation, new FOB installation and power supply, etc. As
described in Section 3.4, the number of expected Project Affected Households (PAHs) is
29 PAHs (133 persons) as of early August 2016, among which many Project Affected
Units (PAUs)/PAHs are affected partially such as a fence, a part of their shop or house or a
part of farming area. Although the number of PAUs/PAHs will be continuously reviewed
as fine-tuning of COI is on-going, the number of PAPs will remain less than 200 in terms
of persons to be subject to resettlement.

The target households and units of resettlement or relocation will be fixed in the detailed
design stage and the resettlement will be conducted prior to construction work. The
resettlement may involve a dramatic change in PAPs social and economic status such as
livelihood and lifestyle from the pre-construction stage until post construction stage. The
specific impact will be described by item of social impact in the following sections.

MR has developed the Abbreviated Resettlement Action Plan (ARP) and will be required
to provide necessary compensation and support of resettlement to these PAUs and PAPs
by consultation with them and with supervision of YRG. The proceeding will be in line
with the requirement of JICA Guidelines for Environmental and Social Considerations
(2014). The details are described in the upgraded ARP.

As a whole, this Project will involve a certain number of resettlement, but the scale of
PAPs is limited to be less than 200 PAPs. The ARP has been elaborated where the
appropriate consideration for implementing the resettlement should be taken.

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7.12 Poverty
7.12.1 Forecast Item and Method
A possible impact to the poor and people who live or along and surrounding area of YCR
Line in terms of poverty is forecasted considering their economic baseline.

7.12.2 Forecast Result


As a baseline, it is reported that 4 HHs out of 30 PAHs lives below poverty line based on
the socio-economic survey that was conducted in a part of ARP survey in 2016. The PAHs
also includes the woman-headed HHs, disabled persons and elderly persons. From the pre-
construction stage until post-construction period, income of some PAPs especially among
the vulnerable people might be decreased temporarily due to removal and/or relocation of
structures and disturbance of business activities. Thus, MR as a project proponent should
note these concerns in the development/update of ARP accompanying the consultation
with PAPs and supervision of YRG and YCDC. On the other hand, more opportunities of
employment and business activities would be generated by implementation of the Project
and result in benefit to local people including vulnerable group.

7.13 Indigenous People and Ethnic Minority


7.13.1 Forecast Item and Method
The impact associated with the indigenous people and ethnic minority was anticipated
after those one who might be affected by the Project are identified based on the existing
survey results.

7.13.2 Forecast Result


The census socio-economic survey in June-July 2016 found that the religion of all PAUs is
Buddhist and the ethnic distribution in PAHs is as shown in table below. The Rakhine and
Kayin people other than majority of Burmese are considered as ethnic minorities. Until
now, the significant difference in socio-economic status between these PAHs of Rakhine
and Kayin and the others as well as any disadvantages due to the difference in ethnic
group are not identified. The actual impact on these minorities might occur in pre-
construction stage especially in the implementation of resettlement, but it is unknown and
needs to be monitored.

Table 7.13-1 Ethnicity of PAHs


Ethnicity No. of PAHs
Burma 28
Chin 0
Mon 0
Rakhine 1
Shan 0
Kayin 1
Chinese 0
Hindu 0
Muslim 0
Others 0
Total 30
Source: JICA Study Team (2016)

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

7.14 Local Economy such as Employment and Livelihood


7.14.1 Forecast Item and Method
The impact on local economy such as employment and livelihood was forecasted
considering the affected business activities and duration of impact.

7.14.2 Forecast Result

(1) Pre-Construction and Construction Stages


During the construction work of safety fence installation, improvement of station facilities
and other components, vendors business activities at stations and along railway tracks
cannot be continued. In Da Nyin Gone Station, Thamine Station and Kanbe Station where
a number of vendors sells their goods such as vegetables, meat, fish, fruit, other foods and
clothes, the interruption of such business would cause serious economic losses. Since
these vendors can continue their business activities as far as they are provided with the
alternative market places, such measures to continue their business activities will need to
be considered in the course of discussion to update ARP. On the other hand, some
temporary employment opportunities for construction work will be expected.

(2) Operational Stage


Through this Project, the existing YCR Line will be upgraded to provide faster and safer
services, which may give rise to more convenience and comfort, making easier access to
working places and social services. In addition, passengers delivering and selling
agricultural and other products to consumers by train will also be benefitted. These may
result in improvement of living condition and acceleration of growth of local economy.
Hence, it is judged that upgrading of YCR Line is expected to have positive impact on
living and livelihood in the surrounding area.

7.15 Surrounding Land Use and Utilization of Local Resources


7.15.1 Forecast Item and Method
Impact on the surrounding land use and utilization of local resources was predicted
considering the project activities and target area.

7.15.2 Forecast Result


The project area is located within MRs ROW or partially in the government land. There is
the existing railway line and stations. It is not expected to cause any significant impact on
surrounding land use and utilization of local resources from a viewpoint of characteristics
of the Project.

7.16 Water Usage


7.16.1 Forecast Item and Method
The impact on water usage caused by upgrading of the YCR Line was examined by
referring to the proposed construction plan and water usage in the surroundings.

7.16.2 Forecast Result


The project area is not located in the water source of drinking or agricultural use. Even if
there is possibility to use the ground water for construction works of upgrading the YCR
Line when water supply is not available, the water consumption for construction and
demolition work would not be significant. Hence, it is considered that impact on water
usage caused by upgrading of the YCR Line would not cause any significant social impact
in the surrounding area.

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7.17 Existing Social Infrastructure and Services


7.17.1 Forecast Item and Method
Impact on existing social infrastructure and services by upgrading of the YCR Line was
examined by referring to a proposed construction plan as well as existing railway and road
transportation system.

7.17.2 Forecast Result


The number of train will be limited in the construction period of railway track and
surrounding. Some railway passengers will suffer from the inconvenience in terms of
travelling time or may need to use an alternative transportation. As explained in
Figure 3.3-1, in the train operation plan during construction, the first priority is designed
to the construction work in night window time in order to make no interference with the
day-time operation. In case the first prioritized plan is not feasible, the day-time
construction work for single line will be partially applied while another line is used for
train operation. As-much-as effort to minimize the line and section of service suspension
will be made.

On the other hand, as for the construction work of level crossing system, only one lane of
the road will be allowed to cross the level crossing by turns. It would result in congestion
of road traffic in the construction site and detour in surrounding area.

Hence, there would be some traffic congestion with inconvenience and confusion for
railway users and vehicle users in the surrounding area.

7.18 Equality of Benefits and Losses and Equality in the Development Process
7.18.1 Forecast Item and Method
The possibility to cause any inequality of benefits and losses and inequality in the
development process were examined considering the social baseline of the project area
and characteristics of the Project.

7.18.2 Forecast Result


This Project aims to improve the public transportation system in Yangon City pursuing
public interest. The benefits of the Project will be shared with all Yangon citizens.
However, in the course of resettlement and compensation for loss of assets, some PAPs
might feel the inequality of benefits. Also there may be some misdistribution among the
general public and passengers in terms of inconvenience or disadvantages that may occur
due to construction work. The other inequalities are not expected in the other project
stages.

7.19 Local Conflicts of Interests


7.19.1 Forecast Item and Method
Any concerns related to local conflicts of interests were identified considering the social
baseline of the project area and characteristics of the Project.

7.19.2 Forecast Result


While PAPs of the Project, who are informal occupants in COI of MR land, are entitled for
compensation and assistance to be provided by MR, the other informal occupants in MR
land will not be entitled for receiving such compensation and assistance at the same time
for the YCR Upgrading Project. In addition, the entitlement package for compensation and
assistance for this Project might be different from the one in other resettlement plan such

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

as the YRGs Squatter Clearance Plan. In such case, there might be some local conflicts of
interests between the PAPs of this Project and others in the course of implementation of
ARP, namely in the pre-construction stage and construction stage.

7.20 Cultural Heritage


7.20.1 Forecast Item and Method
In order to forecast the impacts on cultural heritage, the existence and alteration of cultural
heritage due to the Project were confirmed.

7.20.2 Forecast Result


In the YCR Line, Yangon Central Station and Kyee Myint Daing Station were listed as the
heritage site by YCDC, which is a new finding after the scoping report. However, the
Project will not plan to involve renovation of these historical buildings or physically affect
to the registered cultural heritage.

Except for these stations, all the project components will be conducted within MR or
public land and no cultural and historical heritage is found along the YCR Line. Thus, no
adverse impact on cultural heritage is anticipated.

7.21 Gender
7.21.1 Forecast Item and Method
The possible concerns or impact that is related to gender and may be derived from the
implementation of the Project were examined considering the characteristics of the Project
and railway passengers as well as social background of the Project area.

7.21.2 Forecast Result


In this Project, any gender issues are not expected in all stages of the project
implementation. On the other hand, the YCR Upgrading Project will provide the better and
safer railway service. The high-level station platform adjusting to the height of rolling
stocks will enable not only women but also any passengers including the elder to get on
and off the rolling stocks easily and safely. The installation of light poles and procurement
of new and comfortable rolling stocks will improve womens safety when they use trains.
Therefore, it is considered that the Project will contribute to reduce the possible insecurity
and inconvenience in women passengers.

7.22 Childrens Right


7.22.1 Forecast Item and Method
The possible concerns or impact that is related to childrens right and may be derived from
the implementation of the Project were examined considering the characteristics of the
Project and the project area.

7.22.2 Forecast Result


In this Project, any concerns that are related to childrens right are not expected in all
stages of the project implementation. However, the accessibility to education and other
services for children will be improved by the Project.

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7.23 Infectious Diseases such as HIV/AIDS


7.23.1 Forecast Item and Method
The impact on prevalence of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS along and around the
YCR Line was examined considering risks for such infectious diseases and construction
work plan.

7.23.2 Forecast Result


In Myanmar, the number of people living with HIV is estimated as 220,000 by UNHIV in
2015. It is reported that HIV among populations at higher risk remains high. In case of the
Project, increased risk of infectious diseases for labors would be expected during
construction and demolition work due to the inflow of workers from outside. The infection
might be expanded to the local communities nearby the project area or labor camp if any.
Although the employees would be composed of workers of MR and local contractors, the
HIV/AIDS Protection Plan will need to be developed considering the expected number of
workers, working duration and effective method of infection control precautions as well as
social and cultural background in Myanmar.

In the other stages of the Project, the higher risk for infectious diseases is not anticipated.

7.24 Working Conditions including Occupational Health and Safety


7.24.1 Forecast Item and Method
The impact on working condition which might occur in construction and demolition works
and operation of upgraded YCR Line was examined by considering the expected work
environment and items.

7.24.2 Forecast Result


The occupational health and safety of construction or demolition workers may be
endangered by hazards in common with other large infrastructure construction and
demolition work. The employees of MR and contractors who will be engaged in the
construction and demolition work will be provided with appropriate Occupational Health
and Safety (OHS) measures and OHS training program.

On the other hand, in the operation of upgraded YCR Line, the new increased risk on
occupational health and safety is not expected.

7.25 Traffic Accident


7.25.1 Forecast Item and Method
The impacts related to traffic accidents were examined considering the expected cause of
accident in the construction and demolition work place and upgraded YCR Line.

7.25.2 Forecast Result

(1) Construction Stage


As the traffic of construction vehicles in surrounding of the construction site is increased,
it might result in increase in traffic accident with residents. Supposing the current situation
along the YCR Line where many trespassers on railway track are observed, the risk of
traffic accidents with the general public would be high. The case of trespass includes the
crossing of the railway track by foot and walking on or nearby the railway track as well as
railway track market and occupation with temporary huts and kiosks. by vendors. The
construction site should be secured by restricted area signs and construction tape or barrier.

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The traffic at entrances to construction sites and vehicle route need to be well controlled to
prevent vehicle incidents.

(2) Operational Stage


The expected railway accidents mainly include:

- Train collisions with other trains or with road vehicles,


- Derailment due to train collisions or other operational causes, and
- Accidents with pedestrian at level crossing, station and railway track

In the operational stage, an increase in the train frequency and speed may result in an
increase in these probabilities and risk of accident. Especially focusing on the current issue
of dangerous trespassing in the YCR Line as mentioned above, installation of safety fence
and FOBs to prevent access to tracks will minimize these accidents. Education and
awareness raising for local people and passengers are also crucial. These countermeasures
should be continuously carried out from the pre-construction stage to the operational stage.

In the other stages of the Project, the increase in traffic accident risk is not anticipated.

7.26 Climate Change


7.26.1 Forecast Item and Method
The following items were examined to forecast the impacts on climate change.

- The greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in construction work of upgrading of YCR Line.
- The GHG emission increased by operating trains on upgraded YCR Line.

7.26.2 Forecast Result

(1) Construction/decommissioning Stage


GHG emission would be discharged from construction machineries and vehicles to some
extent, but at small scale and temporary basis. The GHG emission by construction
machineries and vehicles needs to be controlled and minimized by contractors.

(2) Operational Stage


GHG emission from locomotive engines will be increased by increased frequency of trains
on upgraded YCR Line. On the other hand, renovation of YCR Line will affect more
passengers to faster and safer operation than that in the existing train operation. This will
enhance modal shift from road transport to railway transport which generates much lower
emission of GHG than that of road transport. In terms of CO2 emission, it is estimated that
the upgrading of the YCR Line would benefit the CO2 reduction as shown in table below,
according to the Feasible Study of the Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project
(2015).

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Table 7.25-1 Annual CO2 Reduction by the Project


2030
Unit 2013 Without the Project With the
Project
Total pax-km
Train million pax- 3,657 10,078 23,771
Bus km/yr 21,264 87,662 76,163
Private Car 5,379 39,068 37,961
Total CO2 emission
Train ton-CO2/yr 39,864 109,867 259,146
Bus 338,193 1,394,222 1,211,337
Private Car 508,797 3,695,226 3,590,510
Total ton-CO2/yr 886,854 5,199,315 5,060,993
Reduction by Project 138,322
Note: Boundary: Whole of Myanmar
Emission rate: 2.68 ton-CO2/kilolitre for diesel, 2.27 ton-CO2/kilolitre for gasoline, calculation based on IPCC
Source: JICA Study Team for feasibly study for the YCR Line Upgrading Project, 2015

7.27 Hazardous Materials and Oil Management


7.27.1 Forecast Item and Method
The potential concerns related to hazardous materials and oil management were examined
considering the usage of hazardous substance and oil in construction and demolition works
and railway operation.

7.27.2 Forecast Result

(1) Construction and Decommissioning Stags


The construction and demolition work may pose the accidental release or exposure of oil
and hazardous materials that are used for equipment or construction/demolition work. The
hazardous materials and oil management needs to be well controlled by contractors.

(2) Operational Stage


The potential chemical hazards specific to railway operation includes the exposures to a
variety of hazardous materials such as toxic paint, heavy metals and VOCs that would be
used in the maintenance work. As the number of trains is increased, risk of exposure or
leakage of such hazardous materials and oil may be increased. An appropriate hazardous
material management needs to be considered by MR for safety operation.

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CHAPTER 8 MITIGATION MEASURES AND ENVIRONMANTAL


MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING PLAN
This chapter describes an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) integrated with mitigation
measures and Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMoP). The purposes of two plans are
described below:

The EMP shall be conducted;

- To minimize and/or avoid potential negative impacts, and to strengthen positive impacts
during stages of the project life cycle, and
- To provide clarity to all stakeholders what environmental and social impacts have been
identified, and how they will be mitigated and managed.

On the other hand, the EMoP shall be conducted;

- To define monitoring requirements to measure the efficiency of implementation of the


mitigation measures and management.

8.1 Environmental Management Approach


In order to prepare the EMP with mitigation measures, following approaches were adopted for
this project: 1) technological approach, 2) social approach, and 3) institutional approach.

It should be noted that EMP and EMoP will need to be reviewed and updated during the
detailed design stage and before the commencement of construction work in order to make
themselves more feasible and effective to be suited for the actual project plan and site
conditions.

(1) Technological Approach


To prevent, eliminate, or control the potential negative impacts that may result from project
activities in all stages to acceptable level or as low as reasonable practicable, efficient,
effective and practicable technologies will be approached and applied. Some examples of
environmental management efforts through the technical approach are:

- Control environmental pollution such as air and noise caused by the operation of equipment
during construction stage, and
- Control any interruptions to traffic stability during construction stage.

(2) Social Approach


The social approach will be applied particularly to manage any social impacts that may arise
out of resettlement or relocation required during construction with the following approaches:

- Obtain local communities opinions, and


- Inform the public about the Project through public consultation adequately

(3) Institutional Approach


- Cooperating/coordinating with relevant institutions forms an institutional approach in the
implementation of environmental management. This may be in the form of:
- Coordinating with the local government in dealing with environmental and social impacts

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8.2 Mitigation Measures and Environmental Management Plan


This environmental mitigation measures and EMP covers pre-construction, construction,
operation, decommissioning, closure and post closure stages of the project, which may have
the potential to negatively affect the environment and communities residing in the project area.
The tables below summarize the EMP integrated with migration measures, targeting on the
impact items that were evaluated as Significant negative impact is expected(A-), Negative
impact is expected to some extent(B-) or Impacts are not clear (C). The EMP of the project
has been developed in compliance with existing environmental policy, laws, rules, procedures
and national emission standards. In addition, it is necessary to define the responsibility of
various stakeholders in order to effectively implement of the EMP. The respective entities
which are responsible for the implementation of the project are also mentioned in below
tables for each stage of project implementation.

Table 8.2-1 Summary of Environmental Management Plan (Pre-Construction Stage)


Expected Environmental Impleme Managed Supervise
Category Item Mitigations Measures
and Social Impacts nted by by d by
Social Involuntary Resettlement or/and Compensation for affected MR MR YRG and
environme resettlement relocation of buildings and structures and standing YCDC
nt other assets, involving crops and assistance of
some changes in livelihood restoration to be
livelihood of PAPs elaborated in the
entitlement matrix of
updated ARP
Ethnic minority The minority of PAPs Special attention to be paid MR MR YRG and
could fall in socially to minority PAPs. The YCDC
vulnerable groups and situation needs be
might face a difficulty due confirmed through the
to resettlement or other monitoring program of ARP
social impacts. and adequate measures will
be considered if necessary.
Poverty/ Local Loss of income Compensation for affected MR MR YRG and
economy such opportunity of some PAPs structures and standing YCDC
as employment due to resettlement and crops and support of
and livelihood shop owners, vendors or livelihood restoration that
farmers to be affected by will be elaborated in the
Project entitlement matrix of
updated ARP
Equality of There would be some 1) Information disclosure MR MR YRG and
benefits and misdistribution of benefit and close communication YCDC
losses and and damage between with local communities
equality in the residents to be resettled 2) Development of
development and the general grievance redress
process public/passengers. mechanism
Local conflicts Local conflicts that might 1) Information disclosure MR MR YRG and
of interest be derived from informal and close communication YCDC
occupants to be affected with local communities
by this YCR upgrading 2) Development of
project and the other grievance redress
informal occupants in MR mechanism
land. Additionally, there
would be some conflicts
between the PAUs who
will be compensated and
assisted by the YCR
project and informal
occupants to be assisted
by the YRGs Squatter
Clearance Plan regarding
their entitlement

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packages.
Source: JICA Study Team

Table 8.2-2 Summary of Environmental Management Plan (Construction Stage)


Expected Environmental Implement Managed Supervised
Category Item Mitigations Measures
and Social Impacts ed by by by
Pollution Air pollution Air pollution caused by 1) Sprinkling water at Contractor MR MONREC
control emissions gas from construction site
construction machine and 2) Proper storage of
vehicle, dust from construction materials
construction works and including covering sand
materials as well as and gravel that are easily
construction traffic diffused into the
atmosphere
3) Covering bulk materials
during transportation
4) Regular maintenance
of construction machines
and vehicle reduce
emissions
Water 1) Discharging turbid 1) Discharging turbid Contractor MR MONREC
pollution water from construction water through
site sedimentation ponds or
2) Generation of domestic after simple turbid water
waste water from treatment
temporary construction 2) Installation of
office or related facilities temporary septic tanks or
other wastewater
treatment facility for
workers
Waste 1) Surplus soil waste and 1) Reduce, reuse and Contractor MR YCDC and
other waste from recycle of construction MONREC
construction and other type of waste
2) Waste of existing 2) Disposal of waste in a
devices replaced with proper way
newly installed devices 3) Installation of
such as old signaling temporary sanitation
devices, bricks, ballast, facility such as septic tank
etc. at construction office and
3) Solid and liquid wastes other facilities
discharged from
temporary construction
office and other facilities
Noise and Impacts of noise and 1) Installing noise barrier Contractor MR MONREC
vibration vibration by construction and selecting low-noise
machineries and vehicles equipment as needed,
especially near the
residential area and/or
sensitive receptor
2) No construction
activities with heavy
equipment during night
time if there are any
sensitive receptors
nearby
3) Prior notice of
construction schedule
near the residential area

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Expected Environmental Implement Managed Supervised


Category Item Mitigations Measures
and Social Impacts ed by by by
Offensive Offensive odor due to Consideration of Contractor MR MONREC
odor excavation or dredging in additional mitigation
drainage channels or measures depending on
creek an odor source and
condition
Natural Flora, fauna Loss of trees and other Replanting trees in Contractor MR MONREC
Environm and plant species suitable area as needed and YCDC
ent biodiversity based on prior
consultation with
MONREC and YCDC
Hydrological Potential impacts on 1) Site patrol Contractor MR YCDC and
situation/drain hydrological situation or 2) Consideration of local
age system drainage condition additional mitigation authorities
surrounding of YCR Line measures if any issues in charge
due to improvement of are confirmed of the site
drainage system of YCR
Line
Social Involuntary Resettlement or/and Compensation and MR MR YRG and
Environm resettlement relocation of buildings and assistance of livelihood YCDC
ent other assets, involving restoration that will be
some changes in elaborated in the
livelihood of PAPs entitlement matrix of
updated ARP
Poverty Loss of income Compensation and MR MR YRG and
opportunity of some PAPs support of livelihood YCDC
due to resettlement or restoration that will be
construction works elaborated in the
entitlement of updated
ARP
Local Impact on livelihood of 1) Compensation and 1) MR 1) MR YRG and
economy such some PAPs and vendors assistance of livelihood 2) YCDC 2) YCDC YCDC
as by construction works or restoration that will be for for
employment the safety fence to be elaborated in the considerati considerati
and livelihood installed for operation. entitlement matrix of on of on of
updated ARP for PAPs alternative alternative
2) Appropriate measures markets markets
for relocated vendors
such as providing an
alternative market space
Existing social 1) Road traffic congestion 1) Advance 1) & 3) MR Police
infrastructure in surrounding area announcement of Contractor force,
and services during construction period construction schedule 2) & 4) MR YRG,
of level crossing and 2) Time shift of YCDC and
other facilities construction work to be local
2) Inconvenience for YCR decided by MR, if authority
Line users due to a possible
limited railway operation 3) Preparation and
for construction work implementation of the
Traffic Management Plan
by the Contractor
including arrangement of
watchmen and detour
road signs
4) Providing alternative
transportation services
such as public buses by
MR, if needed

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Expected Environmental Implement Managed Supervised


Category Item Mitigations Measures
and Social Impacts ed by by by
Local conflicts Conflicts among local 1) Information disclosure MR MR YRG,
of interest people including PAPs, and close communication YCDC, and
other informal occupants with local communities local
in MRs YCR land but not 2) Development of authority
affected by this YCR grievance redress
upgrading project. mechanism

Infectious Risks for infectious Awareness of public Contractor MR MOH


diseases such diseases due to inflow of health for workers and
as HIV/AIDS construction workers local communities
Working 1) Accidents in the 1) Compliance with Contractor MR Ministry for
condition operation of construction requirement of Labor Law Labour,
including machinery and other 2) Preparation of a safety Immigratio
occupational works and health management n and
health and 2) Risk of occupational plan and enlighten Population
safety health and safety for occupational safety to and MOH
workers in case of severe workers
working conditions 3) Providing proper
personal protective
equipments (PPEs) such
as helmet, safety jacket,
gloves and safety shoes
for workers
Others Traffic The risk of accidents 1) Enlightening local 1) & 2) MR MR Police
accident would be higher for residents and passengers 3) force,
passengers, informal for safety education to Contractor YRG,
occupants and other prevent from accidents YCDC and
nearby residents due to 2) Installation of safety local
their habits of crossing fences and frequent authority
railway lines by walk and inspection along railway
occupation on railway tracks to prevent illegal
yards with shops, huts occupants
and vendors 3) Manage the
construction site to
prevent local people from
entering the site by
barricading and the site
security gate.
Climate GHG emissions from Saving on electricity in Contractor MR MONREC
change construction vehicles and construction sites and
machines office such as vehicle idle
reduction
t
Hazardous Spoil of fuel or hazardous 1) Training workers on Contractor MR MONREC
materials and substance that is used for appropriate handling of
oil construction work fuels and chemicals
management 2) Measures for spill
control and leakage
control system

Source: EIA Study Team

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Table 8.2-3 Summary of Environmental Management Plan (Operation Stage)


Expected
Implement Managed Supervis
Category Item Environmental and Mitigations Measures
ed by by ed by
Social Impacts
Pollution Air pollution Impacts of air Utilization of better MR MR MONRE
control pollutants from equipment and more C
increased number of pollution control devices
trains
Water Generation of waste Proper treatment of waste MR MR MONRE
pollution water containing oil water by installation of C
and grease through waste water treatment plant
light-maintenance or other mean
activities in depot
Waste Generation of 1) Proper disposal of waste MR MR YCDC
municipal solid waste according to YCDCs and
in stations and instruction MONRE
common passenger 2) Collection and separation C
areas of waste in the trains and
stations
Soil Soil contamination 1) Proper management and MR MR MONRE
contamination which is caused by control of leakage of oil and C
leakage of oil and grease in the depot
grease by running 2) Regular maintenance of
trains and in depot railcars
Noise and Railway noise and 1) Regular maintenance of MR MR MONRE
vibration vibration due to wheels and tracks to reduce C
increase in the noise from contact between
frequency of train wheel and rail.
operation and speed 2) Installing sound barrier to
reduce noise disturbance in
a sensitive area
2) Consideration of other
measures depending on a
site conditions and
receptors
Social Accidents Railway accidents of Enlightening passengers MR MR MONRE
environment passengers and local and local residents about C
people traffic safety specific to
railways
Others Climate GHG emissions from 1) Efforts to improve rail MR MR MONRE
change diesel engines and energy efficiency such as C
train operation an Eco-driving
2) Evaluation of GHG
emissions from railway
business and development
of strategies to reduce GHG
emissions from rail services
in the future
Hazardous Spoil of fuel or 1) Training workers on Contractor MR MONRE
materials and hazardous substance appropriate handling of C
oil that is used for fuels and chemicals
management construction work 2) Measures for adequate
spill control and leakage
control system

Source: EIA Study Team

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Table 8.2-4 Summary of Environmental Management Plan (Decommissioning Stage)


Expected
Implement Managed Supervis
Category Item Environmental and Mitigations Measures
ed by by ed by
Social Impacts
Pollution Air pollution Impact of air pollution 1) Sprinkling water Contractor MR MONRE
controls caused by demolition around the site and C
works of railway near residential area
facilities related with 2) Proper storage of
YCR Line materials related to
demolition works that
are easily diffused
into the atmosphere
3) Covering bulk
materials during
transportation to
disposal site
Water pollution 1) Discharging turbid 1) Discharging turbid Contractor MR MONRE
water from water through C
construction site sedimentation ponds
2) Generation of 2) Installation of
domestic waste water portable toilets or
from temporary temporary septic
construction office or tanks for workers
related facilities 3) Preparing
discharged water
treatment system
Waste 1) Generating solid 1) Reduce, reuse and Contractor MR MONRE
waste from recycle of waste C
dismantling of railway 2) Waste disposal in a
facilities proper way including
2) Solid and liquid segregation of waste
wastes by temporary 3) Installation of
construction office temporary sanitation
and other facilities facility such as septic
tank
Noise and vibration Impacts of noise and 1) Installing noise Contractor MR MONRE
vibration by barrier and selecting C
demolition works low-noise equipment
as needed
2) No construction
activities with heavy
equipment during
night time if there are
any sensitive
receptors nearby
3) Prior notice of
demolition work
schedule near the
residential area
Social Infectious diseases Risks of infectious Trainings and Contractor MR MOH
Environmen such as HIV/AIDS diseases due to inflow awareness on public
t of workers for health for workers
demolition works of
YCR Line

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Expected
Implement Managed Supervis
Category Item Environmental and Mitigations Measures
ed by by ed by
Social Impacts
Working condition 1) Accidents in the 1) Compliance with Contractor MR Ministry
including operation of requirement of Labor for
occupational health machinery and other Law Labour,
and safety demolition works 2) Preparation of a Immigrati
2) Risk of safety and health on and
occupational health management plan Populatio
and safety for workers and enlighten n
in case of severe occupational safety to
working conditions workers
3) Providing a proper
personal protective
equipment such as
helmet, safety jacket,
gloves and safety
shoes for workers as
needed
Others Hazardous Spoil of fuel or 1) Training workers on Contractor MR MONRE
materials and oil hazardous substance appropriate handling C
management that is used for of fuels and chemicals
demolition work 2) Measures for
adequate spill control
and leakage control
system

Source: EIA Study Team

Table 8.2-5 Summary of Environmental Management Plan (Closure Stage and Post-closure
Stage)
Expected Environmental Mitigations Implement Managed Supervis
Category Item
and Social Impacts Measures ed by by ed by
Pollution Soil contamination Residual impact of soil Remediation of Contractor MR MONRE
contamination from contaminated soil C
maintenance works in with proper
depot and other activities treatment, of any
contamination is
found

Source: EIA Study Team

8.3 Environmental Monitoring Plan


Monitoring activities are crucial to secure the steady implementation of EMP including the
mitigation measures and check the actual status regarding the potential adverse impact items.
The tables below summarize the proposed Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMoP) for each
Project stage, which was prepared for the impact items that may have an significant or
relatively significant adverse impact. In this monitoring plan, monitoring items, location,
frequency, and organization in charge of are included.

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Table 8.3-1 Environmental Monitoring Plan (Pre-construction stage)


Supervised
Category Monitoring Item Location Frequency Monitored by
by
Common 1) Review and update of the Environmental Project area Once before Contractor MONREC
Mitigation and Management Plan and commencement (Managed by
Environmental Monitoring Plan based on the of construction MR)
detailed project design work
2) Preparation of safety management plan for
construction phase
Social 1) Progress of implementation of ARP Project area Once before MR YRG and
environment 2) Complaints received from local people and commencement local
related to through the grievance redness mechanism of surrounding of construction authorities
resettlement the Project work
and others
Source: EIA Study Team

Table 8.3-2 Environmental Monitoring Plan (Construction stage)


Supervised
Category Monitoring Item Location Frequency Monitored by
by
Common Progress of conducting mitigation measures Project area Monthly and Contractor MR
quarterly during (managed by
construction MR)
period
Air quality 1) Site patrol Representative 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
2) Checking received complaints from point(s) of 2) Whenever (managed by
residents construction received MR)
3) Monitoring of air quality, if needed site(s) 3) When
needed
Water quality 1) Site patrol Creeks 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
2) Monitoring of parameters stipulated by nearby 2) Biannually (managed by
National Environmental Quality(Emission) construction MR)
Guideline site(s)
Waste 1) Site patrol and housekeeping at Construction 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
construction site site(s) 2) Monthly (managed by
2) Checking waste-disposal method MR)
Noise and 1) Site patrol Construction 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
vibration 2) Received complaints from residents site(s) 2) Whenever (managed by
3) Monitoring the noise and vibration level, if received MR)
required considering received complaints and 3) When
sensitive receptors etc. needed
Cutting of trees 1) Check of species and number of trees that Construction 1) Quarterly Contractor MONREC
need be cut site(s) 2) Once or more (managed by and YCDC
2) Prior consultation with administrative MR)
authorities in charge of (MONREC and YCDC)
Social Progress of implementation of ARP Project area Monthly and MR YRG and
environment and quarterly local
related to surrounding authority
resettlement
Existing social 1) Collection of complaints Construction 1) Whenever Contractor YCDC
infrastructure 2) Physical observation of road traffic site(s) and received (managed by
and services condition surroundings 2) Every day of MR)
3) Interviewing/discussing with Traffic Police construction
period
3) When
necessary
Infectious 1) Received complaints from residents Construction 1) Quarterly at Contractor MOHS and
diseases such 2) Record of awareness activities site(s) minimum (managed by local
as HIV/AIDS 2) Quarterly MR) authority
Working 1) Site patrol Construction 1) Monthly at Contractor Ministry for

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Supervised
Category Monitoring Item Location Frequency Monitored by
by
condition 2) Record of implementing the safety and site(s) minimum (managed by Labour,
including health management plan 2) Quarterly MR) Immigration
occupational and
health and Population
safety
Traffic accident 1) Site patrol Construction 1) Monthly at Contractor Police force
2) Record of accidents site(s) minimum (managed by and YCDC
3) Record of safety-awareness campaign and 2) Monthly3) MR)
other measures Monthly
Hazardous 1) Site patrol to check a condition of handling Construction 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
materials and or storing hazardous materials site(s) 2) Quarterly (managed by
oil 2) Record of training on handling hazardous MR)
management materials for workers
Source: EIA Study Team

Table 8.3-3 Environmental Monitoring Plan (Operation Stage)


Supervised
Category Monitoring Item Location Frequency Monitored by
by
Common Progress of conducting mitigation measures Project area Monthly and MR MONREC
every quarterly and other
for the first 3 related
years after agencies
starting of the
operation stage
Air quality 1) Site patrol Along the 1) Monthly MR MONREC
YCR Line
Water quality Monitoring of parameters stipulated by Discharged Every six MR MONREC
National Environmental Quality(Emission) point from months for the
Guideline depot first 3 years
after starting of
the operation
stage
Waste 1) Site patrol to check the waste management Railway Every three MR MONREC
in stations, railcars and other related facilities stations and months for the and YCDC
2) Check of waste-disposal method other related first 3
facilities years after
starting of the
operation stage
Soil 1) Site patrol Depot 1) Monthly MR MONREC
contamination 2) Monitoring of soil quality if the 2) When
contamination is suspected. needed
Noise and Noise and vibration level 2 monitoring Every six MR MONREC
vibration stations or months for the
more along first 3
the YCR Line years after
starting of the
operation stage
(24 hours
continuous
monitoring for
each frequency)
Traffic 1) Records of accidents Around the 1) Monthly MR Police force
accidents 2) Record of safety-awareness campaign and YCR Line 2) Every for the and YCDC
other measures area first 3
years after
starting of the
operation stage

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Supervised
Category Monitoring Item Location Frequency Monitored by
by
Hazardous 1) Record of training on handling hazardous Project area Quarterly for the MR MONREC
materials and materials for workers first 3
oil 2) Record and condition of handling or storing years after
management hazardous materials starting of the
operation stage
Source: EIA Study Team

Table 8.3-4 Environmental Monitoring Plan (Decommissioning Stage)


Supervised
Category Monitoring Item Location Frequency Monitored by
by
Common Progress of conducting mitigation measures Project area Monthly and Contractor MR
Quarterly during (managed by
decommissionin MR)
g period
Air quality 1) Site patrol Representativ 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
2) Received complaints from residents e point of 2) Whenever (managed by
3) Monitoring of air quality, if needed decommission received MR)
ing work 3) When
site(s) needed
Water quality 1) Site patrol Discharged 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
2) Monitoring of parameters stipulated by point from 2) Biannually (managed by
National Environmental Quality(Emission) decommission MR)
Guideline ing work
site(s) and
other project-
related area
Waste 1) Site patrol and housekeeping at Decommissio 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
construction site ning work 2) Monthly (managed by
2) Checking waste-disposal method site(s) MR)
Noise and 1) Site patrol Decommissio 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
vibration 2) Received complaints from residents ning work 2) Whenever (managed by
3) Monitoring of noise and vibration level, if site(s) received MR)
required considering received complaints 3) When
needed
Infectious 1) Report of workers disease Decommissio 1) Quarterly at Contractor MOHS and
diseases such 2) Record of awareness activities ning work minimum (managed by local
as HIV/AIDS site(s) 2) Quarterly MR) authority
Working 1) Site patrol Decommissio 1) Monthly at Contractor Ministry for
condition 2) Record of implementing the safety ning work minimum (managed by Labour,
including management plan site(s) 2) Quarterly MR) Immigration
occupational and
health and Population
safety
Traffic accident 1) Site patrol Decommissio 1) Monthly at Contractor Police force
2) Record of accidents ning work minimum (managed by and YCDC
3) Record of safety-awareness campaign and site(s) 2) Monthly MR)
other measures 3) Monthly
Hazardous 1) Site patrol to check a condition of handling Decommissio 1) Monthly Contractor MONREC
materials and or storing hazardous materials ning work 2) Quarterly (managed by
oil 2) Record of training on handling hazardous site(s) MR)
management materials for workers

Source: EIA Study Team

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Table 8.3-5 Environmental Monitoring Plan (Closure& Post Closure Stage)


Supervised
Category Monitoring Item Location Frequency Monitored by
by
Soil Monitoring of soil quality (pH, TPH (Total Depot Once MR MONREC
Contamination Petroleum Hydrocarbon), Cd, Pb, Cr(VI), Hg,
Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, As, Se and others as
needed)
Source: EIA Study Team

8.4 Institutional Framework


8.4.1 Project Management Unit
An executive agency of the YCR Upgrading Project is MOTC and MR. A Project
Management Unit (PMU) has just been established to assist the implementation of the Project,
by MR in August 2016. The PMU will perform the following tasks (but not limited) to
implement the Project.

(a) Planning tasks, including elaborating an overall plan and detailed annual (or monthly)
plans on the Project implementation (disbursement plan, spending plan, bidding plan,
etc.),
(b) Tasks of management of preparation for the Project implementation,
(c) Tasks of bidding and contract management,
(d) Tasks of financial and asset management and disbursement,
(e) Administrative and coordination tasks and responsibility of justification,
(f) Tasks of monitoring, evaluating and reporting program or the Project implementation,
(g) Tasks of take-over, hand-over and financial settlement of programs or the Project, and
(h) Other particular tasks.

The following chart is an organization structure of PMU for the YCR Upgrading Project. The
section for EIA, SIA, Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) and land acquisitions will be mainly
in charge of management of EMP and EMoP implementation activities. For this purpose, this
section will work together with the other sections including a public relation and safety
planning as needed.

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Source: JICA Study Team

Figure 8.4-1 Organizational Structure of PMU for the YCR Upgrading Project

8.4.2 Organization Framework for Environmental Management


The responsible organizations for implementing, managing or supervising EMP and EMoP
are respectively suggested in Section 8.2 and Section 8.3.

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The systematic institutional arrangement is firstly required in the pre-construction stage and
construction stage. The organization framework for implementing EMP and EMoP in these
stages are sorted out as follows;

- The construction/procurement contractors to be hired for each components of Project


work by MR will be mainly in charge of implementation of EMP and EMoP. The
contractors will report the periodical monitoring results to MR.

- The consultants, if they are hired, will supervise the contactors in implementation of
mitigation measures and monitoring. If any issues are identified, the consultants will
suggest MR to take appropriate countermeasures to improve any adverse impacts. The
consultants will conduct the monitoring and inspection of construction work and report
to MR. The consultants will also support MR to prepare the monitoring report to
MONREC and JICA respectively, as required by EIA Procedure and JICA Guidelines.

- MR is the executing agency and fully responsible of implementing EMP and EMoP. The
PMU will manage all the activities for EMP and EMoP. The PMU will submit the
monitoring report that is prepared by the contractors/consultants to MONREC through
MOTC basically not less frequently than every six months, in order to company with the
requirement of the EIA Procedure. The PMU will also submit the monitoring report to
JICA as required by JICA Guidelines.

- The close relationship with local authorities such as YCDC and GAD is also crucial to
deal with and solve the site-specific concerns or issues such as a waste management or
any complaints from the local communities.

- On the other hand, as for resettlement and compensation, the institutional framework will
be developed in the ARP, in which YRG is mainly responsible for implementing the
resettlement and compensation while MR is responsible to prepare the budget for
compensations and any other expense or support based on the YRGs decision. The
monitoring activities for ARP will be integrated after the updated ARP is prepared and
when the EMP and EMoP will be updated at the detailed design stage.

8.5 Budget Estimation for the Environmental Management and Monitoring


The main costs for EMP and EMoP that will be required until the operation stage are
estimated as shown in following tables. The detailed costs will be calculated in the detailed
design stage.

Table 8.5-1 Estimated Budget for implementing the EMP


Stage Item Unit Estimated cost Remarks
(USD)
Pre- Small-scale stakeholder meeting at a 1set 2,000 -
Construction community venue
stage

Construction Mitigation measures for water - To be estimated To be


stage pollution - sedimentation ponds and estimated in
wastewater treatment facilities the detailed
design stage
Mitigation measures for waste - - To be estimated -
temporary sanitation facilities
Mitigation measures for noise and - To be estimated -
vibration - noise barrier

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Stage Item Unit Estimated cost Remarks


(USD)
Small-scale stakeholder meeting at a 1set 4,500 -
community venue
Awareness program for public health 1set 7,500 -
for workers and local communities
Safety education program to prevent 1set 4,500 -
from traffic accident
Operation Mitigation measures for water 1set To be estimated -
stage pollution - wastewater treatment plant
Mitigation measures for noise and - To be estimated To be
vibration - sound barrier estimated after
the target area
of mitigation
measures is
specified.
Safety education program to prevent - To be estimated It needs be
from traffic accident done
continuously
in the
operation stage
Note:
1) The mitigation measures for resettlement-related items will be considered in ARP and not specified in this table.
2) The cost for general measures such as a site patrol and disposal fee for waste are included in the construction cost
and are not indicated in this table.
3) This cost estimation is provisional and will be elaborated in the detailed design stage or at proper time
Source: EIA Study Team

Table 8.5-2 Estimated Budget for Implementing the EMoP


Stage Item Unit Estimated cost Remarks
(USD)
Pre- - - - It will not require a specific cost.
Construction
stage

Construction Air quality - Not specified The estimated unit cost is


stage monitoring 800USD/time, but the monitoring
will be required when needed
Water quality 1set 14,000 at 8 locations and biannually
monitoring
Noise and - Not specified The estimated unit cost is
vibration 800USD/time, but the monitoring
monitoring will be required when needed
Operation Air quality - Not specified The estimated unit cost is
stage monitoring 800USD/time, but the monitoring
will be required when needed
Water quality 1set 14,000 at 8 locations and biannually
monitoring
Soil quality - Not specified The estimated unit cost is
monitoring 600USD/sample, but the
monitoring will be required when
needed
Noise and 1set 4,000 at 2 locations and biannually
vibration
monitoring

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Note:
1) The cost for site patrol is included in the dairy work and not included in this table.
2) This cost estimation is provisional and will be elaborated in the detailed design stage or at proper time

Source: EIA Study Team

8.6 Project Implementation Schedule


The implementation schedule for upgrading of YCR Line project are described in Table 8.6-1.

Table 8.6-1 Implementation Schedule for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project

Source: JICA Study Team

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CHAPTER 9 PUBLIC CONSULTATION AND DISCLOSURE


9.1 Introduction
The consultation is one of the key elements of the EIA study. In general, public consultation
aims at (1) to share the project related information to the public and stakeholders, (2) to
incorporate their opinions and suggestions in the project planning stage to ensure wider
acceptability of the Project and utilize the local knowledge and traditional wisdom in the
planning stage, and (3) to encourage the public and stakeholders to participate in the planning
stage.

9.2 Methodology and Approach


For this project, the stakeholder meetings were organized in the initial planning stage as well
as the EIA report preparation stage in accordance with the EIA Procedure of Myanmar (2015)
and the JICA Guidelines for Environmental and Social Considerations (2010).

The EIA Procedure requires public consultation in 2 stages, namely in scoping process and
EIA report preparation process.

Section 50 of the EIA Procedure states that the following requirements for public consultation
and disclosure in the scoping process:

- As part of the Scoping, the project proponent shall ensure that the following public
consultation and participation process is carried out:
- Disclose information about the proposed project to the public and civil society through
local media, including by means of the prominent posting of legible sign boards and
advertising boards at the project site which are visible to the public; and
- Arrange the required complement of consultation meetings as advised by the Ministry,
with local communities, potentially PAPs, local authorities, community based
organizations, and civil society.

The above statement sets clear the scope of initial public consultation and participation
process for the scoping exercise.

Additionally, Section 60 and 61 also describe the EIA needs consider views, concerns and
perceptions of stakeholders, communities and individuals affected by the Project or those who
have an interest in the Project in order to assess impacts, design, and prepare mitigation
measures, management and monitoring plans.

Section 61 states the consultation process as shown below:

- Timely disclosure of all relevant information about the proposed Project and its likely adverse
impacts to the public and civil society through local and national media, the website(s) of the
Project or Project Proponent, at public places such as libraries and community halls, and on sign
boards at the Project site visible to the public, and provide appropriate and timely explanations in
press conferences and media interviews;
- Arrange consultation meetings at national, regional, state, Nay Pyi Taw Union Territory and local
levels, with PAPs, authorities, community based organizations and civil society;
- Consultations with concerned government organizations including the Ministry, the concerned
sector ministry, regional government authorities and others; and
- Field visits for the Ministry and concerned government organizations.

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The JICA Guidelines also require 2-stage consultation for the full EIA study, namely when the
scoping is conducted and when the draft final EIA is prepared.

9.3 Outline of Stakeholder Meetings in the Scoping Stage


In fulfillment of the public consultation for the Project, three stakeholder meetings were held
in the scoping stage. Since the preliminary scope of the Project targeted only on the western
section of YCR, the first and second stakeholder meetings focused on the draft outputs of
Project plan and IEE-level study for the western section. After the scope of Project was
extended to the whole section of YCR, the third stakeholder meeting, namely the first and
second stakeholder meeting for the entire section of YCR were organized in April 2015 with
participation of 120 attendees including local stakeholders, parliament members of Yangon
Region, mass media, etc.. MR explained the outline of Project plan as well as the preliminary
result of the environmental and social impact assessment and answered to questions and
comments from the stakeholders. This content included the essence of public consultation for
the scoping stage and considered as the stakeholder meeting for scoping stage of this EIA
study.

The outline of the past stakeholder meetings is described in Table 9.3-1. The detailed records
such as the minutes of meetings and photos are shown in the Appendix 3.

Table 9.3-1 List of Stakeholder Meetings in the Scoping Stage


No. Title Date Venue Summary
1 1st stakeholder 13:00 pm to 16:00 Ruby Hall- - Attendance: total 132 persons including the
meeting for the pm, August 7th, Asia Plaza local residents, government officials, NOGs
western section Thursday 2014 Hotel, etc.
of YCR Yangon - The preliminary project plan and scoping
result for IEE study were presented.
2 2nd stakeholder 13:00 pm to 16:00 Yuzana - Attendance: total 176 persons including
meeting for the pm, September Garden PAPs, news media, government officials,
western section 23rd, Tuesday 2014 Hotel, NGOs etc.
of YCR Yangon - The updated Project plan and draft result of
IEE study for western section were
presented.
3 1st stakeholder 13:00 pm to 16:00 Yuzana - Attendance: total 120 persons including
meeting for the pm, May 12, Garden PAPs, local interest people, government
entire section of Tuesday 2015 Hotel, officials, members of Parliament of Yangon
YCR Yangon Region etc.
- The updated Project plan and draft result of
IEE study for the entire section of YCR
were presented.
Source: EIA Study Team

9.4 Outline of the Stakeholder Meeting in the EIA Report Preparation Stage
The 2nd stakeholder meeting for the entire section was held in July 2016 after the preparation
of the draft EIA report in order to facilitate the further engagement of stakeholders.

In the 2nd stakeholder meeting, the Project Proponent explained the project background,
objectives, components, and planned implementation schedule. Additionally, the objectives of
the EIA and this stakeholder meeting, alternative considerations in planning, highlights of the
survey results, expected environmental and social impacts, major mitigation measures and the
monitoring approach were explained by the EIA consultant on behalf of the Project Proponent.
In the Q & A session, various stakeholders such as the PAHs, the general public, the

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parliament members of Yangon Region, government officers, NGOs, the mass media asked
questions on the plan, schedule, budget, social impacts such as relocation of vendors and
considerations for physically challenged passengers, resettlement, environmental monitoring
and others.

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 9.4-1 Second Stakeholder Meeting for the Entire Section of YCR

Table 9.4-1 Outline of the Second Stakeholder Meeting for the Entire Section of YCR
Project Name Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project
Agenda 1. Opening Remarks by U Tun Aung Thin, General Manager (Lower Myanmar),
Myanma Railways, Ministry of Railways Transportation
2. Presentation on Project Plan, by U Tun Aung Thin, General Manager (Lower
Myanmar), Myanma Railways, Ministry of Railways Transportation
3. Presentation on Environmental and Social Considerations in Yangon Circular Railway
Line Upgrading Project, by U Tin Aung Moe, Director of E Guard Environmental
Services Co., Ltd.
4. Tea Break
5. Question and Answer Session
6. Closing Remarks by U Tun Aung Thin, General Manager (Lower Myanmar), Myanma
Railways, Ministry of Railways Transportation
Date July 12th, Tuesday 2016
Time 13:00 pm to 15:30 pm
Venue Yuzana Garden Hotel, Yangon
Attendees 57 Local People
31 from Media
61 Staffs from Government Departments and other Organizations
5 from Private companies
4 from NGOs
3 from JICA Study Team
Total Participants (161)
Major a) From Local People
Discussions Q1: How will you manage and compensate for our losses that are affected by the project? (a PAH)
A1: MR has surveyed and recorded all possible affected structures including shops, houses, etc.
Abbreviated Resettlement Plan (ARP) will be prepared and also submitted to Yangon Region
Government. Tentative relocation site is considered in Ywarthargyi. If PAPs do not satisfy that place,
we will manage the nearest location of existing place.

Q2: How will you consider for vendors like us who are doing business activities near the Station? (a
vendor)
Answer: If you are doing business activity in an illegal place where that place is not recognized by
YCDC or MR, we would not include them in any supporting or compensation program.

b) From NGO

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Q3: Is there any plan to make convenient for disable persons that are using the train? (an NGO for the
disabled persons)
A3: We have planned to make plane level for wheel-chair users to be able to take the train without
difficulty.

Q4: First question is how to manage solid waste generated by construction workers and other
construction waste. Who will monitor the implementation of Environmental Management Plan
(EMP)? I would like to suggest that monitoring of EMP should be done by independent consultant or
third party instead of the project contractor.
A4: Monitoring team independently will conduct monitoring activities for each stage of the project.
But, new legal framework of Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring works has been
newly established in Myanmar and there will be still some weak points in conducting environmental
assessment and monitoring works. Waste disposal plans for each stage of the project are described in
EIA Report.

Q5: How do you manage for resettlement for PAPs? (an NGO)
A5: PAHs who are entitled for compensation, relocation and income restoration program was
identified and is being reviewed after socio-economic surveying. In addition, we will formulate Project
Management Units (PMUs) and all resettlement matters will be conducted by this committee. Detail
explanation will be described in ARP Report.

c) From Government
Q6: I would like to know source of financial aid for the project, estimated amount of the aid and
implementation period of the project. (a Member of Yangon Region Parliament)
A6: MR will carry out necessary work using MRs budget on the civil and track work, station
platform, power supply, depot and workshop for installation of the new signaling system and DEMUs.
However, technical support will be provided from JICA in designing those elements. The targeted year
for the project implementation is 2017-2018.

Q7: In current situation, we have some difficulties to use train due to long distance from home to train
station and traffic congestion. Will you discuss with JICA for solving this problem, for example
arranging shuttle bus to stations? Are there any specific guidelines or instructions for clearance of
existing illegal residents, and shops along the YCR Line? (a Member of Yangon Region Parliament)
A7: In the future, feeder lines will be arranged to reach the destination in a short period. Regarding
shops in MR land, they are doing these business activities with MIC permission. So every plan of MR
will be informed to Yangon Region Government.

Q8: Height of FOB near Kyee Myin Daing Station was raised for the reason of running electric train
and it makes very close to power transmission lines. Recently, an accident was occurred on that bridge
and cause of the death is suspected to be due to electric shock. This shows poor quality of the new
FOBs construction and I would like to ask how to rebuild the FOBs to get good quality. (a Member of
Yangon Region Parliament)
A8: Yes, we increased the height of that FOB according to design requirements for the future
operation of electric train. It was constructed by a contractor not by MR and this might be due to lack
of technical cooperation between MR and YESC.

Q9: To my understanding, this project was contracted since 2013. Who will manage the project, Union
Government or Regional Government? (a Member of Yangon Region Parliament)
A9: Transportation sector is under the management of the Union Government. The Government of
Myanmar (GOM) has officially requested support from the Government of Japan with regard to the
Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project through provision of a Japanese ODA. As the
project site is located in Yangon Region, the project would also be implemented in accordance with
the Yangon Region Governments instructions.

d) From Media
Q10: How much is the amount of allocated budget for this project? I would like to know the current
speed of the train and increased speed of the train in the operation phase.
A10: Estimate budget for the upgrading of YCL Line project is about 200 million US dollar. Current
speed is about 15mph and the target maximum running speed of the project is 20mph.
Materials Power-point Presentation Document on Project Plan
Provided Power-point Presentation Document on Environmental and Social Considerations
Source: JICA Study Team

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9.5 Further Consultation


Consultation will continue toward implementation of the construction work. From now on,
consultation on environmental and social considerations will be required in a various forms
such as public meetings, focus group discussions, press conference, and information
disclosure, for various stakeholders in the different stages. For instance, information
dissemination for the local communities and passengers will be required before the
construction work and also required for the local communities and passengers to enhance
safety awareness. Separately, consultation on social considerations will be required on
relocation of PAHs and informal mobile vendors before the construction work.

9.6 Disclosure
It is planned that the EIA report will be disclosed at (1) MR HQ office in Nay Pyi Taw
Station; (2) MR Lower Myanmar Administration Office in Yangon; and (3) major YCR
stations and/or townships governmental offices after its submission to ECD/MONREC as per
Section 65 of the EIA Procedure.

The executive summary in Myanmar will be disclosed at MR HQ office in Nay Pyi Taw
Station; MR Lower Myanmar Administration Office in Yangon; and major YCR stations and
major district government offices in the Project area, and the full EIA report in Myanmar and
English will be also available at MR HQ office in Nay Pyi Taw Station; and MR Lower
Myanmar Administration Office in Yangon.

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CHAPTER 10 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


10.1 Conclusions
The EIA study is prepared based on the project description, literature review of existing
environmental social condition of the project area, field survey results, and stakeholder
meetings with government and community residing in the project area. From the EIA study
results, the following major conclusions may be drawn:

The project does not belong to (1) sensitive sectors such as large scale development of roads
and bridges, (2) sensitive characteristics such as large-scale involuntary resettlement of more
than 200 PAPs and (3) sensitive areas such as nationally-designated protected areas, primeval
forests areas, and does not affect (4) areas with unique archaeological, historical, or cultural
value as listed in Appendix 3 of the JICA Guidelines. On the other hand, this Project is
categorized as EIA Type ll Project by Myanmar Government because more than 5 km of
renovation project of railway shall conduct an EIA in accordance with the Notification of EIA
Procedure (2015).

Environmentally, results of identification and assessment of potential environmental and


social impacts indicate that there is no item affected with rating of (A-) which means causing
significant negative (adverse) impacts due to project activities, and all other affected items are
classified into rating (B-) which means not significant but some negative impacts, rating (D)
which means no or negligible negative impacts. The development activities including the pre-
construction stage, construction stage and operating stage will not greatly affect the
environment if set regulations and operational rules are strictly followed. Unavoidable
impacts can be minimized or mitigated by ensuring the prescribed measures in the EMP, and
its effectiveness can be monitored and ensured as planned the EMoP.

According to the results of the EIA study for the Upgrading of YCR Line Project, conclusion
is drawn is follows:

1) In terms of living environment, most of the impacts are controlled and limited in and
around the project area. The key negative impacts such as emission of air pollutants
such as gas and dust, degradation of surface water quality and generation of noise and
vibration are expected . However, planning and implementation of appropriate
environmental mitigation measures in the EMP such as sprinkling water to specific area
of construction site (e.g. FOB construction site) for dust prevention, and to limit the
mobilization of construction vehicles for prevention of emission gas, and to prepare the
appropriate construction schedule to prevent noise generation during the night time will
minimize these negative impacts.
2) In terms of natural environment, YCR Line does not pass through any protected area or
reserved forest areas or natural forests in the City. Almost all of the land along the YCR
Line was highly urbanized except some limited areas in the north. The lands along the
northern section of the YCR Line are still used for agricultural activities. Most of plants
along the YCR Line are also found commonly in public parks, other greenery areas and
along the roads in the Yangon City. Since there are over thousand trees within the MR
fence line, and not all, but partially these trees will be cleared for the construction work.
To minimize the impact, the number of tress to be cleared needs to be minimized as
much as possible by reconfirming the site specific requirement, and replanting the
affected trees in the project area needs to be considered wherever possible.
3) In terms of social environment, the project sites are mostly within MR's land/ROW and
no land acquisition is required for the Project. However, most structures such as houses
and shops along railway section, although located within ROW of MR can be affected

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partially by the project during the pre-construction stage and the construction stage of
the project. In addition, some water logged spaces within MRs land/ROW rented from
MR for cultivation of vegetables can also be affected by the project. Safety fence
installation along the YCR Line which is one of project components will indirectly
affect and stop vendor activities in Thamine station, Da Nyin Kone station and Kanbe
station until MR and other respective government bodies such as YCDC and YRG
arrange alternative space and facilities so that these vendors can continue their
livelihood/business activities.
4) In addition, passengers delivering and selling agricultural products to consumers by
train will also be benefitted indirectly. These may result in overall improvement living
condition and acceleration the growth of local economy.
5) On the other hand, after upgrading of YCR Line, the existing YCR transport services
will be upgraded to faster and safer, which may give rise to more convenience and
comfort to passengers as well as making easier access to working places, schools, social
services, shopping and other daily life activities. Especially, it will also contribute to
improvement of traffic congestion of Yangon city if the number of train users is
increased.
6) In addition, there are some other social impacts of the YCR Line upgrading project.
Some impacts on occupational/health and safety including rail safety are expected
during the project implementation as well as the operation. However, these impacts will
be overall minimized with appropriate mitigation and management plan and by
complying with national and international occupational health and safety guidelines.
Especially, safety for passengers needs to be ensured by providing the educational
program on safety awareness to passengers and local residents during the construction
and operation stages.
7) Moreover, the existing railway service will be temporarily disturbed during the
construction since the number of the trains could be reduced depending on the
construction plan such as construction work on night window time or live line
construction work with the partial single track operation. The inconvenience for
passengers needs to be minimized to the extent possible by providing the prior notice of
the construction plan to passengers and if necessary, alternative transportation for
railway passengers.
8) Lastly, since the YCR Line is located in the middle of Yangon City, the traffic will be
disturbed during the construction stage especially in the central business district. To
minimize the impacts and the inconvenience of general public and local residents, the
specific traffic management plan need to be prepared.

In consideration of the result of the EIA study for the project, the Environmental Management
Plans (EMPs) including adequate mitigation measures to reduce the negative impacts and
Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) are proposed for each stage of the project.

10.2 Recommendation of the YCR Line Upgrading Project


The YCR Line is expected to perform as a spine urban transit system in Yangon since Yangon
City has encountered the increased demand of transportation and heavy traffic congestion. In
order to increase an efficiency of passenger transport capacity and upgrade the safe and
comfortable public transport service by rehabilitating and replacing the existing railway
facilities and the rolling stock, the improvement of the YCR Line is considered as one of the
most important transport development projects in the Yangon region.

There are 2 other challenges for implementation of this project beside the above-mentioned
specific measures. Firstly, it is suggested that MoTC, MR, YRG, YCDC and related
townships mutually work closely together to move forward with the Project plan. In order to
fulfill this objective and required performance, the Project requires to cooperate with related
parties including the local government (e.g. YRG and YCDC) and communities and to take a

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (Draft Final)

sufficient consideration for potential inconvenience and issues on social and environmental
aspects. For example, the civil-work period would involve some temporal inconvenience to
passengers and residents along railway due to construction works and partially-restricted
operation of YCR. It is crucial to announce the construction plan in advance and provide an
alternative transportation as needed to avoid confusion. The installation of signaling system
entails flood countermeasures which need to be secured with the good performance of public
drainage system to be managed by YCDC. The safety measures in railway track and platform
such as the installation of safety fence and safety awareness program targeting passengers and
residents should be practiced so that a risk of railway accidents can be minimized even after
the train speed is increased. The alternative market and resettlement of PAHs also needs to be
implemented in consultation with YRG and YCDC.

Secondly, it is suggested that MR will comply with the proposed Environmental Mitigation
and Management Plans in implementing for all stages of the Project. For the Project, the civil
work will be funded by the Government of Myanmar, and installing signaling system and
procurement of DEMU will be funded by the JICA. Since the JICA loan project requires
environmental and social considerations or compliance of safety, health and environment
requirements at the international level, wherever there is a significant gap between the
national requirements and the international requirements, the gap filling measure needs to be
adopted by the Project Proponent/Executing Agency.

As Myanmar is moving forward with the momentum to become a better and improved nation,
it is essential to have secure, reliable and efficient transportation facilities in the largest city.
The railway system has the lowest emission level per user, is the cheapest mode of land
transportation, has the largest capacity of mobility and is the most convenient and reliable
way of travelling. Thus, it is recommended that the improvement of the existing aged railway
system is vital for the development process of Myanmar.

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APPENDIX 1 GAPS OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL
CONSIDERATIONS BETWEEN MYANMAR
LEGISLATION AND JICA GUIDELINES

Table A1.1 Gaps between the JICA Guidelines and EIA Procedure in Myanmar
Gaps Measures to
Requirements and Key between JICA Filling Gap
No Requirements in EIA
Contents Points in the JICA Guideline and
. Procedure in Myanmar
Guidelines EIA Procedure in
Myanmar
1 Information EIA reports must be written in IEE report, scoping report and Since the relevant In the
disclosure the official language or in a EIA report shall be prepared reports are Project,
in the language widely used in the either in the Myanmar required to be Myanmar
official country in which the project is language or in the English written in the language has
language to be implemented. When language with an Myanmar been used
or/and in a explaining projects to local accompanying accurate language for a series
language residents, written materials summary in the Myanmar (summary or the of
widely used must be provided in a language. (Chapter IV 35, entire text), EIA stakeholder
in the language and form Chapter V 51, 62) Procedure in meeting and
country understandable to them. Myanmar is the
The documents that would be consistent with the documents
used in the meetings with local JICA Guidelines. used in the
stakeholders will be prepared On the other hand, meeting.
in an official or widely used there is no written
language and in a form rule about the
understandable by local language to be
people. used in the public
consultation
meetings in laws
in Myanmar.
2 Scope of The impacts to be assessed The EIA investigation shall There is no -
impact to be with regard to environmental consider all biological, difference.
assessed and social considerations physical, social, economic,
include impacts on human health, cultural and visual
health and safety, as well as on components of the study area
the natural environment, that during all project phases
are transmitted through air, including pre-construction,
water, soil, waste, accidents, construction, operation,
water usage, climate change, decommissioning, closure and
ecosystems, fauna and flora, post-closure and shall identify
including trans-boundary or and assess all adverse impacts,
global scale impacts. These risks, cumulative impacts and
also include social impacts, residual impacts. (Chapter V
including migration of 56)
population and involuntary
resettlement, local economy,
existing social infrastructures
and services, vulnerable social
groups such as poor and
indigenous peoples and
equality of benefits and losses.
In addition to the direct and
immediate impacts of projects,
their derivative, secondary,
and cumulative impacts as
well as the impacts of projects
that are indivisible from the
project are also to be examined
and assessed to a reasonable
extent.

Appendix - 1
Gaps Measures to
Requirements and Key between JICA Filling Gap
No Requirements in EIA
Contents Points in the JICA Guideline and
. Procedure in Myanmar
Guidelines EIA Procedure in
Myanmar
3 Examinatio Multiple alternatives must be In the procedure of EIA There is no -
n of examined in order to avoid or investigation, consideration of difference.
alternatives minimize adverse impacts and the selected alternatives and
to choose better project comparison and selection of
options in terms of the preferred alternatives shall
environmental and social be done. (Chapter V 58)
considerations.
4 Environmen Appropriate follow-up plans Management and monitoring There is no -
tal and systems, such assub-plans by project phase difference.
Managemen monitoring plans and(pre-construction,
t Plan, environmental management construction, operation,
Environmen plans, must be prepared; the decommissioning, closure and
tal costs of implementing such post-closure) shall be prepared
Monitoring plans and systems, and the in the EIA Report.
Plan financial methods to fund suchThe project Proponent shall
costs, must be determined. submit monitoring reports to
the Ministry not less
frequently than every six
months as provided in a
schedule in the environmental
monitoring plan. (Chapter V
63, Chapter IX)
Source: JICA Study Team, JICA Guidelines for Environmental and Social Considerations (2010.4) and relevant Myanmar
legislation

Table A1.2 Gaps between the JICA Guidelines and Myanmar Legislations regarding Land
Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement
Gap between JICA
Requirements and Key Points
Requirements in Guideline and Measures to Filling
No. in the JICA Guidelines and
Myanmar Legislations Myanmar Gap
World Bank OP 4.12
Legislations
1 Involuntary resettlement and loss Not specified in There is no The project examines
of means of livelihood are to be Myanmar legislations regulation which the alternatives to
avoided when feasible by mentions or requests avoid or minimize
exploring all viable alternatives. to avoid or minimize resettlement impact.
(JICA Guidelines) involuntary
resettlement and loss
of livelihood means.
2 When population displacement is Compensation or There is no -
unavoidable, effective measures indemnity is provided for difference.
to minimize impact and to farmland acquisition for
compensate for losses should be the interest of the State or
taken. (JICA Guidelines) public. (Farmland Law
(2012) Art. 26, Farmland
Rules (2012) Art. 64)
3 People who must be resettled Damages to standing There is no Assistance for
involuntarily and people whose crops/trees, lands, stipulation of improving or
means of livelihood will be movable/immovable improving or at least restoring livelihood
hindered or lost must be properties, relocation restoring living at least to pre-project
sufficiently compensated and cost, economic activities standard, income level is provided.
supported, so that they can are requested to opportunities and
improve or at least restore their compensate. (Land production levels to
standard of living, income Acquisition Act (1894) pre-project levels in
opportunities and production Art. 23, Farmland Rules the Myanmar legal
levels to pre-project levels. (JICA (2012) Art. 67) framework.
Guidelines)

Appendix - 2
Gap between JICA
Requirements and Key Points
Requirements in Guideline and Measures to Filling
No. in the JICA Guidelines and
Myanmar Legislations Myanmar Gap
World Bank OP 4.12
Legislations
4 Compensation must be based on Land: Market-value Land: Partial gap The affected land is
the full replacement cost as much compensation (Land since the act lacks owned by MR, and
as possible. (JICA Guidelines) Acquisition Act (1894) standard no land acquisition
Art.9, 23 (1) and 23(2)) methodology in will be required.
Crops: Compensation at determining However, any
three times of the value compensation, properties and crops
calculated based on the though it requires to be affected by the
average production of considering the Project need to be
crops in the current market value. compensated at the
market price of that area Additionally, there full replacement cost
is provided. (Farmland would be a gap which generally
Rules (2012) Art. 67) between the market consists of the
value and full market value and
replacement cost. other transaction
Crops: There is no costs.
significant
difference.
5 Compensation and other kinds of When compensation is There is no clear The
assistance must be provided prior not paid on or before land indication about ARP(Abbreviated
to displacement. (JICA acquisition, timing of Resettlement Action
Guidelines) compensation amount compensation Plan) to be updated
awarded with interest rate payment in the in the Project will
must be paid. Myanmar legal specify that the
framework. compensation will be
provided prior to
displacement, but the
assistance may be
planned to be
provided by dividing
in a few times (not
providing all amount
in one time before
displacement) in
order to manage
provided assistance
amount properly.
6 For projects that entail large-scale Not specified in There is no An ARP is prepared
involuntary resettlement, Myanmar legislations regulation which in consultation with
resettlement action plans must be mentions or requests PAPs and will be
prepared and made available to to avoid or minimize disclosed to the
the public. (JICA Guidelines) involuntary public.
resettlement and loss
of livelihood means.
7 In preparing a resettlement action Not specified in There is no Consultations with
plan, consultations must be held Myanmar legislations regulation requesting PAPs have been
with the affected people and their to organize organized in timely
communities based on sufficient consultations with manner.
information made available to PAPs.
them in advance. (JICA
Guidelines)
8 When consultations are held, Not specified in There is no Consultations with
explanations must be given in a Myanmar legislations regulation requesting PAPs have been
form, manner, and language that to organize organized using
are understandable to the affected consultations with understandable
people. (JICA Guidelines) PAPs. explanation methods.
9 Appropriate participation of Not specified in There is no Participation of PAPs
affected people must be promoted Myanmar legislations regulation requesting is secured by
in planning, implementation, and participation of PAPs organizing
monitoring of resettlement action into planning, consultations in
plans. (JICA Guidelines) implementation and timely manner.
monitoring of
resettlement action
plans.

Appendix - 3
Gap between JICA
Requirements and Key Points
Requirements in Guideline and Measures to Filling
No. in the JICA Guidelines and
Myanmar Legislations Myanmar Gap
World Bank OP 4.12
Legislations
10 Appropriate and accessible 1) Notice of The procedure of The grievance
grievance mechanisms must be compensation amount to grievance in the redress mechanism is
established for the affected people PAPs directly: appeal to Myanmar context is established by
and their communities. (JICA the court within 6 weeks direct settlement at utilizing the existing
Guidelines) from the date of the court, which is administration
compensation award not necessarily easy system to be
2) Notice of or accessible to convenient for PAPs.
compensation amount to PAPs.
representatives of PAPs:
i) within 6 weeks of
receipt of compensation
notice, or ii) within
6 months from the date of
compensation award,
whichever period shall be
first expire (Land
Acquisition Act (1894)
Art. 18)
10 Affected people are to be A notification of land There is no specific The Project already
identified and recorded as early as acquisition or public description of conducted the
possible in order to establish their purposes is published in identifying affected preliminary survey to
eligibility through an initial the Gazette, which is also people as early as identify and record
baseline survey (including published at the possible in the the affected people
population census that serves as convenient place in the national law. and supplemental
an eligibility cut-off date, asset concerned municipality. survey will be
inventory, and socioeconomic (Land Acquisition Act conducted to the final
survey), preferably at the project (1894) Article 4) boundary for
identification stage, to prevent a identifying number
subsequent influx of encroachers of affected
of others who wish to take households as well as
advance of such benefits. (WB their socio-economic
OP4.12 Para.6) condition.
11 Eligibility of benefits includes, Occupiers/stakeholders Detail procedures as The Project will
the PAPs who have formal legal of lands to be acquired well as eligibility establish eligibility
rights to land (including are explained about criteria are not for assistance to all
customary and traditional land acquisition and claims to clearly defined. In households whose
rights recognized under law), the compensations. addition, there is no income sources or
PAPs who don't have formal legal (Land Acquisition Act specific indication assets are confirmed
rights to land at the time of (1894) Article 9) about displaced as affected due to
census but have a claim to such persons without project
land or assets and the PAPs who titles. implementation.
have no recognizable legal right
to the land they are
occupying.(WB OP4.12 Para.15)
12 Preference should be given to Not specified in There is no Appropriate
land-based resettlement strategies Myanmar legislations regulation stipulating measures will be
for displaced persons whose to give land-based provided to PAPs
livelihoods are land-based. (WB resettlement based on consultation
OP4.12 Para.11) strategies. with them.
13 Provide support for the transition Not specified in There is no Sufficient support for
period (between displacement and Myanmar legislations regulation stipulating the transition period
livelihood restoration). (WB to provide support will be provided.
OP4.12 Para.6) for the transition
period.
14 Particular attention must be paid Not specified in There is no Additional support
to the needs of the vulnerable Myanmar legislations regulation stipulating for the vulnerable
groups among those displaced, to provide particular groups will be
especially those below the attention to the provided.
poverty line, landless, elderly, vulnerable groups.
women and children, ethnic
minorities etc. (WB OP4.12
Para.8)

Appendix - 4
Gap between JICA
Requirements and Key Points
Requirements in Guideline and Measures to Filling
No. in the JICA Guidelines and
Myanmar Legislations Myanmar Gap
World Bank OP 4.12
Legislations
15 For projects that entail land Not specified in There is no The Project entails
acquisition or involuntary Myanmar legislations regulation stipulating involuntary
resettlement of fewer than to prepare resettlement of fewer
200 people, abbreviated resettlement plan. than 200 people and
resettlement plan is to be an ARP will be
prepared. (WB OP4.12 Para.25) prepared.
Source: JICA Study Team, JICA Guidelines for Environmental and Social Considerations (2010.4) and World Bank OP4.12
and relevant Myanmar legislation

Appendix - 5
APPENDIX 2 DETAILED DATA OF FIELD SURVEY RESULTS

A2.1 Air Quality Survey


1) A.1 Golf Course Station (24/03/2016 11:00 AM to 31/03/2016 11:00AM)

Day1/
Time CO NO2 NO PM10 PM2.5 Humidity SO2 WS W Dir
TC
(ppb) (ppb) (ppm) (G/m3) (G/m3) % (ppb) pM(kph) (Deg)

Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg
11:00 - 12:00 12.44 14.22 0.02 57.14 32.58 46.80 9.12 33.58 11.3 112.5
12:00 - 13:00 0.07 15.72 0.01 54.85 33.05 42.63 25.95 34.93 11.3 112.5
13:00 - 14:00 0.70 3.05 0.09 45.43 34.13 39.03 24.65 36.52 10.5 135
14:00 - 15:00 0.58 8.33 0.22 66.00 51.07 34.50 15.53 38.13 9.7 135
15:00 - 16:00 0.30 16.32 0.18 71.75 58.03 32.63 7.07 38.62 10.5 123.75
16:00 - 17:00 0.00 35.07 0.09 106.23 77.73 32.38 1.43 38.07 8.05 146.25
17:00 - 18:00 276.28 33.40 0.05 132.48 85.17 45.28 1.97 34.27 4.8 168.75
18:00 - 19:00 832.53 2.00 0.00 109.22 85.82 65.73 10.93 29.13 3.2 157.5
19:00 - 20:00 1288.68 3.20 0.00 91.10 71.48 71.72 16.47 27.52 2.4 146.25
20:00 - 21:00 1179.70 15.38 0.00 86.37 66.00 70.88 16.62 27.47 0 146.25
21:00 - 22:00 1185.33 28.50 0.00 101.97 76.85 72.02 11.92 26.98 0 146.25
22:00 - 23:00 1508.38 54.92 0.00 130.22 104.15 71.35 36.90 26.18 6.4 67.5
23:00 - 24:00 1230.73 71.95 0.00 138.53 110.88 70.45 6.45 25.27 8.85 67.5
00:00 - 01:00 971.75 63.48 0.00 102.07 74.63 73.60 7.65 24.68 6.4 67.5
01:00 - 02:00 1049.10 70.22 0.00 102.67 78.13 77.37 23.95 23.98 6.4 33.75
02:00 - 03:00 863.15 80.88 0.05 106.97 77.38 80.97 3.80 23.70 5.6 315
03:00 - 04:00 895.32 95.45 0.08 156.22 120.75 84.25 6.30 23.00 4 303.75
04:00 - 05:00 847.18 101.55 0.09 167.15 131.48 86.00 3.17 23.00 3.2 326.25
05:00 - 06:00 979.62 110.13 0.10 169.63 132.22 86.53 6.20 23.00 2.4 225
06:00 - 07:00 1070.23 120.93 0.15 238.17 200.82 85.03 16.38 22.98 2.4 90
07:00 - 08:00 1322.68 106.38 0.12 219.08 177.63 84.92 24.73 23.30 1.6 78.75
08:00 - 09:00 1257.50 93.22 0.10 173.12 135.70 76.10 28.98 26.07 3.2 123.75
09:00 - 10:00 1337.02 67.25 0.14 127.72 73.88 61.58 27.87 31.63 2.4 135
10:00 - 11:00 1507.35 19.28 0.10 107.70 73.72 55.07 56.20 34.35 1.6 135
24 hrsAvg 817.36 51.28 0.07 119.24 90.14 64.45 16.26 29.01 5.26 145.78
Min 0.00 2.00 0.00 45.43 32.58 32.38 1.43 22.98 0.00 33.75
Max 1508.38 120.93 0.22 238.17 200.82 86.53 56.20 38.62 11.3 326.25
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

Appendix - 6
Day2/
Time CO NO2 NO PM10 PM2.5 Humidity SO2 WS W Dir
TC
(ppb) (ppb) (ppm) (G/m3) (G/m3) % (ppb) pM(kph) (Deg)

Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg
11:00 - 12:00 784.18 28.73 0.08 75.50 49.43 42.35 17.23 37.35 1.6 135
12:00 - 13:00 513.17 23.58 0.10 44.82 30.77 40.62 26.85 38.12 2.4 135
13:00 - 14:00 48.07 136.02 0.22 43.80 36.63 28.77 4.85 39.63 1.6 146.25
14:00 - 15:00 0.00 205.97 0.23 43.23 40.42 21.85 3.25 40.27 0 135
15:00 - 16:00 0.00 358.73 0.27 74.48 66.37 22.22 1.00 39.40 2.4 135
16:00 - 17:00 0.00 496.82 0.03 92.95 75.90 24.85 1.00 37.37 3.2 135
17:00 - 18:00 192.02 438.55 0.00 99.05 81.48 31.88 1.00 34.07 0.8 123.75
18:00 - 19:00 965.90 230.58 0.00 135.95 108.87 45.03 1.00 30.22 0 292.5
19:00 - 20:00 2232.37 131.02 0.00 145.28 113.58 54.67 7.28 26.70 0 292.5
20:00 - 21:00 1852.23 61.18 0.00 118.93 65.87 62.20 5.95 26.37 0.8 292.5
21:00 - 22:00 1308.78 47.42 0.00 115.20 74.02 66.97 1.00 25.65 2.4 22.5
22:00 - 23:00 1002.33 41.13 0.00 120.17 81.05 74.05 1.00 25.38 3.2 45
23:00 - 24:00 998.47 61.73 0.00 175.30 139.82 84.23 1.02 22.87 3.2 45
00:00 - 01:00 952.65 70.03 0.00 178.12 134.78 86.67 1.15 22.28 3.2 0
01:00 - 02:00 911.53 80.53 0.00 195.20 158.27 88.23 2.40 21.73 3.2 0
02:00 - 03:00 830.37 96.45 0.00 261.03 215.95 90.05 2.18 21.37 4 33.75
03:00 - 04:00 872.48 87.65 0.00 241.22 219.95 89.68 2.07 22.00 3.2 56.25
04:00 - 05:00 1021.22 86.30 0.00 247.53 224.18 88.72 6.23 21.93 1.6 90
05:00 - 06:00 916.48 100.03 0.00 270.88 234.36 91.12 1.24 21.64 1.6 101.25
06:00 - 07:00 1566.33 83.96 0.01 213.02 161.65 85.81 52.63 20.73 0.8 157.5
07:00 - 08:00 1075.80 77.32 0.03 133.02 142.65 74.72 6.62 23.68 0 168.75
08:00 - 09:00 749.27 69.28 0.20 108.52 86.42 67.58 8.73 27.42 0.8 202.5
09:00 - 10:00 813.80 39.00 0.11 127.40 73.70 53.30 1.90 32.50 3.2 225
10:00 - 11:00 855.70 35.70 0.10 85.07 72.65 52.58 13.35 31.77 2.4 225
Avg 852.63 128.66 0.06 139.40 112.03 61.17 7.12 28.77 1.90 133.13
Min 0.00 23.58 0.00 43.23 30.77 21.85 1.00 20.73 0.00 0.00
Max 2232.37 496.82 0.27 270.88 234.36 91.12 52.63 40.27 4 292.5
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

Appendix - 7
Day 3/
Time CO NO2 NO PM10 PM2.5 Humidity SO2 WS W Dir
TC
(ppb) (ppb) (ppm) (G/m3) (G/m3) % (ppb) pM(kph) (Deg)
26.03.2016
Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg
11:01-12:00 696.75 38.37 0.11 70.97 45.92 44.27 11.05 35.33 0 157.5
12:01-13:00 292.95 60.67 0.09 67.13 23.68 38.87 4.55 37.35 0 157.5
13:01-14:00 145.87 88.95 0.10 62.55 13.48 36.72 4.87 39.67 0 157.5
14:01-15:00 6.93 170.75 1.00 80.12 12.37 34.73 1.00 39.02 0 157.5
15:01-16:00 2.40 193.48 1.10 75.35 23.48 36.77 1.00 38.57 0 157.5
16:01-17:00 129.97 208.78 1.90 98.23 74.97 40.32 1.00 35.75 0 157.5
17:01-18:00 394.23 168.28 0.40 104.07 96.32 45.90 1.00 32.70 0 90
18:01-19:00 709.17 111.28 0.00 124.00 111.83 48.70 1.00 29.17 0 247.5
19:01-20:00 1129.30 75.55 0.00 118.28 89.63 55.22 1.93 27.33 0 22.5
20:01-21:00 811.62 44.03 0.00 80.53 46.72 66.88 1.00 26.03 0.8 67.5
21:01-22:00 773.77 44.43 0.00 87.32 49.82 72.10 1.62 25.12 3.2 112.5
22:01-23:00 919.08 51.88 0.00 118.12 78.92 75.02 1.27 24.55 3.2 135
23:01-00:00 792.98 60.70 0.00 119.62 70.92 77.30 1.00 23.68 4.8 123.75
00:01-01:00 662.08 64.43 0.00 129.52 109.90 77.13 1.00 23.00 3.2 112.5
01:01-02:00 695.87 60.37 0.00 119.02 78.03 80.65 3.17 22.32 3.2 180
02:01-03:00 772.00 76.02 0.00 150.60 112.08 82.98 2.78 21.98 3.2 191.25
03:01-04:00 798.20 87.78 0.00 160.97 134.43 84.75 1.07 21.47 4.8 168.75
04:01-05:00 752.75 84.52 0.00 192.52 161.83 87.03 2.35 20.67 4 157.5
05:01-06:00 1177.12 92.27 0.00 222.40 191.87 87.70 27.85 20.07 2.4 191.25
06:01-07:00 937.53 101.97 0.10 225.11 169.72 86.17 10.08 20.39 3.2 202.5
07:00-08:00 984.73 77.88 0.21 200.00 143.62 79.58 32.42 23.68 2.4 146.25
08:01-09:00 749.27 69.28 0.17 108.52 86.42 67.58 8.73 27.42 2.4 135
09:01-10:00 607.08 35.32 0.10 77.85 53.35 60.03 5.67 29.18 3.2 157.5
10:01-11:00 586.65 16.25 0.50 56.97 35.45 48.63 3.53 32.50 3.2 180
Avg 647.01 86.80 0.24 118.74 83.95 63.13 5.46 28.21 1.97 148.59
Min 2.40 16.25 0.00 56.97 12.37 34.73 1.00 20.07 0.00 22.50
Max 1177.12 208.78 1.90 225.11 191.87 87.70 32.42 39.67 4.8 247.5
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

Appendix - 8
Day 4/ CO NO2 NO PM10 PM2.5 Humidity SO2 TC WS W Dir
Time (ppb) (ppb) (ppm) (G/m3) (G/m3) % (ppb) pM(kph) (Deg)

Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg
11:01-12:00 303.63 32.10 0.30 56.97 18.57 38.45 11.73 36.82 3.2 168.75
12:01-13:00 138.20 59.13 0.10 47.85 26.73 36.85 1.95 37.28 2.4 180
13:01-14:00 175.60 84.95 0.13 50.87 17.35 36.92 1.75 38.50 0 180
14:01-15:00 78.73 125.55 0.02 51.03 19.17 39.42 1.00 37.70 0 180
15:01-16:00 125.07 137.23 0.07 60.52 33.03 38.95 1.00 37.77 0 180
16:01-17:00 158.60 164.30 0.00 77.22 62.68 41.50 1.00 35.98 0 180
17:01-18:00 456.37 153.67 0.00 88.00 71.52 46.55 1.00 33.12 0 180
18:01-19:00 1156.93 119.72 0.00 117.72 95.57 54.87 1.00 29.28 0 180
19:01-20:00 1195.28 63.62 0.00 98.67 70.25 58.65 2.53 28.55 0 157.5
20:01-21:00 793.90 39.93 0.00 71.48 40.28 62.35 1.27 27.77 1.6 90
21:01-22:00 788.27 46.82 0.00 54.97 24.82 66.57 1.20 27.00 4.8 90
22:01-23:00 848.75 44.47 0.00 85.08 61.10 70.55 3.87 26.18 5.6 56.25
23:01-00:00 690.82 45.35 0.00 94.43 76.08 72.53 1.03 25.27 2.4 326.25
00:01-01:00 732.98 56.97 0.00 99.57 81.45 77.32 1.00 23.50 2.4 191.25
01:01-02:00 760.82 58.43 0.00 110.43 88.80 78.55 1.00 22.77 6.4 303.75
02:01-03:00 852.32 63.15 0.00 108.13 83.97 80.38 5.55 22.12 7.2 303.75
03:01-04:00 806.77 69.00 0.00 116.63 98.52 81.93 6.00 21.65 7.2 292.5
04:01-05:00 1038.65 72.65 0.00 148.52 115.30 85.10 13.65 20.95 6.4 292.5
05:01-06:00 1621.20 77.33 0.00 173.42 141.27 87.95 43.93 20.03 4.8 270
06:01-07:00 1924.80 87.30 0.01 201.18 154.52 86.30 76.82 20.73 1.6 281.25
07:00-08:00 1665.13 74.50 0.08 179.43 141.15 71.53 33.77 25.15 0 258.75
08:01-09:00 593.53 31.57 0.11 64.85 43.07 58.00 1.48 28.37 2.4 157.5
09:01-10:00 390.92 32.48 0.23 48.87 20.65 52.47 4.60 30.65 4 22.5
10:01-11:00 348.93 24.63 0.50 17.88 5.90 45.43 8.75 33.85 3.2 33.75
Avg 735.26 73.54 0.06 92.65 66.32 61.21 9.45 28.79 2.73 189.84
Min 78.73 24.63 0.00 17.88 5.90 36.85 1.00 20.03 0.00 22.50
Max 1924.80 164.30 0.50 201.18 154.52 87.95 76.82 38.50 7.2 326.25
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

Appendix - 9
Day 5/
CO NO2 NO PM10 PM2.5 Humidity SO2 WS W Dir
TC
(ppb) (ppb) (ppm) (G/m3) (G/m3) % (ppb) pM(kph) (Deg)
28.03.2016
Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg
11:01-12:00 146.10 39.22 0.50 25.72 4.50 41.23 3.23 36.53 2.4 45
12:01-13:00 18.15 69.23 0.90 32.75 5.23 38.03 1.92 37.63 0.8 45
13:01-14:00 0.00 118.17 1.00 31.15 5.82 35.78 1.00 38.58 0 0
14:01-15:00 7.40 171.70 1.20 43.45 8.35 34.18 1.00 38.88 0 0
15:01-16:00 0.05 188.38 1.11 47.42 10.43 33.98 1.00 39.82 0 0
16:01-17:00 10.13 220.68 1.00 79.75 67.58 37.45 1.00 37.23 0 0
17:01-18:00 272.68 188.13 1.00 84.40 72.70 46.25 1.00 33.40 0 0
18:01-19:00 769.32 107.20 0.70 99.95 78.03 56.28 1.00 29.40 0 0
19:01-20:00 911.87 65.28 0.10 91.75 68.87 61.07 1.00 27.42 0 180
20:01-21:00 1294.97 60.38 0.00 91.73 50.08 64.07 3.52 27.05 0.8 315
21:01-22:00 1294.28 53.80 0.00 103.77 66.43 68.07 14.83 26.55 3.2 303.75
22:01-23:00 781.70 48.62 0.00 103.08 94.62 65.50 1.32 25.48 4.8 281.25
23:01-00:00 726.18 55.13 0.00 104.60 88.58 66.70 1.72 24.33 4.8 315
00:01-01:00 828.25 62.72 0.00 146.28 109.10 81.77 1.15 22.70 5.6 292.5
01:01-02:00 911.533333 80.5333 0.00 195.20 158.27 88.23 2.40 21.73 5.6 281.25
02:01-03:00 851.18 89.88 0.00 159.75 121.52 84.20 4.20 22.75 5.6 258.75
03:01-04:00 892.32 94.57 0.00 156.22 120.75 84.87 6.30 23.00 6.4 281.25
04:01-05:00 365.13 99.92 0.00 147.21 32.54 80.54 1.33 21.58 6.4 292.5
05:01-06:00 818.12 78.90 0.00 237.23 179.03 82.17 13.10 21.08 5.6 281.25
06:01-07:00 1031.17 82.85 0.10 216.87 177.82 83.92 10.32 21.02 5.6 270
07:00-08:00 1075.80 77.32 0.10 133.02 142.65 74.72 6.62 23.68 4 258.75
08:01-09:00 732.70 33.65 0.09 62.97 61.83 59.37 3.25 27.02 3.2 258.75
09:01-10:00 472.97 35.68 0.12 49.47 29.57 48.80 5.65 30.62 4 292.5
10:01-11:00 365.10 9.83 0.16 35.17 9.10 47.70 9.92 31.83 2.4 292.5
Avg 607.38 88.82 0.34 103.29 73.48 61.04 4.07 28.72 2.97 189.38
Min 0.00 9.83 0.00 25.72 4.50 33.98 1.00 21.02 0.00 0.00
Max 1294.97 220.68 1.20 237.23 179.03 88.23 14.83 39.82 6.4 315
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

Appendix - 10
Day6/
Time CO NO2 NO PM10 PM2.5 Humidity SO2 WS W Dir
TC
(ppb) (ppb) (ppm) (G/m3) (G/m3) % (ppb) pM(kph) (Deg)

Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg
11:01-12:00 224.68 42.08 1.00 24.62 10.32 41.95 5.42 34.83 1.6 292.5
12:01-13:00 48.68 74.38 0.70 38.77 10.38 35.43 1.92 36.37 1.6 281.25
13:01-14:00 53.13 110.28 1.00 34.48 8.38 35.75 5.72 37.32 1.6 303.75
14:01-15:00 139.65 124.65 1.20 78.42 61.35 39.17 1.00 35.57 3.2 270
15:01-16:00 107.65 132.58 1.00 51.73 34.97 37.70 1.00 36.45 1.6 292.5
16:01-17:00 362.40 157.12 1.00 108.48 99.25 39.60 1.00 34.20 0.8 337.5
17:01-18:00 538.45 153.68 1.20 100.88 98.80 44.45 1.00 31.22 0 292.5
18:01-19:00 910.67 99.55 0.00 99.65 77.32 47.58 1.00 28.57 0.8 292.5
19:01-20:00 1650.40 63.03 0.00 92.02 64.67 52.82 46.83 27.15 0 157.5
20:01-21:00 1261.27 54.65 0.00 86.35 53.68 55.52 1.38 26.82 2.4 247.5
21:01-22:00 920.42 36.83 0.00 53.65 13.02 63.42 1.20 26.60 2.4 270
22:01-23:00 1193.08 47.27 0.00 98.23 42.62 69.63 20.05 25.60 4 270
23:01-00:00 1088.03 54.23 0.00 117.77 85.77 72.25 3.22 24.97 4.8 270
00:01-01:00 861.72 56.30 0.00 115.67 107.70 75.12 3.25 23.53 6.4 225
01:01-02:00 774.30 62.60 0.00 94.28 76.32 76.12 2.35 22.70 6.4 270
02:01-03:00 669.80 61.20 0.00 76.00 46.62 77.65 1.22 22.38 6.4 247.5
03:01-04:00 562.98 68.92 0.00 85.42 56.93 81.43 3.03 21.42 6.4 225
04:01-05:00 904.82 76.03 0.00 132.80 88.03 83.60 15.73 21.00 6.4 225
05:01-06:00 1789.08 77.30 0.00 185.22 138.08 83.77 60.72 21.00 6.4 157.5
06:01-07:00 1536.92 86.32 0.01 227.07 184.92 84.20 50.32 21.08 3.2 180
07:00-08:00 1069.88 72.97 0.11 129.53 152.50 70.77 7.50 24.38 1.6 180
08:01-09:00 641.15 37.77 0.12 58.85 45.50 56.20 10.48 27.67 0 225
09:01-10:00 459.83 26.67 0.50 54.57 43.68 47.93 3.28 30.62 1.6 247.5
10:01-11:00 277.10 26.35 0.70 15.33 7.80 37.13 6.52 34.68 4 270
Avg 751.92 75.12 0.36 89.99 67.03 58.72 10.63 28.17 3.07 251.25
Min 48.68 26.35 0.00 15.33 7.80 35.43 1.00 21.00 0.00 157.50
Max 1789.08 157.12 1.20 227.07 184.92 84.20 60.72 37.32 6.4 337.5
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

Appendix - 11
Day 7/
CO NO2 NO PM10 PM2.5 Humidity SO2 WS W Dir
Time TC
(ppb) (ppb) (ppm) (G/m3) (G/m3) % (ppb) pM(kph) (Deg)

Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg
11:01-12:00 18.27 65.00 1.00 27.70 8.65 28.20 1.00 39.93 2.4 247.5
12:01-13:00 0.35 106.68 1.00 37.23 5.97 29.67 8.10 39.28 2.4 292.5
13:01-14:00 0.00 154.02 1.00 28.68 6.17 27.53 5.98 40.45 0 292.5
14:01-15:00 0.00 202.65 1.50 37.25 5.90 25.20 6.07 40.27 0 292.5
15:01-16:00 1.13 270.47 1.30 65.45 8.08 27.90 1.55 40.15 0 292.5
16:01-17:00 11.57 320.07 1.00 87.90 39.08 29.87 1.00 38.38 0 292.5
17:01-18:00 339.93 290.98 1.11 111.90 90.57 36.70 1.00 33.42 0 292.5
18:01-19:00 2099.30 170.70 1.20 143.52 108.02 48.23 6.35 28.32 0 157.5
19:01-20:00 1900.88 88.33 0.10 139.33 98.75 52.40 2.13 26.52 0 270
20:01-21:00 1602.62 56.15 0.01 92.28 54.78 53.48 1.00 26.43 3.2 270
21:01-22:00 1141.59 38.92 0.00 87.78 81.76 54.97 12.68 25.64 3.2 292.5
22:01-23:00 675.12 45.12 0.00 69.62 58.48 60.13 1.32 23.52 3.2 270
23:01-00:00 566.20 37.53 0.00 58.62 38.33 60.38 1.05 24.00 4.8 45
00:01-01:00 587.38 37.88 0.00 50.10 19.95 66.78 1.25 22.90 5.6 225
01:01-02:00 729.90 43.82 0.00 69.15 25.70 71.03 1.72 22.98 5.6 270
02:01-03:00 799.68 62.43 0.00 84.97 41.92 75.82 4.48 22.43 6.4 270
03:01-04:00 936.58 62.83 0.00 109.73 59.83 78.67 15.57 22.03 4.8 270
04:01-05:00 1617.03 72.88 0.00 116.60 65.45 80.33 54.28 22.00 4 270
05:01-06:00 1517.45 82.92 0.00 166.03 130.82 80.18 32.20 22.27 2.4 292.5
06:01-07:00 921.12 79.25 0.10 93.43 90.13 74.12 10.97 24.08 0 292.5
07:00-08:00 763.58 49.02 0.06 43.60 39.67 60.37 12.70 28.40 0 315
08:01-09:00 339.70 20.22 0.11 17.27 17.03 45.25 8.18 32.57 0 0
09:01-10:00 140.00 49.47 0.17 14.88 6.10 36.15 6.73 35.45 2.4 337.5
10:01-11:00 82.53 72.90 0.10 19.52 4.40 33.22 1.80 37.87 1.6 337.5
Avg 699.66 103.34 0.41 73.86 46.06 51.52 8.30 29.97 2.17 257.81
Min 0.00 20.22 0.00 14.88 4.40 25.20 1.00 22.00 0.00 0.00
Max 2099.30 320.07 1.50 166.03 130.82 80.33 54.28 40.45 6.4 337.5
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

Appendix - 12
2) A.2 Kyimyindine Station(1/04/2016 11:00AM to 08/04/2016 11:00 AM)

Day 1/
Time CO NO2 NO PM10 PM2.5 Humidity SO2 WS W Dir
TC
(ppb) (ppb) (ppm) (G/m3) (G/m3) % (ppb) pM(kph) (Deg)

Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg
11:00 - 12:00 1470.35 45.97 0.04 43.87 39.12 42.07 423.27 31.95 2.19 277.25
12:00 - 13:00 1927.23 57.83 0.00 25.48 25.10 32.97 775.00 33.87 2.46 223.65
13:00 - 14:00 2140.57 30.18 0.43 27.73 24.73 24.72 141.17 37.30 3.01 190.78
14:00 - 15:00 2017.18 67.42 0.89 19.95 15.28 25.48 410.97 37.42 3.91 302.02
15:00 - 16:00 1265.12 68.07 0.58 23.70 16.48 31.52 394.72 37.53 3.05 243.17
16:00 - 17:00 50.00 129.72 0.86 63.23 40.38 35.52 1.00 36.77 3.21 212.63
17:00 - 18:00 50.00 133.60 0.10 81.72 57.47 40.05 1.00 34.47 2.98 198.28
18:00 - 19:00 50.00 105.03 0.00 70.32 46.73 41.50 1.00 31.47 3.98 180.15
19:00 - 20:00 50.00 74.88 0.00 70.37 47.33 47.98 1.00 29.62 4.14 169.85
20:00 - 21:00 50.00 54.80 0.00 68.33 51.42 63.60 1.00 28.13 3.83 174.43
21:00 - 22:00 50.00 21.53 0.00 59.40 39.72 68.52 1.00 27.17 3.09 171.07
22:00 - 23:00 140.10 18.35 0.00 66.10 43.80 66.62 1.00 26.97 2.04 173.22
23:00 - 24:00 186.75 15.58 0.00 70.25 50.23 72.33 1.00 26.00 2.07 183.85
00:00 - 01:00 176.42 14.75 0.00 70.47 54.12 77.73 1.00 25.33 2.00 181.55
01:00 - 02:00 162.32 6.08 0.00 64.30 47.18 80.55 1.00 25.30 1.24 196.53
02:00 - 03:00 154.48 6.92 0.00 67.85 54.48 82.42 1.00 25.00 0.70 281.95
03:00 - 04:00 181.45 15.73 0.00 75.02 57.52 83.12 1.00 25.00 0.99 282.30
04:00 - 05:00 114.68 13.82 0.00 74.80 57.18 84.68 1.00 24.78 0.39 194.53
05:00 - 06:00 108.98 8.00 0.00 74.92 56.20 85.15 1.00 24.93 0.43 179.75
06:00 - 07:00 119.27 3.38 0.01 79.25 59.03 84.65 1.33 24.90 0.71 168.95
07:00 - 08:00 206.18 3.92 0.03 67.82 54.45 82.80 15.25 25.30 0.20 181.25
08:00 - 09:00 207.05 3.20 0.24 149.52 121.70 71.15 75.43 27.22 0.27 200.17
09:00 - 10:00 302.62 2.70 0.68 44.05 41.55 52.33 206.82 30.97 0.20 184.68
10:00 - 11:00 381.63 2.68 0.94 10.35 9.22 39.30 487.45 33.77 0.67 202.67
Avg 481.77 37.67 0.20 61.20 46.27 59.03 122.73 29.63 1.99 206.45
Min 50.00 2.68 0.00 10.35 9.22 24.72 1.00 24.78 0.20 168.95
Max 2140.57 133.60 0.94 149.52 121.70 85.15 775.00 37.53 4.14 302.02
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

Appendix - 13
Day 2/
CO NO2 NO PM10 PM2.5 Humidity SO2 WS W Dir
Time TC
(ppb) (ppb) (ppm) (G/m3) (G/m3) % (ppb) pM(kph) (Deg)

Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg
11:00 - 12:00 139.88 4.22 1.16 17.57 15.58 36.75 787.43 35.08 1.31 228.95
12:00 - 13:00 734.55 19.62 0.40 31.35 20.90 33.08 461.03 36.85 2.25 232.40
13:00 - 14:00 1887.90 51.85 0.00 29.20 16.18 31.23 280.10 37.72 3.22 219.82
14:00 - 15:00 2800.62 86.63 0.01 30.63 21.67 32.65 8.53 37.72 3.62 190.85
15:00 - 16:00 4452.08 104.15 0.03 23.55 16.12 30.03 141.18 38.88 3.57 198.05
16:00 - 17:00 4095.80 150.77 0.05 52.57 34.20 34.65 63.50 36.93 3.29 220.43
17:00 - 18:00 1605.00 135.23 0.00 67.93 48.68 42.10 1.00 34.58 3.22 200.15
18:00 - 19:00 2108.32 72.82 0.00 70.77 52.30 56.67 1.00 31.15 3.12 195.78
19:00 - 20:00 1757.38 47.75 0.00 57.50 42.80 63.80 1.00 29.18 3.92 174.68
20:00 - 21:00 1307.72 21.83 0.00 63.43 38.77 69.88 1.00 28.02 4.29 163.92
21:00 - 22:00 1170.93 21.33 0.00 48.52 31.23 74.30 1.00 27.10 2.85 164.00
22:00 - 23:00 1075.20 6.92 0.00 50.73 34.92 77.17 1.00 26.70 3.81 164.78
23:00 - 24:00 911.58 2.03 0.00 53.95 38.90 79.80 1.00 26.00 3.00 169.52
00:00 - 01:00 834.00 4.88 0.00 59.28 43.27 81.32 1.00 25.50 2.31 178.12
01:00 - 02:00 796.73 2.87 0.00 61.27 47.30 83.12 1.00 25.00 0.48 181.40
02:00 - 03:00 719.97 2.90 0.00 60.83 50.73 85.22 1.00 25.00 0.28 194.83
03:00 - 04:00 735.73 5.23 0.00 64.27 50.58 87.00 1.03 24.88 0.16 189.02
04:00 - 05:00 720.87 7.30 0.00 74.92 56.82 88.07 1.00 24.47 0.16 192.90
05:00 - 06:00 772.58 5.63 0.00 81.68 61.17 89.25 1.43 24.22 0.14 181.85
06:00 - 07:00 871.58 4.07 0.02 88.92 65.30 88.67 1.07 24.75 0.17 189.50
07:00 - 08:00 944.28 5.62 0.02 77.57 61.27 86.00 2.98 25.23 0.21 196.68
08:00 - 09:00 1038.83 6.72 0.65 62.05 51.13 75.18 56.82 27.42 0.57 183.45
09:00 - 10:00 1915.25 3.92 1.66 34.55 36.05 50.03 265.77 31.93 0.83 200.05
10:00 - 11:00 2886.78 3.32 2.76 15.52 14.63 37.08 572.10 34.93 0.80 212.82
Avg 1511.82 32.40 0.28 53.27 39.60 63.04 110.58 29.97 1.98 192.66
Min 139.88 2.03 0.00 15.52 14.63 30.03 1.00 24.22 0.14 163.92
Max 4452.08 150.77 2.76 88.92 65.30 89.25 787.43 38.88 4.29 232.40
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

Appendix - 14
Day 3/
CO NO2 NO PM10 PM2.5 Humidity SO2 WS W Dir
TC
(ppb) (ppb) (ppm) (G/m3) (G/m3) % (ppb) pM(kph) (Deg)
Time
Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg

11:00 - 12:00 5359.78 7.35 2.74 12.70 12.47 31.73 575.93 36.30 1.33 171.57
12:00 - 13:00 6053.48 33.45 3.32 29.03 24.50 32.47 622.03 36.87 0.51 206.78
13:00 - 14:00 6668.65 69.02 3.28 29.62 25.42 30.83 40.10 39.12 0.67 190.70
14:00 - 15:00 13097.60 90.98 3.14 22.58 20.68 30.90 182.43 39.97 0.62 199.25
15:00 - 16:00 5922.45 145.82 2.97 39.22 29.83 31.08 106.33 39.73 0.79 182.73
16:00 - 17:00 5723.55 185.07 0.00 74.85 38.42 31.78 1.00 39.53 1.16 169.97
17:00 - 18:00 3995.08 211.43 0.00 116.22 72.73 37.00 1.00 36.47 0.87 200.10
18:00 - 19:00 2465.77 134.80 0.00 79.63 56.75 46.12 1.00 33.12 0.74 168.00
19:00 - 20:00 1704.88 59.73 0.00 65.62 54.55 58.92 1.00 30.65 1.00 173.67
20:00 - 21:00 1400.40 24.17 0.00 51.78 39.90 69.53 1.00 28.67 1.52 178.55
21:00 - 22:00 1388.02 17.05 0.00 63.88 43.88 75.10 1.00 27.97 1.43 201.07
22:00 - 23:00 1155.80 4.10 0.00 66.83 51.83 76.93 1.00 27.07 1.71 185.63
23:00 - 24:00 941.47 11.50 0.00 78.30 56.82 77.05 1.00 26.08 3.17 199.32
00:00 - 01:00 780.42 6.53 0.00 68.32 49.88 81.73 1.00 25.18 2.02 227.97
01:00 - 02:00 692.72 2.23 0.00 58.58 48.95 88.45 1.00 24.90 3.41 226.80
02:00 - 03:00 656.95 2.12 0.00 60.08 45.40 91.22 1.00 24.85 3.27 199.22
03:00 - 04:00 677.73 2.72 0.00 61.00 53.07 92.65 1.88 24.27 3.83 197.75
04:00 - 05:00 688.15 2.18 0.00 59.50 55.20 93.07 1.48 24.27 3.40 228.37
05:00 - 06:00 768.37 3.53 0.00 72.33 65.57 93.00 3.92 24.15 2.81 197.62
06:00 - 07:00 822.17 2.68 0.01 74.65 60.70 92.02 8.13 24.58 2.52 181.37
07:00 - 08:00 887.50 2.12 0.28 76.67 55.58 88.38 16.03 25.15 1.37 169.72
08:00 - 09:00 985.30 2.10 0.65 61.82 45.20 80.30 31.23 27.18 3.31 163.43
09:00 - 10:00 2024.43 2.47 1.43 32.32 28.20 61.57 215.83 30.73 1.75 178.43
10:00 - 11:00 2646.05 2.20 2.23 19.83 16.92 38.57 420.32 34.00 1.43 173.95
Avg 2812.78 42.72 0.84 57.31 43.85 63.77 93.19 30.45 1.86 190.50
Min 656.95 2.10 0.00 12.70 12.47 30.83 1.00 24.15 0.51 163.43
Max 13097.60 211.43 3.32 116.22 72.73 93.07 622.03 39.97 3.83 228.37
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

Appendix - 15
Day 4/
CO NO2 NO PM10 PM2.5 Humidity SO2 WS W Dir
TC
(ppb) (ppb) (ppm) (G/m3) (G/m3) % (ppb) pM(kph) (Deg)
Time
Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg
11:00 - 12:00 4008.42 5.78 2.71 19.32 13.73 34.37 346.53 36.32 3.17 199.88
12:00 - 13:00 5509.10 12.18 0.08 30.62 23.02 33.38 529.13 37.27 5.03 178.77
13:00 - 14:00 5320.40 38.97 0.02 25.53 22.02 32.35 191.12 38.32 3.99 197.52
14:00 - 15:00 61783.12 62.15 0.03 20.95 16.12 30.63 216.20 39.43 4.59 198.03
15:00 - 16:00 56492.20 95.20 0.00 57.25 27.28 29.97 294.15 39.27 4.82 195.72
16:00 - 17:00 5129.57 148.60 0.00 67.05 42.57 31.48 1.00 38.75 3.91 179.45
17:00 - 18:00 2481.33 119.44 0.00 71.44 55.89 34.67 1.00 36.78 1.93 170.67
18:00 - 19:00 2250.46 59.52 0.00 76.38 59.88 53.26 1.00 32.70 3.73 165.91
19:00 - 20:00 1418.95 16.18 0.00 70.25 56.02 65.72 1.00 29.88 3.21 173.28
20:00 - 21:00 1537.10 8.23 0.00 82.45 64.68 70.48 1.00 28.95 0.97 187.62
21:00 - 22:00 1338.07 3.53 0.00 90.68 64.58 68.60 1.00 28.30 1.84 174.48
22:00 - 23:00 1023.43 5.83 0.00 84.37 55.23 67.58 1.00 27.28 1.12 196.75
23:00 - 24:00 825.02 2.07 0.00 57.37 43.47 75.05 1.00 26.27 0.98 195.52
00:00 - 01:00 758.88 2.00 0.00 61.55 48.05 81.27 1.00 25.48 1.06 188.27
01:00 - 02:00 753.38 2.00 0.00 64.97 44.58 85.28 1.07 25.00 0.66 175.23
02:00 - 03:00 746.98 2.00 0.00 59.60 53.10 89.05 1.00 24.93 0.62 187.70
03:00 - 04:00 702.57 2.00 0.00 61.78 48.17 90.77 1.00 24.53 0.30 195.73
04:00 - 05:00 709.47 2.00 0.00 63.35 53.00 91.97 2.40 24.62 0.32 199.98
05:00 - 06:00 748.42 2.00 0.02 70.95 54.65 92.28 8.83 24.05 0.54 224.88
06:00 - 07:00 825.25 2.23 0.06 78.33 56.90 91.87 10.05 24.55 0.65 201.70
07:00 - 08:00 1012.63 2.02 0.39 95.18 70.53 86.58 29.78 25.58 2.10 168.22
08:00 - 09:00 941.13 2.00 0.82 69.03 52.80 77.80 30.35 27.60 2.12 181.60
09:00 - 10:00 1911.88 2.00 1.51 17.18 20.23 61.77 172.82 30.63 2.92 224.20
10:00 - 11:00 2649.58 2.00 2.63 9.32 10.72 53.23 300.77 32.85 2.48 231.48
Avg 6703.22 25.00 0.34 58.54 44.05 63.73 89.34 30.39 2.21 191.36
Min 702.57 2.00 0.00 9.32 10.72 29.97 1.00 24.05 0.30 165.91
Max 61783.12 148.60 2.71 95.18 70.53 92.28 529.13 39.43 5.03 231.48
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

Appendix - 16
Day 5/
Time CO NO2 NO PM10 PM2.5 Humidity SO2 WS W Dir
TC
(ppb) (ppb) (ppm) (G/m3) (G/m3) % (ppb) pM(kph) (Deg)

Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg
11:00 - 12:00 3946.70 2.00 2.58 37.02 23.12 46.62 470.97 35.00 3.09 205.78
12:00 - 13:00 4770.90 2.74 3.24 51.85 30.18 40.85 423.11 36.38 3.94 188.93
13:00 - 14:00 5641.46 14.31 1.38 36.51 27.42 36.29 210.15 38.37 3.53 202.20
14:00 - 15:00 5782.07 62.97 0.21 23.47 14.47 32.17 302.60 39.67 3.38 211.38
15:00 - 16:00 5539.22 111.58 0.11 49.72 24.17 33.90 321.07 40.13 4.12 202.77
16:00 - 17:00 4261.50 141.32 0.00 68.35 37.87 36.20 85.60 39.40 3.93 190.67
17:00 - 18:00 3350.77 107.67 0.00 105.95 73.40 51.10 1.00 34.88 5.65 164.72
18:00 - 19:00 2000.48 45.45 0.00 70.35 51.88 60.43 1.00 30.82 4.13 161.22
19:00 - 20:00 1610.15 7.22 0.00 48.93 42.70 66.10 1.00 29.98 4.91 170.00
20:00 - 21:00 1849.53 2.28 0.00 64.05 50.40 66.37 1.00 29.23 3.81 170.27
21:00 - 22:00 1370.32 2.00 0.00 53.65 38.63 72.03 1.00 28.25 1.86 189.92
22:00 - 23:00 1001.15 2.00 0.00 49.18 32.22 75.85 1.35 27.32 1.65 184.83
23:00 - 24:00 888.82 2.00 0.00 41.93 34.98 80.13 1.12 26.57 1.27 208.03
00:00 - 01:00 727.23 2.00 0.00 32.18 28.27 83.93 1.00 26.00 1.09 240.23
01:00 - 02:00 750.15 2.00 0.00 41.97 34.20 86.25 2.15 25.98 1.02 191.93
02:00 - 03:00 740.33 2.00 0.00 49.77 40.22 86.58 1.35 25.55 1.43 171.35
03:00 - 04:00 721.82 2.00 0.00 56.67 46.28 87.60 1.42 25.45 1.16 173.22
04:00 - 05:00 765.87 2.00 0.00 65.38 52.93 88.02 1.32 25.07 0.71 171.18
05:00 - 06:00 950.23 2.00 0.02 92.52 72.13 89.00 18.33 25.00 0.65 166.78
06:00 - 07:00 1027.32 2.00 0.21 122.43 101.35 89.43 27.32 25.02 1.20 167.15
07:00 - 08:00 1117.98 2.13 0.52 105.85 88.70 86.13 24.38 25.92 2.17 167.78
08:00 - 09:00 1150.26 2.00 1.36 68.90 58.23 78.66 60.10 28.03 1.82 203.05
09:00 - 10:00 1651.81 2.00 2.15 23.00 16.46 66.27 158.24 30.78 2.73 216.49
10:00 - 11:00 2710.87 3.78 1.45 22.23 20.55 56.48 276.68 32.52 3.17 256.90
Avg 2263.62 21.98 0.55 57.58 43.36 66.52 99.72 30.47 2.60 190.70
Min 721.82 2.00 0.00 22.23 14.47 32.17 1.00 25.00 0.65 161.22
Max 5782.07 141.32 3.24 122.43 101.35 89.43 470.97 40.13 5.65 256.90
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

Appendix - 17
Day 6/
Time CO NO2 NO PM10 PM2.5 Humidity SO2 WS W Dir
TC
(ppb) (ppb) (ppm) (G/m3) (G/m3) % (ppb) pM(kph) (Deg)

Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg
11:00 - 12:00 3139.23 2.20 2.59 36.00 33.18 53.13 491.13 33.20 3.73 296.43
12:00 - 13:00 4202.30 2.35 3.06 52.60 42.80 47.87 252.48 33.93 4.43 310.97
13:00 - 14:00 4206.10 8.87 3.19 30.82 19.28 46.58 107.27 35.43 3.71 299.97
14:00 - 15:00 4358.40 49.27 2.26 30.88 20.58 41.53 148.97 38.00 2.74 238.18
15:00 - 16:00 4471.00 81.62 0.01 61.42 35.25 36.50 458.10 39.02 3.23 198.25
16:00 - 17:00 3818.50 120.17 0.00 96.35 56.92 38.52 44.37 38.20 2.77 204.85
17:00 - 18:00 3184.27 142.50 0.00 96.22 69.78 43.30 1.00 35.82 2.15 175.30
18:00 - 19:00 2328.50 84.85 0.00 92.10 74.13 52.05 1.00 33.10 1.96 175.92
19:00 - 20:00 1753.38 18.63 0.00 60.37 44.18 68.40 1.00 30.55 3.33 169.67
20:00 - 21:00 1244.62 2.17 0.00 63.35 54.52 74.07 1.00 29.35 2.45 173.88
21:00 - 22:00 1470.15 2.27 0.00 106.67 91.92 72.47 1.00 28.28 0.83 190.88
22:00 - 23:00 1184.33 2.00 0.00 91.78 71.23 74.88 1.12 27.43 0.89 194.30
23:00 - 24:00 939.70 2.00 0.00 79.20 57.25 80.88 1.18 26.47 1.14 203.15
00:00 - 01:00 851.90 2.00 0.00 49.03 46.08 85.50 1.00 26.00 1.70 188.88
01:00 - 02:00 804.37 2.00 0.00 51.35 42.98 87.00 1.00 26.00 1.12 212.92
02:00 - 03:00 783.18 2.00 0.00 50.72 41.43 87.22 1.55 26.00 0.75 179.08
03:00 - 04:00 755.37 2.00 0.00 51.93 43.95 88.23 1.42 25.97 0.62 168.48
04:00 - 05:00 713.15 2.00 0.00 64.95 52.10 89.22 1.80 25.07 1.35 174.80
05:00 - 06:00 803.97 2.00 0.00 83.80 62.67 90.33 16.52 25.03 1.13 167.73
06:00 - 07:00 1116.08 2.00 0.01 109.55 85.28 88.95 35.50 25.45 0.60 175.62
07:00 - 08:00 1062.03 2.00 0.17 94.58 73.65 86.28 34.42 26.22 2.31 171.55
08:00 - 09:00 1089.57 2.00 0.58 49.13 37.40 78.13 45.55 28.00 2.15 204.62
09:00 - 10:00 1641.83 2.77 1.29 23.72 23.28 67.25 125.68 30.30 3.68 246.58
10:00 - 11:00 2395.07 2.00 2.19 30.07 24.17 58.62 242.48 32.15 3.65 280.98
Avg 2013.21 22.57 0.64 64.86 50.17 68.20 84.02 30.21 2.18 208.46
Min 713.15 2.00 0.00 23.72 19.28 36.50 1.00 25.03 0.60 167.73
Max 4471.00 142.50 3.19 109.55 91.92 90.33 491.13 39.02 4.43 310.97
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

Appendix - 18
Day 7/ CO NO2 NO PM10 PM2.5 Humidity SO2 WS W Dir
TC
Time (ppb) (ppb) (ppm) (G/m3) (G/m3) % (ppb) pM(kph) (Deg)

Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg
11:00 - 12:00 3576.68 2.30 2.35 33.65 33.20 54.20 431.85 33.43 3.45 274.90
12:00 - 13:00 4148.10 2.02 3.08 31.62 27.70 47.40 392.50 35.33 3.65 252.78
13:00 - 14:00 4179.43 28.43 3.38 45.80 27.40 42.87 244.23 37.82 3.53 242.73
14:00 - 15:00 5866.67 63.78 0.88 51.08 32.72 39.30 433.65 39.42 3.89 210.62
15:00 - 16:00 5874.37 112.42 0.00 64.83 36.55 38.12 287.33 40.28 3.97 188.73
16:00 - 17:00 4749.82 155.83 0.00 86.82 54.38 40.87 57.48 38.98 2.62 197.27
17:00 - 18:00 2836.67 145.98 0.00 100.33 70.65 47.08 1.00 36.42 3.14 177.32
18:00 - 19:00 1989.32 84.45 0.00 94.52 67.25 61.15 1.00 32.63 3.83 169.07
19:00 - 20:00 1603.22 19.32 0.00 79.80 59.03 70.48 1.00 30.45 3.62 169.20
20:00 - 21:00 1491.07 7.38 0.00 74.73 60.37 71.60 1.00 29.67 2.03 175.00
21:00 - 22:00 1165.13 6.23 0.00 93.32 71.43 68.85 1.00 28.73 1.32 189.50
22:00 - 23:00 977.27 2.33 0.00 72.03 56.18 74.15 1.00 27.62 0.83 188.32
23:00 - 24:00 741.87 2.00 0.00 62.50 50.00 78.72 1.00 27.00 0.91 176.58
00:00 - 01:00 743.87 2.00 0.00 57.82 44.40 80.08 1.00 26.97 0.92 168.45
01:00 - 02:00 717.93 2.00 0.00 64.68 50.08 83.18 1.75 26.02 1.92 170.17
02:00 - 03:00 743.87 2.00 0.00 57.82 44.40 80.08 1.00 26.97 0.92 168.45
03:00 - 04:00 740.05 2.00 0.00 68.73 58.15 85.85 1.08 26.00 1.89 174.57
04:00 - 05:00 735.02 2.00 0.00 77.88 63.97 87.55 2.02 25.92 1.49 180.10
05:00 - 06:00 775.93 2.00 0.00 112.30 89.30 89.28 5.55 25.90 0.87 181.93
06:00 - 07:00 858.70 2.00 0.00 109.07 85.53 89.57 18.83 26.00 1.18 185.25
07:00 - 08:00 1174.27 2.00 0.10 120.78 87.03 86.92 11.70 26.37 0.86 194.20
08:00 - 09:00 1069.35 2.08 0.19 82.57 66.40 77.37 48.37 28.33 1.58 172.55
09:00 - 10:00 1354.08 2.00 0.47 44.42 37.27 68.50 100.25 30.40 1.47 162.63
10:00 - 11:00 2207.18 5.58 1.45 32.43 24.23 59.15 175.23 33.32 2.05 179.82
Avg 2096.66 27.42 0.50 71.65 54.07 67.60 92.53 30.83 2.16 189.59
Min 717.93 2.00 0.00 31.62 24.23 38.12 1.00 25.90 0.83 162.63
Max 5874.37 155.83 3.38 120.78 89.30 89.57 433.65 40.28 3.97 274.90
Source: E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.

Appendix - 19
A2.2 Analysis Result of Water Quality Survey

Appendix - 20
Appendix - 21
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Appendix - 30
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Appendix - 68
Appendix - 69
Appendix - 70
Appendix - 71
Appendix - 72
Appendix - 73
A2.3 Analysis Result of Soil Quality Survey

Appendix - 74
Appendix - 75
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Appendix - 86
Appendix - 87
A2.4 Noise and Vibration Survey
(1) Objective of the measure for Noise and Vibration
This is to obtain the noise and vibration level data along the YCR due to the train that are presently
running along the YCR.

(2) Selection Criteria for selecting survey sites


The sites to be measured for noise and vibration were selected according to the following criteria;
1. enough wide open space.
2. not too close to the bridge
3. not close to the road with heavy traffic
4. not close to many residential houses to avoid confusion of residents
5. avoid the place where the trains speed might change; near to the station and signal
6. possible place in MRs area.
7. one site between Yangon Central Station and Da Nyin Gone Station to represent the
western section o YCR Line.
8. one site between Da Nyin Gone Station and Mingalardone station to represent the rural
area in the north of YCR Line.
9. one site between Mingalardone station and Yangon Central Station o represent the eastern
section o YCR Line.

(3) Calculation Procedure


1) Noise
In the survey, A-weighted Sound Level, which describes a receiver's noise at any moment in time
is recorded. In the event that a train passes, a Sound Exposure Level (SEL or LAE), which describes
a receivers cumulative noise exposure from a single noise event is derived from the integration
of sound noise level. The LAE value contains the same amount of acoustic energy over a
normalised 1-second period as the actual noise event under consideration as shown in Figure 5.

Sources: environmental noise; Brel & Kjr Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S;, Environmental Noise, pg
62; http://www.bksv.com/doc/environmentalnoisebooklet_english.pdf

Figure A2.1 Sound Exposure Level

Appendix - 88
In this survey, LAE values were obtained for all passing passenger trains of YCR in the survey
period. At the same time, a type of the train (type1 type5) based on the categorization described
in Table below and passing direction were recorded.

Table A2.1 Categorization Criteria of Train Type for YCR Railway Noise
Measurement
No. Item Category 1 Category2 Explanation
1 Diesel train Locomotive Large loco The first car has six wheels

2 Small loco The first car has four wheels

3i DMU (Diesel Multiple Unit) With


engines at
several
cars

4v With the
engines at
front car
and last
car

5 RBE Only 2 cars


(Railbus)

Source: JICA Study Team

Appendix - 89
Here, LAeq(T) is a widely used noise parameter that calculates a constant level of noise with the
same energy content as the varying acoustic noise signal being measured (see Figure 6). The letter
A denotes that the A-weighting has been included and eq indicates that an equivalent level
has been calculated. Hence, LAeq is the A-weighted-equivalent continuous noise level.

Sources: Brel & Kjr Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S, Environmental Noise, pg 62;
http://www.bksv.com/doc/environmentalnoisebooklet_english.pdf)

Figure A2.2 A-weighted-equivalent Continuous Noise Level

To assess the noise level associated with the total train pass-bys at each location, LAeq(T) equivalent
sound level targeting on railway noise level during each of the relevant time periods are calculated
by the following equation using the measured train data and individual measured LAE.

n
1 LAE,i
10
LAeq,T = 10log10 ( 10 )
T
i=1
n = total number of train,
LAE, i = sound exposure level of the i th train,
T = total time of target period of LAeq (54,000 for daytime (7am 10pm) or 32,400 for
nighttime (10pm 7am))

2) Vibration
In the same way as for railway noise measurement, Vibration Exposure Level for z-direction was
obtained from each event of train passing and the railway vibration was evaluated based on
powerlevel-averaged vibration exposure level for each train type.

(4) Evaluation for Noise Measurement Result


1) Myanmar Guidelines for Noise
According to National Environmental Quality (Emission) Guidelines that has been prescribed by
Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry in 29th of December, 2015, under Chapter1
(General Provision), Section. 1, sub-section 1.3 mentioned the following requirement for noise
levels;
1.3 Noise Levels
Noise prevention and mitigation measures should be taken by all projects where predicted
or measured noise impacts from a project facility or operation exceed the applicable noise

Appendix - 90
level guideline at the most sensitive point of reception. Noise impacts should not exceed
the levels shown below, or result in a maximum increase in background levels of three
decibels at the nearest receptor location off-site.

It is noted that National Environmental Quality (Emission) Guidelines does not mention a
guideline value to be specified for railway noise.

2) Japanese Guidelines for Railway Noise


According to Environmental Quality Guidelines for Conventional Railway Noise (Ministry of the
Environment, Japan, 1995), the noise level guideline is specified as follows;

In the event of a new construction or large scale modification of general railway, the
following noise levels shall be achieved at 1.2m above the ground in the open air along the
railway line and at a position12.5m away in horizontal distance from the center line of the
near side track.

(1) For a new construction, the equivalent noise level shall be 60 decibels or less in daytime
(7:00 22:00) and 55 decibels or less in night time (22:00 07:00 on the following day).

(2) For a large-scale modification, the noise level shall be improved compared with the
level prior to the modification.

3) Comparison with the Guidelines.


The noise impact on receptors which generally means residents along the railway track depends
on the single exposure level and frequency of passing train. In this survey, the sound exposure
level (LAE) was ranged from 80.4 dB to 91.8 dB and LAmax was ranged from 70.0 dB to 84.0 dB at
12.5 m distance from the center of nearest railway track. Since much more trains passed through
WEST-A-1 and EAST-B-1 than passing trains through EAST-A-1 in daytime period, the obtained
equivalent noise level (LAeq) at 12.5m distance of WEST-A-1 and EAST-B-1 showed the higher
sound level (around 58 dB) compared with EAST-A-1(53.3 dB). On the other hand, WEST-A-1
in nighttime period recorded the comparatively higher level of LAeq (57.3 dB at 12.5 m) than the
levels of EAST-A-1 and EAST-B-1 (around 5051 dB at 12.5m) due to the difference of train
frequency at nighttime.
These equivalent noise values indicate only the impact from the railway noise and do not include
the background noise level when trains do not pass. Therefore they are not compared with the
noise levels specified in National Environmental Quality (Emission) Guidelines.

Appendix - 91
Being compared with Japanese Guidelines for a new contraction of general railway as a reference,
the LAeq only at WEST-A-1 in nighttime (57.3 dB at 12.5 m) exceeds the Japanese Guideline
values (55 dB), which implies the increased number of train operation might cause a certain level
of impact on the receptors. However, referring to the Japanese Guidelines for a large-scale
modification, it says that the noise level should be improved compared with the level prior to the
modification. Thus the noise impact to be caused by YCR upgrading project should be evaluated
in comparison to these noise levels recorded in this survey as a baseline data.

(5) Evaluation for Vibration Measurement Result


In this survey, the vibration exposure level in z-direction was ranged from 52.8 dB to 67.0 dB at
12.5 m distance from the center of nearest railway track. It is considered that level of ground
vibration for single event of passing train at EAST-B-1 was comparatively higher than the level
at the other points because of softness of ground.
There are no guidelines for vibration regulated by National Environmental Quality (Emission)
Guidelines and no railway-specific vibration guidelines in Japan. The vibration level in this survey
will be referred as a baseline data in pre-construction stage and used for comparison in the
construction and/or operation stage.

(6) Photos
The survey photos are shown below.

Appendix - 92
West A-1(12.5m) West A-1 (23m)

EAST-A-1 (close to 12.5 m) EAST-A-1 (25 m)

EAST-B-1(12.5 m) EAST-B-1 (25 m)


Source: JICA Study Team

Figure A2.3 Noise and Vibration Measurement

Appendix - 93
APPENDIX 3 RECORDS STAKEHOLDER MEETINGS
A3.1 Record of 1st Stakeholder Meeting for the Western Section
(1) Outline of 1st Stakeholder Meeting for the Western Section
The 1st Stakeholder Meeting was held in the early planning stage targeting on the western section
of YCR Line as described below.
Table A3.1 Outline of 1st Stakeholder Meeting
Project Name Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project
Agenda Opening Remarks by U Aung Khin, Minister, Ministry of Transport and
communication, Yangon Region Government
Presentation on Project Procedures, by U Tun Aung Thin, General Manager (Lower
Myanmar), Myanma Railway, Ministry of Rail Transportation
Presentation on Environmental and Social Considerations in Yangon Circular
Railway Line Upgrading Project, by U Aye Thiha, Managing Director of E Guard
Environmental Services Co., Ltd.
Tea Break
Question and Answer Session
Closing Remarks by Mr. Tun Aung Thin, General Manager, Myanma Railway
Date August 7, Thursday 2014
Time 13:00 pm to 16:00 pm
Venue Ruby Hall-Asia Plaza Hotel, Yangon
Attendees 11 Local Interested Persons
66 reporters (News Media)
13 Politicians (Members of Yangon Regional Parliament and others)
29 Staffs from Government Departments and other Organization
1 Person from NGOs
5 Persons from JICA Study Team
7 Persons from E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.
Materials Provided Agenda
Power-point Presentation Document on Project Procedures
Power-point Presentation Document on Environmental and Social Considerations

Photo A3.1 First Stakeholder Meeting


(2) Questions and Answers
After the presentations, many reporters and interested persons asked questions, made suggestions and
comments. U Tun Aung Thin, General Manager (Lower Myanmar), Myanma Railway, Ministry of Rail
Transportation, responded all the questions, comments and suggestions, as follow.
a) Questions and Answers with NGOs
Daw Aung See Zar (Myanmar Architectures Association)

Appendix - 94
-Question: Do you consider for the sake of Disables?
-Answer: Yes, we do consider for them. As a culture of Myanmar People, the disables can easily
get the supports from every Station Master and the Duty Officers. This is a good
question and we accept the support for the Disables in the Staion and in their trip
should be considered with great care. Thank you so much for your discussion.

b) Questions and Answers with Members of Parliaments


Daw Kyi Kyi Mar (Member of Parliament, Yangon Region)
-Question: I would like to know about the multi-sectoral recruitment of this Upgrading Project.
-Answer: There will involve most of the regional level seniors and the Members of Regional
Parliament as well. I cannot say the exact number of the members at the time being.

U Tun Lwin (Member of Parliament, Yangon Region)


-Question: Can we do this project with our own budget and domestic construction technologies,
instead of getting foreign assistance?
-Answer: In this case, the main thing is Technology, I think. We still need modern technologies,
such as surveying instruments, human resources, etc. Fro example, we have to hire
the aircraft for the flight survey. Our budget is limited and foreign agencies such as
JICA are very supportive in such cases.

Dr. Saw Hla Tun (Member of Parliament, Yangon Region)


-Question: Can this YCR Upgarding Project be sustainable and long run?
-Answer: Yes, we had already planned for sustainability. We will explain more detailed
structure designs in next stakeholders meetings.
-Question: Do you have plans for easy and cheap transportation to get access to Yangon Central
Railway Staion?
-Answer: Yes, we have. We are now developing a transportation network focusing the Yangon
Central Railway Station as the center point.

-Suggestion Point: One suggestion I would like to make is that we should be self-reliant in
developing projects as much as we can.

U Thaung Sein (Member of Parliament, Yangon Region, Dawbon Township)


-Suggestion Point: I would like to suggest to implement project activities with the least
socialnegative impacts.

c) Questions and Answers with Government Staffs/Officers


U Myo Lwin (Director, Environmental Conservation Department, Yangon Region)
- Discussion Point: Environmental Conservation Departments (ECDs) had been running their
responsibilities in Yangon Region, Sagaing Region, Mandalay Region, Pegu
Region and Taninthari Region, since 2012. In Myanmar, for all development
projects, it should take environmental and social considerations in accordance
with the existing environmental law, rules and regulations which had been
enacted by the government of the country. For this YCR Upgrading Project,
environmental impact assessment will be done, and ECD will provide advices
and supports to mitigate negative impacts as much as possible, according to
the environmental management and morning plans.

-Question: Is the project of the Yangon Central Railway Station to move to Ywathar Gyi on-
going or not? I made this question on behalf of the public, not by a Government
Officer.
-Answer: Yes, it is an on-going project. Now we are in a stage of land acquisition. We made a
request to the Yangon Region Government, to get some additional area. That project
will include factories, housing, primary schools, clinics, playgrounds and even the
religion buildings.

Appendix - 95
d) Questions and Answers with News Media
A Reporter
-Question: When will you start the circular railway line upgrading project?
-Answer: Firstly, we must do the required infrastructure for circular railway. We will do the
field surveys and taking aerial photos. And then we will make considerations on
budget and detailed implementation designs. So, we will start the project
implementation activities in 2015.

-Question: During the project implementation, do you see the disturbances for daily rail
transportation services? Do you have preparations for that case?
-Answer: There will be no disturbance. We will implement the project step by step.

-Question: Do you have a compensation plan for affected structures and land in upgrading
project?
-Answer: If the land is owned by Myanma Railway, we will resettle them in another place. For
the other lands and structures, we will make the process for compensation step by
step. Thats why we are now doing the assessments such as IEE and EIA to reduce
the environmental and social impacts.

-Question: How do you think about the negative impacts of high buildings if the trains will be
speeded up after the project?
-Answer: We have a wide range of 75 feet on each side of the railway line to protect from
danger. In order to avoid accidents and protect the life of people, those are very
important. That will be included in our considerations.

U Myo Min Oo (Democratic Voice of Burma)


-Question: How about budgets used in this project?
-Answer: We will use the budget that will be supported by JICA and the estimated amount of
the Budget will depend also on the survey results.

A Reporter (Public Journal)


-Question: What is the other supports of JICA other than technology and budget?
-Answer: JICA also supports mechanically as in modern machines, etc.

U Win Oo (Ayeyarwaddy Journal)


-Question: Some buildings are known to exist within those 75 feet and it is very dangerous. So
what is your plan for those buildings?
-Answer: Normally circular railway doesnt have too much vibration because of its lower speed.
We need to investigate the strength of those buildings if necessary. On the other hand,
I hope that new railway technology will reduce the vibration rate. We will conduct a
comprehensive survey to get the information about the religious buildings, cultural
heritages, government buildings, etc. So survey results will indicate how to minimize
such impacts of vibration.

-Question: Do you have any plan to expand the rail line up to more than 75 feet, because of the
high speed of the trains?
-Answer: That depends on how fast we need to drive the trains. Next time the technicians will
also explain about this question.

U Kyaw Ohm Lwin (The Voice)


-Question: Due to the news of compensation to project affected people, there might be an
increase of people along the railway. So, how about the management for that?

Appendix - 96
-Answer: We will take actions on those cases. Thats why, we are now holding such
Stakeholders meetings to give clear messages about the project activities.

-Question: Although Government had prohibited such encroachments in the past, it did not work
properly, I think. How do you think about it?
-Answer: We had already taken actions on those cases. They are now facing in the courts. They
will have to follow the decision of the courts.

U Wai Phyo (Eleven Media)


-Question: Can you explain a little about upgrading the Yangon Central Railway Station?
-Answer: We will start the project very soon. Some national companies and especially many
international companies are interested in this project.

La Pyi Wun (Mizzima News)


-Question: How do you manage the flood and land subsidence problems before you start this
YCR upgrading project? Do you know which part of the rail line is now flooded?
-Answer: The root cause of the problems is the Climate Change. We will definitely need to
strength the bed of the rail line and concrete sleepers. The whole round upgrading will
cost a lot. We spent US Dollar 2.7 million for this issue ten years ago. Now we will
upgrade the Rail Line again, with modern technologies. For the flood and subsidence,
I heard that a case of land subsidence due to the flood happened in Hlaing Tharyar a
few days ago.

U Moe Win (Reporter)


-Question: Will the survey include the whole round of the Yangon Circular Railway?
-Answer: We will conduct the surveys as, sector by sector, phase by phase. We have done
enough on the development plans. Now we are working on budget estimation and
others together with Yangon Region Government and the YCDC.

-Question: Which kinds of train will you select?


-Answer: We are trying to change from Diesel Engine Trains to Electrical Power Trains. There
will include air-conditioned carriages. We are also considering on other alternatives.

Daw Saw Myat


-Question: In future, will the electrical shortages have the impacts on smoothness of the Rail
Transprotation? Do you also have plans to cooperate with the Ministry of Electrical
Power?
-Answer: That is a good point. It is really important to get full Electrical Power in Rail
Transportation. Yes, we are cooperating with the Ministry of Electrical Power.
Moreover, we hope some technological solutions such as modified electricity storage
systems, etc.

Ei Mon Zar (7 Day (Daily))


-Question: Are there cancellations of the rail transportation services for long days, due to the
Flood on the rail track?
-Answer: The trains cannot go forward if the water level is more than six inches above the rail
line. The train can be driven on if it is under six inches in flood. Normally the
cancellations are not for long days, it usually takes from a few hours within the day.

U Soe Moe Aung (Sky Space)


-Question: Do you have the plan to relocate the staff housings of the Thein Phyu Kwin? If so,
how are you planning for their convenience?
-Answer: As a rule, the housing of MRs staff must be near to their workplace for easy
accessibility. We have already selected the alternative site for them. We will also
develop clinics, primary schools and other widespread considerations for them.

Appendix - 97
A3.2 Record of 2nd Stakeholder Meeting for the Western Section
(1) Outline of 2nd Stakeholder Meeting
The 2nd Stakeholder Meeting was held to disclose the Project Plan and draft result of IEE Study
for the western section of YCR Line as summarized in Table A1.2.
Table A3.2 Outline of the Second Stakeholder Meeting
Project Name Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project
Agenda Opening Remarks by U Tun Aung Thin, General Manager (Lower Myanmar),
Myanma Railways, Ministry of Railways Transportation
Presentation on Project Plan, by U Tun Aung Thin, General Manager (Lower
Myanmar), Myanma Railways, Ministry of Railways Transportation
Presentation on Environmental and Social Considerations in Yangon Circular
Railway Line Upgrading Project, by U Aye Thiha, Managing Director of E Guard
Environmental Services Co., Ltd.
Tea Break
Question and Answer Session
Closing Remarks by U Tun Aung Thin, General Manager (Lower Myanmar),
Myanma Railways, Ministry of Railways Transportation
Date September 23rd, Tuesday 2014
Time 13:00 pm to 16:00 pm
Venue Yuzana Garden Hotel, Yangon
Attendees 65 Project Affected Persons (PAPs)
56 Reporters (News Media)
28 Staffs from Government Departments and other Organizations
7 Personnel from NGOs and Private Companies
7 Personnel from JICA Study Team
13 Personnel from E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.
Total Participants (176)
Materials Provided Agenda
Power-point Presentation Document on Project Plan
Power-point Presentation Document on Environmental and Social Considerations
Prepared by U Ye Wint Aung (E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd)

Photo A3.2 Second Stakeholder Meeting


(2) Questions and Answers
U Than Aung (PAP from Parami ROB)
-Question: I am from a betel shop under the Parami ROB. If the project has impacts on our shops,
how will you help or support us?

Appendix - 98
-Answer: We have plans to make further identifications to get more detailed information about
the shops under Parami ROB. Then we will consider how to mitigate the impacts on
these shops. At least we will try to help your business to be functioning. But if the
project implementation works would have been started, you might be necessary to
stay away from the construction site temporarily. For such cases, we will discuss
closely with you. Especially we are responsible to help you as much as possible: so
meanwhile you can carry on your businesses comfortably.

Daw Tin Oo, (PAP near Thirimyaing Station)


-Question: I am a flower-seller from Gaw Thazin Market, Quarter (5), Hlaing Township. I was
not included in the PAP list because I was absent on the survey day as I normally
went to the monastery on a Sabbath day. Not only me but other four shop keepers are
also not included in the list.
-Answer: OK, don't worry about that. We will do further identifications. For those further
identifications, we will get the recommendations from general administration
department from your quarter. During that time, you need to be really there, so that
you will not be left out from the list. Be relaxed.

Daw, (PAP between Hledan Station and Kamayut Station)


-Question: My fried-beans shop, named as Maw Kyun, is between Kamayut Station and Hledon
Station. Behind my shop is a water spinach farm (Morning Glory vegetables). How
and where would I have to move my shop? I already have the MIC certificate for my
shop.
-Answer: We will continue according to our plan whether you have MIC certificate or not.
However, we will do the screening for each and every shop. I assume that you might
need to change the type of your business. If the development activities are
implemented, we need to consider how to adapt with the situation. I believe we will
have many discussions on that case in future. If you have to move now, have you
already looked for an alternative place? I hope you have enough time to think about
it. If possible, you should try to do a better business than the present one. For the time
being you can still to put your signboard of Maw Kyun Fried Beans.

U,(PAP from Sule Road ROB)


-Question: I am from a snack shop near Sule ROB. I would like to know about your
considerations for our shops. There are about six shops in our place.
-Answer: Yes, this is the preparatory stage. You are listed in this survey. If the construction
activities are implemented, you need to move over to a safe area. As we explained in
the presentation, we have two categories: permanent relocation and temporary
relocation. Some PAPs will need temporary relocation and some will need permanent
relocation.

U Kyaw Myo Tun (PAP between Lanmataw Station and Pyay Lan Station)
-Question: I am the one near Lanmataw Station. As we are counted for permanent relocation,
how will you consider assisting our livelihood?
-Answer: Our considerations on temporary and permanent will be different. We will identify
all the PAPs for the next time before the commencement of the Project
Implementation, and will discuss one by one. We will report the situation to the
Regional Government and the Ministry of Railways Transportation. And we will
follow the best option for you.

U, (PAP from Hantharwady ROB)


-Question: I am from the junction of Baho Road and Hantharwady Road. We are far away from
the rail track, but if the ROB is reconstructed, is there any impact on us?

Appendix - 99
-Answer: Yes, if the project implementations have been started, some areas need to be secured
for construction sites. If so, the shops in this secured area need to be removed
temporarily. But we will try to avoid such cases as much as possible. If engineering
design has come out, we can say exactly about it.
b) Medias Perspectives

U Myint Thein (The First Weekly Media Group)


-Question(1): According to my understanding, there are a lot of structures in the right of way along
the rail line. Some structures are granted by YCDC. I would like to know your plans
to relocate those structures.
- Question(2): Another question is what about the progress on discussion and negotiation with the
affected persons.
-Answer: Thank you for your questions. Firstly, I will explain for questions 1 and 2. We have
to do the feasibility study before we conduct any development project. In that case
we need to check which area is legally owned by Myanma Railways because in some
sections MR right of way is very narrow and small (just 25 feet from the rail line),
according to the block maps and blueprints of the station yards. So we need to do
screening based on that data, and we also need the budget to carry out these activities.
Anyway, we must remove those structures according to the existing laws. By getting
the instructions and guidelines from Yangon Region Government and Ministry of
Railways Transportation and in accordance with the descriptions in the Laws, we
will have to make relocation plans and give compensations, if necessary.
-Question(3): I found some wastewater in the creek and a lot of wastes generated by nearby
structures along the circular rail track. I would like to know how you, Myanma
Railways and YCDC are preparing to handle this environmental pollution.
-Answer: It mainly depends on budget. We are always trying to get enough budget to solve
this problem. But we need the public participation in cleaning these solid wastes. It
is very difficult to clear those wastes along the rail line, because some people
generate their wastes repeatedly although MR and YCDC try to remove those wastes
within the limited budget (e.g., 5,000,000 MMK per month, on contractual basis).
So I hereby request not to release your solid wastes and other liquid waste to the rail
track. We don't have big budget and so we need your assurance and we appreciate
your participation in making clean environment along the rail track.

In some cases we need to buy some machines that must be paid in US Dollar. Some
project like ODA loan and EDCF (Korea Rail cars) are the soft loans for us. Even
for this Danyinkone-Yangon-Mahlwakone development project, we estimate USD
700 million. We will buy all new things for development in public transportation.
This project will start in 2015. In this upgrading project, it will include programs for
wastewater management, canals and good drainage systems. I really thank you for
your questions.

A Reporter
-Question: If the project is implemented, what considerations do you have for the vendors in the
stations and the homeless people along the rail track?
-Answer: Regarding the vendors, we have sympathy for them; we want to see the improvement
of their livelihood. But if possible, MR does not want them selling in the stations. We
want to see them selling in better places than in the stations. We will cooperate with
YCDC for their resettlement. But it is not the time to say exactly about the plan.

Appendix - 100
For the homeless, we will do the detailed surveys on that. Before we start any project,
we need to find out the reason why they are in homeless situation, their background
that says where they are from, etc. So let us do the detailed survey first. Then we will
consider for them in cooperation with Wards and Townships GADs.

Ei Ei Aung (Reporter, 5 Plus Channedl)


-Question: According to my understanding, this project is a long term project and will start in
2015. If so, I would like to know what time you expect this project will finish.
-Answer: Now, we are in a feasibility stage. If it is really feasible, we will start in 2015. That
depends mainly on budget and the logistic process of the improted machines as well.
And the resettlement process is also important, because the project will be delayed if
the affected people do not cooperate in the resettlement works. The short term project
up to 2018, the middle term up to 2025, and the long term up to 2035 or 2045.

Daw Thet Tant (Reporter from Reporter Journal)


-Question: As you explained earlier, if the affected persons are assisted in line with JICA
standards, I would like to know what the standards will be. Can you give me some
examples? Do the PAPs have the right to complain the assistance or the negotiations?
-Answer: Regarding the standards, every country has its own standards for these case. We will
conduct in line with JICA standards, but it does not mean we have to neglect our own
regulations and existing laws in our country. If a person or household or any asset is
found to be really affected by the project, we (the project owner, respective GAD
members, valuation committee members) will cooperate to make compensation for
the PAP, based on the local current market price of the lost assets. This procedure will
go to every PAP or affected household, one by one. But the core value of the process
is transparency, and its ultimate goal is to make the affected persons satisfied enough,
according to the existing laws, regulations and guidelines or instructions.

(Note: U Aye Thiha, MD of E Guard) added that the resettlement process is aimed to
reach a win-win situation in negotiation with each individual PAP by MR and YCDC
and other relating departments.)

U Kyal Sin Lin (Reporter, Myitmakha Media)


-Question: As you know, there are a lot of vendors around Danyinkone Station. So how do you
think about them and do you have enough considerations for them? And how is your
plan to resettle them in a better situation?
-Answer: Yes, you can see many vendors on the platform of the Station. We want them to stay
away from the station and sell their goods in a seperate market place. YCDC has their
own plan to develop a wholesale maket for those vendors near the existing
Danyinkone market. Then I hope they can sell their goods much conviently in their
new maket place.

Daw Thet Tant (Reporter from Reporter Journal)


-Question: I have another question. Will the existing services remain during the upgrading
project for the West Section (Danyinkone-Yangon-Mahlwakone)? On which track
will the trains go during the project?
-Answer: Yes, the circular rail transport services will remain on the same track. We will upgrade
the rail tracks gradually (it means section by section), so our services will not change
even in the construction phase.

Appendix - 101
A3.3 Record of 1st Stakeholder Meeting for the Entire Section
(1) Outline of 1st Stakeholder Meeting for the entire section
The stakeholder meeting targeting on the entire section of YCR was held in May 2015 and
organized as the third round stakeholder meeting as a whole.
Table A3.3 Outline of the 1stStakeholder Meeting for the Entire Section of YCR Line
Project Name Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project
Agenda Opening Remarks by U Htun Aung Thin, General Manager (Lower Myanmar),
Myanma Railways, Ministry of Railways Transportation
Presentation on Project Brief, by U Htun Aung Thin, General Manager (Lower
Myanmar), Myanma Railways, Ministry of Railways Transportation
Presentation on Environmental and Social Considerations in Yangon Circular
Railway Line Upgrading Project, by U Tin Aung Moe, Director of E Guard
Environmental Services Co., Ltd.
Tea Break
Question and Answer Session
Closing Remarks by U Htun Aung Thin, General Manager (Lower Myanmar),
Myanma Railways, Ministry of Railways Transportation
Date May 12, Tuesday 2015
Time 13:00 pm to 16:00 pm
Venue Yuzana Garden Hotel, Yangon
Attendees 19- Local Interest People
62- Reporters ( Media)
16- Officials and Staffs from Government Departments
7- Members of Parliament, Yangon Region
6 -Personnel from JICA Study Team
10- Personnel from E Guard Environmental Services Co., Ltd.
Total Participants (120)
Materials Provided Agenda
Power-point Presentation Document on Project Brief
Power-point Presentation Document on Environmental and Social Considerations

Photo A3.3 1st Stakeholder Meeting for the Entire Section of YCR Line

(2) Questions and Answers


a) From Parliament Members
Dr. Saw Hla Htun (Member of Parliament, Yangon Region)
Discussion Point: This meeting that celebrates in third time about social and environmental
impact assessment is very transparent for all of stakeholders and project affected persons.

Appendix - 102
Moreover, the showing video well explained to know the expected upgrading program in coming
next 40 years.
Question: Firstly, I really want to know how will be the safety plan for public when the
project starts operation stage. In addition, I would like to give suggestion to provide public vehicles
which is easily accessible to railway stations in short time. By supporting like this, people will
prefer to use train than to other transportation services.
Answer: It is very important for public to understand about the operating system of
Myanmar railway. Regarding accidents along the railway track, it is not easy to mitigate
immediately. Sometimes, we, railway staffs have to always negotiate who live and passing in the
railway area the people in the railway area because they dont understand and care the operating
system and risks. It is crucial important for Railway staffs to be active and responsible on their job.
At the same time public also needs to understand well on Myanmar railways system and activities
and need to obey disciplines and policy as enacted law.
Question: I heard that Chinese Water Spanish (Kan-Zun) planting area along the YCR Line
area is one of citys food resources. Therefore, I want to know about the resettlement plan if there
is any affected area in those plantations.
Answer: Thanks for your suggestion. As you know, MR did not charge money to people
who are planting illegally in railway areas since years. And then, we have allowed them to carry
these goods and vegetables from one station to other by train. If there is any loss for those people,
we will consider necessary compensation for their livelihood restoration.

Dr. Saw Hla Htun (Member of Parliament, Yangon Region)


Question: I have some questions about the resettlement plans. It was explained that the
compensation policy will be done according to JICA Guidelines and Myanmar law. I am not sure
but JICAs disciplines and laws may suffer to people. It should be as Myanmar law.
Answer. JICAs Guidelines has been studied in detail. It is international practice and not
just intends for specific country. And it will surely be advantage for Myanmar People. If any
description in JICA Guidelines is not suitable to follow up, we will choose the best way to continue
the project as enacted Myanmar law.
Questions and Answers
U ZawLwin (MR Staff, North Okkalapa Township)
Question: Is there any plan to improve MR Staff Houses (Wooden House) while you are
trying to upgrade Yangon Circular Railway Line?
Answer: Yes, MR has plan to improve MR Housing including Clinic, School and Water
Supply.

U Win (Shop Keeper, Inn Sein Township)


Question: Since I was 20 years old, my livelihood has been shopkeeper in the Railway area.
I want to get appropriate compensation for my shop if it is affected by the project. And I want to
ask for construction of FOB to avoid accidents while the fence is built along the railway.
Answer: The project will implement not to affect adversely socio economic conditions of
local people as much as possible. And compensation will be considered to be in line with Myanmar
laws and International Guidelines.

U Kyaw Ko Latt (PAP, Baukhtaw Tamwe Station)

Appendix - 103
Question: There are a lot of plantation owners along the railway lines. But only my family
was invited to this meeting. I want to know the reason.
Answer: We conducted socio economic survey to households whose properties are within
2.5 m from the center of the railway track. So, PAPs who attended today meeting are those that
we interviewed during survey.

Daw Moe ZarEi (PAP, Kyauk Ye Dwin Tadagaly Station)


Question: I have understood about the project plan. What I want to know is when the project
will be implemented. And I would like to request to manage for flooded area along the Yangon
Circular Railway Line.
Answer: There are many stages that have to be done during project planning stage. Satellite
photo of the YCR Line has been recorded since last year August. It is also still required to conduct
feasibility before the project starts. If possible, it is expected to start by the end of this year. It is
vital important to cooperate by PAPs with us for smoothly implementation of the project.
Regarding flooding condition during rainy season, upgrading works such as wastewater discharge,
filling stone and garbage removal along the line will be done in this year.

c) From Media
U Moe Min (Reporter, 7 Days Journal)
Question: I would like to know 1) duration of the project and 2) how will illegal
encroachment in the project area be handled?
Answer: Duration of projects will be different according type of each project. For the next
question, Government cannot monitor illegal encroachments every time. If there is any
encroachment of illegal occupants, it is requested to inform to inform to relevant administrative
offices at once.
Daw Lay Lay Mon (DVB News)
Question: Regarding occurrence of accidents and mis-disciplines of people in the railway
area, I want to know whether it is due to Myanmar railway or public. In addition, I heard that
YCDC are doing some business activities in MR area. Is it business partnership between MR and
YCDC?
Answer: Train has to be operated in the designated track as rule. If someone across the
railway track or disturbs in any other way, train has to be stopped or slowed down. Consequently,
trains cannot be operated to be punctual. To say in brief, both sides have responsibility to prevent
accidents sand mis-disciplines. For next question, rather than separating MR owned land and
YCDC owned land, it is better to give understanding as Union Government property.

Appendix - 104
A3.4 Record of 2nd Stakeholder Meeting for the Entire Section
(1) Outline of 2nd Stakeholder Meeting for the Entire Section
The stakeholder meeting targeting on the entire section of YCR was held in July 2016 and
organized as the fourth round stakeholder meeting as a whole.
Table A3.4 Outline of the 2nd Stakeholder Meeting for the Entire Section of YCR Line
Project Name Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project
Agenda 1. Opening Remarks by U Tun Aung Thin, General Manager (Lower Myanmar),
Myanma Railways, Ministry of Railways Transportation
2. Presentation on Project Plan, by U Tun Aung Thin, General Manager (Lower
Myanmar), Myanma Railways, Ministry of Railways Transportation
3. Presentation on Environmental and Social Considerations in Yangon Circular
Railway Line Upgrading Project, by U Tin Aung Moe, Director of E Guard
Environmental Services Co., Ltd.
4. Tea Break
5. Question and Answer Session
6. Closing Remarks by U Tun Aung Thin, General Manager (Lower Myanmar),
Myanma Railways, Ministry of Railways Transportation
Date July 12th, Tuesday 2016
Time 13:00 pm to 15:30 pm
Venue Yuzana Garden Hotel, Yangon
Attendees 57 Local People
31 from Media
61 Staffs from Government Departments and other Organizations
5 from Private companies
4 from NGOs
3 from JICA Study Team
Total Participants (161)
Materials Provided Power-point Presentation Document on Project Plan in Myanmar
Power-point Presentation Document on Environmental and Social Considerations in
Myanmar

Photo A3.4 2nd Stakeholder Meeting for the Entire Section of YCR Line

(2) Minutes of Meeting including Questions and Answers


a) From Local People
U Than Tun, one of Project Affected Persons (Kyimyindaing)
Question: How will you manage and compensate for our losses that are affected by the project?

Appendix - 105
Answer by U Htun Aung Thin: We have surveyed and recorded all possible affected structures including
shops, houses, etc. Abbreviated Resettlement Plan (ARP) will be prepared and also submitted to Yangon
Region Government. Tentative relocation site is considered in Ywarthargyi. If PAPs do not satisfy that place,
we will manage the nearest location of existing place.

Daw Ei Ei Khin (Vendor, near Phayar Lan Station)


Question: How will you consider for vendors like us who are doing business activities near the Station?
Answer: If you are doing business activity in an illegal place where that place is not recognized by YCDC
or MR, we would not include them in any supporting or compensation program.

b) From NGO
U Wanna Kyaw Swar (Shwe Minn Thar Foundation, an NGO for the disabled persons)
Question: Is there any plan to make convenient for disable persons that are using the train?
Answer by U Htun Aung Thin: We have planned to make plane level for wheel-chair users to be able to take
the train without difficulty.

Daw Hninn Wutt Yi (Myanmar Center for Responsible Business (MCRB))


Question: First question is how to manage solid waste generated by construction workers and other
construction waste. Who will monitor the implementation of Environmental Management Plan (EMP)? I
would like to suggest that monitoring of EMP should be done by independent consultant or third party instead
of the project contractor. How do you manage for resettlement for PAPs?
Answer by U Htun Aung Thin: PAHs who are entitled for compensation, relocation and income restoration
program was identified and is being reviewed after socio-economic surveying. In addition, we will formulate
Project Management Units (PMUs) and all resettlement matters will be conducted by this committee. Detail
explanation will be described in ARP Report.
Answer by U Tin Aung Moe: Monitoring team independently will conduct monitoring activities for each
stage of the project. But, new legal framework of Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring works
has been newly established in Myanmar and there will be still some weak points in conducting environmental
assessment and monitoring works. Waste disposal plans for each stage of the project are described in EIA
Report.

c) From Government
U Khin Mg Win (Member of Yangon Region Parliament, Pazuntaung Township)
Question: I would like to know source of financial aid for the project, estimated amount of the aid and
implementation period of the project.
Answer by U Htun Aung Thin: MR will carry out necessary work using MRs budget on the civil and track
work, station platform, power supply, depot and workshop for installation of the new signaling system and
DEMUs. However, technical support will be provided from JICA in designing those elements. The targeted
year for the project implementation is 2017-2018.

Appendix - 106
U Than Naing Oo (Member of Yangon Region Parliament, Pabedan Township, Yangon Region
Government)
Question: In current situation, we have some difficulties to use train due to long distance from home to train
station and traffic congestion. Will you discuss with JICA for solving this problem, for example arranging
shuttle bus to Stations? Are there any specific guidelines or instructions for clearance of existing illegal
residents, and shops along the YCR Line?
Answer by U Htun Aung Thin: In the future, feeder lines will be arranged to reach the destination in a short
period. Regarding shops in MR land, they are doing these business activities with MIC permission. So every
plan of MR will be informed to Yangon Region Government.

U Khin Win (Member of Yangon Region Parliament, Kyimyindaing Township, Yangon Region
Government)
Question: Height of FOB near Kyee Myin Daing Station was raised for the reason of running electric
train and it makes very close to power transmission lines. Recently, an accident was occurred on that bridge
and cause of the death is suspected to be due to electric shock. This shows poor quality of the new FOBs
construction and I would like to ask how to rebuild the FOBs to get good quality.
Answer by U Htun Aung Thin: Yes, we increased the height of that FOB according to design requirements
for the future operation of electric train. It was constructed by contractor not by MR and this might be due
to lack of technical cooperation between MR and YESC.

U Zaw Win Naing (Member of Yangon Region Parliament, Lathar Township, Yangon Region
Government)
Question: To my understanding, this project was contracted since 2013. Who will manage the project,
Union Government or Regional Government?
Answer by U Htun Aung Thin: Transportation sector is under the management of the Union Government.
The Government of Myanmar (GOM) has officially requested support from the Government of Japan with
regard to the Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project through provision of a Japanese ODA. As the
project site is located in Yangon Region, the project would also be implemented in accordance with the
Yangon Region Governments instructions.

U Thawdar Aung (Member of Yangon Region Parliament, San Chaung Township)


Question: I would like to know about developer who will implement for upgrading of YCR project and how
it was selected. What is the role of developer and will they assist in living conditions of MR staffs?
Answer by U Htun Aung Thin: For uplifting the living conditions of MR staffs, government has plan to do
it with own expenses like providing low-priced housings for them.

U Thein Zaw (Member of Yangon Region Parliament, Yankin Township)


Suggestion: When upgrading the YCR Line, it is also needed to arrange training program for MR Engineers.
Answer by U Htun Aung Thin: Due to financial limitation, government cannot afford to do this. Recently,
20 persons of MR engineers were sent to Korea to attend the training provided by Korea Government. Other
offer from China and Japan was received and trainings will be provided accordingly.

U Tint Lwin (Member of Yangon Region Parliament, Pazuntaung Township)

Appendix - 107
Question: I would like to know whether MR would provide good services after upgrading the YCR Line and
status of upgrading of the existing Pazundaung Station.
Answer by U Htun Aung Thin: MR is trying to give the best service aiming at publics convenience even
if it offers little benefit. Regarding Pazundaung Station, tendering for upgrading work was only invited to
local contractors and then it was aborted due to lack of enough capacity to be handled by local contractors.

U Kyaw Min Han (Member of Parliament, Lathar Township)


Question: There are many stations (38 stations) within 46 km of YCR Line and it takes time to stop
the train for each station.
Answer by U Htun Aung Thin: If we want to reduce the number of stations along the YCR Line, we have to
get consensus from all stakeholders.

U Tin Win (Member of Yangon Region Parliament, Kamayut Township)


Suggestion: There are many level crossings along the YCR Line. So, I think construction of ROBs(Road
Over Bridges) is better option to reduce the traffic congestion.
Answer by U Htun Aung Thin: Thanks for suggestion. But, it will need a large amount of governments
budget.

d) From Media
U Kyaw Phone Kyaw (Senior Reporter, Fratier Myanmar)
Question: How much is the amount of allocated budget for this project? I would like to know the current
speed of the train and increased speed of the train in the operation phase.
Answer by U Htun Aung Thin: Estimate budget for the upgrading of YCL Line project is about 200 million
US dollar. Current speed is about 15mph and the target maximum running speed of the project is 20mph.

Appendix - 108
A3.6 Presentation/Handout for the 2nd Stakeholder Meeting on 12 July 2016for the
Entire Section of Yangon Circular Railway Line Upgrading Project (in Myanmar and
English)
(1) Project Brief in Myanmar

Appendix - 118
Appendix - 119
Appendix - 120
Appendix - 121
(2) Project Brief in English Translation

Appendix - 122
Appendix - 123
Appendix - 124
Appendix - 125
(3) Environmental and Social Considerations in Myanmar

Appendix - 126
Appendix - 127
Appendix - 128
Appendix - 129
(4) Environmental and Social Considerations in English Translation

Appendix - 130
Appendix - 131
Appendix - 132
Appendix - 133