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Relative mass and abundance of the elements_x000D_

Element Isotope Mass Abundance


Silver Ag(107) 106.905095 51.840
Ag(109) 108.904754 48.160
Aluminum Al(27) 26.981541 100.000
Argon Ar(36) 35.967546 0.340
Ar(38) 37.962732 0.063
Ar(40) 39.962383 99.600
Arsenic As(75) 74.921596 100.000
Gold Au(197) 196.966560 100.000
Boron B(10) 10.012938 19.800
B(11) 11.009305 80.200
Barium Ba(130) 129.906277 0.110
Ba(132) 131.905042 0.100
Ba(134) 133.904490 2.420
Ba(135) 134.905668 6.590
Ba(136) 135.904556 7.850
Ba(137) 136.905816 11.230
Ba(138) 137.905236 71.700
Beryllium Be(9) 9.012183 100.000
Bismuth Bi(209) 208.980388 100.000
Bromine Br(79) 78.918336 50.690
Br(81) 80.916290 49.310
Carbon C(12) 12.000000 98.900
C(13) 13.003355 1.100
Calcium Ca(40) 39.962591 96.950
Ca(42) 41.958622 0.650
Ca(43) 42.958770 0.140
Ca(44) 43.955485 2.086
Ca(46) 45.953689 0.004
Ca(48) 47.952532 0.190
Cadmium Cd(106) 105.906461 1.250
Cd(108) 107.904186 0.890
Cd(110) 109.903007 12.490
Cd(111) 110.904182 12.800
Cd(112) 111.902761 24.130
Cd(113) 112.904401 12.220
Cd(114) 113.903361 28.730
Cd(116) 115.904758 7.490
Cerium Ce(136) 135.907140 0.190
Ce(138) 137.905996 0.250
Ce(140) 139.905442 88.480
Ce(142) 141.909249 11.080
Chlorine Cl(35) 34.968853 75.770
Relative mass and abundance of the elements_x000D_

Cl(37) 36.965903 24.230


Cobalt Co(59) 58.933198 100.000
Chromium Cr(50) 49.946046 4.350
Cr(52) 51.940510 83.790
Cr(53) 52.940651 9.500
Cr(54) 53.938882 2.360
Cesium Cs(133) 132.905433 100.000
Copper Cu(63) 62.929599 69.170
Cu(65) 64.927792 30.830
Dysprosium Dy(156) 155.924287 0.060
Dy(158) 157.924412 0.100
Dy(160) 159.925203 2.340
Dy(161) 160.926939 18.900
Dy(162) 161.926805 25.500
Dy(163) 162.928737 24.900
Dy(164) 163.929183 28.200
Erbium Er(162) 161.928787 0.140
Er(164) 163.929211 1.610
Er(166) 165.930305 33.600
Er(167) 166.932061 22.950
Er(168) 167.932383 26.800
Er(170) 169.935476 14.900
Europium Eu(151) 150.919860 47.800
Eu(153) 152.921243 52.200
Fluorine F(19) 18.998403 100.000
Iron Fe(54) 53.939612 5.800
Fe(56) 55.934939 91.720
Fe(57) 56.935396 2.200
Fe(58) 57.933278 0.280
Gallium Ga(69) 68.925581 60.100
Ga(71) 70.924701 39.900
Gadolinium Gd(152) 151.919803 0.200
Gd(154) 153.920876 2.180
Gd(155) 154.822629 14.800
Gd(156) 155.922130 20.470
Gd(157) 156.923967 15.650
Gd(158) 157.924111 24.840
Gd(160) 159.927061 21.860
Germanium Ge(70) 69.924250 20.500
Ge(72) 71.922080 27.400
Ge(73) 72.923464 7.800
Ge(74) 73.921179 36.500
Ge(76) 75.921403 7.800
Relative mass and abundance of the elements_x000D_

Hydrogen H(1) 1.007825 99.990


H(2) 2.014102 0.015
Helium He(3) 3.016029 0.000
He(4) 4.002603 100.000
Hafnium Hf(174) 173.940065 0.160
Hf(176) 175.941420 5.200
Hf(177) 176.943233 18.600
Hf(178) 177.943710 27.100
Hf(179) 178.945827 13.740
Hf(180) 179.946561 35.200
Mercury Hg(196) 195.965812 0.150
Hg(198) 197.966760 10.100
Hg(199) 198.968269 17.000
Hg(200) 199.968316 23.100
Hg(201) 200.970293 13.200
Hg(202) 201.970632 29.650
Hg(204) 203.973481 6.800
Holmium Ho(165) 164.930332 100.000
Iodine I(127) 126.904477 100.000
Indium In(113) 112.904056 4.300
In(115) 114.903875 95.700
Iridium Ir(191) 190.960603 37.300
Ir(193) 192.962942 62.700
Potassium K(39) 38.963708 93.200
K(40) 39.963999 0.012
K(41) 40.961825 6.730
Krypton Kr(78) 77.920397 0.350
Kr(80) 79.916375 2.250
Kr(82) 81.913483 11.600
Kr(83) 82.914134 11.500
Kr(84) 83.911506 57.000
Kr(86) 85.910614 17.300
Lanthanum La(138) 137.907114 0.090
La(139) 138.906355 99.910
Lithium Li(6) 6.015123 7.420
Li(7) 7.016005 92.580
Lutetium Lu(175) 174.940785 97.400
Lu(176) 175.942694 2.600
Magnesium Mg(24) 23.985045 78.900
Mg(25) 24.985839 10.000
Mg(26) 25.982595 11.100
Manganese Mn(55) 54.938046 100.000
Mo(100) 99.907473 9.630
Relative mass and abundance of the elements_x000D_

Molybdenum Mo(92) 91.906809 14.840


Mo(94) 93.905086 9.250
Mo(95) 94.905838 15.920
Mo(96) 95.904676 16.680
Mo(97) 96.906018 9.550
Mo(98) 97.905405 24.130
Nitrogen N(14) 14.003074 99.630
N(15) 15.000109 0.370
Sodium Na(23) 22.989770 100.000
Niobium Nb(93) 92.906378 100.000
Neodymium Nd(142) 141.907731 27.130
Nd(143) 142.909823 12.180
Nd(144) 143.910096 23.800
Nd(145) 144.912582 8.300
Nd(146) 145.913126 17.190
Nd(148) 147.916901 5.760
Nd(150) 149.920900 5.640
Neon Ne(20) 19.992439 90.600
Ne(21) 20.993845 0.260
Ne(22) 21.991384 9.200
Nickel Ni(58) 57.935347 68.270
Ni(60) 59.930789 26.100
Ni(61) 60.931059 1.130
Ni(62) 61.928346 3.590
Ni(64) 63.927968 0.910
Oxygen O(16) 15.994915 99.760
O(17) 16.999131 0.038
O(18) 17.999159 0.200
Osmium Os(184) 183.952514 0.020
Os(186) 185.953852 1.580
Os(187) 186.955762 1.600
Os(188) 187.955850 13.300
Os(189) 188.958156 16.100
Os(190) 189.958455 26.400
Os(192) 191.961487 41.000
Phosphorus P(31) 30.973763 100.000
Lead Pb(204) 203.973037 1.400
Pb(206) 205.974455 24.100
Pb(207) 206.975885 22.100
Pb(208) 207.976641 52.400
Palladium Pd(102) 101.905609 1.020
Pd(104) 103.904026 11.140
Pd(105) 104.905075 22.330
Relative mass and abundance of the elements_x000D_

Pd(106) 105.903475 27.330


Pd(108) 107.903894 26.460
Pd(110) 109.905169 11.720
Praseodymium Pr(141) 140.907657 100.000
Platinum Pt(190) 189.959937 0.010
Pt(192) 191.961049 0.790
Pt(194) 193.962679 32.900
Pt(195) 194.964785 33.800
Pt(196) 195.964947 25.300
Pt(198) 197.967879 7.200
Rubidium Rb(85) 84.911800 72.170
Rb(87) 86.909184 27.840
Rhenium Re(185) 184.952977 37.400
Re(187) 186.955765 62.600
Rhodium Rh(103) 102.905503 100.000
Ru(100) 99.904218 12.600
Ru(101) 100.905581 17.000
Ru(102) 101.904348 31.600
Ru(104) 103.905422 18.700
Ruthenium Ru(96) 95.907596 5.520
Ru(98) 97.905287 1.880
Ru(99) 98.905937 12.700
Sulfur S(32) 31.972072 95.020
S(33) 32.971459 0.750
S(34) 33.967868 4.210
S(36) 35.967079 0.020
Antimony Sb(121) 120.903824 57.300
Sb(123) 122.904222 42.700
Scandium Sc(45) 44.955914 100.000
Selenium Se(74) 73.922477 0.900
Se(76) 75.919207 9.000
Se(77) 76.919908 7.600
Se(78) 77.917304 23.500
Se(80) 79.916521 49.600
Se(82) 81.916709 9.400
Silicon Si(28) 27.976928 92.230
Si(29) 28.976496 4.670
Si(30) 29.973772 3.100
Samarium Sm(144) 143.912009 3.100
Sm(147) 146.914907 15.000
Sm(148) 147.914832 11.300
Sm(149) 148.917193 13.800
Sm(150) 149.917285 7.400
Relative mass and abundance of the elements_x000D_

Sm(152) 151.919741 26.700


Sm(154) 153.922218 22.700
Tin Sn(112) 111.904826 0.970
Sn(114) 113.902784 0.650
Sn(115) 114.903348 0.360
Sn(116) 115.901744 14.700
Sn(117) 116.902954 7.700
Sn(118) 117.901607 24.300
Sn(119) 118.903310 8.600
Sn(120) 119.902199 32.400
Sn(122) 121.903440 4.600
Sn(124) 123.905271 5.600
Strontium Sr(84) 83.913428 0.560
Sr(86) 85.909273 9.860
Sr(87) 86.908902 7.000
Sr(88) 87.905625 82.580
Tantalum Ta(180) 179.947489 0.012
Ta(181) 180.948014 99.990
Terbium Tb(159) 158.925350 100.000
Tellurium Te(120) 119.904021 0.096
Te(122) 121.903055 2.600
Te(123) 122.904278 0.910
Te(124) 123.902825 4.820
Te(125) 124.904435 7.140
Te(126) 125.903310 18.950
Te(128) 127.904464 31.690
Te(130) 129.906229 33.800
Thorium Th(232) 232.038054 100.000
Titanium Ti(46) 45.952633 8.000
Ti(47) 46.951765 7.300
Ti(48) 47.947947 73.800
Ti(49) 48.947871 5.500
Ti(50) 49.944786 5.400
Thallium Tl(203) 202.972336 29.520
Tl(205) 204.974410 70.480
Thulium Tm(169) 168.934225 100.000
Uranium U(234) 234.040947 0.006
U(235) 235.043925 0.720
U(238) 238.050786 99.270
Vanadium V(50) 49.947161 0.250
V(51) 50.943963 99.750
Tungsten W(180) 179.946727 0.130
W(182) 181.948225 26.300
Relative mass and abundance of the elements_x000D_

W(183) 182.950245 14.300


W(184) 183.950953 30.670
W(186) 185.954377 28.600
Xenon Xe(124) 123.905894 0.100
Xe(126) 125.904281 0.090
Xe(128) 127.903531 1.910
Xe(129) 128.904780 26.400
Xe(130) 129.903510 4.100
Xe(131) 130.905076 21.200
Xe(132) 131.904148 26.900
Xe(134) 133.905395 10.400
Xe(136) 135.907219 8.900
Yttrium Y(89) 88.905856 100.000
Ytterbium Yb(168) 167.933908 0.130
Yb(170) 169.934774 3.050
Yb(171) 170.936338 14.300
Yb(172) 171.936393 21.900
Yb(173) 172.938222 16.120
Yb(174) 173.938873 31.800
Yb(176) 175.942576 12.700
Zinc Zn(64) 63.929145 48.600
Zn(66) 65.926035 27.900
Zn(67) 66.927129 4.100
Zn(68) 67.924846 18.800
Zn(70) 69.925325 0.600
Zirconium Zr(90) 89.904708 51.450
Zr(91) 90.905644 11.270
Zr(92) 91.905039 17.170
Zr(94) 93.906319 17.330
Zr(96) 95.908272 2.780
Example Manipulations

Example 1
1. Manipulating data Copy 10 rows of the isotope
a. Copying and pasting data in a spreadsheet Element
Aluminum
To select a block of cells: hold shift while using the arrow keys Argon
To select a row or a column: click the row or column header
To copy a selection: command + c
To paste a selection: command + v
Arsenic
b. Sorting data
Barium
To do an ascending sort a single column of cells: press Sort AZ button on the
toolbar
To do a descending sort a single column of cells: press Sort ZA button on the
toolbar Antimony

To do a complex sort on a block of cells, navigate to the title bar:


Data >> Sort
And choose the column that you want to be primary, secondary, etc. sort criteria. Example 3
Search for the letters "um" in
c. Searching data

To find a value in a column


Select the column, navigate to the title bar
Edit >> Find
And type the term you wish to search for.
Example Manipulations

py 10 rows of the isotope database into the space below.


Isotope Mass Abundance
Al(27) 26.981541 100.000
Ar(36) 35.967546 0.340
Ar(38) 37.962732 0.063
Ar(40) 39.962383 99.600
As(75) 74.921596 100.000
Ba(130) 129.906277 0.110
Ba(132) 131.905042 0.100
Ba(134) 133.904490 2.420
Sb(121) 120.903824 57.300
Sb(123) 122.904222 42.700

arch for the letters "um" in your data set. Is it there?


Example Manipulations

Example 1
2.Calculations in spreadsheets

a.Sums
To add a series of cells
select cells in a row or column + an additional blank cell at the end
press the AutoSum button ()

b.Equations
To do a calculation with spreadsheet data, click on a blank cell
begin with a = sign 513.15
type the cell number where your data is (or click on the cell)
use + and - for addition and subtraction Example 2
use * and / for multiplication and division
4

25.4

Example 3
Take the average of the follo

45903
3222
342
11000
2300

sum : 62767
average: 12553.4

Example 4
Find the average mass of the following isotope.
Long hand you would do this by converting the abundance from percent to decimal, then multiplying the mass
Element Isotope Mass % Abundance Element
Uranium U(234) 234.040947 0.006 0.00006 0.01404246 Titanium
U(235) 235.043925 0.720 0.0072 1.69231626
U(238) 238.050786 99.270 0.9927 236.313015

Average mass 238.019374


Example Manipulations

4.52
13
450
4.98
1.22
39.43

6 12 3.4

ke the average of the following numbers by adding them, and dividing by 5

5
6.5
8
2
5

26.5
)

then multiplying the mass of each isotope by its abundance and summing them up.
Isotope Mass % Abundance
Ti(46) 45.952633 8.000 0.08 3.676
Ti(47) 46.951765 7.300 0.073 3.427
Ti(48) 47.947947 73.800 0.738 35.386
Ti(49) 48.947871 5.500 0.055 2.692
Ti(50) 49.944786 5.400 0.054 2.697

Average mass 47.878


2. To graph data
Select two columns to graph
navigate to the title bar
Insert >> chart Mass
Select the X Y (scatter) graph
To make the chart shown to the right, the markers were turned off,and the Y error 30
bars were set to 100% and the error bar linewidth was increased to 7.75 pt.
If the graph looks wrong, click on the chart and navigate to,
Chart >> Source data >> 25
x-axis: mass
y-axis: abundance
20

Element Isotope Mass Abundance

Abundance (%)
Element Isotope Mass Abundance 15
Dysprosium Dy(156) 155.92 0.06
Dy(158) 157.92 0.1
10
Dy(160) 159.93 2.34
Dy(161) 160.93 18.9
Dy(162) 161.93 25.5 5
Dy(163) 162.93 24.9
Dy(164) 163.93 28.2 0
155 156

Example 1
Re-create the graph to the right, using the data above.

Mass and Abundance of Dysprosium


180.00
160.00
140.00
120.00
100.00 Mass
Mass

80.00 Abundance
60.00
40.00
20.00
0.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Abundance
Mass spectrum of Dysprosium
30

25

20
Abundance (%)

15

10

0
155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165

Mass to charge ration, m/z (unitless)


Q1. Use your database skills to find,
a) the heaviest single isotope element.
Thorium-232 is the heaviest single isotope element.

b) the isotope that has the mass closest to 100.


Molybdenum-100

c) the only isotope with a mass that is EXACTLY a whole (integer) number.
**hint: make sure you are searching in "values"!
There is none.

d) suggest a reason why the isotope in question 1c is an integer value.

Because atomic mass is an average of all


the occuring isotopes of an element and
the percent abbundance which are used in
calculating this average are never
perfect integers. Therefore, atomic mass
of all the elements can
never be zero.
Q2. Calculate the average mass of tin, given the isotopic data below.

Element Isotope Mass Abundance D3 * C3 /100 Mass sp


Tin Sn(112) 111.904826 0.970 1.085476812 35
Sn(114) 113.902784 0.650 0.740368096
Sn(115) 114.903348 0.360 0.413652053
30
Sn(116) 115.901744 14.700 17.03755637
Sn(117) 116.902954 7.700 9.001527458
Sn(118) 117.901607 24.300 28.6500905 25
Sn(119) 118.903310 8.600 10.22568466
Sn(120) 119.902199 32.400 38.84831248 20

Abundance (%)
Sn(122) 121.903440 4.600 5.60755824
Sn(124) 123.905271 5.600 6.938695176 15

Average
Mass (sum of 10
E3-13) : 118.5489218
5

0
110 112 114

Mass to
Mass spectrum of Tin
35

30

25

20
Abundance (%)

15

10

0
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126

Mass to charge ration, m/z (unitless)


Q 3. Using the data from the graph, calculate the average mass of the Topicium element.

Mass Abundance Abundace % Adjusted Mass Mas


33.8 3 0.03 1.014 80
34.8 7 0.07 2.436
35.8 8 0.08 2.864 70
36.8 11 0.11 4.048
37.8 71 0.71 26.838
60
Average Mass (sum of Adjusted Mass) = 37.2 amu
50

Abundance (%)
40

30

20

10

0
32 33
Mass spectrum of Topicium
80

70

60

50
Abundance (%)

40

30

20

10

0
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

Mass to charge ration, m/z (unitless)


Q4. a) Calculate the average mass of the element shown in the graph to the right.
b) Identify the element based on its mass spectrum. Defend your reasoning.
Mass spe
100
abundance mass decimal adjusted mass
95 32 0.95 30.4 90
4 34 0.04 1.36
1 33 0.01 0.33 80

70
Average Mass 32.09
60

Abundance (%)
This element is most likely be sulfur because the average mass of this element is
closest to that of sulphur, which has an atomic mass of 32.065. 50

40

30

20

10

0
32 32 33

Mas
Mass spectrum of Sample 1
100

90

80

70

60
Abundance (%)

50

40

30

20

10

0
32 32 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 36 37

Mass to charge ration, m/z (unitless)


Q 5. You analyse a sample of material that contains TWO elements, it's spectrum
is shown on the right.
a) Deduce which two elements are present in the sample. Explain your reasoning.
Mass
100
mass abundance Decimal Adjusted mass
90
198 8 0.08 15.84
195 33 0.33 64.35 80
196 25 0.25 49
70
194 32 0.32 62.08
192 1 0.01 1.92 60

Abundance (%)
The two elements that are present in the sample are gold and platinum because the 50
their atomic weight is the closest to the data points obtained from the graph (that of
195 and 196) 40

30

20

10

0
189 190
Mass spectrum of Sample 2
100

90

80

70

60
Abundance (%)

50

40

30

20

10

0
189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199

Mass to charge ration, m/z (unitless)


15.84
64.35
49
Q 6. You analyse a sample of material that contains an unknown number of elements.
The spectrum is shown on the right.
a) How many elements are in your sample? Explain your reasoning.
Mass
100

90

Mass Abundance 80
53 6
70
56 91
57 2 60

Abundance (%)
58 0.5
59 100 50
63 69
65 31 40

There are four elements in this sample which include Iron, Cobalt, Copper and Zinc 30
because the atomic weight of these four elements is the closest to the data points:
20
55.845, 58.933, 63.546 and 65.38.
10

0
50 52
Mass spectrum of Sample 3
100

90

80

70

60
Abundance (%)

50

40

30

20

10

0
50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66

Mass to charge ration, m/z (unitless)


Abundance
6
Superchallenge

Once you have finished all of your other work, you can tackle these superchallenges. They are n

SC 1

Pick an element with at least 5 isotopes and make a chart of its mass spectrum.

SC 2

In all the previous samples, the sample studied was either made up of 100% of a single element,
Pick two elements and combine them in a 2:1 or 3:1 mixture. Make a chart of the resulting mass

SC 3

The natural abundance of isotopes reflects the stability of the nuclei (made of protons and neutro
suggest which proton/neutron combinations result in a particularly stable nucleus.

SC1

ELEMENT: CALCIUM
ISOTOPES: 5 Ca-42 Ca-43 Ca-44 Ca-46 Ca-48

Mass Abundance
Ca 42 41.958622 0.65
Ca 43 42.958770 0.14
Ca 44 43.955485 2.086
Ca46 45.953689 0.004
Ca 48 47.952532 0.19

Mass Spectrum of Calcium


60.000000

50.000000 47.952532
Mass to charge ratio, m/z, (unitless)

42.958770 43.955485
41.958622
40.000000

Mass
30.000000
Abundance

20.000000

10.000000

0.65 2.086
0.14 0.004 0.19
0.000000
1 2 3 45.953689
4 5
Abundace (Percentage)
Mass to c
10.000000

0.65 2.086
0.14 0.004 0.19
0.000000
1 2 3 45.953689
4 5
Abundace (Percentage)

SC 2

Water: H2O
H2O m/z=18 O+ H + H 16 + 1 + 1 18 amu
OH m/z= 17 O+H 16 + 1 17 amu
O m/z=16 O 16 16 amu
H m/z = 1 H 1 1 amu

Mass Abundance
H 1 3
O 16 10
OH 17 20
H2O 18 100

Mass
Abundance
2

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

SC3 Arranged according to highest abundance more stability

Element Isotope Proton Neutron Abundance


Helium He(4) 2 2 100
Beryllium Be(9) 4 5 100
Fluorine F(19) 9 10 100
Sodium Na(23) 11 12 100
Aluminum Al(27) 13 14 100
Phosphorus P(31) 15 16 100
Hydrogen H(1) 1 0 99.99
Oxygen O(16) 8 8 99.76
Nitrogen N(14) 7 7 99.63
Argon Ar(40) 18 22 99.6
Carbon C(12) 6 6 98.9
Calcium Ca(40) 20 20 96.95
Sulfur S(32) 16 16 95.02
Potassium K(39) 19 20 93.2
Lithium Li(7) 3 4 92.58
Silicon Si(28) 14 14 92.23
Neon Ne(20) 10 10 90.6
Boron B(11) 5 6 80.2
Magnesium Mg(24) 12 12 78.9
Chlorine Cl(35) 17 18 75.77
perchallenges. They are not for the faint of heart.

100% of a single element, or the elements were present in 1:1 proportions (like NaCl or MnO).
chart of the resulting mass spectrum.

made of protons and neutrons). Using isotopic data from the first 20 elements,
ble nucleus.

952532

Mass
Abundance

0.19

5
0.19