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Welcome to Excel Easy

We offer a tutorial (Introduction, Basics, Functions, Data Analysis and VBA) on how to
use Excel. Below you can find an overview of all chapters. Want to learn much more about
Excel? You can find related examples and features (300 Examples) on the right side of
each chapter. We keep it easy!

David - Orlando, United States - "Your site showed me a great example I easily
followed." [Read More]

Introduction
This section is for users with no knowledge of Excel.
Microsoft Excel is one of the most used software applications of all time. Hundreds of
millions of people around the world use Microsoft Excel. You can use Excel to enter all
sorts of data and perform financial, mathematical or statistical calculations.
1 Range: A range in Excel is a collection of two or more cells. This chapter gives an
overview of some very important range operations.
2 Formulas and Functions: A formula is an expression which calculates the value of a cell.
Functions are predefined formulas and are already available in Excel.

Basics
This section explains the basics of Excel.
1 Ribbon: The tabs on the ribbon are: File, Home, Insert, Page layout, Formulas, Data,
Review and View. Excel selects the ribbon's Home tab when you open a workbook.
2 Workbook: A workbook is another word for your Excel file. When you start Excel, click
Blank workbook to create an Excel workbook from scratch.
3 Worksheets: A worksheet is a collection of cells where you keep and manipulate the
data. Each Excel workbook can contain multiple worksheets.
4 Format Cells: When we format cells in Excel, we change the appearance of a number
without changing the number itself.
5 Find & Select: Learn how to use Excel's Find, Replace and Go To Special feature.
6 Templates: Instead of creating an Excel workbook from scratch, you can create a
workbook based on a template. There are many free templates available, waiting to be
used.
7 Data Validation: Use data validation in Excel to make sure that users enter certain
values into a cell.
8 Keyboard Shortcuts: Keyboard shortcuts allow you to do things with your keyboard
instead of your mouse to increase your speed.
9 Print: This chapter teaches you how to print a worksheet and how to change some
important print settings in Excel.
10 Share: Learn how to share Excel data with Word documents and other files.
11 Protect: Encrypt an Excel file with a password so that it requires a password to open
it.
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Functions
Discover how functions in Excel help you save time. If you are new to functions in Excel,
we recommend you to read our introduction to Formulas and Functions first.
1 Count and Sum: The most used functions in Excel are the functions that count and sum.
You can count and sum based on one criteria or multiple criteria.
2 Logical: Learn how to use Excel's logical functions such as the IF, AND and OR function.
3 Cell References: Cell references in Excel are very important. Understand the difference
between relative, absolute and mixed reference, and you are on your way to success.
4 Date & Time: To enter a date in Excel, use the "/" or "-" characters. To enter a time, use
the ":" (colon). You can also enter a date and a time in one cell.
5 Text: Excel has many functions to offer when it comes to manipulating text strings.
6 Lookup & Reference: Learn all about Excel's lookup & reference functions such as the
VLOOKUP, HLOOKUP, MATCH, INDEX and CHOOSE function.
7 Financial: This chapter illustrates Excel's most popular financial functions.
8 Statistical: An overview of some very useful statistical functions in Excel.
9 Round: This chapter illustrates three functions to round numbers in Excel. The ROUND,
ROUNDUP and ROUNDDOWN function.
10 Formula Errors: This chapter teaches you how to deal with some common formula
errors in Excel.
11 Array Formulas: This chapter helps you understand array formulas in Excel. Single cell
array formulas perform multiple calculations in one cell.
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Data Analysis
This section illustrates the powerful features Excel has to offer to analyze data.
1 Sort: You can sort your Excel data on one column or multiple columns. You can sort in
ascending or descending order.
2 Filter: Filter your Excel data if you only want to display records that meet certain
criteria.
3 Conditonal Formatting: Conditional formatting in Excel enables you to highlight cells
with a certain color, depending on the cell's value.
4 Charts: A simple Excel chart can say more than a sheet full of numbers. As you'll see,
creating charts is very easy.
5 Pivot Tables: Pivot tables are one of Excel's most powerful features. A pivot table allows
you to extract the significance from a large, detailed data set.
6 Tables: Tables allow you to analyze your data in Excel quickly and easily.
7 What-If Analysis: What-If Analysis in Excel allows you to try out different values
(scenarios) for formulas.
8 Solver: Excel includes a tool called solver that uses techniques from the operations
research to find optimal solutions for all kind of decision problems.
9 Analysis ToolPak: The Analysis ToolPak is an Excel add-in program that provides data
analysis tools for financial, statistical and engineering data analysis.
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VBA
Excel VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) is the name of the programming language of
Excel.
1 Create a Macro: With Excel VBA you can automate tasks in Excel by writing so called
macros. In this chapter, learn how to create a simple macro.
2 MsgBox: The MsgBox is a dialog box in Excel VBA you can use to inform the users of
your program.
3 Workbook and Worksheet Object: Learn more about the Workbook and Worksheet
object in Excel VBA.
4 Range Object: The Range object, which is the representation of a cell (or cells) on your
worksheet, is the most important object of Excel VBA.
5 Variables: This chapter teaches you how to declare, initialize and display a variable in
Excel VBA.
6 If Then Statement: Use the If Then statement in Excel VBA to execute code lines if a
specific condition is met.
7 Loop: Looping is one of the most powerful programming techniques. A loop in Excel
VBA enables you to loop through a range of cells with just a few codes lines.
8 Macro Errors: This chapter teaches you how to deal with macro errors in Excel.
9 String Manipulation: In this chapter, you'll find the most important functions to
manipulate strings in Excel VBA.
10 Date and Time: Learn how to work with dates and times in Excel VBA.
11 Events: Events are actions performed by users which trigger Excel VBA to execute
code.
12 Array: An array is a group of variables. In Excel VBA, you can refer to a specific variable
(element) of an array by using the array name and the index number.
13 Function and Sub: In Excel VBA, a function can return a value while a sub cannot.
14 Application Object: The mother of all objects is Excel itself. We call it the Application
object. The application object gives access to a lot of Excel related options.
15 ActiveX Controls: Learn how to create ActiveX controls such as command buttons, text
boxes, list boxes etc.
16 Userform: This chapter teaches you how to create an Excel VBA Userform.
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300 Examples
Are you looking for Excel examples? Are you looking for clear explanations that help you master many more Excel
features quickly and easily? You can find related examples and features (300 Examples) on the right side of each
chapter.
Our 30 most popular examples:

1 Find Duplicates: This example teaches you how to find duplicates (or triplicates) in Excel.
2 Drop-down List: Drop-down lists in Excel are helpful if you want to be sure that users select an item from a list,
instead of typing their own values.
3 Percent Change: The percent change formula is used very often in Excel. For example, to calculate the Monthly
Change and Total Change.
4 Regression: This example teaches you how to perform a regression analysis in Excel and how to interpret the
Summary Output.
5 Loan Amortization Schedule: This example teaches you how to create a loan amortization schedule in Excel.
6 Pareto Chart: A Pareto chart combines a column chart and a line graph. The Pareto principle states that, for many
events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes.
7 Histogram: This example teaches you how to create a histogram in Excel.
8 Random Numbers: Excel has two useful functions when it comes to generating random numbers. The RAND and
RANDBETWEEN function.
9 Remove Duplicates: This example teaches you how to remove duplicates in Excel.
10 Count Unique Values: This example shows you how to create an array formula that counts unique values.
11 Lock Cells: You can lock cells in Excel if you want to protect cells from being edited.
12 Gantt Chart: Excel does not offer Gantt as chart type, but it's easy to create a Gantt chart by customizing the
stacked bar chart type.
13 Budget: This example shows you how to create a budget in Excel.
14 Line Chart: Line charts are used to display trends over time. Use a line chart if you have text labels, dates or a
few numeric labels on the horizontal axis.
15 Transpose: Use the 'Paste Special Transpose' option to switch rows to columns or columns to rows in Excel.
You can also use the TRANSPOSE function.
16 Correlation: We can use the CORREL function or the Analysis Toolpak add-in in Excel to find the correlation
coefficient between two variables.
17 Time Sheet: This example teaches you how to create a simple timesheet calculator in Excel.
18 Offset: The OFFSET function in Excel returns a cell or range of cells that is a specified number of rows and
columns from a cell or range of cells.
19 Pie Chart: Pie charts are used to display the contribution of each value (slice) to a total (pie). Pie charts always
use one data series.
20 Nested If: The IF function in Excel can be nested, when you have multiple conditions to meet. The FALSE value
is being replaced by another If function to make a further test.
21 Data Tables: Instead of creating different scenarios, you can create a data table to quickly try out different values
for formulas. You can create a one variable data table or a two variable data table.
22 t-Test: This example teaches you how to perform a t-Test in Excel. The t-Test is used to test the null hypothesis
that the means of two populations are equal.
23 Advanced Filter: This example teaches you how to apply an advanced filter in Excel to only display records that
meet complex criteria.
24 Frequency Distribution: Did you know that you can use pivot tables to easily create a frequency distribution in
Excel? You can also use the Analysis Toolpak to create a histogram.
25 Scatter Chart: Use a scatter chart (XY chart) to show scientific XY data. Scatter charts are often used to find out
if there's a relationship between variable X and Y.
26 Anova: This example teaches you how to perform a single factor ANOVA (analysis of variance) in Excel. A single
factor or one-way ANOVA is used to test the null hypothesis that the means of several populations are all equal.
27 Compare Two Lists: This example describes how to compare two lists using conditional formatting.
28 Compound Interest: What's compound interest and what's the formula for compound interest in Excel? This
example gives you the answers to these questions.
29 Bar Chart: A bar chart is the horizontal version of a column chart. Use a bar chart if you have large text labels.
30 Calendar: This example describes how to create a calendar in Excel (2017 calendar, 2018 calendar, etc). If you
are in a hurry, simply download the Excel file.
Check out all 300 examples.

300 Examples
Introduction | Basics | Functions | Data Analysis | VBA
Are you looking for Excel examples? Are you looking for clear explanations that help you master many more Excel
features quickly and easily? You can find related examples and features (300 Examples) on the right side of each
chapter. Below you can find an overview of all examples.
Michelle - Red Bank, United States - "I found your excellent tutorial on the web today. I find it very clear and easy to
understand." [Read More]

Introduction
1 Range: Fibonacci Sequence, Custom Lists, Comments, Hide Columns or Rows, Skip Blanks, Transpose, Union and
Intersect, Flash Fill.
2 Formulas and Functions: Percent Change, Names in Formulas, Dynamic Named Range, Paste Options, Status
Bar, Quick Operations.
Basics
1 Ribbon: Quick Access Toolbar, Developer Tab.
2 Workbook: Save in 97-2003 Format, View Multiple Workbooks, AutoRecover.
3 Worksheets: Zoom, Split, Freeze Panes, Group Worksheets, Consolidate, View Multiple Worksheets, Spelling.
4 Format Cells: Decimal Places, Currency vs Accounting, Date and Time Formats, Fractions, Text to Numbers, Numbers
to Text, Custom Number Format, Format Painter, Cell Styles, Themes.
5 Find & Select: Find Features, Delete Blank Rows, Row Differences, Copy Visible Cells Only, Search Box.
6 Templates: Calendar, Budget, Meal Planner, Invoice, Automated Invoice, Default Templates.
7 Data Validation: Reject Invalid Dates, Budget Limit, Prevent Duplicate Entries, Product Codes, Drop-down
List, Dependent Drop-down Lists.
8 Keyboard Shortcuts: Function Keys.
9 Print: Workbook Views, Page Breaks, Headers and Footers, Page Numbers, Print Titles, Center on Page, Print
Gridlines & Headings, Print Area.
10 Share: Embed, PDF, Share Workbooks, OneDrive, Online, Import Access Data, Microsoft Query, Import/Export Text
Files, XML.
11 Protect: Protect Workbook, Protect Sheet, Lock Cells, Read-only Workbook, Mark as Final.
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Functions
1 Count and Sum: Count Text Occurrences, Count Logical Values, Count Blank/Nonblank Cells, Sumproduct.
2 Logical: Nested If, Ifs, Switch, Roll the Dice.
3 Cell References: Copy Exact Formula, 3D-reference, External References, Hyperlinks.
4 Date & Time: DateDif, Weekdays, Days until Birthday, Time Sheet, Last Day of the Month, Holidays, Quarter, Day of
the Year.
5 Text: Separate Strings, Number of Instances, Number of Words, Text to Columns, Lower/Upper Case, Remove
Unwanted Characters, Compare Text, Find vs Search, Substitute vs Replace, Concatenate Strings.
6 Lookup & Reference: Tax Rates, Offset, Left Lookup, Two-way Lookup, Locate Maximum Value, Indirect.
7 Financial: Loans with Different Durations, Investment or Annuity, Compound Interest, Loan Amortization
Schedule, Depreciation.
8 Statistical: Negative Numbers to Zero, Random Numbers, Rank, Percentiles and Quartiles, Forecast and Trend, MaxIfs
and MinIfs.
9 Round: Chop off Decimals, Nearest Multiple, Even and Odd.
10 Formula Errors: IfError, IsError, Aggregate, Circular Reference, Formula Auditing, Floating Point Errors.
11 Array Formulas: Count Errors, Count Unique Values, Count with Or Criteria, Sum Every Nth Row, Sum Largest
Numbers, Sum Range with Errors, Sum with Or Criteria, Two-column Lookup, Most Frequently Occurring
Word, System of Linear Equations.
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Data Analysis
1 Sort: Sort by Color, Reverse List, Randomize List.
2 Filter: Number and Text Filters, Date Filters, Advanced Filter, Data Form, Remove Duplicates, Outlining Data.
3 Conditonal Formatting: Manage Rules, Data Bars, Color Scales, Icon Sets, New Rule, Find Duplicates, Shade Alternate
Rows, Compare Two Lists, Conflicting Rules, Checklist.
4 Charts: Column Chart, Line Chart, Pie Chart, Bar Chart, Area Chart, Scatter Chart, Data Series, Axes, Chart
Sheet, Trendline, Error Bars, Sparklines, Combination Chart, Gauge Chart, Thermometer Chart, Gantt Chart, Pareto
Chart.
5 Pivot Tables: Group Pivot Table Items, Multi-level Pivot Table, Frequency Distribution, Pivot Chart, Slicers, Update
Pivot Table, Calculated Field/Item.
6 Tables: Structured References, Table Styles.
7 What-If Analysis: Data Tables, Quadratic Equation.
8 Solver: Transportation Problem, Assignment Problem, Capital Investment, Shortest Path Problem, Maximum Flow
Problem, Sensitivity Analysis.
9 Analysis ToolPak: Histogram, Descriptive Statistics, Anova, F-Test, t-Test, Moving Average, Exponential
Smoothing, Correlation, Regression.
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VBA
1 Create a Macro: Swap Values, Run Code from a Module, Macro Recorder, Use Relative References, FormulaR1C1, Add
a Macro to the Toolbar, Macro Security, Protect Macro.
2 MsgBox: MsgBox Function, InputBox Function.
3 Workbook and Worksheet Object: Path and FullName, Close and Open, Loop through Books and Sheets, Sales
Calculator, Files in a Directory, Import Sheets, Programming Charts.
4 Range Object: CurrentRegion, Dynamic Range, Resize, Entire Rows and Columns, Offset, From Active Cell to Last
Entry, Union and Intersect, Test a Selection, Possible Football Matches, Font, Background Colors, Areas
Collection, Compare Ranges.
5 Variables: Option Explicit, Variable Scope, Life of Variables.
6 If Then Statement: Logical Operators, Select Case, Tax Rates, Mod Operator, Prime Number Checker, Find Second
Highest Value, Sum by Color, Delete Blank Cells.
7 Loop: Loop through Defined Range, Loop through Entire Column, Do Until Loop, Step Keyword, Create a Pattern, Sort
Numbers, Randomly Sort Data, Remove Duplicates, Complex Calculations, Knapsack Problem.
8 Macro Errors: Debugging, Error Handling, Err Object, Interrupt a Macro, Macro Comments.
9 String Manipulation: Separate Strings, Reverse Strings, Convert to Proper Case, Count Words.
10 Date and Time: Compare Dates and Times, DateDiff Function, Weekdays, Delay a Macro, Year Occurrences, Tasks on
Schedule, Sort Birthdays.
11 Events: BeforeDoubleClick Event, Highlight Active Cell, Create a Footer Before Printing, Bills and Coins, Rolling
Average Table.
12 Array: Dynamic Array, Array Function, Month Names, Size of an Array.
13 Function and Sub: User Defined Function, Custom Average Function, Volatile Functions, ByRef and ByVal.
14 Application Object: StatusBar, Read Data from Text File, Write Data to Text File.
15 ActiveX Controls: Text Box, List Box, Combo Box, Check Box, Option Buttons, Spin Button, Loan Calculator.
16 Userform: Userform and Ranges, Currency Converter, Progress Indicator, Multiple List Box Selections, Multicolumn
Combo Box, Dependent Combo Boxes, Loop through Controls, Controls Collection, Userform with Multiple
Pages, Interactive Userform.

Introduction
This section is for users with no knowledge of Excel.

Microsoft Excel is one of the most used software applications of all time. Hundreds of millions of people around the
world use Microsoft Excel. You can use Excel to enter all sorts of data and perform financial, mathematical or statistical
calculations.
1 Range: A range in Excel is a collection of two or more cells. This chapter gives an overview of some very important
range operations.
2 Formulas and Functions: A formula is an expression which calculates the value of a cell. Functions are predefined
formulas and are already available in Excel.
Want to learn much more about Excel? You can find related examples and features on the right side of each
chapter. Check out all 14 related examples and features.

Introduction
1 Range: Fibonacci Sequence, Custom Lists, Comments, Hide Columns or Rows, Skip Blanks, Transpose, Union and
Intersect, Flash Fill.
2 Formulas and Functions: Percent Change, Names in Formulas, Dynamic Named Range, Paste Options, Status
Bar, Quick Operations.

Range
Cell, Row, Column | Range Examples | Fill a Range | Move a Range | Copy/Paste a Range | Insert Row, Column
A range in Excel is a collection of two or more cells. This chapter gives an overview of some very important range
operations.
Cell, Row, Column
Let's start by selecting a cell, row and column.

1. To select cell C3, click on the box at the intersection of column C and row 3.
2. To select column C, click on the column C header.

3. To select row 3, click on the row 3 header.

Range Examples
A range is a collection of two or more cells.

1. To select the range B2:C4, click on cell B2 and drag it to cell C4.

2. To select a range of individual cells, hold down CTRL and click on each cell that you want to include in the range.

Fill a Range
To fill a range, execute the following steps.

1a. Enter the value 2 into cell B2.


1b. Select cell B2, click on the lower right corner of cell B2 and drag it down to cell B8.

Result:

This dragging technique is very important and you will use it very often in Excel. Here's another example.

2a. Enter the value 2 into cell B2 and the value 4 into cell B3.

2b. Select cell B2 and cell B3, click on the lower right corner of this range and drag it down.
Excel automatically fills the range based on the pattern of the first two values. That's pretty cool huh!? Here's another
example.

3a. Enter the date 6/13/2016 into cell B2 and the date 6/16/2016 into cell B3.

3b. Select cell B2 and cell B3, click on the lower right corner of this range and drag it down.

The sky is the limit!

Move a Range
To move a range, execute the following steps.

1. Select a range and click on the border of the range.


2. Drag the range to its new location.

Copy/Paste a Range
To copy and paste a range, execute the following steps.

1. Select the range, right click, and then click Copy (or press CTRL + c).

2. Select the cell where you want the first cell of the range to appear, right click, and then click Paste under 'Paste
Options:' (or press CTRL + v).
Insert Row, Column
To insert a row between the values 20 and 40 below, execute the following steps.

1. Select row 3.

2. Right click, and then click Insert.

Result:
The rows below the new row are shifted down. In a similar way, you can insert a column.

Fibonacci Sequence
It's easy to create all sorts of sequences in Excel. For example, the Fibonacci sequence.
1. The first two numbers in the Fibonacci sequence are 0 and 1.

2. Each subsequent number can be found by adding up the two previous numbers.

3. Click on the lower right corner of cell A3 and drag it down.

Result. The Fibonacci Sequence in Excel.


Custom Lists
If you create a custom list in Excel, you can easily fill a range with your own list of departments, clients, cities, credit
card numbers, etc. This can save time and reduce errors.
First, we will look at an example of a built-in list.

1. Type Sun into cell B2.

2. Select cell B2, click on the lower right corner of cell B2 and drag it across to cell H2.
How does Excel know this?

3. On the File tab, click Options.

4. Under Advanced, go to General and click Edit Custom Lists.

Here you can find the built-in 'days of the week' lists. Also notice the 'months of the year' lists.

5. To create your own custom list, type some list entries, and click Add.
Note: you can also import a list from a worksheet.

6. Click OK.

7. Type London into cell C2.

8. Select cell C2, click on the lower right corner of cell C2 and drag it down to cell C5.

Comments
Insert Comment | Edit Comment | Show/Hide Comment
You can insert a comment in Excel to give feedback about the content of a cell.
Insert Comment
To insert a comment, execute the following steps.

1. Select a cell.

2. Right click, and then click Insert Comment.

3. Type your comment.


Excel displays a red triangle in the upper-right corner of the cell.

4. Click outside the comment box.

5. Hover over the cell to view the comment.

Excel automatically adds your user name. To change this name, execute the following steps.

6. On the File tab, click Options.

7. Change the User name.


Edit Comment
To edit a comment, execute the following steps.

1. Select the cell with the comment you want to edit.

2. Right click, and then click Edit Comment.


3. Edit the comment.

Note: To delete a comment, click Delete Comment.

Show/Hide Comment
By default, a comment is only visible when you hover over the cell that contains the comment. To keep a comment
visible all the time, execute the following steps.

1. For example, select cell B4 below.

2. On the Review tab, in the Comments group, click Show/Hide Comment.

3. Select another cell.


Note: to hide the comment, select cell B4 and click Show/Hide Comment again. To keep all comments visible all the
time, click Show All Comments.

Hide Columns or Rows


Hide | Unhide
Sometimes it can be useful to hide columns or rows in Excel.
Hide
To hide a column, execute the following steps.

1. Select a column.
2. Right click, and then click Hide.

Result:
Note: to hide a row, select a row, right click, and then click Hide.

Unhide
To unhide a column, execute the following steps.
1. Select the columns on either side of the hidden column.

2. Right click, and then click Unhide.


Result:

Note: to unhide a row, select the rows on either side of the hidden row, right click, and then click Unhide.

Skip Blanks
Use the 'Paste Special Skip Blanks' option and Excel will not overwrite existing values with blanks.
1. Select the range B1:B12.

2. Right click, and then click Copy.


3. Select cell A1.

4. Right click, and then click Paste Special.

5. Check Skip Blanks.

6. Click OK.
Transpose
Paste Special Transpose | Transpose Function
Use the 'Paste Special Transpose' option to switch rows to columns or columns to rows in Excel. You can also use
the TRANSPOSE function.
Paste Special Transpose
To transpose data, execute the following steps.

1. Select the range A1:C1.

2. Right click, and then click Copy.


3. Select cell E2.

4. Right click, and then click Paste Special.

5. Check Transpose.

6. Click OK.
Transpose Function
To insert the TRANSPOSE function, execute the following steps.

1. First, select the new range of cells.

2. Type in =TRANSPOSE(

3. Select the range A1:C1 and close with a parenthesis.

4. Finish by pressing CTRL + SHIFT + ENTER.


Note: The formula bar indicates that this is an array formula by enclosing it in curly braces {}. To delete this array
formula, select the range E2:E4 and press Delete.

Union and Intersect


This example illustrates how to use the union and intersect operator (borders below for illustration only) in Excel.
1. The union operator (comma) adds two ranges.

Explanation: the SUM function reduces to =SUM(C4:D8) + SUM(D7:E11), 20.

2. The intersect operator (single space) returns the intersection of two ranges.

Explanation: the SUM function reduces to =SUM(D7:D8), 2.


Flash Fill
Extract | Join
Use flash fill in Excel 2013 or later to automatically extract or combine data.
Extract
1. For example, use flash fill to extract the numbers in column A below.

2. First, tell Excel what you want to do by entering the value 4645 into cell B1.

3. On the Data tab, in the Data Tools group, click Flash Fill.

Result:

Note: Excel does not insert formulas, if you change the text strings in column A, Excel will not update the numbers in
Column B.

Join
1. For example, use flash fill to join the last names in column A and the first names in column B to create email addresses.

2. First, tell Excel what you want to do by entering a correct email address in cell C1.
3. On the Data tab, in the Data Tools group, click Flash Fill.

Result:

Note: again, Excel does not insert formulas, if you change the text strings in column A or column B, Excel will not update
the email addresses in column C.

Formulas and Functions


Enter a Formula | Edit a Formula | Operator Precedence | Copy/Paste a Formula | Insert a Function
A formula is an expression which calculates the value of a cell. Functions are predefined formulas and are already
available in Excel.
For example, cell A3 below contains a formula which adds the value of cell A2 to the value of cell A1.
For example, cell A3 below contains the SUM function which calculates the sum of the range A1:A2.

Enter a Formula
To enter a formula, execute the following steps.

1. Select a cell.

2. To let Excel know that you want to enter a formula, type an equal sign (=).

3. For example, type the formula A1+A2.

Tip: instead of typing A1 and A2, simply select cell A1 and cell A2.

4. Change the value of cell A1 to 3.

Excel automatically recalculates the value of cell A3. This is one of Excel's most powerful features!

Edit a Formula
When you select a cell, Excel shows the value or formula of the cell in the formula bar.
1. To edit a formula, click in the formula bar and change the formula.

2. Press Enter.

Operator Precedence
Excel uses a default order in which calculations occur. If a part of the formula is in parentheses, that part will be
calculated first. It then performs multiplication or division calculations. Once this is complete, Excel will add and
subtract the remainder of your formula. See the example below.

First, Excel performs multiplication (A1 * A2). Next, Excel adds the value of cell A3 to this result.

Another example,
First, Excel calculates the part in parentheses (A2+A3). Next, it multiplies this result by the value of cell A1.

Copy/Paste a Formula
When you copy a formula, Excel automatically adjusts the cell references for each new cell the formula is copied to. To
understand this, execute the following steps.

1. Enter the formula shown below into cell A4.

2a. Select cell A4, right click, and then click Copy (or press CTRL + c)...

...next, select cell B4, right click, and then click Paste under 'Paste Options:' (or press CTRL + v).

2b. You can also drag the formula to cell B4. Select cell A4, click on the lower right corner of cell A4 and drag it across
to cell B4. This is much easier and gives the exact same result!
Result. The formula in cell B4 references the values in column B.

Insert a Function
Every function has the same structure. For example, SUM(A1:A4). The name of this function is SUM. The part between
the brackets (arguments) means we give Excel the range A1:A4 as input. This function adds the values in cells A1, A2,
A3 and A4. It's not easy to remember which function and which arguments to use for each task. Fortunately, the Insert
Function feature in Excel helps you with this.

To insert a function, execute the following steps.

1. Select a cell.

2. Click the Insert Function button.

The 'Insert Function' dialog box appears.

3. Search for a function or select a function from a category. For example, choose COUNTIF from the Statistical category.
4. Click OK.

The 'Function Arguments' dialog box appears.

5. Click in the Range box and select the range A1:C2.

6. Click in the Criteria box and type >5.

7. Click OK.

Result. Excel counts the number of cells that are higher than 5.
Note: instead of using the Insert Function feature, simply type =COUNTIF(A1:C2,">5"). When you arrive at: =COUNTIF(
instead of typing A1:C2, simply select the range A1:C2.

Percent Change
The percent change formula is used very often in Excel. For example, to calculate the Monthly Change and Total Change.
1a. Select cell C3 and enter the formula shown below.

1b. Select cell C3. On the Home tab, in the Number group, apply a Percentage format.

1c. Select cell C3, click on the lower right corner of cell C3 and drag it down to cell C13.
1d. Check if everything went alright.

2a. In a similar way, we can calculate the Total Change. This time we fix the reference to cell B2. Select cell D3 and enter
the formula shown below.
2b. Select cell D3. On the Home tab, in the Number group, apply a Percentage format.

2c. Select cell D3, click on the lower right corner of cell D3 and drag it down to cell D13.

2d. Check if everything went alright.


Explanation: when we drag the formula down, the absolute reference ($B$2) stays the same, while the relative
reference (B3) changes to B4, B5, B6, etc. Maybe this is one step too far for you at this stage, but it shows you one of the
many other powerful features Excel has to offer.

Names in Formulas
Named Range | Named Constant | Name Manager
Create a named range or a named constant and use these names in your formulas. This way you can make your
formulas easier to understand.
Named Range
To create a named range, execute the following steps.

1. Select the range A1:A4.

2. On the Formulas tab, in the Defined Names group, click Define Name.

3. Enter a name and click OK.


There's an even quicker way of doing this.

4. Select the range, type the name in the Name box and press Enter.

5. Now you can use this named range in your formulas. For example, sum Prices.

Named Constant
To create a named constant, execute the following steps.

1. On the Formulas tab, in the Defined Names group, click Define Name.

2. Enter a name, type a value, and click OK.


3. Now you can use this named constant in your formulas.

Note: if the tax rate changes, use the Name Manager to edit the name and Excel automatically updates all the formulas
that use TaxRate.
Name Manager
To edit and delete defined names, execute the following steps.

1. On the Formulas tab, in the Defined Names group, click Name Manager.

2. For example, select TaxRate and click Edit.


Dynamic Named Range
A dynamic named range expands automatically when you add a value to the range.
1. For example, select the range A1:A4 and name it Prices.
2. Calculate the sum.

3. When you add a value to the range, Excel does not update the sum.

To expand the named range automatically when you add a value to the range, execute the following the following steps.

4. On the Formulas tab, in the Defined Names group, click Name Manager.

5. Click Edit.
6. Click in the "Refers to" box and enter the formula =OFFSET($A$1,0,0,COUNTA($A:$A),1)

Explanation: The Offset function takes 5 arguments. Reference: $A$1, rows to offset: 0, columns to offset: 0, height:
COUNTA($A:$A), width: 1. COUNTA($A:$A) counts the number of values in column A that are not empty. When you add
a value to the range, COUNTA($A:$A) increases. As a result, the named range expands.
7. Click OK and Close.

8. Now, when you add a value to the range, Excel updates the sum automatically.
Paste Options
Paste | Values | Formulas | Formatting | Paste Special
This example illustrates the various paste options in Excel. Cell B5 below contains the SUM function which calculates
the sum of the range B2:B4. Furthermore, we changed the background color of this cell to yellow and added borders.

Paste
The Paste option pastes everything.

1. Select cell B5, right click, and then click Copy (or press CTRL + c).

2. Next, select cell F5, right click, and then click Paste under 'Paste Options:' (or press CTRL + v).
Result.

Values
The Values option pastes the result of the formula.

1. Select cell B5, right click, and then click Copy (or press CTRL + c).

2. Next, select cell D5, right click, and then click Values under 'Paste Options:'

Result.

Note: to quickly replace the formula in cell B5 with its own result, select cell B5, press F2 (to edit the formula) and press
F9.

Formulas
The Formulas option only pastes the formula.
1. Select cell B5, right click, and then click Copy (or press CTRL + c).

2. Next, select cell F5, right click, and then click Formulas under 'Paste Options:'

Result.

Formatting
The Formatting option only pastes the formatting.

1. Select cell B5, right click, and then click Copy (or press CTRL + c).

2. Next, select cell D5, right click, and then click Formatting under 'Paste Options:'

Result.

Note: the Format Painter copy/pastes formatting even quicker.


Paste Special
The Paste Special dialog box offers many more paste options. To launch the Paste Special dialog box, execute the
following steps.

1. Select cell B5, right click, and then click Copy (or press CTRL + c).

2. Next, select cell D5, right click, and then click Paste Special.

The Paste Special dialog box appears.


Note: here you can also find the paste options described above. You can also paste comments only, validation criteria
only, use the source theme, all except borders, column widths, formulas and number formats, values and number
formats. You can also use the Paste Special dialog box to perform quick operations, skip blanks and transpose data.

Status Bar
The quickest way to see the average, count, numerical count, minimum, maximum or sum of selected cells is by taking
a look at the status bar.
1. Select a range of cells.

2. Look at the status bar at the bottom of your window to see the sum of these cells.
3. Right click the status bar to add the average, count, numerical count, minimum or maximum.

Result:

Quick Operations
Use the 'Paste Special Operations' to quickly perform operations on a range of cells in Excel.
1. Select cell D3.

2. Right click, and then click Copy.


3. Select the range A1:B8.

4. Right click, and then click Paste Special.

5. Click Multiply.

Note: you can also Divide, Add or Subtract a value.

6. Click OK.
Note: all values are increased by 10 percent. Without this feature, you would have to create a temporary range (with
formulas that multiply the values in the range A1:B8 by 1.1) and then replace the range A1:B8 by copy and pasting the
temporary range as values.