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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng

Research Paper

tailpipe of a self-excited Helmholtz pulse combustor

Yanying Xu a,, Ming Zhai b,, Li Guo b, Peng Dong b, Jian Chen a, Zhi Wang a

a

Liaoning Key Laboratory of Aircraft Fire Explosion Control and Reliability Airworthiness Technology, Shenyang Aerospace University, Shenyang 110136, China

b

School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China

h i g h l i g h t s

The pulsating flow in the elbow tailpipe was numerically simulated by FLUENT.

The mean velocity decrease with the velocity amplitude along the tailpipe.

The internal and external elbow pressure decrease along the tailpipe.

Periodical vortex shapes and positions contribute to heat transfer enhancement.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: A valveless self-excited Helmholtz pulse combustor with an elbow tailpipe was designed. The pressures

Received 13 November 2015 along the tailpipe and the internal and external elbow section were measured. The pulsating flow in the

Revised 11 June 2016 elbow tailpipe was numerically simulated by FLUENT. Numerical simulation results show that the mean

Accepted 16 July 2016

velocity decrease with the velocity amplitude along the tailpipe. The mean and amplitude of

Available online 19 July 2016

area-averaged pressure and internal and external elbow pressure decrease along the tailpipe. The mean

and amplitude of the internal elbow pressure are less than those of the external elbow pressure. The sim-

Keywords:

ulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The mass-averaged velocity-reversing,

Self-excited Helmholtz pulse combustor

Pulsating flow

Dean vortex forming, shedding and reforming process and periodical Dean vortex shapes and vortex core

Elbow tailpipe positions contribute to convective heat transfer enhancement.

Numerical simulation 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Heat transfer

1. Introduction combustors, one-way supply valves are used for reactants supply,

and the pressure difference across the one-way valve determines

Pulse combustion is a special combustion process driven by the valves operation. The pulse combustors with valves will

combustion heat release coupling with the acoustic oscillation of reduce the stability and the operation power of pulse combustion,

the structure of the combustor [13]. Pulse combustion is recog- and lead to a narrow range of adjustment. Richards et al. [16]

nized for its high combustion efficiency, high heat transfer rates, developed a Helmholtz thermal pulse combustor without any

and low pollutant emission compared with steady combustion one-way valves for pulse combustion. Pulse combustion was

[46]. Many applications of pulse combustion have been proposed self-excited even with steady reactants supply. Daw et al. [17] used

including thrust generation, pressure gain, and fluid pumping, indi- the model of Ref. to demonstrate that with the pulse combustor, a

rect and direct heating of liquid or air, and so on [713]. Most of bifurcation may lead to chaos. In et al. [18] maintained anticontrol

them have been tried, and some are under development, and a chaos in the system to prevent the system from a transition to

few are in use. flame extinction. Bloom et al. [19] constructed a lumped parameter

Although there are three types of pulse combustor, such as model of pulse combustion which incorporates a valve submodel

Schmidt, Helmholtz and Rijke tubes [14,15], the most available exhibiting continuous mass reactant flow.

pulse combustor is the Helmholtz type. In most Helmholtz pulse There have been many studies about pulsating flows and heat

transfer in a pipe [20,21]. Earlier studies suggested that at the same

Corresponding authors.

Re number, the heat transfer coefficient of a pulsating flow no

E-mail addresses: xyylwzj@163.com (Y. Xu), zhaiming@hit.edu.cn (M. Zhai).

matter turbulent or laminar was much higher than that of a steady

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.07.114

1359-4311/ 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

568 Y. Xu et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 108 (2016) 567580

Nomenclature

!

cp constant pressure specific heat v velocity vector

E specific total energy x axial distance along the tailpipe

f frequency

h sensible enthalpy Greek symbols

I unit tensor l dynamic viscosity

k thermal conductivity m kinematic viscosity

L tailpipe length q density

M molecular weight s stress tensor

p static pressure x radian frequency

Pr Prandtl number

r radial position Subscripts

Rg gas constant A amplitude

R universal gas constant aa area-averaged

t time

ma mass-averaged

T temperature m mean or time-averaged

flow, and there was the optimal frequency to achieve the maxi- pane is approximately 1. Two pieces of quartz glass are set in the

mum heat transfer rate [22,23]. Liewkongsataporn [24] investi- end region of mixing chamber and the profile of the combustion

gated the pulsating flows and heat transfer in a Helmholtz pulse chamber, respectively, for observing the flame in the combustion

combustor straight tailpipe, which used the experimental data zone. Propane flows into the mixing chamber from a standard

from Sandia National Laboratories by Dec et al. [3,5]. The present gas cylinder, and the air is supplied by an air pump. The tailpipe

studies were mainly aimed at the straight pipe and pulsating lam- has a coaxial outer water cooling jacket which formed a counter-

inar flow. Papadopoulos and Vouros [25] presented direct numer- flow heat exchanger with cooling water flowing through the annu-

ical simulations of sinusoidal pulsating turbulent flow at low lar space between the inner and outer tubes from the decoupling

bulk Re numbers with high frequency in a straight pipe. Yan chambers direction to the combustion chambers direction. The

et al. [26] analyzed the heat transfer behavior of pulsating turbu- elbow locates in the middle of the pipe, and the radii is 150 mm.

lent pipe flow in rolling motion. The effect of velocity oscillation The inner diameter of the water cooling jacket is 60 mm with the

period on the heat transfer is more limited than the effect of Rey- length of 1200 mm. Cooling water flows from the exit of the

nolds number and oscillating velocity Reynolds number. Yuan et al. tailpipe to the inlet of the tailpipe, forming a counter-flow heat

[27] investigated theoretically the effects of wall thermal inertia on exchanger system.

heat transfer of pulsating laminar flow and obtained the effects of

the pulsation amplitude, frequency, the Prandtl number and the 2.2. Diagnostics

wall heat capacity on heat transfer. Wantha [28] investigated the

amplitude, force frequency, Reynolds number and blockage ratio The diagnostics used in the experiment are mass flowmeters,

of heat exchangers in pulsating airflows. thermocouples, a digital thermometer, pressure transducers and a

From what has been discussed above, there are few studies on flue gas analyzer. Scales of gas (propane) and air mass flowmeters

flows within a pulse combustor with an elbow tailpipe. Practically, are 010 L/min and 0200 L/min, respectively. The positions of

to increase the heat transfer surface and space of the tailpipes, temperature, pressure and flue gas measuring points are shown in

pulse combustor with elbow tailpipes are commonly used. Since Fig. 2. Thermocouples are used to measure the temperatures of

the pulsating flow in an elbow tailpipe is coupled with the struc- the tailpipe entrance and exit of the exhaust gas and the inner

ture of the tailpipe, the characteristics of the pulsating flow and wall along the tailpipe. The digital thermometer is used to measure

heat transfer will become more complex. The research on charac- the temperature of the inlet and outlet of the cooling water in

teristics of the pulsating flow and heat transfer in an elbow tailpipe the water jacket. Pressure transducers measured the pressure

is very necessary. This paper designed a valveless self-excited in the combustion chamber and along the tailpipe and to determine

Helmholtz pulse combustor with continuous gas and air supply the combustor frequency. The flue gas analyzer measured the com-

that is similar to that of Richards et al. The objective is to investi- ponents content of the flue gas at the exit of the tailpipe and to

gate the characteristics of the pulsating flow and heat transfer in a determine the total equivalence ratio and calculate the mean Re

90 elbow tailpipe of the self-excited pulse combustor, and explain in the tailpipe. The instantaneous signals of pressure and tempera-

the reasons for the enhancement in heat transfer of elbow tailpipe. ture are collected by the computer data acquisition system.

2.1. Experimental facility The flow and heat transfer characteristics of 90 elbow tailpipe

were simulated. A case with relatively high oscillation amplitude of

The experimental setup with the instrumentation is shown in pressure and relatively low operation frequency was selected as

Fig. 1. The combustor consists of a mixing chamber, a combustion the base case. The mean mass flow rate was 3.4 g/s. Fig. 3 shows

chamber, a 90 elbow tailpipe, a decoupling chamber and an the oscillation pressure shape in the combustion chamber. The

exhausting pipe. Air and propane are non-premixed and injected pattern of oscillation was assumed sinusoidal in the numerical

into the mixing chamber separately in radial direction through simulation. The pressure amplitude in the combustion chamber

two groups of vertical orifices. The sizes of the orifices are deter- was 10.316 kPa. The power spectrum of the pressure oscillation

mined by the flux value when the equivalence ratio of air and pro- with a frequency of 29.83 Hz is shown in Fig. 4. The reactants were

Y. Xu et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 108 (2016) 567580 569

1500

ber

30

0 Cham

ion

ust tlet 800

150 o mb Ou

C a ter

W PT

P

b er P

T 10

ham

P P 0

gC

P

xin

T t

i P em nle

M yst t er I

nS

T

hel

l P

o Wa

siti

S T

P Decoupling Chamber

qui

ti on

ula T c

Ins T A

P D ata

T

PP

3

32

Mass Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter

Regulator Regulator 4

508

Air

C3H8 Filter

Air from Pump

propane and air with the excessive air ratio of 1.38. The flue gas 3.1. Mathematical model and boundary conditions

from the combustion was assumed a complete reaction with

73.3% of nitrogen, 7.3% of water vapor, 6.1% of oxygen, and 13.3% The mathematical model consists of three basic conservation

of carbon dioxide on the mass basis. equations, a state equation, and a turbulence model.

570 Y. Xu et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 108 (2016) 567580

12 The outstanding characteristic of the model is the velocity scale,

10 v 2 , instead of the turbulent kinetic energy, k, to calculate the tur-

8 bulent viscosity. The model is solving the following four transport

6

equations:

Standard k-e equations:

Pressure (kPa)

4

@ ! lt

2

qk r qk v P qe r l rk 10

0 @t rk

-2

@ ! C 0 P C e2 q e lt

-4 qe r qe v e1 r l re 11

-6

@t T re

-8 The v 2 transport equation:

-10

@ ! e lt

qv 2 r qv 2 v qkf 6qv 2 r l rv 2

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Cycle @t k rk

12

Fig. 3. Pressure oscillation in the combustion chamber.

Elliptic relaxation equation:

vk 5v

2 2 2

180000 P

f L2 r2 f C 1 1 3 C2 k 13

160000 29.82605 T qk T

140000 The rate of turbulent energy production is

120000

P 2lt S2 14

Power

100000

! !

where S2 S : S, S 12 r v rv T .

80000

The time scale is

60000 !

0 a k

3=2

40000 T min T ; p p 15

20000 3 v 2Cl 2S2

0 The length scale is

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

" 1=4 #

Frequency (Hz) 0 v3

L C L max L ; C g 16

e

Fig. 4. Power spectrum of pressure in the combustion chamber.

k pv 0

Continuity equation: where T 0 max e;6 e , L min

k3=2

e ; p13 k3=2

p .

v 2 Cl 2

2S

@q ! Eddy viscosity:

r q v 0 1

@t

lt qC l v 2 T 17

Momentum equation:

The constants of the model are

@ ! ! !

q v r q v v rp r s 2 a 0:6; C 1 1:4; C 2 0:3; C e1 1:4; C e2 1:9;

@t

! ! 2 ! C g 70; C l 0:22;

s lr v rv T r v I 3 q

3

C L 0:23; rk 1; re 1:3; C 0e1 C e1 1 0:045 k=v 2

Energy equation:

@ !

18

qE r v qE p r keff rT 4

@t The boundary conditions of turbulence parameters were

p v2 determined by turbulence intensity and hydraulic diameter. The

Eh 5

q 2 turbulence intensity was set to the default value of 10%. The turbu-

Z T lence intensity was configured to be 0.1% due to lower turbulence

h cp dT 6 levels at the tailpipe exit with the hydraulic diameter of 26 mm.

T ref

The inlet of the 90 elbow tailpipe was configured to the

c p lt

keff k 7 pressure-inlet, because it coincided with the actual condition.

Pr t The pressure oscillation in the combustion chamber can be

State equation for ideal gas: assumed sinusoidal. Therefore, the pressure-inlet condition can

p be simply written as a mean value plus a sine oscillating part:

q 8

Rg T pt pm pA sinxt 19

R

Rg 9 With this condition, at the inlet of the computational domain, the

M time-averaged pressure value Pm is 1350 Pa. Pressure amplitude PA

The v2-f model was selected for complex and strongly separated is 10,136 Pa according to Fig. 3. The flue gas temperature at the

flows that may occur during flow reversal and flow in the elbow inlet was 1228 K according to the average value of experimental

tailpipe. The model is taking into account the turbulence measurement data.

Y. Xu et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 108 (2016) 567580 571

The pressure-outlet boundary condition was constant ambient 4. Results and discussion

pressure. The backflow temperature was regarded as the ambient

temperature (300 K). Oscillation shape variation of inlet mass flow rate was tracked

The boundary conditions at the wall of the tailpipe were sta- in the simulation. The iterative process ended when the oscillation

tionary and no-slip. The temperature of Zone 2 (flue gas and cool- waveform was stable. Fig. 6 shows ten stable cycles of the mass

ing water heat exchanger) was assumed to be uniform and flow rate at the inlet, and the time-averaged mass flow rate is

constant for simplification, and the temperature was set to 430 K. 3.4 g/s. For comparison, the mass-averaged and area-averaged

The rest of the wall temperature was set to no heat flux. velocity, pressure and temperature are defined by

R

qudA

uma R 20

3.2. Grid and numerical method qdA

R

udA

Since boundary conditions outside the tailpipe might influence uaa R 21

dA

the velocity profile at the tailpipe exit during flow reversal, the R

pqudA

computational domain was extended outside the tailpipe exit as pma R 22

showed in Fig. 5. Coordinates origin was located in the rotation qudA

R

center of the elbow. The mainstream inlet direction was coordinate pdA

paa R 23

axis Y. The mainstream exit direction was coordinate axis X, and h dA

was the polar angle. The inlet of the elbow was h = 90, and the exit R

T qudA

of the elbow was h = 0. The length of the elbow tailpipe was T ma R 24

qudA

1500 mm with a radius of r = 150 mm. For grid generation, the

computational domain was divided into eight zones. Among them, Fig. 7 shows the mass-averaged velocity oscillations at six posi-

hexahedral structured grids were generated in zone and , tions along the tailpipe mainstream direction. Velocity oscillations

and unstructured grids were generated in zone and . Since are periodically varied, and the pattern of the oscillations is sinu-

boundary layer is important to simulation, eight rows of cells (first soidal. The flue gas in the tailpipe flows back and the backflow time

row: 0.1 mm, factor: 1.2) were set for the boundary layer of the reaches the maximum at the exit, about 0.4 cycles. The mean and

tailpipe. The grid independence has been checked for sizes amplitude of mass-averaged velocities are shown in Table 1. The

(0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, and 4 mm) of the cells out of the boundary average velocity reaches the maximum at the inlet of the tailpipe

layer, and 1 mm was selected to generate the grid. The total grids and decreases gradually along the mainstream direction. The

were 868,753. velocity amplitude reaches the minimum at the inlet of the tailpipe

The numerical simulation was performed by the software FLU- and gradually increases along the mainstream direction. The tem-

ENT version 6.3. The grid was generated by the GAMBIT software perature is maximum at the inlet of the tailpipe, and the mean

version 2.3. The three-dimensional double-precision solver and velocity of the flue gas is maximum. The temperature decreases

the pressure-based implicit solution were adopted. SIMPLEC and gradually along the mainstream direction since convective heat

PISO were selected for steady and unsteady flows, respectively. transfer along the tailpipe surface. There are frictional resistance

The characteristic time step was 335 ls (there were 100 steps cal- and local resistance to the flow so that the mean velocity

culated for each cycle), and the maximum number of iterations decreases. The velocity amplitude gradually increases along the

allowed in each physical time step was 400. A user-defined func- mainstream direction.

tion file was used to define the pressure-inlet boundary condition Fig. 8 shows the area-averaged pressure oscillations at ten

for the flow. The 3D Q-criterion was defined as a custom field func- positions along the tailpipe mainstream direction. The pressure

tion for the identification of vortices. oscillations are similar to sine curves. The mean and amplitude

572 Y. Xu et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 108 (2016) 567580

16 11

Exp.Mean

14 10

Exp.Amplitude

12 9

CFD.Amplitude

10 8

CFD.Mean

8 7

Mass Flow Rate (g/s)

Pressure (kPa)

6 6

4 5

2 4

0 3

-2 2

-4 1

-6 0

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

-8 l/L

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Cycle Fig. 9. Mean and amplitude of area-averaged pressure along the tailpipe.

100 8

80 6 Elbow inlet (Ex)

y=-332mm

y=-182mm = 60 ( In)

60

Mass-averaged velocity (m/s)

x=182mm 4 = 60 ( Ex)

40 x=332mm

= 30 ( In)

2

Pressure (kPa)

Exit = 30 ( Ex)

20

Elbow exit (In)

0

0 Elbow exit (Ex)

-20 -2

-40 -4

-60 -6

-80

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 -8

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Cycle

Cycle

Fig. 7. Mass-averaged velocity oscillation of the tailpipe.

Fig. 10. Internal and external elbow pressure.

Table 1

Mean and amplitude of mass-averaged velocity of tailpipe section.

8

Position along Inlet y = 332 y = 182 x = 182 x = 332 Exit

the mainstream 7

direction

Mean (m/s) 21.55 19.85 17.28 10.28 9.22 7.08 6

Amplitude (m/s) 64.44 67.05 67.72 70.67 71.50 75.39 Exp.Amplitude( In)

5 Exp.Mean( In)

Pressure (kPa)

Exp.Amplitude( Ex)

12 4 Exp.Mean( Ex)

10 CFD.Amplitude( In)

Inlet 3 CFD.Mean( In)

8

y=-332 CFD.Amplitude( Ex)

6 2 CFD.Mean( Ex)

y=-182

4 = 90

Pressure (kPa)

1

2 = 60

0 = 30 0

0.40 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.48 0.50 0.52 0.54 0.56 0.58 0.60

-2 = 0

l/L

x=182

-4

x=332 Fig. 11. Mean and amplitude of pressure of internal and external elbow in radial

-6 direction.

Exit

-8

-10

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 of area-averaged pressure along the tailpipe are plotted in Fig. 9.

Cycle The mean and amplitude of area-averaged pressure are maximum

at the inlet of the tailpipe and decrease gradually along the main-

Fig. 8. Area-averaged pressure in the tailpipe. stream direction since there is the energy loss when flue gas flows.

Y. Xu et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 108 (2016) 567580 573

The mean and amplitude of area-averaged pressure are the mini- ally along the mainstream direction. The results of the numerical

mum at the tailpipe exit. The results of the numerical simulation simulation are in good agreement with the experimental data.

agree with the experimental data. Fig. 12 shows instantaneous velocity and temperature profiles

Internal and external elbow pressure oscillations of the tailpipe across the tailpipe at y = 332 mm, elbow inlet, elbow exit,

in the radial direction are shown in Fig. 10. Fig. 11 shows the mean x = 332 mm and the tailpipe exit in the radial direction (Z = 0).

and amplitude of internal and external wall elbow pressure. The From Fig. 12(a) and (b), it can be seen that the profiles of velocity

mean and amplitude of internal elbow pressure are all less than and temperature are relatively flat away from the wall, which

that of external elbow due to the effect of the curvature of the behaves a turbulent pulsating flow. The profiles are almost not

elbow section on the flow. Influenced by the centrifugal force, affected by the elbow section. However, at the elbow inlet of the

the flue gas tends to squeeze the external wall. The mean and tailpipe, there are overshoot velocities and temperatures in the

amplitude of internal and external elbow pressure decrease gradu- boundary layer as showed in Fig. 12(c) and (d). The temperature

120 1300

100 1200

0.125T 0.125T

0 0

80 1100

0.250T 0.250T

0 0

60 1000

0.375T 0.375T

Temperature (K)

0 0

Velocity (m/s)

0 0

20 0.625T 800 0.625T

0

0

0 0.750T 700 0.750T

0 0

0.875T 0.875T

-20 0 600 0

1.000T 1.000T

-40 0 500 0

-60 400

-14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

r (mm) r (mm)

(a) Instantaneous velocity profiles at y=-332mm (b) Instantaneous temperature profiles at y=-332mm

120 1100

100 1050

0.125T 1000

0 0.125T

80 950 0

0.250T

0 900 0.250T

60 0

0.375T 850

0 0.375T

Temperature (K)

40

Velocity (m/s)

0

0.500T 800

0 0.500T

20 750 0

0.625T

0 700 0.625T

0 0

0.750T 650

0 0.750T

-20 0

0.875T 600

0 0.875T

-40 550 0

1.000T

0 500 1.000T

-60 0

450

-80 400

-14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

r (mm) r (mm)

(c) Instantaneous velocity profiles at elbow inlet (d) Instantaneous temperature profiles at elbow inlet

120 950

100 900

0.125T 850 0.125T

80 0 0

0.250T 800 0.250T

60 0 0

0.375T 750 0.375T

0

0

Temperature (K)

40

Velocity (m/s)

0 0

20

0.625T 650 0.625T

0 0

0 600

0.750T 0.750T

0 0

-20 550

0.875T 0.875T

0 0

-40 500

1.000T 1.000T

0 0

-60 450

-80 400

-14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

r (mm) r (mm)

(e) Instantaneous velocity profiles at elbow exit (f) Instantaneous temperature profiles at elbow exit

Fig. 12. Instantaneous velocity and temperature profiles of tailpipe in radial direction (Z = 0).

574 Y. Xu et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 108 (2016) 567580

100 660

80 640

0.125T 620 0.125T

0 0

60

0.250T 600 0.250T

0 0

40 580

0.375T 0.375T

Temperature (K)

0

Velocity (m/s)

0

20 560

0.500T 0.500T

0 0

540

0 0.625T

0 520 0.625T

0

-20 0.750T

0 500 0.750T

0

-40 0.875T 480 0.875T

0 0

1.000T 460

-60 0 1.000T

0

440

-80 420

-14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

r (mm) r (mm)

(g) Instantaneous velocity profiles at x=332mm (h) Instantaneous temperature profiles at x=332mm

100 480

80 460

0.125T 0.125T

0 440 0

60

0.250T 0.250T

0 420 0

40 0.375T 0.375T

0 0

Temperature (K)

Velocity (m/s)

400

20 0.500T 0.500T

0 0

380

0 0.625T 0.625T

0 0

360

0.750T 0.750T

-20 0 0

340

0.875T 0.875T

0 0

-40 320

1.000T 1.000T

0 0

-60 300

-14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

r (mm)

r (mm)

(i) Instantaneous velocity profiles at the tailpipe exit

(j) Instantaneous temperature profiles at the tailpipe exit

Fig. 12 (continued)

overshoots in the boundary layer are more apparent, which leads However, the positions of the streamlines and vortex cores are dif-

to the decrease of the thickness of the thermal boundary layer. ferent. Fig. 16 shows the instantaneous vortices at the section of

The profiles of velocity and temperature have been affected by h = 0o and h = 90o are similar in a cycle. Dean vortex forming, shed-

the curvature of the elbow section. Fig. 12(e) and (f) shows the ding and reforming process in a cycle enhance the disturbance

same characteristics with (c) and (d). However, overshoot temper- between the fluid and the wall. Thus, the convective heat transfer

atures in the boundary layer are more evident. The difference of between the flue gas and the tailpipe wall is enhanced. Besides,

internal and external elbow temperature is large, and the thermal cyclical changes in the Dean vortex also strengthen the disturbance

boundary layer thickness decreases significantly. There are still between the fluid and the wall, which also lead to the enhance-

obvious overshoot velocities and temperatures in the boundary ment of the convective heat transfer.

layer at x = 332 mm as showed in Fig. 12(g) and (h), which suggests The center and mass-averaged temperature oscillations of the

that the profiles of velocity and temperature are still affected by cross section are plotted in Fig. 17. The center and mass average

the curvature of the elbow section. Fig. 12(i) and (j) shows that temperature of the cross section are gradually decreased along

the effects of curvature of the elbow section on profiles of velocity the tailpipe due to the wall heat transfer. The center temperature

and temperature are weakened. The temperature of the tailpipe of the cross section is much higher than the mass average temper-

exit is greatly decreased, which indicates the effect of flow reversal ature upstream of the elbow section inlet. From Fig. 12(b), the tem-

is significant. perature is much lower near the wall than away from the wall, and

Figs. 1316 are the instantaneous contours of vortices by Q- the density near the wall is much higher. Therefore, the mass-

criterion at the section of h = 90o, h = 60o, h = 30o and h = 0o in a averaged temperature of the cross section is lower than the center

cycle respectively. It can be seen from Fig. 13, the flue gas flows temperature. The center temperature of the cross section is close to

from internal to external elbow at (c), (d) and (e). The velocity the mass-averaged temperature after the elbow section exit.

has a certain deflection but does not form a vortex at (b). There Fig. 12(h) shows that there are overshoot temperatures near the

is Dean vortex in (a), (f), (g) and (h), but the positions of the vortex wall. The temperature of the external elbow is lower than that of

core are different. The symmetry of the vortex core appears at the the internal wall. The center temperature of the cross section is

center of half of the section at 0.875T0, while the vortex core offsets not maximum in the whole cross section. When the velocity is pos-

to the wall at 0.125T0, 0.75T0 and 1.0T0, which indicates there is itive, the flue gas continuously flows from upstream to down-

significant extended phenomenon of the vortex core. It experi- stream, and the hot flue gas from further inside the tailpipe is

enced vortex forming, shedding and reforming process in a cycle. driven out of the tailpipe until the velocity changes direction again.

Figs. 14 and 15 show a variety of Dean vortexes form in a cycle. Therefore, the temperature reaches a local maximum, from higher-

Y. Xu et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 108 (2016) 567580

(a) t=0.125T0 (b) t=0.250T0 (c) t=0.375T0 (d) t=0.500T0

Fig. 13. Contours at the section of h = 90o.

575

576

Y. Xu et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 108 (2016) 567580

(a) t=0.125T0 (b) t=0.250T0 (c) t=0.375T0 (d) t=0.500T0

Fig. 14. Contours at the section of h = 60o.

Y. Xu et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 108 (2016) 567580

(a) t=0.125T0 (b) t=0.250T0 (c) t=0.375T0 (d ) t=0.500T0

Fig. 15. Contours at the section of h = 30o.

577

578

Y. Xu et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 108 (2016) 567580

(a) t=0.125T0 (b) t=0.250T0 (c) t=0.375T0 (d) t=0.500T0

Fig. 16. Contours at the section of h = 0o.

Y. Xu et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 108 (2016) 567580 579

1300 1300

1200 1200

Mass-averaged Temperature(K)

1100 1100

1000 1000

Temperature (K)

y=-332mm y=-332mm

800 y=-182mm 800 y=-182mm

x=182mm x=182mm

700 700 x=332mm

x=332mm

600 Tailpipe Exie 600 Tailpipe Exie

500 500

400 400

300 300

200 200

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Cycle Time Cycle Time

(a) Temperature profiles at tailpipe centerline (b) Mass-averaged temperature profiles

Fig. 17. Centerline and mass-averaged temperature profiles.

temperature flue gas upstream. Fig. 17(b) shows there are sudden temperature and velocities in the boundary layer, especially the

drops in mass-averaged temperature and two extreme points overshoot temperatures, which lead to the decrease in thermal

when the mass-averaged velocity oscillation changes direction boundary layer thickness and the enlarge the temperature

(Fig. 7). The sudden temperature drop shows the heat transfer difference between internal and external elbow wall surface.

enhancement. It indicates that the heat transfer between the flue Mass-Averaged temperature drops sharply and appears two

gas and the wall is enhanced when mass-averaged velocity oscilla- extreme points when the direction of the mass-averaged velocity

tion direction changes. At the tailpipe exit, the temperature is close oscillation changes. There are Dean vortexes at the elbow section.

to the ambient level (300 K) for about half of a cycle, which shows However, the shapes of the vortex are various, and the positions of

that the temperature is greatly influenced by the ambient air. The the vortex core are different in a cycle. It experiences Dean vortex

influence scope is limited to a short distance of tailpipe exit. forming, shedding and reforming process at inlet and exit of the

The difference between the centerline and mass-averaged tem- elbow section in a cycle, which is beneficial to heat transfer

perature profiles is due to their definitions. The gradient of the enhancement.

velocity profiles away from the wall is much smaller than that near

the wall. When velocity changes direction, the temperature near Acknowledgement

wall contributes more to the mass-averaged temperature. Since

the temperature is much lower near the wall than away from the This work was supported by National Natural Science

wall, there are sudden drops in each mass-averaged temperature Foundation of China (Grant No. 51206032), China Postdoctoral

profile except the exit due to the influence of the ambient air out Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M531037) and Heilongjiang

of the tailpipe. However, at the tailpipe center, when flue gas Postdoctoral Financial Assistance (Grant No. LBH-Z12101).

begins to flow back, the centerline temperature is still high but

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