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Chapter: 2

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Contents
2.1 Flight Crew ............................................................................................................................................ 7
2.1.1 Conversion Training and Checking General ....................................................................................... 7
2.1.1.1 New Entrant Training Procedure and Requirements ................................................................... 12
2.1.2 orange2fly Introduction ............................................................................................................... 12
2.1.2.1 Ground Training............................................................................................................................ 13
2.1.2.1.1 Training Goal: ............................................................................................................................ 13
2.1.2.1.2 Ground School Examination ...................................................................................................... 13
2.1.2.1.3 LVO Ground Training ................................................................................................................. 13
2.1.2.2 Emergency and Safety Equipment Training ................................................................................. 13
2.1.2.3 CRM Training ................................................................................................................................ 14
2.1.2.4 Synthetic Training Device and Aeroplane Training ...................................................................... 14
2.1.2.4.1 Synthetic Training Device - Training .......................................................................................... 14
2.1.2.4.2 LVO Synthetic Training Device................................................................................................... 15
2.1.2.4.3 Crew composition...................................................................................................................... 15
2.1.2.4.4 Zero flight time training (ZFTT) .................................................................................................. 15
2.1.2.4.5 Briefing and debriefing .............................................................................................................. 15
2.1.2.4.6 Instructor ................................................................................................................................... 15
2.1.2.4.7 Aeroplane Training .................................................................................................................... 15
2.1.2.4.8 Flying Tests and Checks ............................................................................................................. 16
2.1.2.4.9 Line Flying Under Supervision ................................................................................................... 16
2.1.2.5 Reserved ....................................................................................................................................... 17
2.1.2.6 Reduced Vertical Separation Minima ........................................................................................... 17
2.1.2.7 BRNAV- PRNAV Training ............................................................................................................... 18
2.1.2.8 TCAS Training ................................................................................................................................ 18
2.1.2.9 Route Competence Training ......................................................................................................... 19
2.1.2.10 Categories of Aerodromes, Area & Airfield Briefings ................................................................. 19
2.1.3 Differences and Familiarisation Training ......................................................................................... 19
2.1.3.1 Operation on more than one type or variant ............................................................................... 20
2.1.3.2 Operator Difference Requirements (ODRs) ................................................................................. 22
2.1.3.2.1 Methodology - Use of Operator Difference Requirement (ODR) Tables .................................. 24
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2.1.4 Recurrent Training ........................................................................................................................... 29


2.1.4.1 Ground and Refresher Training .................................................................................................... 35
2.1.4.2 Aeroplane/Synthetic Training Device ........................................................................................... 35
2.1.4.3 Emergency and Safety Equipment ............................................................................................... 36
2.1.4.4 CRM .............................................................................................................................................. 37
2.1.4.5 Recurrent Checking....................................................................................................................... 43
2.1.4.6 Operator Proficiency Check (OPC) ................................................................................................ 43
2.1.4.7 Licence Proficiency Check (LPC).................................................................................................... 44
2.1.4.8 Emergency and Safety Equipment Check ..................................................................................... 44
2.1.4.9 Line Check ..................................................................................................................................... 45
2.1.5 Command Training .......................................................................................................................... 45
2.1.5.1 Qualification ................................................................................................................................. 46
2.1.5.2 Ability............................................................................................................................................ 46
2.1.5.3 Evaluation process........................................................................................................................ 46
2.1.5.4 Character ...................................................................................................................................... 46
2.1.5.5 Command Course ......................................................................................................................... 46
2.1.5.5.1 Objective ................................................................................................................................... 46
2.1.5.5.2 Ground training ......................................................................................................................... 46
2.1.5.5.3 Flight simulator training and checking ...................................................................................... 47
2.1.5.5.4 Line flying under supervision..................................................................................................... 47
2.1.5.5.5 Line check .................................................................................................................................. 47
2.1.5.5.6 Area and Airport qualification ................................................................................................... 47
2.1.5.6 Operational Limitations for New Commanders ........................................................................... 47
2.1.5.6.1 Non Precision Approaches ........................................................................................................ 47
2.1.5.6.2 Precision Approaches ................................................................................................................ 48
2.1.5.6.3 Take-off ..................................................................................................................................... 48
2.1.5.6.4 Cross-Wind ................................................................................................................................ 48
2.1.5.6.5 Allowing the Co-Pilot to conduct the flight ............................................................................... 48
2.1.6 Pilot Qualification to Operate in either Pilots Seat ......................................................................... 48
2.1.7 Training Matrix ................................................................................................................................ 49
2.2 Cabin Crew .......................................................................................................................................... 50
2.2.1 Senior Cabin Crew Members ........................................................................................................... 50
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2.2.1.1 Senior Cabin Crew Member Training Syllabi (2 days) .................................................................. 51


2.2.2 Cabin Crew Ground Trainers/ Checkers ................................................................................... 52
2.2.2.1 Ground Trainer Training Syllabi (3 days) ...................................................................................... 53
2.2.3 Initial Training .................................................................................................................................. 54
2.2.3.1 Cabin Crew Attestation ................................................................................................................ 54
2.2.4 Differences Training & Aircraft Type Specific Training and Operator Conversion Training ............ 56
2.2.5 Familiarisation ................................................................................................................................. 65
2.2.5.1 Aeroplane visit .............................................................................................................................. 67
2.2.5.2 Familiarisation Flight .................................................................................................................... 67
2.2.6 Recurrent training and checking (every year) ................................................................................. 67
2.2.6.1 Recurrent training and checking (Every 3 years).......................................................................... 71
2.2.7 Refresher Training ........................................................................................................................... 71
2.2.8 Fire and smoke training ................................................................................................................... 73
2.2.9Medical Aspects and First Aid Training ............................................................................................ 73
2.2.10 Dangerous Goods Training ............................................................................................................ 75
2.2.11 Aviation Security Training.............................................................................................................. 77
2.2.12 Security Procedures Training......................................................................................................... 77
2.2.13 Crew Resource Management Training .......................................................................................... 78
2.2.14 Representative Training Devices and Training Methods............................................................... 85
2.2.15 Checking ........................................................................................................................................ 88
2.2.15.1 Methods of checking .................................................................................................................. 88
2.2.15.2 In-flight check ............................................................................................................................. 89
2.2.16 Company procedures in case of failure ......................................................................................... 89
2.2.16.1 Failure during Initial/Conversion/Recurrent/Refresher Training and Checking ........................ 89
2.2.16.2 Failure during Senior Course ...................................................................................................... 89
2.2.16.3 Failure during GTI Course ........................................................................................................... 89
2.2.16.4 Failure during in-flight check ...................................................................................................... 89
2.2.17 Training Records ............................................................................................................................ 90
2.2.18 Operation on more than one aircraft type or variant ................................................................... 91
2.3 Operations Personnel, including Crew members ............................................................................... 93
2.3.1 Dangerous Goods Awareness Training............................................................................................ 93
2.3.1.1 Purpose and scope ....................................................................................................................... 93
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2.3.1.2 Crew, Handling agents and other subcontractors ........................................................................ 94


2.3.1.3 Course schedule ........................................................................................................................... 94
2.3.1.4 Instructors .................................................................................................................................... 94
2.3.1.5 Review .......................................................................................................................................... 95
2.3.1.6 Checking requirements ................................................................................................................ 95
2.3.1.7 Dangerous Goods training syllabus .............................................................................................. 95
2.3.2 Aviation Security Training................................................................................................................ 95
2.3.2.1 Handling agents and other subcontractors .................................................................................. 95
2.3.2.2 orange2fly Policy ....................................................................................................................... 96
2.3.2.3 Course schedule ........................................................................................................................... 96
2.3.2.4 Instructors .................................................................................................................................... 96
2.3.2.5 Realisation .................................................................................................................................... 96
2.3.2.6 Syllabus ......................................................................................................................................... 96
2.3.3 Safety Management ........................................................................................................................ 97
2.3.4 Compliance Monitoring System briefing ......................................................................................... 97
2.3.4.1 Syllabus ......................................................................................................................................... 97
2.3.5 Cosmic & Solar Radiation ................................................................................................................ 98
2.3.5.1 Training material .......................................................................................................................... 98
2.3.5.2 Syllabus ......................................................................................................................................... 98
2.4 Operations Personnel other than crewmembers ............................................................................... 98
2.4.1 Training ............................................................................................................................................ 98
2.4.2 General Training Syllabus ................................................................................................................ 98
2.4.3 Operations manual .......................................................................................................................... 99
2.4.4 Fuel policy & Flight Planning System ............................................................................................... 99
2.4.5 Performance & Mass and Balance .................................................................................................. 99
2.4.6 Flight Operations Officers / Flight Dispatchers Training ............................................................... 100
2.5 Training Syllabus Fatigue Management Training ............................................................................. 104
2.5.1 Training Syllabus Fatigue Management Training .......................................................................... 104
2.5.1.1 Training Syllabus Fatigue Management Training for Crew ........................................................ 105
2.5.1.2 Syllabus for Crewing, Scheduling and Rostering Staff ................................................................ 105
2.5.1.3 Training Syllabus Fatigue Management Training for Management ........................................... 106
2.5.1.4 Overview of Syllabus Fatigue Management Training Programme ............................................. 106
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2.5.1.5 Refreshers Training Content and Frequency ............................................................................. 106


2.5.2 Assessing the Effectiveness of Fatigue Management Training ..................................................... 107
2.5.3 Keeping Training Records .............................................................................................................. 108
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2.1 Flight Crew

2.1.1 Conversion Training and Checking General

ORO.FC.120 Operator conversion training

(a) In the case of aeroplane operations, the flight crew member shall complete orange2fly
conversion training course before commencing unsupervised line flying:
(1) When changing to an aircraft for which a new type or class rating is required;
(2) When joining orange2fly.
(b) orange2fly conversion training course shall include training on the equipment installed on the
aircraft as relevant to flight crew members roles.

ORO.FC.220 Operator conversion training and checking

(a) CRM training is integrated into orange2fly conversion training course.


(b) Once a conversion course has been commenced, the flight crew member shall not be assigned to
flying duties on another type or class of aircraft until the course is completed or terminated.
(c) The amount of training required by the flight crew member for orange2fly conversion course shall
be determined in accordance with the standards of qualification and experience specified in the
operations manual, taking into account his/her previous training and experience.
(d) The flight crew member shall complete:
(1) orange2fly proficiency check and the emergency and safety equipment training and checking
before commencing line flying under supervision (LIFUS); and
(2) The line check upon completion of line flying under supervision.
(e) In the case of aeroplanes, pilots that have been issued a type rating based on a zero flight-time
training (ZFTT) course shall:
(1) Commence line flying under supervision not later than 21 days after the completion of the skill
test or after appropriate training provided by orange2fly. The content of such training shall be
described in the operations manual;
(2) Complete six take-offs and landings in a FSTD not later than 21 days after the completion of the
skill test under the supervision of a type rating instructor for aeroplanes (TRI(A)) occupying the other
pilot seat. The number of take-offs and landings may be reduced when credits are defined in the data
established in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 748/2012. If these take-offs and landings have not
been performed within 21 days, orange2fly Will provide refresher training.
The content of such training is described in the operations manual;
(3) Conduct the first four take-offs and landings of the LIFUS in the aeroplane under the supervision
of a TRI (A) occupying the other pilot seat. The number of take-offs and landings may be reduced
when credits are defined in the data established in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 748/2012.
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Conversion Training and Checking General (cont.)

AMC1 ORO.FC.220 Operator conversion training and checking

OPERATOR CONVERSION TRAINING SYLLABUS


(a) General
(1) orange2fly conversion training includes, in the following order:
(i) Ground training and checking, including aircraft systems, and normal, abnormal and emergency
procedures;
(ii) Emergency and safety equipment training and checking, (completed before any flight training in
an aircraft commences);
(iii) Flight training and checking (aircraft and/or FSTD); and
(iv) Line flying under supervision and line check.
(2) When the flight crew member has not previously completed an operators conversion course, he/she
should undergo general first-aid training and, if applicable, ditching procedures training using the
equipment in water.
(3) Where the emergency drills require action by the non-handling pilot, the check should additionally
cover knowledge of these drills.
(4) The operators conversion is to be combined with a new type/class rating training as required by
Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011.
(5) orange2fly ensures that the personnel integrating elements of CRM into conversion training are
suitably qualified.
(b) Ground training
(1) Ground training comprises a properly organised programme of ground instruction supervised by
training staff with adequate facilities, including any necessary audio, mechanical and visual aids. Self-
study using appropriate electronic learning aids, computer-based training (CBT) etc. may be used with
adequate supervision of the standards achieved. However, if the aircraft concerned is relatively simple,
unsupervised private study may be adequate when orange2fly provides suitable manuals and/or
study notes.
(2) The course of ground instruction is incorporating formal tests on such matters as aircraft systems,
performance and flight planning, where applicable.
(c) Emergency and safety equipment training and checking
(1) Emergency and safety equipment training takes place in conjunction with cabin/technical crew
undergoing similar training with emphasis on coordinated procedures and two-way communication
between the flight crew compartment and the cabin.
(2) On the initial conversion course and on subsequent conversion courses as applicable, the following
are addressed:
(i) Instruction on first-aid in general (initial conversion course only); instruction on first-aid as
relevant to the aircraft type of operation and crew complement including those situations where no
cabin crew is required to be carried (initial and subsequent).
(ii) Aero-medical topics including:
(A) Hypoxia;
(B) Hyperventilation;
(C) Contamination of the skin/eyes by aviation fuel or hydraulic or other fluids;
(D) Hygiene and food poisoning; and
(E) Malaria.
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Conversion Training and Checking General (cont.)


(iii) The effect of smoke in an enclosed area and actual use of all relevant equipment in a simulated
smoke-filled environment or simulated fire except that, with Halon extinguishers, an alternative
extinguisher is to be used.
(v) The operational procedures of security, rescue and emergency services.
(vi) Survival information appropriate to their areas of operation (e.g. polar, desert, jungle or sea) and
training in the use of any survival equipment required to be carried.
(vii) A comprehensive drill to cover all ditching procedures where flotation equipment is carried. This
should include practice of the actual donning and inflation of a life-jacket, together with a
demonstration or audio-visual presentation of the inflation of life-rafts and/or slide-rafts and
associated equipment. This practice is, on an initial conversion course, to be conducted using the
equipment in water, although previous certified training with another operator or the use of similar
equipment will be accepted in lieu of further wet-drill training.
(viii) Instruction on the location of emergency and safety equipment, correct use of all appropriate
drills, and procedures that could be required of flight crew in different emergency situations.
Evacuation of the aircraft (or a representative training device) by use of a slide where fitted should be
included when the operations manual procedure requires the early evacuation of flight crew to assist
on the ground.
(d) Flight training
(1) Flight training is to be conducted to familiarise the flight crew member thoroughly with all aspects of
limitations and normal, abnormal and emergency procedures associated with the aircraft and is to be
carried out by suitably qualified class and type rating instructors and/or examiners.
For specific operations such as steep approaches, ETOPS, or operations based on QFE, additional training
is to be carried out, based on any additional elements of training defined for the aircraft type in the data
in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 748/2012, where they exist.
(2) In planning flight training on aircraft with a flight crew of two or more, particular emphasis should be
placed on the practice of LOFT with emphasis on CRM, and the use of crew coordination procedures,
including coping with incapacitation.
(3) Normally, the same training and practice in the flying of the aircraft is to be given to co-pilots as well as
commanders. The flight handling sections of the syllabus for commanders and co-pilots alike include all
the requirements of orange2fly proficiency check required by ORO.FC.230.
(4) Unless the type rating training programme has been carried out in an FSTD usable for ZFTT, the training
includes at least three take-offs and landings in the aircraft.
(e) Line flying under supervision (LIFUS)
(1) Following completion of flight training and checking as part of orange2fly conversion course, each
flight crew member must operate a minimum number of sectors and/or flight hours under the supervision
of a flight crew member nominated by orange2fly.
(2) The minimum flight sectors/hours are specified in the operations manual and are being determined by
the following:
(i) Previous experience of the flight crew member;
(ii) Complexity of the aircraft; and
(iii) The type and area of operation.
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Conversion Training and Checking General (cont.)


(f) Passenger handling training is required, other than general training on dealing with people, emphasis
should be placed on the following:
(1) Advice on the recognition and management of passengers who appear or are intoxicated with alcohol,
under the influence of drugs or aggressive;
(2) Methods used to motivate passengers and the crowd control necessary to expedite an aircraft
evacuation; and
(3) The importance of correct seat allocation with reference to aircraft mass and balance.
Particular emphasis is also being given on the seating of special categories of passengers.
(g) Emphasis is placed on discipline and an individual's responsibilities in relation to:
(1) His/her ongoing competence and fitness to operate as a crew member with special regard to flight and
duty time limitation (FTL) requirements; and
(2) Security procedures.
(h) Training is given in the preparation of passengers for normal and emergency situations.

GM1 ORO.FC.220 (b) Operator conversion training and checking

COMPLETION OF AN OPERATORS CONVERSION COURSE


(a) orange2fly conversion course is deemed to have started when the flight training has begun.
The theoretical element of the course may be undertaken ahead of the practical element.
(b) Under certain circumstances the course may have started and reached a stage where, for unforeseen
reasons, it is not possible to complete it without a delay. In these circumstances orange2fly will allow the
pilot to revert to the original type.
(c) Before the resumption of the conversion course, orange2fly evaluates how much of the course needs
to be repeated before continuing with the remainder of the course.
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Conversion Training and Checking General (cont.)

GM1 ORO.FC.220 (d) Operator conversion training and checking


LINE FLYING UNDER SUPERVISION
(a) Line flying under supervision provides the opportunity for a flight crew member to carry into practice the
procedures and techniques he/she has been made familiar with during the ground and flight training of
orange2fly conversion course. This is accomplished under the supervision of a flight crew member
specifically nominated and trained for the task. At the end of line flying under supervision the respective crew
member must be able to perform a safe and efficient flight conducted within the tasks of his/her crew
member station.
(b) A variety of reasonable combinations may exist with respect to:
(1) A flight crew member's previous experience;
(2) The complexity of the aircraft concerned; and
(3) The type of route/role/area operations.
(c) Aeroplanes.
The following minimum figures for details to be flown under supervision are guidelines to be used when
establishing individual requirements:
(1) turbo-jet aircraft
(i) Co-pilot undertaking first conversion course:
(A) Total accumulated 100 hours or minimum 40 flight sectors;
(ii) Co-pilot upgrading to commander:
(A) Minimum 20 flight sectors when converting to a new type;
(B) Minimum 10 flight sectors when already qualified on the aeroplane type.

orange2fly conversion course and the type rating course required for the issue of Flight Crew License may
be combined. However, once the conversion course has been commenced, a flight crew member does not
undertake flying duties on another type or class until the course is completed or terminated.

Conversion Training Syllabus (type rated pilots) Captains and F/O


Day 1(8h): Company Introduction - A/C systems
Day2 (8h): A/C systems
Day3 (8h): B/P RNAV - RVSM - TCAS - GPWS - A/C Differences
Day4 (8h): Performance - A/C Loading - Load sheet- Taxiing of a/c (GM1 CAT.GEN.MPA.125)
Checking;
1 Day (8h): SEP Training
1 or 2 Days CRM Training (refer to para 2.1.2.3)
Simulator Training:
Day1 (4h): Refresher Training
Day2 (4h): OPC/LPC
Aviation Security Training: 12 hours (refer to para 2.2.11 for training syllabus)
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2.1.1.1 New Entrant Training Procedure and Requirements

A/C
Ground Aviation orange2fly TCAS RVSM Sim. Line
Experience Safety CRM DG trainin
school Security Induction RNAV training Training
g

Type Rated yes yes yes yes yes yes as required as yes
required
Non-Type
yes yes yes yes yes yes as required as yes yes
rated required

Notes:

1. An abbreviated Aeroplane system course (system refresher) will be conducted.


2. For candidates holding a valid certificate from a previous operator registered on EASA member state,
certificates may be validated, provided that not expiring in that period, and that the companys
specifics are covered in the orange2fly indoc.
3. RVSM, TCAS, RNAV, applicable for relevant Aeroplane type.
4. An abbreviated flight simulator-training programme consists of 1 session followed by an OPC.
5. For type rated candidates a minimum of 10 sectors is required, excluding the Line Check.
6. For non-type rated candidate commanders a minimum of 20 sectors is required, excluding the Line
check.

2.1.2 orange2fly Introduction


During this course the flight crewmember is familiarised (indoctrination) with the various aspects of the
company. Any qualified personnel may conduct the initial introduction;
orange2fly Company structure;
SOPs;
Flight planning and work and rest regulations;
Operations Manuals.
The OM introduction is instructed according to orange2fly Operations Manual Parts A, B, C and D.
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2.1.2.1 Ground Training

The course of ground instruction will incorporate formal tests on aeroplane systems, performance and flight
planning. The training may include MOCK-UP facilities, video presentations and other types of training such
as self-study, where the trainee shall follow a specific program prepared from the training department with
the use of training leaflets or other training material (USB Flash Drives or hard copies).
Correspondence courses through approved ATOs are also accepted.

2.1.2.1.1 Training Goal:


Upon Completion of the ground Training the student will be able to:
Describe the purpose/operation of the aeroplane systems stated below.
Identify and locate the cockpit controls and indicators for the aeroplane systems listed below.
Describe and demonstrate the purpose and correct operation of each of the aeroplane system's
cockpit control.
Understand the normal and non-normal operation of each system, and describe the corrective
action needed to resolve the abnormal condition.

2.1.2.1.2 Ground School Examination


The ground school will be concluded within the Company for pilots already holding the type rating.
Written examination comprising of 100 questions will be provided with a pass grade of minimum 75%.
For pilots not holding the type rating all training and checking should be conducted by an ATO.
The Training Manager will be responsible to make all necessary administration arrangements with HCAA.

Note: Checking of first aid training consists of minimum 10 questions with pass mark of 80%.

2.1.2.1.3 LVO Ground Training


RESERVED

2.1.2.2 Emergency and Safety Equipment Training


{AMC1 ORO.FC.220 (c)}
The initial conversion course and subsequent conversion courses as applicable are performed by an
appropriately qualified orange2fly ground instructor or external training organisation or a combination of
the two.
The instructors will, as far as is practicable, provide combined training for flight crew and cabin crew. Provision
should be made for flight and cabin crew instructors to observe and comment on each other training. The
successful resolution of aeroplane emergencies requires interaction between flight crew and cabin crew and
emphasis will be placed on the importance of effective co-ordination and two-way communication between
all crewmembers in various emergency situations.
Checking
Upon completion of the above training a written test of 30 questions will be given by an orange2fly ground
instructor, covering all aspects of emergency and safety equipment and procedures.
Pass rate is 75%.
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2.1.2.3 CRM Training

If the flight crewmember has not previously completed an operator's conversion course, then a full length
CRM course must be completed. If the flight crewmember undergoes a subsequent conversion course he
shall complete the appropriate elements of the CRM course. The student will not be assessed either during
or on completion of specific CRM training, courses or exercises.
(Refer also to Appendix B of this Manual.)

2.1.2.4 Synthetic Training Device and Aeroplane Training


{AMC1 ORO.FC.220 (d)}
General
Flying training will be structured and sufficiently comprehensive to familiarise the flight crewmember
thoroughly with all aspects of limitations and normal / abnormal and emergency procedures associated with
the aeroplane and will be carried out by suitably qualified TRI/SFI and /or TRE/SFE. Additional training will be
required for specialised operations such as steep approaches, ETOPS or Category II operations.
Aeroplane/Flight Simulator training, particular emphasis should be placed on the practice of line orientated
flying training (LOFT) with emphasis on crew resource management CRM. The same training and practice in
flying of the aeroplane will be given to co-pilots as well as to the commanders. The flight handling sections
of the syllabus for commanders and co-pilots alike will include all the requirements of the operator proficiency
check. A flight simulator, subject to its qualification level and approval, may be used for all or part of the
checks given in this Chapter, except for the Line Check, subject to the approval of the Authority. (Refer to
AMC1 ORO.FC.220 (d))

2.1.2.4.1 Synthetic Training Device - Training


The Synthetic Training Device conversion syllabus is designed to provide a progressive sequence of training
appropriate to the average pilot.
The aims of the Synthetic Flight Training are to:
a) Provide environmental training in instrument flying and normal / abnormal / emergency in-flight procedures
so that the pilot will react without error or loss of control to any given situation;
b) Install pilot confidence in his own ability and in the integrity of the aeroplane and its systems;
c) Provide realistic and complete practice of abnormal drills;
d) Certify those licensing or operator items for which the simulator is approved;
e) Achieve a high standard of overall pilot performance.
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2.1.2.4.2 LVO Synthetic Training Device


RESERVED

2.1.2.4.3 Crew composition


The normal flight crew consists of a commander and co-pilot.
In case the crew consists of (2) commanders or (2) co-pilots, the course may be completed with both
crewmembers taking turns acting as commander and co-pilot, provided, PF duties are trained and completed
from the seat for which the crew member is being trained.
During LOFT sessions, the crewmember must be trained from the seat that he is being trained for and the
other crew seat must be occupied by a crewmember qualified for, or under training for that seat.

2.1.2.4.4 Zero flight time training (ZFTT)


Reserved

2.1.2.4.5 Briefing and debriefing


Normally consist of 1 hours briefing and hours debriefing. Where possible full use is made of wallboards
and visual aids to help reinforce the instruction. Students are being encouraged to make brief notes and
answer questions to ensure their participation and full attention throughout the briefing.

2.1.2.4.6 Instructor
Initial/conversion flight simulator training is conducted by a TRI or SFI. The flight simulator check is conducted
by a TRE/SFE.

2.1.2.4.7 Aeroplane Training


Aircraft flight training is part of the initial conversion training as well as of the type rating check unless a ZFTT
simulator is approved by HCAA is used. Aircraft Training must be conducted by a qualified instructor (TRI) and
checking by (TRE) all circuits are to be flown at 1500 feet or higher above airport elevation.
Airport and Weather Minimums for Circuit Training:
Airport Elevation not exceeding 2000 Pressure Altitude.
Runway Length minimum 2500 m (Stop way may be included).
Ceiling Height not lower than 2000 AAL
Visibility not lower than 5000 m.
X-Wind component not exceeding 10 kts.
Turbulence not exceeding Light intensity.
Precipitation not exceeding light rain
Runway Condition no contamination is allowed.
Of course common sense must be used at all times.
With the exception of courses approved for zero flight time, the amount of flight time in the aeroplane should
be adequate for the completion for the skills test.
A pilot with less than 500 hrs. Flight time on similar type of aeroplane, or less than 1500 hrs. Total flight time
should complete at least 6 landings including full stop landings.
A pilot with more than 500 hrs. Flight time on similar type or in excess of 1500 hrs. Total flight time should
complete at least 4 landings. Aeroplane training is conducted by a TRI.
The aeroplane Check is conducted by a TRE.
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2.1.2.4.8 Flying Tests and Checks

The following mandatory tests and checks will be carried out on or prior to completion of the conversion
training and prior to commencing Line Flying under Supervision.
Emergency and Safety Equipment Check;
Type rating Skill Test;
Operator Proficiency Check and or LPC renewal;
The Emergency and Safety Equipment Check must be completed before the candidate flies the aeroplane.
When the Operator Proficiency Check is conducted in an approved synthetic flight trainer crews shall also
demonstrate their proficiency in conducting ILS approaches to Category II aerodrome operating minima,
when applicable.

2.1.2.4.9 Line Flying Under Supervision


{AMC1 ORO.FC.220 (e)}
Line flying under supervision provides the opportunity for a flight crew member to carry into practice the
procedures and techniques he has been made familiar with during the ground and flying training of the
conversion course. At the end of line flying under supervision the respective flight crewmember should be
able to perform a safe and efficient flight conducted within the terms of reference of his flight crewmember
station. Following completion of synthetic training device/aeroplane training and checking each flight
crewmember shall operate a minimum number of sectors and/ or flying hours under the supervision of a LTC.
The Training Manager shall determine the minimum number of sectors after taking into account the
following:
Previous experience of the flight crew member,
Complexity of the aeroplane, and
The type and area of operation.
Nevertheless, the number of sectors to be flown, as LIFUS, cannot be less than ten (10) for experienced
flight crew, on the type, and less than twenty (20) for a crew member without previous experience on the
type.
When a flight crewmember (commander or co-pilot) with no/ or very little previous experience on the type,
begins line flying under supervision a fully qualified commander/co-pilot (safety pilot) shall be carried in
addition, until the LTC feels that it is no longer required.

Safety Pilot (SP)


A fully qualified pilot with more than 100 hrs. on type pilot shall be to fly as supernumerary for the initial
10 sectors when the trainee pilot has no previous experience on that variant. There is no requirement for the
LTC to hold the safety pilot for all 10 sectors. The Training Captains may cancel/ continue the requirement for
the carriage of SP during initial line training at their discretion.
Where the trainee pilot is type rated and has previous experience on the variant a SP will not normally be
rostered for initial line training.
The carriage of a SP in these circumstances will only be required if:
The trainee pilot has less than 100 hours operational experience or,
The trainee pilot has no previous experience of the area of operations or,
The trainee pilot has no previous experience of operation within Hellas or Europe or,
The CI determines that a safety pilot is necessary following simulator training
A line check will be completed upon completion of line flying under supervision conducted by an approved LTC.
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2.1.2.5 Reserved

2.1.2.6 Reduced Vertical Separation Minima


{(SPA.RVSM.105 (c), AMC1 SPA.RVSM.105 (c) and AMC2 SPA.RVSM.105 (f)}

SPA.RVSM.105 RVSM operational approval


To obtain an RVSM operational approval from the competent authority, the operator shall provide evidence
that:
(c) A training programme for the flight crew members involved in these operations has been established;

AMC1 SPA.RVSM.105 RVSM operational approval


(c) Training programmes, operating practices and procedures
The operator should submit training syllabi for initial and recurrent training programmes together with other
relevant material. The material should show that the operating practices, procedures and training items,
related to RVSM operations in airspace that requires State operational approval, are incorporated.

AMC2 SPA.RVSM.105 RVSM operational approval


(f) Crew training
(1) The following items should also be included in flight crew training programmes:
(i) Knowledge and understanding of standard ATC phraseology used in each area of operations;
(ii) Importance of crew members cross-checking to ensure that ATC clearances are promptly and
correctly complied with;
(iii) Use and limitations in terms of accuracy of standby altimeters in contingencies. Where applicable,
the pilot should review the application of static source error correction/position error correction
through the use of correction cards; such correction data should be available on the flight deck;
(iv) Problems of visual perception of other aircraft at 300 m (1 000 ft.) planned separation during
darkness, when encountering local phenomena such as northern lights, for opposite and same
direction traffic, and during turns;
(v) Characteristics of aircraft altitude capture systems that may lead to overshoots;
(vi) Relationship between the aircrafts altimetry, automatic altitude control and transponder
systems in normal and abnormal conditions; and
(vii) Any airframe operating restrictions, if required for the specific aircraft group, related to RVSM
airworthiness approval.
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Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (cont.)

If flight crew members are to operate an aeroplane type, which is RVSM, approved on the orange2fly AOC,
they have to be trained for RVSM operations. This training is incorporated in the conversion training for the
applicable type.
The training consists of the following:
Self-study (RVSM Study Guide refer to O.M. Part. D Appendix D)
Classroom instruction by an orange2fly Ground Instructor or any other qualified personnel.
Completions of the RVSM Questionnaire with a minimum pass mark of 75%.
RVSM qualification is obtained by completion the above. The subjects, which will be reviewed during this
training as follows:
Knowledge and understanding of standard ATC phraseology;
The importance of Crosschecking to ensure that ATC clearances are promptly and correctly complied
with;
Limitations and correction charts for the use of standby altimeter in contingencies;
Problems of visual perception of other aeroplane at 1000 ft. separation during darkness, when
encountering local phenomena such as northern lights, for opposite and same direction traffic and
during turns;
Characteristics of altitude capture system, which may lead to overshoots;
Relationship between primary altimeter systems, automatic altitude control and transponder
systems in normal and abnormal conditions;
Any airframe restrictions, if required for a particular type, related to RVSM airworthiness approval;
Awareness of problems due to wake vortex encounters at TCAS operations in RVSM airspace;
Awareness about Transitions problems and safety issues.
Note: Also refer to Appendix D of this manual

2.1.2.7 BRNAV- PRNAV Training


(SPA.PBN.105)
SPA.PBN.105 PBN operational approval
(b) A training programme for the flight crew members involved in these operations has been established;

During Conversion training, RNAV programme shall consist of Theoretical and Practical Training:
Theoretical Training:
1. Self-study guide (Copy of appendix G of OM part D Area Navigation)
2. Instruction Manual for the RNAV system installed in the aircraft.
Practical Training:
1. During line flying under supervision contacted by LTC
Note: Refer to Appendix G of this manual

2.1.2.8 TCAS Training


During conversion & recurrent training, TCAS programme consist of theoretical and practical training:
Theoretical Training:
1. Self-study guide (Appendix F to OM part D TCAS/ACAS)
2. AOM, description of system components and procedures.
Practical Training:
1. Practical training conducted during recurrent simulator training and OPC.
Note: Refer to Appendix F of this manual
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2.1.2.9 Route Competence Training

Prior to being assigned as commander or as a pilot to whom the conduct of the flight may be delegated by
the commander, the pilot shall undergo training to ensure that he has obtained adequate knowledge of the
route to be flown and of the aerodromes (including alternates), facilities and procedures to be used.
Route competence training will include knowledge of:
a. Terrain and minimum safe altitudes;
b. Seasonal meteorological conditions;
c. Meteorological, communication and air traffic facilities, services and procedure;
d. Search and rescue procedures, and
e. Navigational facilities associated with the route along which the flight is to take place.

Depending on the complexity of the route, as assessed by orange2fly, the following methods of
familiarizations are used:
1. For the less complex routes, familiarization by self-briefing with route documentation, or by means
of programmed instruction; and
2. For more complex routes, in addition to sub-paragraph (1) above. In-flight familiarization as a
commander, co-pilot or observer under supervision, or familiarization in a synthetic training device
using a database appropriate to the route concerned.

Note: Route and Area briefings are to be found in Section 3 of the Airfield/Area Briefings part of the Route
Manual O.M. Part. C. Route competence training is conducted by LTC. Airfield/Area Briefings can also be
conducted via audio visual aids (Vistair).

Route and aerodrome competence qualification shall be revalidated by operating on the route or to the
aerodrome within the period of validity.
The period of validity of the route and aerodrome competence qualification shall be 12 calendar months in
addition to the remainder of:
1. The month of qualification; or
2. The month of the latest operation on the route or to the aerodrome.
If revalidated within the final three calendar months of the validity of the previous route and aerodrome
competence qualification, the period of validity shall extend from the date of revalidation until 12 calendar
months from the expiry date of that previous route and aerodrome competence qualification.

2.1.2.10 Categories of Aerodromes, Area & Airfield Briefings


Aerodromes in the Company Area of Operations are categorised according to their characteristics of terrain
difficulties, approach aids and approach patterns, weather conditions or performance limitations etc.
The details of aerodrome categorisations and the requirements for briefings are given in the Operations
Manual Part C (The Route Manual - Airfield/Area Briefings).
The aerodrome briefings are given in Section 2 of the Airfield/Area Briefings part of the Route Manual.

2.1.3 Differences and Familiarisation Training


(ORO.FC.125)
ORO.FC.125 Differences training and familiarization training
(a) Flight crew members shall complete differences or familiarisation training when required by Annex I
(Part-FCL) to Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011 and when changing equipment or procedures requiring
additional knowledge on types or variants currently operated.
(b) The operations manual shall specify when such differences or familiarisation training is required.
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Differences and Familiarization Training (cont.)

AMC1 ORO.FC.125 Differences training and familiarization training


GENERAL
(a) Differences training require additional knowledge and training on the aircraft or an appropriate
training device. They are carried out:
(1) When introducing a significant change of equipment and/or procedures on types or variants
currently operated; and
(2) In the case of aeroplanes, when operating another variant of an aeroplane of the same type or
another type of the same class currently operated; or
(b) Familiarization training requires only the acquisition of additional knowledge. It is carried out when:
(1) Operating another aeroplane of the same type; or
(2) When introducing a significant change of equipment and/or procedures on types or variants
currently operated.

In orange2fly differences and familiarization training is conducted by an approved TRI/LTC


A flight crewmember shall complete differences training which requires additional knowledge and training
on an appropriate training device or the aeroplane when:
Operating another variant of an aeroplane of the same type or another type of the same class
currently operated; or
A change of equipment and/or procedures on types of variants currently operated which requires
additional knowledge and training on an appropriate training device or on the aeroplane.

2.1.3.1 Operation on more than one type or variant


(ORO.FC.140)
ORO.FC.140 Operation on more than one type or variant
(a) Flight crew members operating more than one type or variant of aircraft shall comply with the
requirements prescribed in this Subpart for each type or variant, unless credits related to the training,
checking, and recent experience requirements are defined in the data established in accordance with
Regulation (EC) No 748/2012 for the relevant types or variants.
(b) Appropriate procedures and/or operational restrictions shall be specified in the operations manual for any
operation on more than one type or variant.

ORO.FC.240 Operation on more than one type or variant


(a) The procedures or operational restrictions for operation on more than one type or variant established
in the operations manual and approved by the competent authority shall cover:
(1) The flight crew members minimum experience level;
(2) The minimum experience level on one type or variant before beginning training for and operation of
another type or variant;
(3) The process whereby flight crew qualified on one type or variant will be trained and qualified on another
type or variant; and
(4) All applicable recent experience requirements for each type or variant.
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Operation on more than one type or variant (cont.)

AMC1 ORO.FC.240 Operation on more than one type or variant


GENERAL
(a) Aeroplanes
(2) When a flight crew member operates more than one aeroplane type or variant within one or more
licence endorsement as defined by Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011 and associated procedures,
orange2fly ensures that:
(i) The minimum flight crew complement specified in the operations manual is the same for each type
or variant to be operated;
(ii) the flight crew member does not operate more than two aeroplane types or variants for which a
separate licence endorsement is required, unless credits related to the training, checking, and recent
experience requirements are defined in data established in accordance with Regulation (EC) No
748/2012 for the relevant types or variants; and
(iii) Only aeroplanes within one licence endorsement are flown in any one flight duty period, unless
the operator has established procedures to ensure adequate time for preparation.
(3) When a flight crew member operates more than one aeroplane type or variant listed in Regulation
(EU) No 1178/2011 and associated procedures for type-single pilot and type-multi pilot, but not
within a single licence endorsement, the operator should comply with points (a) (2) and (4).
(4) When a flight crew member operates more than one aeroplane type or variant listed in Regulation
(EU) No 1178/2011 and associated procedures for type multi-pilot, but not within a single licence
endorsement, orange2fly complies with the following:
(i) Point (a)(2);
(ii) Before exercising the privileges of more than one licence endorsement:
(A) Flight crew members must have completed two consecutive operator proficiency checks and
should have:
- 500 hours in the relevant crew position in CAT operations with the same operator;
100 hours or flight sectors in the relevant crew position in CAT operations with the same operator,
if at least one licence endorsement is related to a class. A check flight is to be completed before
the pilot is released for duties as commander;
(B) In the case of a pilot having experience with orange2fly and exercising the privileges of more
than one licence endorsement, and then being promoted to command with orange2fly on one
of those types, the required minimum experience as commander is 6 months and 300 hours, and
the pilot should have completed two consecutive operator proficiency checks before again being
eligible to exercise more than one licence endorsement;
(iii) Before commencing training for and operation of another type or variant, flight crew members
must have completed 3 months and 150 hours flying on the base aeroplane, which includes at least
one proficiency check, unless credits related to the training, checking and recent experience
requirements are defined in data established in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 748/2012 for
the relevant types or variants;
(iv) After completion of the initial line check on the new type, 50 hours flying or 20 sectors must be
achieved solely on aeroplanes of the new type rating, unless credits related to the training, checking
and recent experience requirements are defined in data established in accordance with Regulation
(EC) No 748/2012 for the relevant types or variants;
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AMC1 ORO.FC.240 Operation on more than one type or variant (cont.)


(e) Use of FSTD
(1) Training and checking provide an opportunity to practice abnormal/emergency procedures that
rarely arise in normal operations and is part of a structured programme of recurrent training. This is
carried out in a FSTD whenever possible.
(2) The line check is performed in the aircraft. All other training and checking is performed in an FSTD.
The type of equipment used for training and checking should be representative of the
instrumentation, equipment and layout of the aircraft type operated by the flight crew member.
(3) Because of the unacceptable risk when simulating emergencies such as engine failure, icing
problems, certain types of engine(s) (e.g. during continued take-off or go-around, total hydraulic
failure), or because of environmental considerations associated with some emergencies (e.g. fuel
dumping) these emergencies are to be covered in an FSTD.

The concept of operating more than one type or variant depends upon the experience, knowledge and ability
of the operator and the flight crew concerned.
The first consideration is whether or not the two aeroplane types or variants are sufficiently similar
to allow the safe operation of both.
The second consideration is whether or not the types or variants are sufficiently similar for the
training, checking and recent experience items completed on one type or variant to replace those
required on the similar type or variant. If these aeroplanes are similar in these respects, then it is
possible to have credit for training, checking and recent experience. Otherwise, all training, checking
and recent experience

2.1.3.2 Operator Difference Requirements (ODRs)


Training and checking levels
Level A
Training:
Level A training can be adequately addressed through self-instruction by a crew member
through page revisions, bulletins or differences handouts. Level A introduces a different
version of a system or component which the crew member has already shown the ability to
use and understand. The differences result in no, or only minor, changes in procedures.
Checking:
A check related to differences is not required at the time of training. However, the crew
member is responsible for acquiring the knowledge and may be checked during proficiency
checking.
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Operator Difference Requirements (ODRs) (cont.)

Level B
Training:
Level B training can be adequately addressed through aided instruction such as slide/tape
presentation, computer based instruction which may be interactive, video or classroom
instruction. Such training is typically used for part-task systems requiring knowledge and
training with, possibly, partial application of procedures (e.g. fuel or hydraulic systems etc.).
Checking:
A written or oral check is required for initial and recurrent differences training.
Level C
Training:
Level C training should be accomplished by use of hands on STDs qualified according to EU-
STD 2A, Level 1 or higher. The differences affect skills, abilities as well as knowledge but do
not require the use of real time devices. Such training covers both normal and non-normal
procedures (for example for flight management systems).
Checking:
An STD used for training level C or higher is used for a check of conversion and recurrent
training. The check should utilise a real time flight environment such as the demonstration
of the use of a flight management system. Manoeuvres not related to the specific task do not
need to be tested.
Level D
Training:
Level D training addresses differences that affect knowledge, skills and abilities for which
training will be given in a simulated flight environment involving, real time flight
manoeuvres for which the use of an STD qualified according to EU-STD 2A, Level 1 would not
suffice, but for which motion and visual clues are not required. Such training would typically
involve an STD as defined in EU-STD 2A, Level 2.
Checking:
A proficiency check for each type or variant should be conducted following both initial and
recurrent training. However, credit may be given for manoeuvres common to each type or
variant and need not be repeated. Items trained to level D differences may be checked in
STDs qualified according to EU-STD 2A, Level 2. Level D checks will therefore comprise at least
a full proficiency check on one type or variant and a partial check at this level on the other.
Level E
Training:
Level E provides a realistic and operationally oriented flight environment achieved only by
the use of Level C or D Flight Simulators or the aeroplane itself. Level E training should be
conducted for types and variants which are significantly different from the base aeroplane
and/or for which there are significant differences in handling qualities.
Checking:
A proficiency check on each type or variant should be conducted in a level C or D Flight
Simulator or the aeroplane itself. Either training or checking on each Level E type or variant
should be conducted every 6 months. If training and checking are alternated, a check on one
type or variant should be followed by training on the other so that a crew member receives
at least one check every 6 months and at least one check on each type or variant every 12
months.
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2.1.3.2.1 Methodology - Use of Operator Difference Requirement (ODR) Tables

General
Use of the methodology described below is acceptable to the Authority as a means of evaluating aeroplane
differences and similarities to justify the operation of more than one type or variant, and when credit is
sought.
ODR Tables
Before requiring flight crew members to operate more than one type or variant, operators should first
nominate one aeroplane as the Base Aeroplane from which to show differences with the second aeroplane
type or variant, the difference aeroplane, in terms of technology (systems), procedures, pilot handling and
aeroplane management. These differences, known as Operator Difference Requirements (ODR), preferably
presented in tabular format, constitute part of the justification for operating more than one type or variant
and also the basis for the associated differences/familiarisation training for the flight crew.

Table 1 - ODR 1 General

BASE AEROPLANE: DIFFERENCE AEROPLANE: COMPLIANCE METHOD


Recent
GENERAL DIFFERENCES FLT CHAR PROC CHNG Training Checking
Experience
General Identification of Impact on flight Impact on Assessment of the difference levels
description of the relevant characteristics procedures according to Table 4
aircraft differences (performance (Yes or No)
(dimensions between the and/or handling)
weight, base aeroplane
limitations, etc.) and the
difference
aeroplane.

Table 2 - ODR 2 systems

BASE AEROPLANE: DIFFERENCE AEROPLANE: COMPLIANCE METHOD

Recent
SYSTEM DIFFERENCES FLT CHAR PROC CHNG Training Checking
Experience

Brief List of differences for Impact on flight Impact on Assessment of the difference levels
description each relevant characteristics procedures according to Table 4
of systems subsystem between (performance (Yes or No)
and the base aeroplane and/or handling)
subsystems and the difference
classified aeroplane.
according to
the ATA 100
index.
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Methodology - Use of Operator Difference Requirement (ODR) Tables (cont.)

Table 3 - ODR 3 manoeuvres

BASE AEROPLANE: DIFFERENCE AEROPLANE: COMPLIANCE METHOD

Recent
MANOEUVRES DIFFERENCES FLT CHAR PROC CHNG Training Checking
Experience

Described List of relevant Impact on flight Impact on Assessment of the difference levels
according to differences for characteristics procedures according to Table 4
phase of flight each manoeuvre (performance (Yes or No)
(gate, taxi, between the base and/or
flight, taxi, aeroplane and the handling)
gate) difference
aeroplane.

Compilation of ODR Tables

ODR 1 - Aeroplane general


The general characteristics of the difference aeroplane should be compared with the base aeroplane with
regard to:
General dimensions and aeroplane design;
Flight deck general design;
Cabin layout;
Engines (number, type and position);
Limitations (flight envelope).
ODR 2 - Aeroplane systems
Consideration should be given to differences in design between the difference aeroplane and the base
aeroplane. This comparison should be completed using the ATA 100 index to establish system and subsystem
classification and then an analysis performed for each index item with respect to main architectural,
functional and/or operations elements, including controls and indications on the systems control panel.

ODR 3 - Aeroplane manoeuvres (operational differences)


Operational differences encompass normal, abnormal and emergency situations and include any change in
aeroplane handling and flight management. It is necessary to establish a list of operational items for
consideration on which an analysis of differences can be made. The operational analysis should take the
following into account:
Flight deck dimensions (e.g. size, cut-off angle and pilot eye height);
Differences in controls (e.g. design, shape, location, function);
Additional or altered function (flight controls) in normal or abnormal conditions;
Procedures;
Handling qualities (including inertia) in normal and abnormal configurations;
Performance in manoeuvres;
Aeroplane status following failure;
Management (e.g. ECAM, EICAS, navaid selection, automatic checklists).
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Methodology - Use of Operator Difference Requirement (ODR) Tables (cont.)

Once the differences for ODR 1, ODR 2 and ODR 3 have been established, the consequences of differences
evaluated in terms of Flight Characteristics (FLT CHAR) and Change of Procedures
(PROC CHNG) should be entered into the appropriate columns.
Difference Levels - crew training, checking and currency
The final stage of an operators proposal to operate more than one type or variant is to establish crew
training, checking and currency requirements. This may be established by applying the coded
difference levels from Table 4 to the Compliance Method column of the ODR Tables.
Differences items identified in the ODR systems as impacting flight characteristics, and/or procedures, should
be analysed in the corresponding ATA section of the ODR manoeuvres. Normal, abnormal and emergency
situations should be addressed accordingly.
Table 4 - Difference Levels versus training

Method/Minimum Specification for Training


Difference Level
Device

Self-Instruction through operating bulletins or


A: Represents knowledge requirement.
differences handouts

B: Aided instruction is required to ensure crew Aided instruction e.g. computer based training
understanding, emphasise issues, aid retention of (CBT), class room instruction or video tapes.
information, or: aided instruction with partial Interactive CBT
application of procedures

C: For variants having part task differences affecting skills


or abilities as well as knowledge. Training device
STD (EU-STD 2A, Level 1)
required to ensure attainment and retention of crew
skills

D: Full task differences affecting knowledge, skills and/or


abilities using STDs capable of performing flight STD (EU-STD 2A, Level 2)
manoeuvres.

E: Full tasks differences requiring high fidelity environment


STD (EU-STD 1A, Level C)
to attain and maintain knowledge skills and abilities.

Note: Levels A and B require familiarisation training, levels C, D and E require differences training. For Level
E, the nature and extent of the differences may be such that it is not possible to fly either types or variants
with a credit.
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Methodology - Use of Operator Difference Requirement (ODR) Tables (cont.)

Differences between aeroplane types or variants


The first stage in any operators submission for crew multi-type or variant operations is to consider the
differences between the types or variants. The principal differences are in the following three areas:
a) Level of technology. The level of technology of each aircraft type or variant under consideration
encompasses at least the following design aspects:
1. Flight deck layout (e.g. design philosophy chosen by a manufacturer);
2. Mechanical versus electronic instrumentation;
3. Presence or absence of Flight Management System (FMS);
4. Conventional flight controls (hydraulic, electric or manual controls) versus fly-by-wire;
5. Side-stick versus conventional control column;
6. Pitch trim systems;
7. Engine type and technology level (e.g. jet/turboprop/piston, with or without automatic
protection systems.
b) Operational differences. Consideration of operational differences involves mainly the pilot machine
interface, and the compatibility of the following:
1. Paper checklist versus automated display of checklists or messages (e.g. ECAM, EICAS) during
all procedures;
2. Manual versus automatic selection of navaids;
3. Navigation equipment;
4. Aircraft weight and performance.
c) Handling characteristics. Consideration of handling characteristics includes control response, crew
perspective and handling techniques in all stages of operation. This encompasses flight and ground
characteristics as well as performance influences (e.g. number of engines). The capabilities of the
autopilot and auto thrust systems may affect handling characteristics as well as operational
procedures.
Training, checking and crew management.
Alternating training and proficiency checking may be permitted if the submission to operate more than one
type or variant shows clearly that there are sufficient similarities in technology, operational procedures and
handling characteristics.
EXAMPLE: An example of completed ODR tables for an operators proposal for flight crews to operate more
than one type or variant may appear as follows
Table 1 - ODR 1 - AEROPLANE GENERAL

BASE AEROPLANE: X
COMPLIANCE METHOD
DIFFERENCE AEROPLANE: Y

GENERAL DIFFERENCES FLT CHAR PROC CHNG Training Checking Recent Experience

Same flight deck


Flight
arrangement, 2 NO NO A / /
Deck
observers seats on Y

Y max certificated
Cabin passenger capacity: NO NO A / /
335, X: 179
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Methodology - Use of Operator Difference Requirement (ODR) Tables (cont.)


Table 2 - ODR 2 - SYSTEMS

BASE AEROPLANE: X COMPLIANCE METHOD


DIFFERENCE AEROPLANE: Y
FLT PROC Recent
SYSTEMS DIFFERENCES Training Checking
CHAR CHNG Experience
- Trim air system NO YES B B B
21 Air Conditioning - Packs NO NO
- Cabin temp. NO YES
22 Auto flight - FMGS architecture NO NO B B B
- FMGES functions NO YES C C B
- Reversion modes NO YES D D D
23 Communications

Table 3 - ODR 3 - MANOEUVRES

BASIC AEROPLANE: X
COMPLIANCE METHOD
DIFFERENCE AEROPLANE: Y
FLT PROC Recent
MANOEUVRES DIFFERENCES Training Checking
CHAR CHNG Experience
- Pilot eye height, YES NO D D /
turn radius,
Taxy
- two engine taxy NO NO A / /
(1&4)
Flight Characteristics
Take-off YES NO E E E
in ground law
Reverser actuation
Rejected take-off YES NO D D D
logic
YES(P) B
- V1/Vr split
Take-off engine * NO B B
- Pitch attitude
failure YES(H) NO E E
/lateral control
*
*P = Performance, H = Handling

Note: A summary of training should be maintained by the operator to show a flight crew members
completion of each stage of training and checking.
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2.1.4 Recurrent Training


(ORO.FC.130, ORO.FC.230)

ORO.FC.130 Recurrent training and checking


(a) Each flight crew member is to complete annual recurrent flight and ground training relevant to the type
or variant of aircraft on which he/she operates, including training on the location and use of all emergency
and safety equipment carried.
(b) Each flight crew member is periodically checked to demonstrate competence in carrying out normal,
abnormal and emergency procedures.

ORO.FC.230 Recurrent training and checking

(a) Each flight crew member will complete recurrent training and checking relevant to the type or variant
of aircraft on which they are going to operate.
(b) Operator proficiency check
(1) Each flight crew member must complete operator proficiency checks as part of the normal crew
complement to demonstrate competence in carrying out normal, abnormal and emergency
procedures.
(2) The flight crew member is required to operate under IFR, so the operator proficiency check is to be
conducted without external visual reference.
(3) The validity period of the operator proficiency check is to be six calendar months. The proficiency
check shall be undertaken before commencing commercial air transport operations.
(c) Line check
(1) Each flight crew member will complete a line check on the aircraft to demonstrate competence in
carrying out normal line operations described in the operations manual.
The validity period of the line check shall be 12 calendar months.
(2) Notwithstanding ORO.FC.145 (a) (2), line checks may be conducted by a suitably qualified
commander nominated by orange2fly, trained in CRM concepts and the assessment of CRM skills.
(d) Emergency and safety equipment training and checking
Each flight crew member must complete training and checking on the location and use of all emergency
and safety equipment carried. The validity period of an emergency and safety equipment check shall be 12
calendar months.
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Recurrent Training (cont.)

ORO.FC.230 Recurrent training and checking (cont.)

(e) CRM training


(1) Elements of CRM shall be integrated into all appropriate phases of the recurrent training.
(2) Each flight crew member must undergo specific modular CRM training. All major topics of CRM
training must be covered by distributing modular training sessions as evenly as possible over each
three-year period.
(f) Each flight crew member will undergo ground training and flight training in an FSTD or an aircraft, or a
combination of FSTD and aircraft training, at least every 12 calendar months.
(g) The validity periods mentioned in (b) (3), (c) and (d) shall be counted from the end of the month when
the check was taken.
(h) When the training or checks required above are undertaken within the last three months of the
validity period, the new validity period shall be counted from the original expiry date.

AMC1 ORO.FC.230 Recurrent training and checking

RECURRENT TRAINING SYLLABUS


(a) Recurrent training
Recurrent training comprises the following:
(1) Ground training
(i) The ground training programme includes:
(A) Aircraft systems;
(B) Operational procedures and requirements including ground de-icing/anti-icing and pilot
incapacitation; and
(C) Accident/incident and occurrence review.
(ii) Knowledge of the ground training is to be verified by a questionnaire or other suitable
methods.
(iii) When the ground training is conducted within 3 calendar months prior to the expiry of the
12 calendar months period, the next ground and refresher training is to be completed within
12 calendar months of the original expiry date of the previous training.
(2) Emergency and safety equipment training
(i) Emergency and safety equipment training may be combined with emergency and safety
equipment checking and is to be conducted in an aircraft or a suitable alternative training
device.
(ii) Every year the emergency and safety equipment training programme includes the
following:
(A) Actual donning of a life-jacket, where fitted;
(B) Actual donning of protective breathing equipment, where fitted;
(C) Actual handling of fire extinguishers of the type used;
(D) Instruction on the location and use of all emergency and safety equipment carried on
the aircraft;
(E) Instruction on the location and use of all types of exits;
(F) Security procedures.
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Recurrent Training (cont.)

AMC1 ORO.FC.230 Recurrent training and checking (cont.)


(iii) Every 3 years the programme of training includes the following:
(A) Actual operation of all types of exits;
(B) Demonstration of the method used to operate a slide where fitted;
(C) Actual fire-fighting using equipment representative of that carried in the aircraft on an
actual or simulated fire except that, with Halon extinguishers, an alternative extinguisher
may be used;
(D) The effects of smoke in an enclosed area and actual use of all relevant equipment in a
simulated smoke-filled environment;
(E) Actual handling of pyrotechnics, real or simulated, where applicable;
(F) Demonstration in the use of the life-rafts where fitted.
This wet drill includes, as appropriate, practice of the actual donning and inflation of a life-
jacket, together with a demonstration or audio-visual presentation of the inflation of life-
rafts. Crews must board the same (or similar) life-rafts from the water whilst wearing a life-
jacket. Training includes the use of all survival equipment carried on board life-rafts and any
additional survival equipment carried separately on board the aircraft;
- Wet practice drill must always be given in initial training unless the crew member
concerned has received similar training provided by another operator;
(iv) The successful resolution of aircraft emergencies requires interaction between flight crew
and cabin/technical crew and emphasis should be placed on the importance of effective
coordination and two-way communication between all crew members in various emergency
situations.
(v) Emergency and safety equipment training includes joint practice in aircraft evacuations so
that all who are involved are aware of the duties other crew members should perform. When
such practice is not possible, combined flight crew and cabin/technical crew training should
include joint discussion of emergency scenarios.
(vi) Emergency and safety equipment training are to, as far as practicable, take place in
conjunction with cabin/technical crew undergoing similar training with emphasis on
coordinated procedures and two-way communication between the flight crew compartment
and the cabin.
(3) CRM
(i) Elements of CRM are integrated into all appropriate phases of recurrent training.
(ii) A specific modular CRM training programme is established such that all major topics of
CRM training are covered over a period not exceeding 3 years, as follows:
(A) Human error and reliability, error chain, error prevention and detection;
(B) Operator safety culture, standard operating procedures (SOPs), organisational factors;
(C) Stress, stress management, fatigue and vigilance;
(D) Information acquisition and processing, situation awareness, workload management;
(E) Decision making;
(F) Communication and coordination inside and outside the flight crew compartment;
(G) Leadership and team behaviour, synergy;
(H) Automation and philosophy of the use of automation (if relevant to the type);
(I) Specific type-related differences;
(J) Case studies;
(K) Additional areas which warrant extra attention, as identified by the safety management
System.
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Recurrent Training (cont.)

AMC1 ORO.FC.230 Recurrent training and checking (cont.)

(iii) orange2fly has established procedures to update the CRM recurrent training programme.
Revision of the programme is to be conducted over a period not exceeding 3 years. The revision of the
programme will take into account the de-identified results of the CRM assessments of crews, and
information identified by the safety management system.
(4) Aircraft/FSTD training
(i) General
(A) The aircraft/FSTD training programme is established in a way that all major failures of aircraft
systems and associated procedures will have been covered in the preceding 3-year period.
(B) When engine-out manoeuvres are carried out in an aircraft, the engine failure must be simulated.
(C) Aircraft/FSTD training may be combined with the operator proficiency check.
(D) When the aircraft/FSTD training is conducted within 3 calendar months prior to the expiry of the 12
calendar months period, the next aircraft/FSTD training should be completed within 12 calendar
months of the original expiry date of the previous training.
(b) Recurrent checking
Recurrent checking comprises the following:
(1) Operator proficiency checks
(i) Aeroplanes
Operator proficiency checks include the following manoeuvres as pilot flying:
(A) Rejected take-off when an FSTD is available to represent that specific aeroplane, otherwise touch
drills only;
(B) Take-off with engine failure between V1 and V2 (take-off safety speed) or, if carried out in an
aeroplane, at a safe speed above V2;
(C) Precision instrument approach to minima with, in the case of multi-engine aeroplanes, one-engine-
inoperative;
(D) Non-precision approach to minima;
(E) Missed approach on instruments from minima with, one-engine-inoperative;
(F) Landing with one-engine-inoperative.
(2) Emergency and safety equipment checks. The items to be checked are those for which training has been
carried out in accordance with (a) (2).
(3) Line checks
(i) Line checks establish the ability to perform satisfactorily a complete line operation including pre-flight
and post-flight procedures and use of the equipment provided, as specified in the operations manual. The
route chosen is such as to give adequate representation of the scope of a pilots normal operations. When
weather conditions preclude a manual landing, an automatic landing is acceptable.
The commander, or any pilot who may be required to relieve the commander, must also demonstrate
his/her ability to manage the operation and take appropriate command decisions.
(ii) The flight crew is assessed on CRM skills in accordance with a methodology described in the operations
manual. The purpose of such assessment is to:
(A) Provide feedback to the crew collectively and individually and serve to identify retraining; and
(B) Be used to improve the CRM training system.
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Recurrent Training (cont.)


AMC1 ORO.FC.230 Recurrent training and checking (cont.)

(iii) CRM assessment alone is not used as a reason for a failure of the line check.
(iv) When pilots are assigned duties as pilot flying and pilot monitoring they are checked in both
functions.
(v) Line checks are being conducted by a commander nominated by orange2fly. orange2fly
informs the competent authority about the persons nominated. The person conducting the line
check, who is described in (d) (5) (i), is to occupy an observers seat. His/her CRM assessments is
solely based on observations made during the initial briefing, cabin briefing, flight crew
compartment briefing and those phases where he/she occupies the observers seat.
(A) For aeroplanes, in the case of long haul operations where additional operating flight crew
are carried, the person may fulfil the function of a cruise relief pilot and should not occupy
either pilots seat during take-off, departure, initial cruise, descent, approach and landing.
(vi) Where a pilot is required to operate as pilot flying and pilot monitoring, he/she must be
checked on one flight sector as pilot flying and on another flight sector as pilot monitoring.
(4) When the operator proficiency check, line check or emergency and safety equipment check are
undertaken within the final 3 calendar months of validity of a previous check, the period of validity
of the subsequent check should be counted from the expiry date of the previous check.
(c) Flight crew incapacitation training.
(1) Procedures are established to train flight crew to recognise and handle flight crew
incapacitation.
This training is conducted every year and is part of recurrent training. It has the form of classroom
instruction, discussion, audio-visual presentation or other similar means.
(2) If an FSTD is available for the type of aircraft operated, practical training on flight crew
incapacitation should be carried out at intervals not exceeding 3 years.
(d) Personnel providing training and checking
Training and checking is provided by the following personnel:
(1) Ground and refresher training by suitably qualified personnel;
(2) Flight training by a type rating instructor (TRI) or, in the case of the FSTD content, a synthetic
flight instructor (SFI), providing that the TRI, or SFI satisfies the operator's experience and
knowledge requirements sufficient to instruct on the items specified in paragraphs (a)(1)(i)(A) and
(B);
(3) Emergency and safety equipment training by suitably qualified personnel;
(4) CRM:
(i) Integration of CRM elements into all the phases of the recurrent training by all the personnel
conducting recurrent training. orange2fly ensures that all personnel conducting recurrent
training are suitably qualified to integrate elements of CRM into this training;
(ii) Modular CRM training by at least one CRM trainer, who may be assisted by experts in order
to address specific areas.
(5) Recurrent checking by the following personnel:
(i) Operator proficiency check by a type rating examiner (TRE), or, if the check is conducted in a
FSTD, a TRE, or a synthetic flight examiner (SFE), trained in CRM concepts and the assessment of
CRM skills.
(ii) Emergency and safety equipment checking by suitably qualified personnel.
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Recurrent Training (cont.)


AMC1 ORO.FC.230 Recurrent training and checking (cont.)
(v) Recent experience requirements established in Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011 for
each type operated;
(vi) The period within which line flying experience is required on each type is to be
specified in the operations manual;
(vii) When credits are defined in data established in accordance with Regulation (EC) No
748/2012 for the relevant type or variant, this should be reflected in the training
required in ORO.FC.230 and:
(A) ORO.FC.230 (b) requires two operator proficiency checks every year. When
credits are defined in data established in accordance with Regulation (EC) No
748/2012 for operator proficiency checks to alternate between the types, each
operator proficiency check should revalidate the operator proficiency check for the
other type(s). The operator proficiency check may be combined with the proficiency
checks for revalidation or renewal of the aeroplane type rating or the instrument
rating in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011.
(B) ORO.FC.230 (c) requires one line check every year. When credits are defined in
data established in accordance for Regulation (EC) No 748/2012 for line checks to
alternate between types or variants, each line check should revalidate the line check
for the other type or variant.
(C) Annual emergency and safety equipment training and checking should cover all
requirements for each type.

GM1 ORO.FC.230 Recurrent training and checking

LINE CHECK AND PROFICIENCY TRAINING AND CHECKING


(a) Line checks, route and aerodrome knowledge and recent experience requirements are
intended to ensure the crew members ability to operate efficiently under normal
conditions, whereas other checks and emergency and safety equipment training are
primarily intended to prepare the crew member for abnormal/emergency procedures.
(b) The line check is considered a particularly important factor in the development,
maintenance and refinement of high operating standards, and can provide the operator
with a valuable indication of the usefulness of his/her training policy and methods. Line
checks are a test of a flight crew members ability to perform a complete line operation,
including pre-flight and post-flight procedures and use of the equipment provided, and an
opportunity for an overall assessment of his/her ability to perform the duties required as
specified in the operations manual. The line check is not intended to determine knowledge
on any particular route.
(c) Proficiency training and checking
When an FSTD is used, the opportunity should be taken, where possible, to use LOFT.
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2.1.4.1 Ground and Refresher Training

The annual ground and refresher training is conducted by a qualified instructor and consists of:
Classroom and/ or CBT training through e-learning system, after obtaining access (username &
password) to an approved electronic provided CBT training facility.
Completing the yearly Technical Refresher Questionnaire.

The training includes:


Aeroplane systems; all aeroplane systems are reviewed within a 3-year cycle and this part of the
training verified by a questionnaire, for which a pass mark of 75% is required,
Accident/incident occurrence review.
Operational procedures and requirements including ground de/anti icing and pilot incapacitation
3-Year Cycle of the Technical Refresher/Questionnaire
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Aeroplane General, water & waste Electrical Hydraulic
Fire protection Fuel Landing Gear/Lights
Pneumatics, Air conditioning & Emergency Equipment and
Power plant (& APU)
pressurisation/ventilation Oxygen
Auto Flight Indicating recording system Navigation equipment
Ice & Rain Protection Warning & Cautions/Doors Flight Controls
On-board maintenance
Communications Water waste system
system/Info system
RVSM/UPRT TCAS BRNAV, PRNAV
All weather operation All weather operation All weather operation
Flight crew Incapacitation Flight crew Incapacitation Flight crew Incapacitation

2.1.4.2 Aeroplane/Synthetic Training Device


The flight simulator recurrent training program includes aeroplane system malfunctions and associated
procedures. All major aeroplane systems failures must be covered within a 3-year cycle.
Flight simulator recurrent training normally consists of one (1) session of 4 hours and is conducted once a
year.
Normally the recurrent training session is combined with the OPC or LPC, during two days at the flight
simulator-training centre used for the purpose of training and checking.
The training items covered in the recurrent training will normally be completed using Manoeuvre Oriented
Flight Training (MOFT).
During MOFT repositioning may occur, manoeuvres may be repeated, flight phases may be omitted and non-
standard manoeuvres (such as touch and go) may be requested, in order to complete required items. The
recurrent training is conducted by a TRI or SFI (simulator only).
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Aeroplane/Synthetic Training Device (cont.)

This table serves the master guideline for recurrent training scenarios
Normal and Abnormal & Emergency System Operation
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Aeroplane General, Water and
Electrical Hydraulic
Waste
Fire Protection Fuel Landing Gear
Pneumatics Air conditioning &
Emergency Equipment & Oxygen Power Plant& APU
Pressurisation
Auto Flight Instruments & Records Navigation Equipment
Flight Controls / Stall & Stick
Ice & Rain Protection Warning & Cautions
Pusher
Communication Journey Log/Forms completion.
Emergency-Supplementary manoeuvres and procedures
Smoke control / removal Ditching or bomb alert Engine failure(s) and restart
Rapid Decompression &
Flight crew incapacitation RVSM
Emergency Descent
Wind shear/UPRT TCAS / GPWS Jammed flight controls
Cold/Hot weather operation Cold/Hot weather operation Cold/Hot weather operation
Flight crew incapacitation Flight crew incapacitation
Engine failure(s) & restart Engine failure(s) & restart Engine failure(s) & restart
Evacuation Evacuation Evacuation
O.M. Part. B associated abnormal & emergency procedures to related systems

2.1.4.3 Emergency and Safety Equipment


Emergency and safety equipment training may be combined with emergency and safety equipment
checking and is to be conducted in an aircraft or a suitable alternative training device.
The successful resolution of aeroplane emergencies requires interaction between flight crew and
cabin crew and emphasis should be placed on the importance of effective co-ordination and two-way
communication between all crewmembers in various emergency situations.
Emergency and safety equipment training should include joint practice in aeroplane evacuations so
that all who are involved are aware of the duties other crewmembers should perform. When such
practice is not possible, combined flight crew and cabin crew training should include joint discussion
of emergency scenarios.
Emergency and safety equipment training should, as far as practicable, take place in conjunction with
cabin crew undergoing similar training with emphasis on co-ordinated procedures and two-way
communication between flight deck and cabin.
I. Annual Flight Deck
Every year the emergency and safety equipment-training programme must include the following:
a. Actual donning of a lifejacket.
b. Actual donning of protective breathing equipment.
c. Actual handling of fire extinguishers of the type used.
d. Instruction on the location and use of all emergency and safety equipment carried on the
aeroplane.
e. Instruction on the location and use of all types of exits; and
f. Security procedures.
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Emergency and Safety Equipment (cont.)

II. Triennial Flight Deck


Every three years the programme of training must include the following:
a. Actual operation of all types of exits.
b. Demonstration of the method used to operate slides.
c. Actual fire-fighting using equipment representative of that carried in the aeroplane on an
actual or simulated fire except that, with Halon extinguishers, an alternative method
acceptable to the Authority may be used.
d. The effects of smoke in an enclosed area and actual use of all relevant equipment in a
simulated smoke-filled environment;
e. Actual handling of pyrotechnics, real or simulated, where fitted; and
f. Demonstration in the use of life rafts, where fitted.

2.1.4.4 CRM
(ORO.FC.115, ORO.FC.215)
ORO.FC.115 Crew resource management (CRM) training
(a) Before operating, the flight crew member shall have received CRM training, appropriate to his/her role,
as specified in the operations manual.
(b) Elements of CRM training shall be included in the aircraft type or class training and recurrent training as
well as in the command course.
See AMC1 ORO.FC.115&215 Crew resource management (CRM) training.
See AMC1.1 ORO.FC.115&.215 Crew resource management (CRM) training.
See GM1 ORO.FC.115&.215 Crew resource management (CRM) training.

ORO.FC.215 Initial operators crew resource management (CRM) training

(a) The flight crew member must have completed an initial CRM training course before commencing
unsupervised line flying.
(b) Initial CRM training is to be conducted by at least one suitably qualified CRM trainer who may be
assisted by experts in order to address specific areas.
(c) If the flight crew member has not previously received theoretical training in human factors to the ATPL
level, he/she is to complete, before or combined with the initial CRM training, a theoretical course provided
by orange2fly and based on the human performance and limitations syllabus for the ATPL as established
in Annex I (Part-FCL) to Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011.
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CRM (cont.)

AMC1 ORO.FC.115&215 Crew resource management (CRM) training


CRM TRAINING CAT OPERATIONS
(a) General
(1) CRM training reflects the culture of orange2fly as well as type of operation and be conducted by
means of both classroom training and practical exercises including group discussions and accident and
serious incident reviews to analyse communication problems and instances or examples of a lack of
information or crew management.
(2) Whenever it is practicable to do so, consideration is given to conducting relevant parts of CRM
training in FSTDs that reproduce, in an acceptable way, a realistic operational environment and
permit interaction. This includes, but is not limited to, appropriate line-oriented flight training
(LOFT) scenarios conducted in FSTDs.
(3) It is recommended that, whenever possible, initial CRM training be conducted in a group session
away from the pressures of the usual working environment so that the opportunity is provided
for flight crew members to interact and communicate in an environment conducive to learning.
(b) Initial CRM Training
(1) Initial CRM training programmes are designed to provide knowledge of, and familiarity with,
human factors relevant to flight operations. The course duration is a minimum of 2 days for all
types of operations. It covers all the elements indicated in (f).
(2) The CRM trainer must:
(i) Possess group facilitation skills;
(ii) Have and maintain adequate knowledge of the operation and the aircraft type, preferably
through current CAT experience as a flight crew member;
(iii) Have successfully passed the human performance and limitations (HPL) examination whilst
recently obtaining the airline transport pilot licence (ATPL) in accordance with Regulation
(EU) No 1178/20119.
(iv) Have completed initial CRM training;
(v) Have received additional education in the fields of group management, group dynamics and
personal awareness; and
(vi) Be supervised by suitably qualified CRM training personnel when conducting his/her first
initial CRM training session.
(3) Orange2fly ensures that initial CRM training addresses the nature of the operations, as
well as the associated procedures and its culture. This include areas of operations that
produce particular difficulties or involve adverse climatic conditions and any unusual hazards.
(4) If orange2fly cannot have sufficient means (time, space) to establish initial CRM training, can
make use of a course provided by another operator, or a third party or training organisation. In this
event orange2fly must ensure that the content of the course meets his/her operational
requirements. When crew members from several companies follow the same course, CRM core
elements should be specific to the nature of operations of the companies and the trainees concerned.
(5) The flight crew members CRM skills should not be assessed during initial CRM training.
(c) Operator conversion course CRM training
(1) If the flight crew member undergoes a conversion course with a change of aircraft type, elements
of CRM should be integrated into all appropriate phases of orange2fly conversion course, in
accordance with (f).
(2) If the flight crew member undergoes a conversion course with a change of operator, elements of
CRM should be integrated into all appropriate phases of the operators conversion course, in
accordance with (f).
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AMC1 ORO.FC.115&215 Crew resource management (CRM) training (cont.)

(3) The flight crew member should not be assessed when completing elements of CRM training that
are included in orange2fly conversion course.
(d) Command course CRM training
(1) orange2fly ensures that elements of CRM are integrated into the command course in accordance
with (f).
(2) The flight crew member is not being assessed when completing elements of CRM training that are
included in the command course, although feedback is to be given.
(e) Recurrent CRM training
(1) orange2fly ensures that:
(i) Elements of CRM are integrated into all appropriate phases of recurrent training every year, in
accordance with (f), and that modular CRM training covers the same areas over a maximum period
of 3 years; and
(ii) Relevant modular CRM training is conducted by CRM trainers qualified according to (b) (2).
(2) The flight crew member is not to be assessed when completing elements of CRM training that are
included in the recurrent training.
(f) Implementation of CRM
(1) Table 1 indicates which elements of CRM should be included in each type of training.
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CRM (cont.)

AMC1 ORO.FC.115&215 Crew resource management (CRM) training (cont.)


Table 1: Elements of CRM to be included in training
Operator
Operator conversion
Initial CRM conversion course Command Recurrent
Core Elements course when
Training when changing course training
changing operator
type
Human error and
reliability, error chain,
error prevention and In-depth Overview Overview
detection
Operator safety culture,
standard operating
procedures (SOPs), In-depth
Not required
organisational factors
In-depth
Stress, stress
management, fatigue
& vigilance Overview

Information
Not required In-depth
acquisition and Overview
processing situation
awareness, workload
management
Decision making
Communication and
coordination inside
Overview
and outside the flight
crew compartment
Leadership and team
behaviour synergy

Automation, philosophy
of the use of automation As required In-depth In-depth
(if relevant to the type) As required As required
Specific type-related
Not required
differences
Case studies In-depth In-depth In-depth In-depth In-depth
(g) Coordination between flight crew and cabin/technical crew training
(1) orange2fly is to, as far as practicable; provide combined training for flight crew and cabin/technical crew
including briefing and debriefing.
(2) There is an effective liaison between flight crew and cabin/technical crew training departments. Provision is
made for transfer of relevant knowledge and skills between flight and cabin/technical crew instructors.
(h) Assessment of CRM skills
(1) Assessment of CRM skills is the process of observing, recording, interpreting and debriefing crews and crew
members performance and knowledge using an acceptable methodology in the context of overall performance.
It includes the concept of self-critique, and feedback which can be given continuously during training or in
summary following a check. In order to enhance the effectiveness of the programme this methodology should,
where possible, be agreed with flight crew representatives.
(2) NOTECHS (non-technical skills evaluation) or other acceptable methods of assessment is used.
The selection criteria and training requirements of the assessors and their relevant qualifications, knowledge and
skills are established.
(3) Assessment of CRM skills is to:
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AMC1 ORO.FC.115&215 Crew resource management (CRM) training (cont.)

(i) Provide feedback to the crew and the individual and serve to identify retraining where needed; and
(ii) Be used to improve the CRM training system.
(4) Prior to the introduction of CRM skills assessment, a detailed description of the CRM methodology
including terminology used is published in the operations manual.
(5) Methodology of CRM skills assessment
(i) orange2fly has established the CRM training programme including an agreed terminology. This is to be
evaluated with regard to methods, length of training, depth of subjects and effectiveness.
(ii) A training and standardisation programme for training personnel is established.
(iii) The assessment is based on the following principles:
(A) Only observable, repetitive behaviours are assessed;
(B) The assessment is positively reflecting any CRM skills that result in enhanced safety;
(C) Assessments include behaviour that contributes to a technical failure, such technical failure being
errors leading to an event that requires debriefing by the person conducting the line check; and
(D) The crew and, where needed, the individual is verbally debriefed.
(6) De-identified summaries of all CRM assessments by orange2fly is to be used to provide feedback and
such feedback are used to update and improve orange2fly CRM training.
(7) orange2fly has established procedures, including retraining, to be applied in the event that personnel
do not achieve or maintain the required standards.
(8) When orange2fly proficiency check is combined with the type rating revalidation/renewal check, the
assessment of CRM skills is to satisfy the multi-crew cooperation requirements of the type rating
revalidation/renewal. This assessment is not affecting the validity of the type rating.
(i) Levels of training
(1) Overview. When overview training is required it should normally be instructional in style. Such training
should refresh knowledge gained in earlier training.
(2) In-depth. When in-depth training is required it is normally interactive in style and includes, as
appropriate, case studies, group discussions, role play and consolidation of knowledge and skills.
Core elements should be tailored to the specific needs of the training phase being undertaken.
(j) Use of automation
(1) The operator conversion course should include training in the use and knowledge of automation and in
the recognition of systems and human limitations associated with the use of automation. The operator
should therefore ensure that the flight crew member receives training on:
(i) The application of the operations policy concerning the use of automation as stated in the operations
manual; and
(ii) System and human limitations associated with the use of automation.
(2) The objective of this training is to provide appropriate knowledge, skills and behavioural patterns for managing
and operating automated systems. Special attention is to be given to how automation increases the need for
crews to have a common understanding of the way in which the system performs, and any features of automation
that make this understanding difficult.
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AMC1.1 ORO.FC.115&.215 Crew resource management (CRM) training

CRM TRAINER
The acceptable means of compliance are as set out in AMC1 ORO.FC.115&.215, except for (b) (2) of that
AMC, for which the following qualifications and experience are also acceptable for a CRM trainer:
(a) A flight crew member holding a recent qualification as a CRM trainer may continue to be a CRM trainer
even after the cessation of active flying duties;
(b) An experienced non-flight crew CRM trainer having a knowledge of HPL; and
(c) a former flight crew member having knowledge of HPL may become a CRM trainer if he/she maintains
adequate knowledge of the operation and aircraft type and meets the provisions of AMC1
ORO.FC.115&.215, (b)(2)(i), (iv), (v) and (vi).

GM1 ORO.FC.115&.215 Crew resource management (CRM) training


GENERAL
(a) Crew resource management (CRM) is the effective utilisation of all available resources (e.g. crew
members, aircraft systems, supporting facilities and persons) to achieve safe and efficient operation.
(b) The objective of CRM is to enhance the communication and management skills of the flight crew
member concerned. The emphasis is placed on the non-technical aspects of flight crew performance.

CRM training will normally be addressed during Line Oriented Flying Training (LOFT). Where LOFT is not
available, flight crewmembers will be required to complete elements of CRM every year (see Appendix B).
The flight crewmember will not be assessed during specifically designed CRM training courses and exercises.
Elements of CRM shall be integrated into all appropriate phases of recurrent training; and
A specific modular CRM training programme shall be established such that all major topics of CRM training
are covered over a period not exceeding 3 years, as follows:
YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3

Company safety culture, SOPs, Company safety culture, SOPs, Company safety culture,
organisational factor. organisational factor. SOPs, organisational factor.
Case based studies. Case based studies. Case based studies.
FRMS FRMS FRMS
Additional areas, which Additional areas, which Additional areas, which
warrant extra attention as warrant extra attention as warrant extra attention as
identified by the SMS identified by the SMS identified by the SMS
programme. program programme.
Communication and co- Identification and management Threat and Error
ordination inside and of the passenger human Management
outside the cockpit. factors, crowd control, Decision-making.
passenger stress, conflict Stress, stress management,
Information acquisition and management, medical factors
processing, situation fatigue and vigilance
awareness, workload Automation and philosophy of
the use of automation. Specific type-related
management
Leadership and team differences
behaviour, synergy
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CRM (cont.)

Line checks must be conducted by commanders nominated by the operator and acceptable to the Authority.
The person conducting the line check, shall be trained in CRM concepts and the assessment of CRM skills and
shall occupy an observers seat where installed. In the case of long haul operations where additional operating
flight crew are carried, the person may fulfill the function of a cruise relief pilot and shall not occupy either
pilots seat during take-off, departure, initial cruise, descent, approach and landing. His/her CRM assessments
shall solely be based on observations made during the initial briefing, cabin briefing, cockpit briefing and those
phases where he/she occupies the observers seat.

2.1.4.5 Recurrent Checking


A flight crewmember will undergo recurrent checking relevant to the type or variant of aeroplane on which
he is certificated to operate.
Line checks, route and aerodrome competency and recent experience requirements are intended to ensure
the crew member's ability to operate efficiently under normal conditions, whereas other checks and
emergency and safety equipment training are primarily intended to prepare the crew member for
abnormal/emergency procedures.
The line check is performed in the aeroplane. All other training and checking will be performed in the
aeroplane or an approved flight simulator or, in the case of emergency and safety equipment training, in a
representative training device. The type of equipment used for checking should be representative of the
instrumentation, equipment and layout of the aeroplane type operated by the flight crewmember.
The OPC and LPC as described in the following paragraphs assume that an approved simulator will be used.
When, in exceptional circumstances, these checks are performed in the aeroplane

The following restrictions apply for safety reasons:


Engine failure on take-off must be simulated with the throttle closure at V2 or above.
Rejected take-off should not be performed on the aeroplane. A touch drill should be carried out
instead.

2.1.4.6 Operator Proficiency Check (OPC)


Each flight crewmember shall undergo operator proficiency checks in an approved FSTD as part of a normal
flight crew complement to demonstrate competence in carrying out normal, abnormal and emergency
procedures. The check will be conducted without external visual reference (except that take-offs and landings
should be conducted using the appropriate visual reference). The Operator Proficiency Check shall include
the following manoeuvres:

a. Rejected take-off.
b. Take-off with engine failure between V1 and V2.
c. Precision instrument approach to minima with one engine inoperative;
d. Non-precision approach to minima;
e. Missed approach on instruments from minima with one engine inoperative;
f. Landing with one engine inoperative.
When engine out manoeuvres are carried out in an aeroplane, the engine failure must be simulated. Engine
failure is to be simulated by closing the thrust lever.
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Operator Proficiency Check (OPC) (cont.)

In addition to the checks prescribed above, the requirements of Part FCL must be completed every 12 months
and may be combined with an operator proficiency check.
A Type Rating Examiner (TRE) or (SFE) must conduct the operator proficiency checks.
When an approved flight simulator is used, the opportunity should be taken, where possible, to use LOFT.
The mandatory manoeuvres (M) and procedures are to be completed each OPC by all flight crewmembers.
Commanders and co-pilots are to complete each mandatory item as Pilot Flying (PF).

Note 1: Operation on more than one type or variant, each OPC revalidates the OPC for the other type. Provided
that the period between licence proficiency checks does not exceed that prescribed in the applicable regulation
in the field of flight crew licensing for each type, the relevant requirements on flight crew licensing will be
satisfied. In addition, relevant and approved recurrent training must be specified in the operations manual.

Note 1: In case orange2fly operates a/c with different type of engines, one of the two annual OPC s must
be conducted on that type of engine.

2.1.4.7 Licence Proficiency Check (LPC)


Each flight crewmember shall undergo a Licence proficiency check each year. The check includes normal,
abnormal and emergency procedures and incorporates the instrument rating renewal.
The result of this check (revalidation or renewal) shall be entered on the HCAA LPC form, refer to
(App Form) and returned to the HCAA and a copy kept for company records
It is Company policy to combine the LPC with the OPC and the combined check shall include the following
manoeuvres:
Rejected take-off,
Take-off with engine failure between V1 and V2
Adherence to departure and arrival routes and ATC,
ILS to DA with one engine inoperative manually flown with missed approach from DA,
NDB or VOR/LOC approach to minima (Auto-pilot may be used),
Landing with one engine inoperative.
When engine out manoeuvres are carried out in the aeroplane, the engine failure must be simulated by
closing the thrust lever.
Licence Proficiency Checks must be conducted by a Company approved TRE

2.1.4.8 Emergency and Safety Equipment Check


Emergency and safety equipment training should, as far as is practicable, take place in conjunction with
cabin crew undergoing similar training with emphasis on co-ordinated procedures and two-way
communication between the flight deck and the cabin. A written test with 30 questions covering the
received training the minimum acceptable result will be 75%.
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2.1.4.9 Line Check


{AMC1 ORO.FC.230 (b) (3) (v), GM1 ORO.FC.230}

The line check is considered a particularly important factor in the development, maintenance and
refinement of high operating standards, and can provide a valuable indication of the usefulness of company
training policy and methods.
Line checks are a test of a flight crewmember's ability to perform a complete line operation satisfactorily,
including pre-flight and post flight procedures and use of the equipment provided, and an opportunity for
an overall assessment of his ability to perform the duties required.
The route chosen should be such as to give adequate representation of the scope of a pilot's normal
operations. When weather conditions preclude a manual landing, an automatic landing is acceptable.
The line check is not intended to determine competence on any particular route.
In addition to the above duties, flight crewmembers should be assessed on their CRM skills.
The pilot-in-command, or co-pilot acting as pilot-in-command, should also demonstrate his ability to
manage the operation and take appropriate command decisions.
The LTC/C (LINE CHECKER) should normally occupy the observers seat.
Each flight crew member shall undergo one line check every year on the aeroplane to demonstrate his
competence in carrying out normal line operations. However, operation on more than one type or variant,
each line check revalidates the line check for the other type or variant.
Line checks must establish the ability to perform satisfactorily a complete line operation including pre-flight
and post-flight procedures and use of the equipment provided.
Where a pilot is required to operate as pilot flying and pilot non-flying, he will be checked on one sector as
pilot flying and on another sector as pilot non-flying.
The flight crew will be assessed on their CRM skills but CRM assessment alone shall not be used as a reason
for a failure of the line check.
Line checks must be completed in the aeroplane and to be conducted by (LTC/C) nominated by orange2fly.

2.1.5 Command Training

ORO.FC.205 Command course


(a) For aeroplane operations, the command course includes the following elements:
(1) Training in an FSTD, which includes line oriented flight training (LOFT) and/or flight training;
(2) The operator proficiency check, operating as commander;
(3) Command responsibilities training;
(4) Line training as commander under supervision, for a minimum of:
(i) 10 flight sectors;
(5) Completion of a line check as commander and demonstration of adequate knowledge of the route
or area to be flown and of the aerodromes, including alternate aerodromes, facilities and procedures
to be used; and
(6) Crew resource management training.

When a command vacancy exists consideration will always be given to the promotion of a company Co-pilot
to fill the position. The role of Commander is a complex one involving a great deal more than the ability to
fly the aeroplane on normal Line operations. The selection of candidates for Command Training will remain
the responsibility of the Flight Operation Manager and Training Manager. The final decision on promotion
rests with the Flight Operation Manager, provided the minimum qualifications for the Commanders
position are met.
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2.1.5.1 Qualification
Refer to O.M. Part. A para 5.2.2.

2.1.5.2 Ability
Prior to selection for Command Training the Co-pilot must have completed the previous Proficiency Check
with no "fails" recorded in any section.
The Co-pilot must be positively recommended as suitable for Command Training by the TRE who conducted
the Proficiency Check.

2.1.5.3 Evaluation process


To qualify for the commander-training course, the CO-PILOT to be up-graded must successfully pass the
commander evaluation process, which consists of the following stages;
1. Has successfully passed the last OPC with no failure recorded in any section. The candidate should be
recommended for upgrade to command by the TRE conducting the check.
2. One flight on the aeroplane during line flying duties, conducted by a Commander appointed by the
Training Manager.
The CO-PILOT has to pass both parts of the evaluation before starting Command training.

2.1.5.4 Character
This is a subjective issue but any candidate for Command Training must exhibit recognised standards of dress,
behaviour, and conduct commensurate with the position
The pilot must complete the command course prescribed in para 2.1.5.5.

2.1.5.5 Command Course


The command course shall include at least the following:
a. Ground training including Commander's responsibilities; (3 days)
b. Training in an approved flight simulator to include LOFT and/or flying training;
c. An operator proficiency checks and/or LPC operating as commander;
d. Line flying under supervision. A minimum of 10 sectors is required for pilots already qualified on
the aeroplane type.
e. Completion of a commanders line check and route and aerodrome competence qualifications.
f. CRM training (see Appendix B).

2.1.5.5.1 Objective
The objective of this training is to prepare Co-Pilots for the Commander role in the cockpit.

2.1.5.5.2 Ground training


The ground training includes the following subjects;
1. Technical system refresher, followed by an examination.
2. A Review of O.M. Parts. A, B C and D; specifically, items related to Commander Responsibility and
conducted by the Training Manager or other qualified personnel.
(Authority, Duties and Responsibilities of a Commander, Crew Composition / Designation of Aircraft
Commander, Qualification and Recency Requirements, Crew Health Precautions, Flight Time
Limitations Scheme, Operating Procedures- including All Weather Operations, Dangerous Goods,
Security Procedures, Company Reporting Scheme, Accident and Incident Handling, Standard
Operating Procedures, Pilot Incapacitation).
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2.1.5.5.3 Flight simulator training and checking

1. Crew composition: The commander under training shall act as commander, operating in the LH seat.
The Command course syllabus consists of five Full Flight Simulator Details.
Two First Officer candidates undergoing upgrade training will be paired together and will alternate
between the LHS and RHS. All PF work will be conducted with the candidate in the LHS.
The details will follow a line-orientated style where possible. The format is logical and allows
development of handling and management skills. Complex failures are covered along with the License
Proficiency check.
In order to enhance the training experience, MEL and operational issues should be included as part
of the simulator exercises. The simulator briefings will include case based studies for discussion /
facilitation where appropriate.
2. Instructor. Simulator: Training is conducted under the supervision of a qualified TRI/SFI.
3. Training elements: The training program will consist of a maximum of 5 simulator sessions including
OPC/ LPC acting as COMMANDER from the LH seat:
a. 3 session handling and procedures of each 4 hours,
b. 1 session LOFT including all major topics of CRM, or a combined training syllabus for aeroplane
handling and LOFT and
c. Operators Proficiency checks (OPC)/LPC
The crewmember will complete OPC or/and LPC acting as Commander from the LH.

Note: Acceptable performance according to O.M. Part. D Ch. 3.

2.1.5.5.4 Line flying under supervision


1. General
a. Before starting Line flying under supervision, the commander under training must have successfully
completed the simulator training and checking.
b. Line flying under supervision is conducted in accordance with O.M. Part. D para 2.1.2.4.9
2. Sector required
A minimum of 10 sectors is required for pilots already qualified on the aeroplane type.
A minimum of 20 sectors is required for pilots not qualified on the aeroplane type

2.1.5.5.5 Line check


After successfully completion of Line flying under supervision and before starting unsupervised line flying
duties as a COMMANDER, the crew member will have to complete a line check operating as commander.

2.1.5.5.6 Area and Airport qualification


Area and Airport qualification training and qualification shall be required, in accordance with
O.M. Part. D para 2.1.2.10

2.1.5.6 Operational Limitations for New Commanders

2.1.5.6.1 Non Precision Approaches


There are no company requirements for an increase of minima for non-precision approaches.
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2.1.5.6.2 Precision Approaches


During the captains first 100 hours as PIC in line operations, all landing minimums must be increased by 100
ft.-800m for the first 50 hours, and 100f t-400m for the next 50 hours.

2.1.5.6.3 Take-off
As published, Full LVTO authority.

2.1.5.6.4 Cross-Wind
During the first 100 hours or 2 months whichever is later, excluding line flying under supervision the
X-wind limit is 25 knots.

2.1.5.6.5 Allowing the Co-Pilot to conduct the flight


In order to allow the Co-Pilot to conduct the takeoffs and landings the commander must have completed 100
hours line flying on the type excluding line flying under supervision or 2 months whichever is the later.

2.1.6 Pilot Qualification to Operate in either Pilots Seat


Commanders whose duties also require them to operate in the right hand seat and carry out the duties of a
co-pilot, or commanders required to conduct training or examining duties from the right hand seat, shall
complete additional training and checking concurrent with the operator proficiency checks prescribed in
Para 1.4.9. This additional training must include at least the following:
a. An engine failure during take-off;
b. A one engine inoperative approach and go-around; and
c. A one engine inoperative landing.
d. UPRT
When engine out manoeuvres are carried out in the aeroplane the engine failure must be simulated.
Engine failure is to be simulated by closing the thrust lever.
When operating in the right hand seat, the checks required for operating in the left hand seat must, in
addition, be valid and current.
ITEM INTERVAL APPLICABLE INSTR / EXAM DURATION

Flight simulator training/checking

OPC 6 months CDR, COP TRE One Session

Recurrent training 12 months CDR, COP TRI One Session 2.1.7 Training Matrix

LPC 12 months CDR, COP TRE One Session

Ground Training

Ground refresher 12 months CDR, COP Ground Instructor 12 hrs

CRM 12 months CDR, COP, cabin crew Orange2fly or 2 days initial training
third party ground 1 day Conversion training
instructor 6 hrs. Recurrent training
Emer. & safety equipment 12 months CDR, COP Orange2fly GTI 1 day Conversion training
4 hrs. Recurrent training
Emer. & safety equipment 36 months CDR, COP, cabin crew Orange2fly or third 1 day
Programmes

party

Dangerous Goods 24 months CDR, COP, cabin crew Orange2fly or third 1 day Initial training
6 hrs. Recurrent training
Operations Manual Part D

party ground Instructor


Training Syllabi & Checking

Aviation Security 60 months CDR, COP, cabin crew 12 Hrs.


Orange2fly or HCAA
Rev.: 0
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Aeroplane training/checking
Chapter: 2

Line Check 12 months CRD, COP LTC 2 sectors


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2.2 Cabin Crew

orange2fly shall ensure that all crewmembers, other than flight crewmembers, assigned for duties in the
passenger compartment of an aeroplane comply with the requirements of PART.CC, except for additional
crewmembers solely assigned to specialist duties.
The additional crewmembers solely assigned to specialist duties to which the requirements of PART.CC are
not applicable include the following:
Child minders/Escort
Entertainers
Ground Engineer
Interpreters
Medical personnel
Secretaries; and
Security staff

2.2.1 Senior Cabin Crew Members


(ORO.CC.200)
ORO.CC.200 Senior cabin crew member
(a) When more than one cabin crew member is required, the composition of the cabin crew shall
include a senior cabin crew member nominated by the operator.
(b) orange2fly shall nominate cabin crew members to the position of senior cabin crew member
only if they:
(1) Have at least 1 year of experience as operating cabin crew member; and
(2) Have successfully completed a senior cabin crew training course and the associated check
(c) The senior cabin crew training course shall cover all duties and responsibilities of senior cabin
crew members and shall include at least the following elements:
(1) Pre-flight briefing;
(2) Cooperation with the crew;
(3) Review of operator requirements and legal requirements;
(4) Accident and incident reporting;
(5) Human factors and crew resource management (CRM); and
(6) Flight and duty time limitations and rest requirements.
(d) The senior cabin crew member shall be responsible to the commander for the conduct and
coordination of normal and emergency procedures specified in the operations manual, including
for discontinuing non-safety-related duties for safety or security purposes.
(e) The operator shall establish procedures to select the most appropriately qualified cabin crew
member to act as senior cabin crew member if the nominated senior cabin crew member becomes
unable to operate.
Changes to these procedures shall be notified to the competent authority.
During turbulence, in the absence of any instructions from the flight crew, the senior cabin crew member
shall be entitled to discontinue non-safety related duties and advise the flight crew of the level of turbulence
being experienced and the need for the fasten seat belt signs to be switched on.
This should be followed by the cabin crew securing the passenger cabin and other applicable areas.
The Senior Cabin Crew member is responsible for briefing and checking the cabin crew on their emergency
responsibilities and procedures.
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Senior Cabin Crew Members (cont.)

Incapacitation of the Senior Cabin Crewmember. When, during flight, the senior cabin crew member becomes
incapacitated or unfit to continue duty, the commander must be informed immediately.
Subject to the commander's decision, the succession of command will be to the Cabin Crew Member, next in
rank on Company seniority who has the most flight experience.

2.2.1.1 Senior Cabin Crew Member Training Syllabi (2 days)


{AMC1 ORO.CC.200(c)}
AMC1 ORO.CC.200(c) Senior cabin crew member
TRAINING PROGRAMME
The senior cabin crew member training course will at least cover the following elements:
Subject Hours
Senior Cabin Crew Course - General
Duties and responsibilities of a SCCM. 03:00
Representing orange2fly / being a professional
Pre-flight Briefing
Operating as a crew;
Allocation of cabin crew stations and responsibilities; and
Consideration of the particular flight, aircraft type, equipment, area and type of 04:00
operation including extended range operations with two-engine aeroplanes (ETOPS)
and special categories of passengers according to Regulation (EU) 2006/1107 with
emphasis on passengers with disabilities or reduced mobility, infants and stretcher
cases, disabled, infants and stretcher cases.
Co-operation within the crew
Discipline, responsibilities and chain of command; 02:00
Importance of coordination and communication; and
pilot incapacitation.
Review of operator requirements and legal requirements:
Passenger briefing, safety briefing cards;
Securing of galleys;
Stowage of cabin baggage;
04:00
Electronic equipment;
Procedures when fueling with passengers on board;
Turbulence; and
Documentation (Accident and incident reporting)
Human Factors and Crew Resource Management
orange2fly should ensure that all applicable elements specified in Table 1 of AMC1
02:00
ORO.CC.115 (e) are integrated into the training and covered to the level required by
Column Senior Cabin Crew Course.

Flight and duty time limitations and rest requirements EU Regulation 83/2014
Checking 01:00
Total 16:00
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Senior Cabin Crew Member Training Syllabi (cont.)

Flight under supervision:


Prior to be released to operate as SCCM, the cabin crew member may participate in a familiarization flight of
at least two sectors under the supervision of another SCCM.

2.2.2 Cabin Crew Ground Trainers/ Checkers

The Cabin Crew Manager will recommend cabin crew members meeting the requirements to perform Ground
Trainers duties to the Flight Operations Manager for evaluation.
All Training Personnel will be appointed by the Training Manager having taken into account the experience and
minimum qualification requirements Where necessary, the approval of the local Regulatory Authority will be
sought for certain appointments.
Cabin training personnel generally is selected from those who have, by their skills, maturity and example,
earned the respect of their colleagues. They also are required to have a sense of dedication to the profession.
Their duties call upon them to have technical and operational knowledge well above the average. Most
importantly, they must have a personal discipline, which dominates their teaching function in that they will
teach orange2fly methods and have no private idiosyncrasies.
Appointment to these posts will be based upon experience on type and any previous training experience.
The Ground Trainer must have at least 2 years of experience and complete the Ground Trainers before
operating as a Ground Trainer.
The functions and responsibilities of a Ground Trainer are:

To perform the training and the checks required for cabin crew members after completion of the
initial safety, conversion/differences and recurrent/refresher training.
To perform Annual and Triennial safety and emergency recurrent training and checking for flight and
cabin crew members,
To perform the training and the checking required for the cabin crew after completion of the SCCM
training course
To maintain training material up-to-date.
To supply the Training department with training / checking records and reports, as well as appropriate
check forms.
To develop written questionnaires in cooperation with the Cabin Crew Manager that ensure the
knowledge and ability of a cabin crewmember to perform duty assignments.
To perform in-flight checks of cabin crewmembers and senior cabin crewmembers
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2.2.2.1 Ground Trainer Training Syllabi (3 days)

All company candidate instructors with no previous relevant experience as Instructors, shall undergo a
theoretical course syllabus prior to giving any training to cabin crewmembers. Training is conducted by the
Training Manager or any other qualified personnel.
The objective of this training is to:
Train the candidate to the level of proficiency required for theoretical knowledge instruction.
Prepare the candidate for forthcoming duties as a cabin instructor in either a classroom
environment, simulator (mock-up) or on the aeroplane.
Brief the instructor of the company training requirements and documentation as applicable.
Additional training programs relevant to the areas in which each instructor will deliver instruction,
follow the cabin crew ground trainer training course.
The theoretical training course duration is three days and consists of the following:

Day 1
The Learning process Motivation, Perception and understanding, Memory and its application, Obstacles
to learning, Incentives to learning, Learning methods
Elements of effective teaching, Planning of instructional activity, Teaching methods,
The Teaching process Teaching from the 'known' to the 'unknown', Use of 'lesson plans', Achievable
objectives
Value of a structured (approved) course of training, Importance of a planned
Training Philosophies syllabus, Integration of theoretical knowledge / simulator (mock-up) or on the
aeroplane.
Day 2
Techniques of applied Theoretical knowledge - Classroom instruction techniques, Use of training aids,
instruction Group lectures, Individual briefings, Student participation / discussion

Assessment of student performance, the function of progress tests Recall of


knowledge Translation of knowledge into understanding Development of
Student evaluation and testing understanding into actions The need to evaluate rate of progress Analysis of
student errors Establish the reason for errors Tackle major faults first, minor faults
second, Avoidance of over criticism, The need for clear concise communication

Training Program development Lesson planning, Preparation, Explanation and demonstration, Facilitation and
Instruction, Student participation and practice, Evaluation
Day 3
Training Administration Study material, Official forms, CSPM, OM-A, B &D, Documentation

Delivering a course Voice projection, working effectively with other trainers, Importance of breaks,
Training Aids and Materials
Practical Practical demonstration and assessment of a presentation

Additional training programs relevant to the areas in each instructor / facilitator will deliver training, follow
the theoretical course.
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Ground Trainer Training Syllabi (3 days) (cont.)

Cabin Crew GTI Safety and Emergency Procedures Training Technical Course Syllabus
Cabin Crew Ground Trainer Safety and Emergency Procedures Training Technical Course Syllabus
The cabin crew Ground Trainer (safety and emergency procedures) Technical Course is conducted by the
Cabin Crew Manager or any other qualified personnel and has one-day duration per aircraft type.
The course covers the subjects required for any initial, conversion and recurrent / refresher training to be
delivered and the relevant checks according to EASA OPs. It also includes the CRM elements integrated in the
courses to be delivered.
Upon completion of the ground instruction, the Ground Trainers shall undergo an assessment of a
presentation on a subject relevant to the specific training.

2.2.3 Initial Training


orange2fly ensures that each cabin crew member has, before undertaking conversion training, successfully
completed initial training by approved CCTO in accordance with Part CC.

2.2.3.1 Cabin Crew Attestation


(CC.GEN.005, CC.GEN.020, CC.GEN.015, CC.GEN.025, CC.GEN.030)
CC.GEN.005 Scope
This Part establishes the requirements for the issue of cabin crew attestations and the conditions for their
validity and use by their holders.

CC.GEN.020 Minimum age


The applicant for a cabin crew attestation shall be at least 18 years of age.

CC.GEN.015 Application for a cabin crew attestation


The application for a cabin crew attestation shall be made in a form and manner established by the competent
authority.

CC.GEN.025 Privileges and conditions


(a) The privileges of holders of a cabin crew attestation are to act as cabin crew members in
commercial air transport operation of aircraft referred to in Article 4(1) (b) and (c) of Regulation (EC)
No 216/2008.
(b) Cabin crew members may exercise the privileges specified in (a) only if they:
(1) Hold a valid cabin crew attestation as specified in CC.CCA.105; and
(2) Comply with CC.GEN.030, CC.TRA.225 and the applicable requirements of Part-MED.

CC.GEN.030 Documents and record-keeping


To show compliance with the applicable requirements as specified in CC.GEN.025 (b), each holder shall keep,
and provide upon request, the cabin crew attestation, the list and the training and checking records of his/her
aircraft type or variant qualification(s), unless the operator employing his/her services keeps such records
and can make them readily available upon request by a competent authority or by the holder.
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Cabin Crew Attestation (cont.)

CC.CCA.100 Issue of the cabin crew attestation


(a) Cabin crew attestations shall only be issued to applicants who have passed the examination
following completion of the initial training course in accordance with this Part.
(b) Cabin crew attestations shall be issued:
(1) By the competent authority; and/or
(2) By an organisation approved to do so by the competent authority.

CC.CCA.105 Validity of the cabin crew attestation


The cabin crew attestation shall be issued with unlimited duration and shall remain valid unless:
(a) It is suspended or revoked by the competent authority; or
(b) Its holder has not exercised the associated privileges during the preceding 60 months on at least one
aircraft type.

CC.CCA.110 Suspension and revocation of the cabin crew attestation


(a) If holders do not comply with this Part, their cabin crew attestation may be suspended or revoked by
the competent authority.
(b) In case of suspension or revocation of their cabin crew attestation by the competent authority,
holders shall:
(1) Be informed in writing of this decision, and of their right of appeal in accordance with national
law;
(2) Not exercise the privileges granted by their cabin crew attestation;
(3) Inform, without undue delay, the operator(s) employing their services; and
(4) Return their attestation in accordance with the applicable procedure established by the
competent authority.

Approved CCTO issue cabin crew attestations to trainees who have passed the examination following
completion of the initial training course in accordance with Part CC.
The cabin crew attestation shall be issued with unlimited duration and shall remain valid unless:
(a) It is suspended or revoked by HCAA; or
(b) Its holder has not exercised the associated privileges during the preceding 60 months on at least one
aircraft type.
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2.2.4 Differences Training & Aircraft Type Specific Training and Operator Conversion Training
(ORO.CC.130, ORO.CC.125)

ORO.CC.130 Differences training


(a) In addition to the training required in ORO.CC.125, the cabin crew member shall complete
appropriate training and checking covering any differences before being assigned on:
(1) A variant of an aircraft type currently operated; or
(2) A currently operated aircraft type or variant with different:
(i) Safety equipment;
(ii) Safety and emergency equipment location; or
(iii) Normal and emergency procedures.
(b) The differences training programme shall:
(1) Be determined as necessary on the basis of a comparison with the training programme completed
by the cabin crew member, in accordance with ORO.CC.125 (c) and (d), for the relevant aircraft
type; and
(2) Involve training and practice in a representative training device or the actual aircraft as relevant
to the difference training element to be covered.
(c) When establishing a differences training programme and syllabus for a variant of an aircraft type
currently operated, the operator shall include, where available, the mandatory elements for the relevant
aircraft type and its variants as defined in the data established in accordance with Regulation (EC) No
1707/2008.

ORO.CC.125 Aircraft type specific training and operator conversion training


(a) Each cabin crew member shall have completed appropriate aircraft type specific training and
operator conversion training, as well as the associated checks, before being:
(1) First assigned by the operator to operate as a cabin crew member; or
(2) Assigned by that operator to operate on another aircraft type.
(b) When establishing the aircraft type specific and the operator conversion training programmes and
syllabi, the operator shall include, where available, the mandatory elements for the relevant type as
defined in the data established in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 748/2012.
(c) The aircraft type specific training programme shall:
(1) Involve training and practice on a representative training device or on the actual aircraft; and
(2) Cover at least the following aircraft type specific training elements:
(i) Aircraft description as relevant to cabin crew duties;
(ii) All safety equipment and systems installed relevant to cabin crew duties;
(iii) Operation and actual opening, by each cabin crew member, of each type or variant of
normal and emergency doors and exits in the normal and emergency modes;
(iv) Demonstration of the operation of the other exits including flight crew compartment
windows;
(v) Fire and smoke protection equipment where installed;
(vi) Evacuation slide training, where fitted;
(vii) Operation of the seat, restraint system and oxygen system equipment relevant to pilot
incapacitation.
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Differences Training & Aircraft Type Specific Training and Operator Conversion Training (cont.)
ORO.CC.125 Aircraft type specific training and operator conversion training (cont.)
(d) orange2fly conversion training programme for each aircraft type to be operated shall:
(1) Involve training and practice on a representative training device or on the actual aircraft;
(2) Include training in the operators standard operating procedures for cabin crew members to be
first assigned to duties by the operator;
(3) Cover at least the following operator specific training elements as relevant to the aircraft type to
be operated:
(i) Description of the cabin configuration;
(ii) Location, removal and use of all portable safety and emergency equipment carried on-board;
(iii) All normal and emergency procedures;
(iv) Passenger handling and crowd control;
(v) Fire and smoke training including the use of all related fi re-fighting and protective equipment
representative of that carried on-board;
(vi) Evacuation procedures;
(vii) Pilot incapacitation procedures;
(viii) Applicable security requirements and procedures;
(ix) Crew resource management.
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Differences Training & Aircraft Type Specific Training and Operator Conversion Training (cont.)
AMC1 ORO.CC.125(c) Aircraft type specific training and operator conversion training
TRAINING PROGRAMME AIRCRAFT TYPE SPECIFIC TRAINING
The following aircraft type specific training elements should be covered as relevant to the aircraft type:
Aircraft description
(1) Type of aircraft, principal dimensions, narrow or wide bodied, single or double deck;
(2) Speed, altitude, range;
(3) Passenger seating capacity;
(4) Flight crew number and minimum number of required cabin crew;
(5) Cabin doors/exits location and sill height;
(6) Cargo and unpressurised areas as relevant;
(7) Aircraft systems relevant to cabin crew duties;
(8) Flight crew compartment - general presentation, pilot seats and their mechanism, emergency
exits, storage;
(9) Required cabin crew stations;
(10) Flight crew compartment security - general: door components and use;
(11) Access to avionics bay where relevant;
(12) Lavatories - general: doors, systems, calls and signs; and
(13) Least risk bomb location.
(b) Safety and emergency equipment and aircraft systems installed
Each cabin crew member should receive realistic training on, and demonstration of, the location and use
of all aircraft type specific safety and emergency equipment and aircraft systems installed, with emphasis
on the following:
(1) Slides, and where non-self-supporting slides are carried, the use of any associated assisting
evacuation means;
(2) Life-rafts and slide-rafts, including the equipment attached to, and/or carried in, the raft;
(3) Drop-out oxygen system; and
(4) Communication equipment.
(c) Operation of doors and exits
This training should be conducted in a representative training device or in the actual aircraft and should
include failure of power assist systems where fitted and the action and forces required to operate and
deploy evacuation slides. Training should also include operation and actual opening of the flight crew
compartment security door when installed.
(d) Fire and smoke protection equipment
Each cabin crew member should be trained in using fire and/or smoke protection equipment where fitted.
(e) Evacuation slide training
(1) Each cabin crew member should descend an evacuation slide from a height representative of the
aircraft main deck sill height.
(2) The slide should be fitted to a representative training device or to the actual aircraft.
(3) A further descent should be made when the cabin crew member qualifies on an aircraft type in
which the main deck exit sill height differs significantly from any aircraft type previously operated.
(f) Operation of equipment related to pilot incapacitation
The training should cover any type specific elements or conditions relevant to cabin crew actions to be
taken in case of pilot incapacitation. Each cabin crew member should be trained to operate all
equipment that must be used in case of pilot incapacitation.
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Differences Training & Aircraft Type Specific Training and Operator Conversion Training (cont.)
AMC1 ORO.CC.125 (d) Aircraft type specific training and operator conversion training
TRAINING PROGRAMME OPERATOR CONVERSION TRAINING
The following training elements should be covered as relevant to the aircraft type and the related operators
specifics:
(a) Description of the cabin configuration
The description should cover all elements specific to the operators cabin configuration and any differences with
those previously covered in accordance with AMC1 ORO.CC.125(c), including:
(1) Required and additional cabin crew stations location (including direct view), restraint systems, and
control panels;
(2) Passenger seats general presentation and associated operators specific features and equipment;
(3) Designated stowage areas;
(4) Lavatories operators specific features, equipment and systems additional to the aircraft type specific
elements;
(5) galley location, appliances, water and waste system, including shut-off, sinks, drains, stowage, control
panels, calls and signs;
and where applicable
(6) Crew rest areas location, systems, controls, safety and emergency equipment;
(7) Cabin dividers, curtains, partitions;
(8) Lift location, use, controls;
(9) Stowage for the containment of waste; and
(10) Passenger hand rail system or alternative means.
(b) Safety and emergency equipment
Each cabin crew member should receive realistic training on and demonstration of the location and use of all
safety and emergency equipment carried, including:
(1) Life jackets, infant life jackets and flotation devices;
(2) First-aid and drop-out oxygen, including supplementary systems;
(3) Fire extinguishers and protective breathing equipment (PBE);
(4) Crash axe or crowbar;
(5) Emergency lights including torches;
(6) Communication equipment, including megaphones;
(7) Slide rafts and life rafts survival packs and their contents;
(8) Pyrotechnics (actual or representative devices);
(9) First-aid kits, emergency medical kits and their contents; and
(10) Other portable safety and emergency equipment, where applicable.
(c) Normal and emergency procedures
Each cabin crew member should be trained on the operators normal and emergency procedures as applicable,
with emphasis on the following:
(1) Passenger briefing, safety demonstration and cabin surveillance;
(2) Severe air turbulence;
(3) Nonpressurisation, slow and sudden decompression, including the donning of portable oxygen
equipment by each cabin crew member;
(4) Other in-flight emergencies; and
(5) Carriage of special categories of passengers (SCPs).
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Differences Training & Aircraft Type Specific Training and Operator Conversion Training (cont.)
AMC1 ORO.CC.125 (d) Aircraft type specific training and operator conversion training
(d) Passenger handling and crowd control
Training should be provided on the practical aspects of passenger preparation and handling, as well as
crowd control, in various emergency situations as applicable to the operators specific aircraft cabin
configuration, and should cover the following:
(1) Communications between flight crew and cabin crew and use of all communications equipment,
including the difficulties of coordination in a smoke-filled environment;
(2) Verbal commands;
(3) The physical contact that may be needed to encourage people out of a door/exit and onto a slide;
(4) Redirection of passengers away from unusable doors/exits;
(5) Marshalling of passengers away from the aircraft;
(6) Evacuation of special categories of passengers with emphasis on passengers with disabilities or
reduced mobility; and
(7) Authority and leadership.
(e) Fire and smoke training
(1) Each cabin crew member should receive realistic and practical training in the use of all fire-fighting
equipment, including protective clothing representative of that carried in the aircraft.
(2) Each cabin crew member should:
(i) Extinguish an actual fire characteristic of an aircraft interior fire except that, in the case of halon
extinguishers, an alternative extinguishing agent may be used; and
(ii) Exercise the donning and use of PBE in an enclosed simulated smoke-filled environment with
particular emphasis on identifying the actual source of fire and smoke.
(f) Evacuation procedures
Training should include all the operators procedures that are applicable to planned or unplanned
evacuations on land and water. It should also include, where relevant, the additional actions required from
cabin crew members responsible for a pair of doors/exits and the recognition of when doors/exits are
unusable or when evacuation equipment is unserviceable.
(g) Pilot incapacitation procedures
Unless the minimum flight crew is more than two, each cabin crew member should be trained in the
procedure for pilot incapacitation. Training in the use of flight crew checklists, where required by the
operator's standard operating procedures (SOPs), should be conducted by a practical demonstration.
(h) CRM
(1) The operator should ensure that all applicable CRM training elements, as specified in Table 1 of
AMC1 ORO.CC.115 (e), are covered to the level required in the column Operator aircraft type
conversion training.
(2) The operator's CRM training and the CRM training covered during the operator aircraft type
conversion training should be conducted by at least one cabin crew CRM trainer.
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Differences Training & Aircraft Type Specific Training and Operator Conversion Training (cont.)
AMC1 ORO.CC.125 & ORO.CC.130 Aircraft type specific training and operator conversion training
& Differences training
TRAINING PROGRAMMES
The programmes and syllabi of aircraft type specific training, operator conversion training and differences
training should take into account the cabin crew member's previous training as documented in his/her
training records.

AMC1 ORO.CC.125 (b) & ORO.CC.130(c) Aircraft type specific training and operator
conversion training & Differences training
NON-MANDATORY (RECOMMENDATIONS) ELEMENTS
When developing the training programmes and syllabi for aircraft-type specific training and for
differences training, the operator should consider the non-mandatory (recommendations) elements for
the relevant type that are provided in the data established in accordance with Regulation (EC) No
748/2012.

A. Conversion Training: A conversion course must be completed before being:


1. First assigned by the operator to operate as a cabin crewmember; or
2. Assigned to operate another aeroplane type.
B. Differences Training: Differences training must be completed before operating:
1. On a variant of an aeroplane type currently operated; or
2. With different safety equipment, safety equipment location, or normal and emergency
procedure on currently operated aeroplane type or variants.
The training programme must be approved by HCAA.
orange2fly shall determine the content of the conversion and differences training taking into account the
cabin crew members previous training as recorded in the cabin crew members training records required by
EASA OPS.
Without prejudice to EASA OPS, related elements of both initial training and conversion and differences training
may be combined.
orange2fly shall ensure that:
Conversion and differences training is conducted by suitably qualified personnel.
Conversion training is conducted in a structured and realistic manner, in accordance with Appendix 1
to Part.CC;
Differences training is conducted in a structured manner; and
Conversion training, and if necessary differences training, includes the use of all safety equipment and
all normal and emergency procedures applicable to the type or variant of aeroplane and involves
training and practice on either a representative training device or on the actual aeroplane.
Whenever differences training is required, the cabin crewmember will be trained on only the appropriate
subjects from below, as needed. In this case the Training Manager together with the Cabin Crew Manager
will issue the appropriate syllabus.
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Aircraft type specific training:

SUBJECT HOURS

Aircraft description
Type of aircraft, principal dimensions, narrow or wide bodied, single or double deck;
Speed, altitude, range;
Passenger seating capacity;
Flight crew number and minimum number of required cabin crew;
Cabin doors/exits location and sill height;
Cargo and unpressurised areas as relevant;
Aircraft systems relevant to cabin crew duties; 02.00
Flight crew compartment - general presentation, pilot seats and their mechanism,
emergency exits, storage;
Required cabin crew stations;
Flight crew compartment security - general: door components and use;
Access to avionics bay where relevant;
Lavatories - general: doors, systems, calls and signs; and
Least risk bomb location.
Safety and emergency equipment and aircraft systems installed
Each cabin crew member should receive realistic training on, and demonstration of, the location
and use of all aircraft type specific safety and emergency equipment and aircraft systems installed,
with emphasis on the following:
Slides, and where non-self-supporting slides are carried, the use of any associated 02.00
assisting evacuation means;
Life-rafts and slide-rafts, including the equipment attached to, and/or carried in, the raft;
Drop-out oxygen system; and
Communication equipment.
Operation of doors and exits
This training should be conducted in a representative training device or in the actual aircraft and
should include failure of power assist systems where fitted and the action and forces required to 01.00
operate and deploy evacuation slides. Training should also include operation and actual opening
of the flight crew compartment security door when installed.
Fire and smoke protection equipment
Each cabin crew member should be trained in using fire and/or smoke protection equipment where 01.00
fitted.
Evacuation slide training
Each cabin crew member should descend an evacuation slide from a height
representative of the aircraft main deck sill height.
The slide should be fitted to a representative training device or to the actual aircraft. 01.00
A further descent should be made when the cabin crew member qualifies on an aircraft
type in which the main deck exit sill height differs significantly from any aircraft type
previously operated.
Operation of equipment related to pilot incapacitation
The training should cover any type specific elements or conditions relevant to cabin crew actions
01.00
to be taken in case of pilot incapacitation. Each cabin crew member should be trained to operate
all equipment that must be used in case of pilot incapacitation.
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Operator Conversion Training:


SUBJECT HOURS

Description of the cabin configuration


The description should cover all elements specific to the operators cabin configuration
and any differences with those previously covered in accordance with AMC1
ORO.CC.125(c), including:
Required and additional cabin crew stations - location (including direct view),
restraint systems, control panels;
Passenger seats general presentation and associated operators specific
features and equipment;
Designated stowage areas; 02.00
Lavatories - operators specific features, equipment and systems additional to the
aircraft type specific elements;
Galley - location, appliances, water and waste system, including shut-off, sinks,
drains, stowage, control panels, calls and signs; and where applicable
Crew rest areas - location, systems, controls, safety and emergency equipment;
Cabin dividers, curtains, partitions;
Lift location, use, controls;
Stowage for the containment of waste; and
Passenger hand rail system or alternative means.

Safety and emergency equipment


Each cabin crew member should receive realistic training on and demonstration of the
location and use of all safety and emergency equipment carried including:
Life-jackets, infant life-jackets and flotation devices;
First-aid and drop-out oxygen, including supplementary systems;
Fire extinguishers and protective breathing equipment (PBE);
Crash axe or crowbar; 02.00
Emergency lights including torches;
Communication equipment, including megaphones;
Slide-rafts and life-rafts survival packs and their contents;
Pyrotechnics (actual or representative devices);
First-aid kits, emergency medical kits and their contents; and
Other portable safety and emergency equipment, where applicable.
Normal and emergency procedures
Each cabin crew member should be trained on the operators normal and emergency
procedures as applicable, with emphasis on the following:
Passenger briefing, safety demonstration and cabin surveillance;
Severe air turbulence;
Nonpressurisation, slow and sudden decompression, including the donning of 03.00
portable oxygen equipment by each cabin crew member; and
Other in-flight emergencies.
Carriage of special categories of passengers (SCPs) according to Regulation (EU)
2206/1107
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Operator Conversion Training (cont.)


SUBJECT HOURS
Passenger handling and crowd control
Training should be provided on the practical aspects of passenger preparation and handling, as
well as crowd control, in various emergency situations as applicable to the operators specific
aircraft cabin configuration, and should cover the following:
Communications between flight crew and cabin crew and use of all communications
equipment, including the difficulties of coordination in a smoke-filled environment;
Verbal commands; 02.00
The physical contact that may be needed to encourage people out of a door/exit and onto
a slide;
Redirection of passengers away from unusable doors/exits;
Marshalling of passengers away from the aircraft;
Evacuation of special categories of passengers with emphasis on passengers with
disabilities or reduced mobility; and
Authority and leadership.

Fire and smoke training *1


Each cabin crew member should receive realistic and practical training in the use of all fire-
fighting equipment including protective clothing representative of that carried in the 01:00
aircraft.
Each cabin crew member should:
(i) Extinguish an actual fire characteristic of an aircraft interior fire except that, in the
case of halon extinguishers, an alternative extinguishing agent may be used; and
(ii) Exercise the donning and use of PBE in an enclosed simulated smoke-filled
environment with particular emphasis on identifying the actual source of fire and
smoke.
Evacuation procedures
Training should include all the operators procedures that are applicable to planned or unplanned
evacuations on land and water. It should also include, where relevant, the additional actions 02.00
required from cabin crew members responsible for a pair of doors/exits and the recognition of
when doors/exits are unusable or when evacuation equipment is unserviceable.
Pilot incapacitation procedures
Unless the minimum flight crew is more than two, each cabin crew member should be trained in
the procedure for pilot incapacitation. Training in the use of flight crew checklists, where required 01.00
by the operator's standard operating procedures (SOPs), should be conducted by a practical
demonstration.
Crew resource management
Each cabin crew member should complete the operator's CRM training covering the
applicable training elements to the level specified in the relevant column of Table 1 of
AMC1 ORO.CC.115 (e).
When a cabin crew member undertakes the operators conversion training on an aircraft 02.00
type, the applicable training elements specified in Table 1 of AMC1 ORO.CC.115(e) should
be covered to the level specified in column Operators aircraft type conversion training.
The operator's CRM training and CRM training covered during operator aircraft type
conversion training should be conducted by at least one cabin crew CRM instructor.
Checking 01.00
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*1 Theoretical training as realistic and practical training is included in initial training as described in OM Part
D Ch.2 para 2.2.3

Note: orange2fly checks if Cabin Crew Members who hold an attestation of Initial Training issued by another
operator/training organisation, are compliant to the current regulation. In any case they follow a brief course
covering the following elements, before conducting conversion training
Introduction of orange2fly
Aviation security

2.2.5 Familiarisation
(ORO.CC.135, AMC1 ORO.CC.135)
ORO.CC.135 Familiarisation
After completion of aircraft type specific training and operator conversion training on an aircraft type, each
cabin crew member shall complete appropriate supervised familiarisation on the type before being assigned
to operate as a member of the minimum number of cabin crew required in accordance with ORO.CC.100.

AMC1 ORO.CC.135 Familiarisation

FAMILIARISATION FLIGHTS AND AIRCRAFT FAMILIARISATION VISITS


(a) For commercial air transport operations, familiarisation of cabin crew to a new aircraft type or
variant should be completed in accordance with the following, as relevant:
(1) New entrant cabin crew
Each new entrant cabin crew member having no previous comparable operating experience
should participate in:
(i) A familiarization visits as described in (c) to the aircraft to be operated; and
(ii) Familiarisation flights as described in (b).
(2) Cabin crew operating on a subsequent aircraft type
A cabin crew member assigned to operate on a subsequent aircraft type with the same operator
should participate either in a:
(i) Familiarisation flight as described in (b); or
(ii) Familiarisation visit as described in (c) to the aircraft type to be operated.
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Familiarisation (cont.)

AMC1 ORO.CC.135 Familiarisation (cont.)

(b) Familiarisation flights


(1) During familiarisation flights, the cabin crew member should be assigned in addition to the
minimum number of cabin crew required in accordance with ORO.CC.100 and if applicable
ORO.CC.200.
(2) Familiarisation flights should be:
(i) Conducted under the supervision of the senior cabin crew member;
(ii) Structured and conducted with the cabin crew member participating in pre-flight, in-flight and
post-flight safety duties;
(iii) Operated with the cabin crew member wearing the operators cabin crew uniform; and
(iv) Recorded in the training record of the cabin crew member.
(c) Aircraft familiarisation visits
(1) Aircraft visits should enable the cabin crew member to become familiar with the aircraft
environment and its equipment. Accordingly, aircraft visits should be conducted by appropriately
qualified persons. The aircraft visit should provide an overview of the aircrafts exterior, interior and
aircraft systems with emphasis on the following:
(i) Interphone and public address systems;
(ii) Evacuation alarm systems;
(iii) Emergency lighting;
(iv) Smoke detection systems;
(v) Safety and emergency equipment;
(vi) Flight crew compartment;
(vii) Cabin crew stations;
(viii) Lavatories;
(ix) Galleys, galley security and water shut-off;
(x) Cargo areas if accessible from the passenger compartment during flight;
(xi) Circuit breaker panels located in the passenger compartment;
(xii) Crew rest areas; and
(xiii) Doors/exits location and environment.
(2) An aircraft familiarisation visit may be combined with the aircraft type specific training or operator
conversion training required by ORO.CC.125.

orange2fly shall ensure that, following completion of conversion training; each cabin crewmember
undertakes familiarisation prior to operating as one of minimum number of cabin crew required.
New entrant CCM having no previous comparable operating experience will participate in an aeroplanes visit
and in a familiarization flight with a minimum of two sectors.
CCM assigned to operate on a subsequent aeroplane type with orange2fly should either participate in a
familiarisation flight with a minimum of two sectors or participate in an A/C visit to the aeroplane to be
operated.
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2.2.5.1 Aeroplane visit

A Ground Instructor will conduct aeroplane visit with the assistance of a ground engineer.
The purpose of this visit will be to familiarise CCM with the aeroplanes environment and equipment.
It will provide an overview of the aeroplanes interior, exterior and systems including the following:
Interphone and public address system;
Emergency lighting;
Smoke detection systems;
Safety equipment;
Flight Deck;
Cabin crew stations;
Toilets;
Galleys, galley security and water shut-off;
Circuit breaker panels located in the passenger compartment during flight;
Exit location and its environment;

2.2.5.2 Familiarisation Flight


Familiarisation Flight will be conducted under the supervision of the SCCM.
The cabin crew members will be additional to the minimum number of cabin crew required but they will be
involved in the participation of safety related pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight duties.
The CCM will operate in orange2fly uniform.
Familiarisation flights form part of the training record for each cabin crew member.

2.2.6 Recurrent training and checking (every year)


(ORO.CC.140, AMC1 CC.140)
ORO.CC.140 Recurrent training
(a) Each cabin crew member will complete annually recurrent training and checking.
(b) Recurrent training shall cover the actions assigned to each member of the cabin crew in normal and
emergency procedures and drills relevant to each aircraft type and/or variant to be operated.
(c) Aircraft type specific training elements:
(1) Recurrent training include annually touch-drills by each cabin crew member for simulating the
operation of each type or variant of normal and emergency doors and exits for passenger evacuation.
(2) Recurrent training also include at intervals not exceeding 3 years:
(i) Operation and actual opening by each cabin crew member, in a representative training device or
in the actual aircraft, of each type or variant of normal and emergency exits in the normal and
emergency modes;
(ii) Actual operation by each cabin crew member, in a representative training device or in the
actual aircraft, of the flight crew compartment security door, in both normal and emergency
modes, and of the seat and restraint system, and a practical demonstration of the oxygen system
equipment relevant to pilot incapacitation;
(iii) Demonstration of the operation of all other exits including the flight crew compartment
windows; and
(iv) Demonstration of the use of the life raft, or slide raft, where fitted.
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Recurrent training and checking (every year) (cont.)

ORO.CC.140 Recurrent training (cont.)

(d) Operator specific training elements:


(1) Recurrent training shall include annually:
(i) By each cabin crew member:
(A) Location and handling of all safety and emergency equipment installed or carried on board;
and
(B) The donning of life-jackets, portable oxygen and protective breathing equipment (PBE);
(ii) Stowage of articles in the passenger compartment;
(iii) Procedures related to aircraft surface contamination;
(iv) Emergency procedures;
(v) Evacuation procedures;
(vi) Incident and accident review;
(vii) Crew resource management;
(viii) Aero-medical aspects and first aid including related equipment;
(ix) Security procedures.
(2) Recurrent training also include at intervals not exceeding 3 years:
(i) Use of pyrotechnics (actual or representative devices);
(ii) Practical demonstration of the use of flight crew checklists;
(iii) Realistic and practical training in the use of all fire-fighting equipment, including protective
clothing, representative of that carried in the aircraft;
(iv) By each cabin crew member:
(A) Extinguishing a fi re characteristic of an aircraft interior fi re;
(B) Donning and use of PBE in an enclosed simulated smoke-filled environment.
(e) Validity periods:
(1) The annual recurrent training validity period shall be 12 calendar months counted from the end of the
month when the check was taken.
(2) If the recurrent training and checking required in (a) are undertaken within the last 3 calendar months
of the validity period, the new validity period shall be counted from the original expiry date.
(3) For the additional triennial training elements specified in (c)(2) and (d)(2), the validity period shall be
36 calendar months counted from the end of the month when the checks were taken.
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Recurrent training and checking (every year) (cont.)

AMC1 ORO.CC.140 Recurrent training

TRAINING PROGRAMMES
(a) Elements of the annual recurrent training programme
(1) Training on the location and handling of safety and emergency equipment should include all
relevant oxygen systems, and any equipment such as defibrillators if carried on board.
(2) Training on emergency procedures should cover pilot incapacitation procedures and crowd
control techniques.
(3) CRM training should satisfy the following:
(i) The applicable training elements specified in Table 1 of AMC1 ORO.CC.115 (e) should be
covered within a 3-year cycle to the level required by column Annual Recurrent Training;
(ii) The definition and implementation of the CRM training programme should be managed by a
cabin crew CRM trainer; and
(iii) When CRM training is provided by stand-alone modules, it should be conducted by at least
one cabin crew CRM trainer.
(b) Additional triennial elements of recurrent training programme
(1) Training on the operation of normal and emergency doors/exits should cover failure of
power assist systems where fitted. This should include the actions and forces required to
operate and deploy evacuation slides, and additional training when relevant for cabin crew
members responsible for a pair of doors/exits.
(2) Training in the use of all fire-fighting equipment, including protective clothing,
representative of that carried in the aircraft should include individual practice by each cabin
crew member to extinguish a fire characteristic of an aircraft interior fire except that, in the
case of halon extinguishers, an alternative extinguishing agent may be used. Training should
place particular emphasis on identifying the actual source of fire or smoke.
(3) Training on normal and emergency procedures for special categories of passengers (SCPs)
should cover the specific procedures established by the operator for the carriage of SCPs. The
operator may determine that such training is to be completed at shorter intervals, taking into
account the route structure, passenger profiles, aircraft types operated, seasonal demands and
operations.

orange2fly shall ensure that each cabin crew member undergoes recurrent training, covering actions
assigned to each crew member in normal and emergency procedures and drills relevant to the type(s)
and/or variant(s) of aeroplane on which they operate.
orange2fly shall ensure that the recurrent training and checking programme, is approved by HCAA and
conducted by a suitably qualified instructor.
The recurrent training will include theoretical and practical instruction, in order to ensure continued
proficiency with all equipment relevant to the aeroplane types operated by each CCM.
The period of validity of the recurrent training and checking is 12 calendar months in addition to the
remainder of the month of issue. If issued within the final 3 calendar months of validity of a pervious check,
the period of validity shall extend from the date of issue until 12 calendar months from the expiry date of
the previous check.
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Recurrent training and checking (every year) (cont.)

Subject Hours
Emergency procedures including pilot incapacitation
Evacuation procedures including crowd control techniques
Touch drills on opening normal and emergency exits for passenger evacuation (theoretical and
practical)
Location and handling of emergency equipment, including oxygen systems, and the donning by each
cabin crew member of life jackets, portable oxygen and protective breathing equipment (PBE) and
the associated checks. (theoretical and practical)
Incident and accident review

Stowage of articles in the cabin 06:00


Surface contamination awareness training and the need to inform the flight crew of significant ice
accretion
Standard operating procedures including mandatory briefings, safety checks, passenger acceptance
and handling, training on normal and emergency procedures of special categories of passengers
(SCPs) according to Regulation (EU) 2006/1107electronic devices procedures and restrictions,
fuelling with pax on board, turbulence, sterile cockpit.
Crew coordination and communication

Security procedures including flight deck access


Crew Resource Management 06:00
Medical aspects, First aid and the contents of the first-aid kit(s) 03:00
Checking 01.00
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2.2.6.1 Recurrent training and checking (Every 3 years)


In order to ensure continued proficiency with all equipment relevant to the aeroplane types operated by each
CCM at intervals not exceeding 3 years, recurrent training also includes:
The operation and actual opening of normal and emergency exits in normal and emergency mode
including failure of power assist system where fitted. This is to include the action and forces required
to operate and deploy evacuation slides for passenger evacuation in an aeroplane or representative
training device;
Demonstration of the operation of all other exits including actual operation by each cabin crew member,
in a representative training device or in the actual aircraft, of the flight crew compartment security door,
in both normal and emergency modes as well as the flight deck windows;
Realistic and practical training in the use of all fire-fighting equipment, including protective clothing,
representative of that carried in the aeroplane;
Actual extinguishing a fire characteristic of an aeroplane interior fire except that, in the case of Halon
extinguishers, an alternative extinguishing agent may be used;
Donning and use of protective breathing equipment in an enclosed simulated smoke-filled
environment;
Use of pyrotechnics (actual or representative devices), where fitted;
Demonstration of the use of the life raft, or slide-raft, where fitted.
Pilot Incapacitation: Practical demonstration of pilots seat mechanism, fastening and unfastening the
pilots seat harness, use of the pilots oxygen system and use of pilots checklists.

2.2.7 Refresher Training


(ORO.CC.145, AMC1 ORO.CC.145, GM1 ORO.CC.145)

ORO.CC.145 Refresher training


(a) When a cabin crew member, during the preceding 6 months within the validity period of the last
relevant recurrent training and checking:
(1) Has not performed any flying duties, he/she shall, before being reassigned to such duties,
complete refresher training and checking for each aircraft type to be operated; or
(2) Has not performed flying duties on one particular aircraft type, he/she shall, before being
reassigned to duties, complete on that aircraft type:
(i) Refresher training and checking; or
(ii) Two familiarisation flights in accordance with ORO.CC.135.
(b) The refresher training programme for each aircraft type shall at least cover:
(1) Emergency procedures;
(2) Evacuation procedures;
(3) Operation and actual opening, by each cabin crew member, of each type or variant of normal
and emergency exits and of the flight crew compartment security door in the normal and
emergency modes;
(4) Demonstration of the operation of all other exits including the flight crew compartment
windows;
(5) Location and handling of all relevant safety and emergency equipment installed or carried on
board.
(c) orange2fly may elect to replace refresher training by recurrent training if the re-instatement of
the cabin crew members flying duties commences within the validity period of the last recurrent
training and checking. If that validity period has expired, refresher training may only be replaced by
aircraft type specific and operator conversion training as specified in ORO.CC.125.
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Refresher Training (cont.)

AMC1 ORO.CC.145 Refresher training


TRAINING PROGRAMME
(a) Training on emergency procedures should include pilot incapacitation procedures and crowd control
techniques as applicable to the aircraft type; and
(b) Operation of doors and exits by each cabin crew member should include failure of power assist systems
where fitted as well as the action and forces required to operate and deploy evacuation slides.

GM1 ORO.CC.145 Refresher training


FREQUENCY OF REFRESHER TRAINING
For aircraft with complex equipment or procedures, the operator should consider the need for refresher
training to be completed by cabin crew members who have been absent from flying duties for less than 6
months.

orange2fly shall ensure that:


Refresher training is conducted by suitable qualified persons.
Each Cabin crew member who has been absent from all flying duties for more than 6 months and still
remains within the period of validity of the previous check completes refresher training.
When Cabin crewmember has not been absent from all flying duties, but has not during the preceding
6 months, undertaken duties on a type of aeroplane as a cabin crewmember.
Before undertaking such duties, on this type, the cabin crewmember either;
a. Completes refresher training on the type; or
b. Operates two re-familiarisation sectors.
If the period of validity of the last recurrent training and checking has expired, a conversion training course is
required on the type.

Refresher training will include a theoretical as well as, a practical course and will last minimum of 1 day.
i. Theoretical training:
a. Emergency procedures including pilot incapacitation;
b. Evacuation procedures including crowd control.
ii. Practical training:
a. Operation and actual opening of each type or variant of normal and emergency exit in the
normal and emergency modes, including failure of power assist systems where fitted, in an
aeroplane or representative training device;
b. Demonstration of the operation of all other exits including flight deck windows;
c. Location and handling of emergency equipment, including oxygen systems, and the donning
of lifejackets, portable oxygen and Protective Breathing Equipment (PBE).
iii. Checking.
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2.2.8 Fire and smoke training

Training requirement/interval Required activity


First Initial Training or Conversion to Actual fire-fighting and handling
(Note 1)
aeroplane type (e.g. new entrant) equipment
Every year during recurrent training Handling equipment
Every 3 years during recurrent Actual fire-fighting and handling
(Note 1)
training equipment
Subsequent a/c conversion (Note a) (Note a) (Note 2 & 3)
Handling
New fire-fighting equipment
equipment

Notes:
1. Actual fire-fighting during training must include use of at least one fire extinguisher and extinguishing
agent as used on the aeroplane type. An alternative extinguisher agent may be used in place of Halon.
2. Fire-fighting equipment is required to be handled if it is different to that previously used.
3. Where the equipment between aeroplane type is the same, training is not required if within the
validity of the 3-year check.

2.2.9Medical Aspects and First Aid Training


Objectives of this course are to enable the cabin crewmember to:
Assess a situation and condition by observing the signs, symptoms and where possible by eliciting any
applicable medical history of the casualty.
Make a diagnosis on the information they have collated.
Administer appropriate treatment immediately.
Maintain treatment of the casualty until professional medical help takes over.
Give the crewmember the confidence and ability to preserve life, prevent a condition worsening and
to promote recovery.
Every cabin crewmember should know how and when to render first aid and be prepared to provide
competent assistance to the sick and injured in all circumstances.
An intense course of concentrated on in-flight first aid procedures aimed at cabin crew, to facilitate the skilled
application of accepted principles for the treatment of possible onboard injuries or illnesses.
The course looks at the most appropriate way of dealing with a medical incident or emergency in the air. It
also embraces the cabin crews actions prior to the emergency services arriving if a medical emergency occurs
outside but in the vicinity of the aircraft, e.g. whilst boarding passengers or in the event of an air crash.
The course is conducted on an annual basis, as element of the recurrent training.
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Medical Aspects and First Aid Training (cont.)


The syllabus consists of:
Subject

Aero-medical aspects and first-aid:


General instruction on aero-medical aspects and survival;
The physiological effects of flying with particular emphasis on hypoxia,
Oxygen requirements, Eustachian tubal function and barotraumas;
Basic first-aid, including care of:
(a) Air sickness;
(b) Gastro-intestinal disturbances;
(c) Hyperventilation;
(d) Burns;
(e) Wounds;
(f) The unconscious; and
(g) Fractures and soft tissue injuries;
In-flight medical emergencies and associated first-aid covering at least:
(a) Asthma;
(b) Stress and allergic reactions;
(c) Shock;
(d) Diabetes;
(e) Choking;
(f) Epilepsy;
(g) Childbirth;
(h) Stroke; and
(i) Heart attack;
The use of appropriate equipment including first-aid oxygen, first-aid kits and
emergency medical kits and their contents;
Practical cardio-pulmonary resuscitation training by each cabin crew member
using a specifically designed dummy and taking account of the characteristics of
an aircraft environment; and
Travel health and hygiene, including:
(a) Hygiene on board;
(b) Risk of contact with infectious diseases and means to reduce such risks;
(c) Handling of clinical waste;
(d) Aircraft disinfection;
(e) Handling of death on board; and
(f) Alertness management, physiological effects of fatigue, sleep physiology,
circadian rhythm and time zone changes.

Note: When initial medical aspects and first aid training has not included the avoidance of infectious
diseases, especially in tropical and sub-tropical climates, such training shall be provided in a form of briefing
notes, if the route network of orange2fly is extended or changed to include such areas.
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2.2.10 Dangerous Goods Training


{SPA.DG.105, AMC1 SPA.DG.105 (a)}

SPA.DG.105 Approval to transport dangerous goods


(a) Establish and maintain a training programme for all personnel involved and demonstrate
to the competent authority that adequate training has been given to all personnel;

AMC1 SPA.DG.105 (a) Approval to transport dangerous goods

TRAINING PROGRAMME
(a) orange2fly indicates for the approval of the training programme how the training will be
carried out. For formal training courses, the course objectives, the training programme
syllabus/curricula and examples of the written examination to be undertaken are to be included.
(b) Instructors must have knowledge of training techniques as well as in the field of transport of
dangerous goods by air so that the subject is covered fully and questions can be adequately
answered. (c) Training intended to give general information and guidance may be by any means
including hand-outs, leaflets, circulars, slide presentations, videos, computer-based training, etc.,
and may take place on-the-job or off-the-job. The person being trained receives an overall
awareness of the subject.
This training includes a written, oral or computer-based examination covering all areas of the
training programme, showing that a required minimum level of knowledge has been acquired.
(d) Training intended to give an in-depth and detailed appreciation of the whole subject or
particular aspects of it is to be done by formal training courses, which should include a written
examination, the successful passing of which will result in the issue of the proof of qualification.
The course may be by means of tuition, as a self-study programme, or a mixture of both. The
person being trained must gain sufficient knowledge so as to be able to apply the detailed rules of
the Technical Instructions.
(e) Training in emergency procedures includes as a minimum:
(1) For personnel other than crew members:
(i) Dealing with damaged or leaking packages; and
(ii) Other actions in the event of ground emergencies arising from dangerous goods;
(2) For flight crew members:
(i) Actions in the event of emergencies in flight occurring in the passenger compartment or in
the cargo compartments; and
(ii) The notification to ATS should an in-flight emergency occur;
(f) Training should be conducted at intervals of no longer than 2 years.
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Dangerous Goods Training (cont.)


orange2fly is not authorised to Transport Dangerous Goods
Dangerous Goods Training is given to a depth sufficient to ensure that awareness is gained of the hazards
associated with dangerous goods and what requirements apply to the carriage of such goods by passengers,
or more generally, their carriage on an aeroplane.
The one-day initial course (6 hours) as well as the recurrent course (4 hours every 2 years, is conducted by
suitably qualified personnel or a third party approved by HCAA in the form of stand-up instruction in a
classroom and by means of leaflets and slide presentation, Training programs are based on the ICAO/IATA
training syllabi. The syllabus is as follows:

Training topics
General Philosophy
Limitations
Marking and labeling
Recognition of undeclared DG
Provisions for passengers and crew
Emergency procedures (including
lithium batteries guide for crew)

orange2fly ensures that all staff who receives training for the transport of dangerous goods by air
undertakes a test to verify understanding of their responsibilities.
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2.2.11 Aviation Security Training

orange2fly has established, maintains and conducts approved by the Authority training programmes in
order to enable the operators crew members to take appropriate action to prevent acts of unlawful
interference such as sabotage or unlawful seizure of an aircraft and to minimize the consequences of such
events should they occur. The training programme is compatible with the National Aviation Security program
(). The course provides the crewmembers knowledge and competence of all relevant elements of the
program, it shall be conducted by suitably qualified personnel and it shall be repeated in a period not
exceeding 3 YEARS. Initial training has 12 hours and recurrent training has 4 hours duration. Syllabus is as
follows:
The course content shall include:

Subjects Hours
National law and security structure of HCAA/D15
Security definitions
International law and structure of HCAA
Terrorism in Civil Aviation. (Types and methods of
terrorism)
Methods of handling unruly passengers
Exchange of information on subjects concerning
security and Civil Aviation
Weapons and explosive substances and devices
12:00
Hijacking and methods dealing with hijacking
Bomb threat procedures
Security aircraft parked on the ground
Liquids carried in hand luggage New E.U. Security
Measures
Aircraft security search
Search and security aircraft search lists
Least Risk Bomb Location Checklist Reinforced Cockpit
Door Procedure
Total 12.00

2.2.12 Security Procedures Training


As part of the annual training, a review of the security procedures shall be conducted including subjects as
unruly passengers, flight deck security, security checks and filling of the relevant form, reminders of
orange2fly procedures, and recent amendments.
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2.2.13 Crew Resource Management Training


{AMC1 ORO.CC.115 (e), GM1 ORO.CC.115 (e)}

AMC1 ORO.CC.115 (e) Conduct of training courses and associated checking


CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENTTRAINING PROGRAMMES AND CRM INSTRUCTORS
(a) Implementation of CRM training
Table 1 below indicates which CRM training elements should be covered in each type of training.
Table 1 Cabin crew CRM training

Operator
Annual Senior Cabin
CRM TRAINING ELEMENTS Operators CRM Aircraft Type
Recurrent Crew (SCC)
to be covered Training Conversion
Training Course
Training
General Principles
Human factors in aviation Not required
General instructions on CRM principles (as covered under
Not required Not required Overview
and objectives initial training
Human performance and limitations required by Part CC)
Relevant to the individual cabin crew member
Personality awareness, human error and
reliability, attitudes and behaviours,
Not required
self-assessment Overview
(as covered under
Stress and stress management Not required (3-year Not required
initial training
Fatigue and vigilance cycle)
required by Part-CC)
Assertiveness, situation awareness,
information acquisition and processing
Relevant to the entire aircraft crew
Error prevention and detection
Shared situation awareness,
information acquisition and processing
Workload management
Relevant
Effective communication and In-depth Reinforceme
to the type(s)
coordination between all crew Overview nt
members including the flight crew as (3-year (relevant to
well as inexperienced cabin crew cycle) the SCC
members, cultural differences duties)
Leadership, cooperation, synergy,
decision-making, delegation
Individual and team responsibilities,
decision making, and actions
Identification and management of the
passenger human factors: crowd
control, passenger stress, conflict
management, medical factors
Specifics related to aircraft types
(narrow/wide bodied, single/multi
Not required In-depth
deck), flight crew and cabin crew
composition and number of passengers
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Table 1 Cabin crew CRM training (cont.)

CRM TRAINING ELEMENTS Operators Operator Annual Senior


to be covered CRM Training Aircraft Type Conversion Recurrent Cabin
Training Training Crew (SCC)
Course
Relevant to the operator and the organization

Company safety culture, SOPs,


organisational factors, factors linked
to the type of operations Reinforcem
Overview
Effective communication and ent
In- depth (3-year
coordination with other operational Relevant to the type(s) (relevant to
cycle)
personnel and ground services the SCC
Participation in cabin safety incident duties)
and accident reporting
Case- studies Required Required
(b) CRM training programmes
(1) There should be an effective liaison between flight crew and cabin crew training departments.
Provision should be made to allow, whenever practicable, flight and cabin crew instructors to
observe and comment on each other are training. Consideration should be given to creating films
of flight crew compartment scenarios for playback to all cabin crew during recurrent training, and
to providing the opportunity for cabin crew members, particularly senior cabin crew members; to
participate in flight crew line oriented flying training (LOFT) exercises.
(2) The programme of each CRM training course, its content and the level to be achieved should
comply with the relevant elements specified in table 1 below as applicable to the appropriate
training course to be completed.
(3) CRM training for senior cabin crew members
(i) CRM training for senior cabin crew members should be the application of knowledge gained
in previous CRM training and operational experience relevant to the specific duties and
responsibilities of a senior cabin crew member.
(ii) The senior cabin crew member should demonstrate the ability to manage the operation
and take appropriate leadership/management decisions.
(c) CRM instructor qualifications
(1) All personnel conducting training should be appropriately qualified to integrate elements of
CRM into all appropriate training programmes.
(2) A training and standardisation programme for CRM instructors should be established.
(3) The cabin crew CRM instructor should:
(i) Have suitable experience of commercial air transport operations as a cabin crew member;
(ii) Have received instruction on human factors performance limitations (HPL);
(iii) Have completed an introductory CRM course as required by Part-CC and all cabin crew CRM
training required by Part-ORO;
(iv) Have received instruction in training skills in order to conduct CRM courses; and
(v) Be supervised by an appropriately qualified CRM instructor when conducting their first CRM
training course.
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AMC1 ORO.CC.115 (e) (cont.)

(4) An experienced non-cabin crew CRM instructor may continue to be a cabin crew CRM
instructor, provided that the provisions specified in (3)(ii) to (3)(v) are satisfied and that the
instructor demonstrates a satisfactory knowledge of the nature of the operation, the relevant
specific aircraft types and the cabin crew working environment.
(5) Instructors integrating elements of CRM into aircraft type training, recurrent training, or
senior cabin crew training should have acquired relevant knowledge of human factors and have
completed appropriate CRM training.

GM1 ORO.CC.115 (e) Conduct of training courses and associated checking

CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (CRM)


(a) CRM - General
(1) CRM should be the effective utilisation of all available resources (e.g. crew members, aircraft
systems, and supporting facilities) to achieve safe and efficient operation.
(2) The objective of CRM should be to enhance the communication and management skills of the
crew member, as well as the importance of effective coordination and two-way communication
between all crew members.
(3) Operators CRM training should reflect the culture of the operator, the scale and scope of the
operation together with associated operating procedures and areas of operation that produce
particular difficulties.
(4) Accordingly, where required during CRM training, if relevant aircraft type-specific case studies
are not available, then other case studies relevant to the scale and scope of the operation should be
considered.
(b) General principles for CRM training for cabin crew
(1) Cabin crew CRM training should focus on issues related to cabin crew duties and, therefore,
should be different from flight crew CRM training. However, the coordination of the tasks and
functions of flight crew and cabin crew should be addressed.
(2) Whenever practicable, combined training should be provided to flight crew and cabin crew,
particularly senior cabin crew members. This should include feedback.
(3) Where appropriate, CRM principles should be integrated into relevant parts of cabin crew
training.
(4) CRM training should include group discussions and the review of accidents and incidents (case
studies).
(5) Whenever it is practicable to do so, relevant parts of CRM training should form part of the
training conducted in cabin training devices or in the aircraft.
(6) CRM training courses should be conducted in a structured and realistic manner.
(7) There should be no assessment of CRM skills. Feedback from instructors or members of the
group on individual performance should be given during training to the individuals concerned.
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Crew Resource Management Training (cont.)

Crew Resource Management (CRM) should be the effective utilisation of all available resources (e.g. Crew
members, aircraft systems, supporting facilities) to achieve safe and efficient operations.
The objective of CRM is to enhance communication and management skills of the crew member, as well as
the importance of effective co-ordination and communication between all crewmembers.
CRM training should reflect the culture of orange2fly, the scale and scope of the operation together with
the associated operating procedures and areas of operation which produce particular difficulties.
Initial CRM training should provide Cabin crewmembers with a basic knowledge of human factors and non-
technical skills relevant to the understanding of CRM.
A cabin crew member shall complete an Introductory CRM Course before being first assigned to operate as a
cabin crew member.
When a crew member has not previously completed Introductory CRM training (either new employees or
existing staff), then orange2fly shall ensure that the crew member completes an introductory CRM training
course. New employees shall complete Introductory CRM Training within their first year of joining
orange2fly.
CRM training should be the application of the knowledge gained in the initial CRM course to enhance
communication and co-ordination skills of cabin crewmembers relevant to orange2fly culture and type of
operation.
Aircraft type specific CRM should be integrated into all appropriate phases of the conversion training on the
specific a/c type and should be the application of the knowledge gained in previous CRM courses.
When a cabin crew member undergoes annual recurrent training, CRM training should be integrated into all
appropriate phases of the recurrent training and may include standalone modules. When CRM elements are
integrated into all appropriate phases of the recurrent training, the CRM elements should be clearly identified in
the training syllabus. When CRM training is provided by stand-alone modules, it shall be conducted by at least
one cabin crew CRM instructor.
Annual Recurrent CRM Training should include realistic operations situations and areas as identified by
orange2fly Safety Management System.
CRM training for Senior Cabin Crew Members should be the application of knowledge gained in previous CRM
training and operational experience relevant to the specific duties and responsibilities of a Senior Cabin Crew
Member. The senior cabin crew member should demonstrate ability to manage the operation and take
appropriate leadership / management decisions.
There should be an effective liaison between flight crew and cabin crew training departments. Provision should be
made for flight and cabin crew instructors to observe and comment on each others training. Consideration should
be given to creating flight deck scenarios on video for playback to all cabin crew during recurrent training, and to
providing the opportunity for cabin crew, particularly senior cabin crew, to participate in Flight Crew LOFT
exercises. As in all non-technical courses, CRM course that deals mainly with human factors should be conducted
through facilitation.
A specific modular CRM training program shall be established such that all major topics of CRM training are covered
over a period not exceeding three years, as follows:
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Crew Resource Management Training (cont.)

YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3

Company safety culture, Company safety culture, Company safety culture,


SOPs, organisational SOPs, organisational SOPs, organisational
factor. factor. factor.
Case based studies. Case based studies. Case based studies.
FRMS FRMS FRMS
Additional areas, which Additional areas, which Additional areas, which
warrant extra attention warrant extra attention warrant extra attention
as identified by the SMS as identified by the SMS as identified by the SMS
programme. programme. programme.
Communication and co- Identification and Threat and error
ordination inside and management of the management
outside the cockpit. passenger human Decision-making.
Information acquisition factors, crowd control, Stress, stress
and processing, situation passenger stress, conflict management, fatigue
awareness, workload management, medical and vigilance
management factors Specific type-related
Automation and differences
philosophy of the use of
automation.
Leadership and team
behaviour, synergy

orange2fly will update the CRM recurrent training programme. The revision of the programme shall take
into account the de-identified results of the CRM assessments of crews, and information identified by the
Safety Management System.
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Crew Resource Management Training (cont.)


All CRM courses syllabi are as described in the following table.
Operator
Annual Senior Cabin
CRM TRAINING ELEMENTS Operators CRM Aircraft Type
Recurrent Crew (SCC)
to be covered Training Conversion
Training Course
Training
General Principles
Human factors in aviation Not required
General instructions on CRM principles (as covered under
Not required Not required Overview
and objectives initial training
Human performance and limitations required by Part CC)
Relevant to the individual cabin crew member
Personality awareness, human error and
reliability, attitudes and behaviours,
Not required
self-assessment Overview
(as covered under
Stress and stress management Not required (3-year Not required
initial training
Fatigue and vigilance cycle)
required by Part-CC)
Assertiveness, situation awareness,
information acquisition and processing
Relevant to the entire aircraft crew
Error prevention and detection
Shared situation awareness,
information acquisition and processing
Workload management
Relevant
Effective communication and In-depth Reinforceme
to the type(s)
coordination between all crew Overview nt
members including the flight crew as (3-year (relevant to
well as inexperienced cabin crew cycle) the SCC
members, cultural differences duties)
Leadership, cooperation, synergy,
decision-making, delegation
Individual and team responsibilities,
decision making, and actions
Identification and management of the
passenger human factors: crowd
control, passenger stress, conflict
management, medical factors
Specifics related to aircraft types
(narrow/wide bodied, single/multi
Not required In-depth
deck), flight crew and cabin crew
composition and number of passengers
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Crew Resource Management Training (cont.)

CRM TRAINING ELEMENTS Operators Operator Annual Senior


to be covered CRM Training Aircraft Type Conversion Recurrent Cabin
Training Training Crew (SCC)
Course
Relevant to the operator and the organization

Company safety culture, SOPs,


organisational factors, factors linked
to the type of operations Reinforcem
Overview
Effective communication and ent
In- depth (3-year
coordination with other operational Relevant to the type(s) (relevant to
cycle)
personnel and ground services the SCC
Participation in cabin safety incident duties)
and accident reporting
Case- studies Required Required
(b) CRM training programmes
(1) There should be an effective liaison between flight crew and cabin crew training departments.
Provision should be made to allow, whenever practicable, flight and cabin crew instructors to
observe and comment on each other are training. Consideration should be given to creating films
of flight crew compartment scenarios for playback to all cabin crew during recurrent training, and
to providing the opportunity for cabin crew members, particularly senior cabin crew members; to
participate in flight crew line oriented flying training (LOFT) exercises.
(2) The programme of each CRM training course, its content and the level to be achieved should
comply with the relevant elements specified in table 1 below as applicable to the appropriate
training course to be completed.
(3) CRM training for senior cabin crew members
(i) CRM training for senior cabin crew members should be the application of knowledge gained
in previous CRM training and operational experience relevant to the specific duties and
responsibilities of a senior cabin crew member.
(ii) The senior cabin crew member should demonstrate the ability to manage the operation
and take appropriate leadership/management decisions.
(c) CRM instructor qualifications
(1) All personnel conducting training should be appropriately qualified to integrate elements of
CRM into all appropriate training programmes.
(2) A training and standardisation programme for CRM instructors should be established.
(3) The cabin crew CRM instructor should:
(i) Have suitable experience of commercial air transport operations as a cabin crew member;
(ii) Have received instruction on human factors performance limitations (HPL);
(iii) Have completed an introductory CRM course as required by Part-CC and all cabin crew CRM
training required by Part-ORO;
(iv) Have received instruction in training skills in order to conduct CRM courses; and
(v) Be supervised by an appropriately qualified CRM instructor when conducting their first CRM
training course.
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2.2.14 Representative Training Devices and Training Methods


{ORO.CC.115, AMC1 ORO.CC.115 (c), AMC1 ORO.CC.115 (d), GM1 ORO.CC.115}

ORO.CC.115 Conduct of training courses and associated checking


(a) A detailed programme and syllabus shall be established by the operator for each training course in
accordance with the applicable requirements of this Subpart, and of Annex V (Part-CC) to Regulation
(EU)No 1178/2011 where applicable, to cover the duties and responsibilities to be discharged by the
cabin crew members.
(b) Each training course shall include theoretical and practical instruction together with individual or
collective practice, as relevant to each training subject, in order that the cabin crew member achieves
and maintains the adequate level of proficiency in accordance with this Subpart.
(c) Each training course shall be:
(1) Conducted in a structured and realistic manner; and
(2) Performed by personnel appropriately qualified for the subject to be covered.
(d) During or following completion of all training required by this Subpart, each cabin crew member
shall undergo a check covering all training elements of the relevant training programme, except for
crew resource management (CRM) training. Checks shall be performed by personnel appropriately
qualified to verify that the cabin crew member has achieved and/or maintains the required level of
proficiency.
(e) CRM training courses and CRM modules where applicable shall be conducted by a cabin crew CRM
instructor. When CRM elements are integrated in other training, a cabin crew CRM instructor shall
manage the definition and implementation of the syllabus.

AMC1 ORO.CC.115(c) Conduct of training courses and associated checking

TRAINING METHODS AND TRAINING DEVICES


(a) orange2fly should establish training methods that take into account the following:
(1) Training should include the use of cabin training devices, audio-visual presentations, computer-
based training and other types of training, as most appropriate to the training element; and
(2) A reasonable balance between the different training methods should be ensured so that the
cabin crew member achieves the level of proficiency necessary for a safe performance of all related
cabin crew duties and responsibilities.
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Representative Training Devices and Training Methods (cont.)

AMC1 ORO.CC.115(c) Conduct of training courses and associated checking (cont.)

(b) When assessing the representative training devices to be used, the operator should:
(1) take into account that a representative training device may be used to train cabin crew as an
alternative to the use of the actual aircraft or required equipment;
(2) Ensure that those items relevant to the training and checking intended to be given accurately
represent the aircraft or equipment in the following particulars:
(i) Layout of the cabin in relation to doors/exits, galley areas and safety and emergency equipment
stowage as relevant;
(ii) Type and location of passenger seats and cabin crew stations;
(iii) Doors/exits in all modes of operation, particularly in relation to the method of operation, mass
and balance and operating forces, including failure of power-assist systems where fitted; and
(iv) Safety and emergency equipment of the type provided in the aircraft (such equipment may be
training use only items and, for oxygen and protective breathing equipment, units charged with or
without oxygen may be used); and
(3) Assess the following factors when determining whether a door/exit can be considered to be a
variant of another type:
(i) Door/exit arming/disarming;
(ii) Direction of movement of the operating handle;
(iii) Direction of door/exit opening;
(iv) Power-assist mechanisms; and
(v) Assisting evacuation means such as slides and ropes.

AMC1 ORO.CC.115 (d) Conduct of training courses and associated checking

CHECKING
(a) Checking required for each training course should be accomplished by the method appropriate to the
training element to be checked. These methods include:
(1) Practical demonstration;
(2) Computer-based assessment;
(3) In-flight checks;
(4) Oral or written tests.
(b) Training elements that require individual practical participation may be combined with practical checks.
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Representative Training Devices and Training Methods (cont.)

GM1 ORO.CC.115 Conduct of training courses and associated checking

EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES


The following definitions apply for the purpose of training programmes, syllabi and the conduct of training and
checking on equipment and procedures:
(a) Safety equipment means equipment installed/carried to be used during day-to-day normal operations for
the safe conduct of the flight and protection of occupants (e.g. seat belts, child restraint devices, safety card,
safety demonstration kit).
(b) Emergency equipment means equipment installed/carried to be used in case of abnormal and emergency
situations that demand immediate action for the safe conduct of the flight and protection of occupants including
life preservation (e.g. drop-out oxygen, crash axe, fire extinguisher, protective breathing equipment, manual
release tool, slide-raft).
(c) Normal procedures means all procedures established by orange2fly in the operations manual for day-to-
day normal operations (e.g. pre-flight briefing of cabin crew, pre-flight checks, passenger briefing, securing of
galleys and cabin, cabin surveillance during flight).
(d) Emergency procedures means all procedures established by orange2fly in the operations manual for
abnormal and emergency situations. For this purpose, abnormal refers to a situation that is not typical or usual,
deviates from normal operation and may result in an emergency.

Representative Training Devices


1. A representative training device may be used for training of cabin crew as an alternative to use of the
actual aeroplane or required equipment. Additionally, a presentation or CBT program may be used.
2. Only those items relevant to the training and testing intended to be given should accurately represent
the aeroplane or required equipment.
a) Layout of the cabin in relation to exits, galley areas and safety equipment stowage.
b) Type and location of passenger and cabin crew seats.
c) Exits in all modes of operation (particularly in relation to method of operation, mass and balance
and operating forces) including failure of power assist system where fitted, and
d) Safety equipment of the type provided in the aeroplane (such equipment may be training use only
items and, for oxygen and protective breathing equipment, units charged with or without oxygen
may be used)
3. When determining whether an exit can be considered to be a variant of another type, the following
factors should be assessed:
a) Exit arming/disarming
b) Direction of movement of the operating handle
c) Direction of exit opening
d) Power assist mechanisms
e) Assist means, e.g. evacuation slides

Training Methods
Training may include the use of mock-up facilities, video presentations; computer based training and other
types of training. A reasonable balance between the different training methods should be achieved.
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2.2.15 Checking
{ORO.CC.215, GM1 ORO.CC.215 (b) (2)}

ORO.CC.215 Training and checking programs and related documentation


(a) Training and checking programmes including syllabi required by this Subpart shall be approved by
the competent authority and specified in the operations manual.
(b) After a cabin crew member has successfully completed a training course and the associated check,
the operator shall:
(1) Update the cabin crew members training records in accordance with ORO.MLR.115; and
(2) Provide him/her with a list showing updated validity periods as relevant to the aircraft
type(s) and variant(s) on which the cabin crew member is qualified to operate.

GM1 ORO.CC.215 (b) (2) Training and checking programmes and related documentation
LIST OF AIRCRAFT TYPE/VARIANT QUALIFICATION(S)
When providing the updated validity list of aircraft type/variant qualifications to cabin crew members having
successfully completed a training course and the associated checking, the operator may use the following
format. If using another format, at least the elements in (a) to (d) and in columns (1) and (2) should be
indicated to show validity of qualification(s).

orange2fly ensures that during or following completion of the training required, each cabin crew member
undergoes a check covering the training received in order to verify his proficiency in carrying out normal and
emergency safety duties.
These checks must be performed by Cabin Crew Checker provided that the Cabin Crew Checker is not the
initial training Ground Instructor.

Each cabin crew member shall undergo checks as follows:

1. Initial Training.
2. Conversion and differences training.
3. Recurrent Training.
4. Refresher Training
5. Senior Cabin Crewmember training
6. Ground Instructor

2.2.15.1 Methods of checking


1. A written test with 20 questions covering the received training as listed in chapter 2 above will be
performed by each CCM. The minimum acceptable result will be 80%.
2. Practical demonstration.
3. Computer based assessment.
4. In-flight check
5. Oral test
A Ground Instructor will assess the written test.
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2.2.15.2 In-flight check

As part of monitoring the cabin crew members compliance with company policy directives, the knowledge
received in standard and emergency procedures training, their abilities in their particular duties and
responsibilities and the relationship of such duties to the operation as a whole. Cabin crew members are
scheduled to undergo at least one in-flight check per a/c type every two years. The Cabin Crew Manager,
taking under consideration Flight Crew, SCCMs and Passenger reports, may at any given time, authorise an
in-flight check of a SCCM/CCM.
In-flight checks may be also initiated ad hoc and the CCM cannot refuse it.
A cabin crew checker shall perform in-flight check in all SCCMs and CCMs. He/she may perform an in-flight
check as a dead-head crew member.

2.2.16 Company procedures in case of failure

2.2.16.1 Failure during Initial/Conversion/Recurrent/Refresher Training and Checking


In case of failure during any stage of Initial/Conversion/ Recurrent/Refresher Training and Checking, the
following company procedures are established:
When the written company test is failed the cabin crew member shall not proceed to the next stage
of training or undertake any flying duties and another company written test is conducted after a
reasonable time given for study.
If the test is passed the CCM proceeds to the next stage of training or is released to flying duties. If
the test is failed see NOTE

2.2.16.2 Failure during Senior Course


In case of failure during any stage of Senior Cabin Crew Member Training and Checking a repeat one-day
course (1 day) is attended, focusing in the problem areas and then another written test is conducted.
If the test is failed see NOTE.

2.2.16.3 Failure during GTI Course


In case of failure in a GTI training and Checking the procedure described in the following NOTE applies.

2.2.16.4 Failure during in-flight check


In case of failure in an in-flight check, the cabin crew member will be scheduled to undergo a second in-flight
check with a different checker.
If the check is passed the cabin crew member will continue to perform his duties.
If the check is failed, the procedure of the NOTE applies.

NOTE: In case of failure in the second company written test in any of the checking procedures of Initial,
Conversion, Recurrent or Refresher training, or the second in flight check, the Flight Operation Manager, the
Training Manager and the Cabin Crew Manager will decide on the appropriate actions concerning the cabin
crew member. If the actions decided include further training, the Training Manager in cooperation with the
Cabin Crew Manager will decide on the appropriate course to be taken.
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2.2.17 Training Records


(ORO.MLR.115, AMC1 ORO.MLR.115)

ORO.MLR.115 Record-keeping
(c) Personnel records are to be stored for the periods indicated below:

As long as the crew member is exercising the


Flight crew licence and cabin crew attestation privileges of the licence or attestation for the
aircraft operator
Crew member training, checking and 3 years
qualifications
Records on crew member recent experience 15 months
Crew member route and aerodrome/task and
3 years
area competence, as appropriate
Dangerous goods training, as appropriate 3 years
Training/qualification records of other personnel
for whom a training programme is required last 2 training records

(d) orange2fly is:


(1) Maintaining records of all training, checking and qualifications of each crew member, as prescribed
in Part-ORO; and
(2) Makes such records available, on request, to the crew member concerned.
(e) orange2fly is preserving the information used for the preparation and execution of a flight and
personnel training records, even if orange2fly ceases to be the operator of that aircraft or the employer
of that crew member, provided this is within the timescales prescribed in (c).
(f) If a crew member becomes a crew member for another operator, orange2fly shall make the crew
members records available to the new operator, provided this is within the timescales prescribed in (c).

AMC1 ORO.MLR.115 Record-keeping


TRAINING RECORDS
A summary of training should be maintained by orange2fly to show every crew members completion of
each stage of training and checking.

The records of all training and checking activities are kept according to chapter 4 of this manual.
A summary of training on completion of each stage of training and checking is kept.
All records of Initial Training, conversion, recurrent and refresher training and checking are available on
request to the cabin crewmembers concerned.
Access to the record stowage area is granted to the Training Manager, his deputy, the Accountable Manager
and the Safety and Compliance Manager.
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2.2.18 Operation on more than one aircraft type or variant


{CC.TRA.225, ORO.CC.250, AMC1 ORO.CC.250 (b)}

CC.TRA.225 Aircraft type or variant qualification(s)


(a) Holders of a valid cabin crew attestation shall only operate on an aircraft if they are qualified in
accordance with the applicable requirements of Part- ORO.
(b) To be qualified for an aircraft type or a variant, the holder:
(1) Must comply with the applicable training, checking and validity requirements, covering as
relevant to the aircraft to be operated:
(i) Aircraft-type specific training, operator conversion training and familiarisation;
(ii) Differences training;
(iii) Recurrent training; and
(2) Shall have operated within the preceding 6 months on the aircraft type, or shall have completed
the relevant refresher training and checking before operating again on that aircraft type.

ORO.CC.250 Operation on more than one aircraft type or variant


(a) A cabin crew member shall not be assigned to operate on more than three aircraft types, except
that, with the approval of the competent authority, the cabin crew member may be assigned to
operate on four aircraft types if for at least two of the types:
(1) Safety and emergency equipment and type-specific normal and emergency procedures are
similar; and
(2) Non-type-specific normal and emergency procedures are identical.
(b) For the purpose of (a) and for cabin crew training and qualifications, the operator shall
determine:
(1) Each aircraft as a type or a variant taking into account, where available, the relevant data
established in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 748/2012 for the relevant aircraft type or
variant; and
(2) Variants of an aircraft type to be different types if they are not similar in the following
aspects:
(i) Emergency exit operation;
(ii) Location and type of portable safety and emergency equipment;
(iii) Type-specific emergency procedures.

orange2fly as far as operation on more than one aircraft type or variant is concerned adopts the above
mention legislation as its own procedure.
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Operation on more than one aircraft type or variant (cont.)

AMC1 ORO.CC.250 (b) Operation on more than one aircraft type or variant

DETERMINATION OF AIRCRAFT TYPES AND VARIANTS


(a) When determining similarity of location and type of portable safety and emergency equipment,
the following factors should be assessed:
(1) All portable safety and emergency equipment is stowed in the same, or in exceptional
circumstances, in substantially the same location;
(2) All portable safety and emergency equipment requires the same method of operation;
(3) Portable safety and emergency equipment includes:
(i) Fire-fighting equipment;
(ii) Protective breathing equipment (PBE);
(iii) Oxygen equipment;
(iv) Crew life-jackets;
(v) Torches;
(vi) Megaphones;
(vii) First-aid equipment;
(viii) Survival and signalling equipment; and
(ix) Other safety and emergency equipment, where applicable.
(b) The type-specific emergency procedures to be considered should include at least the following:
(1) Land and water evacuation;
(2) In-flight fire;
(3) Non-pressurisation, slow and sudden decompression; and
(4) Pilot incapacitation.
(c) When determining similarity of doors/exits in the absence of data established in accordance
with Regulation (EC) No 748/2012 for the relevant aircraft type(s) or variant(s), the following
factors should be assessed, except for self-help exits, such as type III and type IV exits, that need
not be included in the assessment:
(1) Door/exit arming and disarming;
(2) Direction of movement of the operating handle;
(3) Direction of door/exit opening;
(4) Power assist mechanisms; and
(5) Assisting evacuation means.

GM1 ORO.CC.250 Operation on more than one aircraft type or variant


SAFETY BRIEFING FOR CABIN CREW
When changing aircraft type or variant during a series of flight sectors, the cabin crew safety briefing should
include a representative sample of type-specific normal and emergency procedures and safety and
emergency equipment applicable to the actual aircraft to be operated for the immediately subsequent flight
sector.
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2.3 Operations Personnel, including Crew members


ORO.GEN.110 Operator responsibilities
(j) orange2fly shall establish and maintain dangerous goods training programmes for personnel as required
by the Technical Instructions which are subject to review and approval by the competent authority. Training
programmes are being commensurate with the responsibilities of personnel.

ORO.GEN.200 Management system


(a) orange2fly has established, implements and maintains a management system that includes:
(4) Maintains personnel trained and competent to perform their tasks.

AMC1 ORO.GEN.200 (a) (4) Management system

TRAINING AND COMMUNICATION ON SAFETY


(a) Training
(1) All personnel have received safety training as appropriate for their safety responsibilities.
(2) Adequate records of all safety training provided are kept.

GM1 ORO.GEN.200 (a) (4) Management system


TRAINING AND COMMUNICATION ON SAFETY
The safety training programme is consisted of self-instruction via the media (newsletters, flight safety
magazines), class-room training, e-learning or similar training provided by training service providers.

2.3.1 Dangerous Goods Awareness Training

2.3.1.1 Purpose and scope


The purpose of this training is to give an understanding of the risk involved when handling dangerous goods.
Since orange2fly does not have permission to transport dangerous goods this course will be focusing on
the identification of dangerous goods and the proper action to be taken in case of any dangerous goods being
loaded on board the aeroplane by mistake, and the emergency procedures required. orange2fly shall
establish and maintain staff training programmes, as required by the Technical Instructions, which shall be
approved by the Authority and will also shall ensure that all staff who require dangerous goods training
receive recurrent training at intervals of no longer than two years. Records of dangerous goods training are
maintained for all staff as required by the Technical Instructions.
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2.3.1.2 Crew, Handling agents and other subcontractors

All personnel involved in passenger and/or cargo handling of orange2fly shall have received DGR training.
As a minimum this training must cover the areas identified in Column 1 of Table 1 and be to a depth sufficient
to ensure that awareness is gained of the hazards associated with dangerous goods, how to identify them
and what requirements apply to the carriage of such goods by passengers.
(SPA.DG.105, AMC1 SPA.DG.105 (a))
The following personnel:
The numbers below correspond to the numbered columns in the table.
1 = Cargo acceptance Staff.
2 = Ground Staff involved in handling, storage and loading of cargo, mail or baggage.
3 = Passenger handling Staff
4 = Flight Crew, Loadmasters, Load Planners.
5 = Cabin Crew.
All above mentioned personnel have received training which, as a minimum, must cover the areas identified
in of Table below and be to a depth sufficient to ensure that awareness is gained of the hazards associated
with dangerous goods, how to identify them and what requirements apply to the carriage of such goods by
passengers.
The audit procedure, which is the responsibility of the Compliance Monitoring Manager, assures that such
training is performed and documented by the subcontractor.

Aspects of transport of DG by air which they should be familiar Category of personnel


with as a minimum
1 2 3 4 5

General philosophy X X X X X

Limitations X X X X X

Labeling and marking X X X X X

Shippers Declaration and other relevant documentation X

Recognition of undeclared dangerous goods X X X X X

Provisions for passengers and crew X X X X X

Emergency procedures X X X X X

2.3.1.3 Course schedule


The course covers 6 hours for Flight deck crew and Operations Personnel and 4 hours for cabin crew. In
addition, computer-based training (CBT) is used as a part of training, plus self-study of the course
documentation is required, prior to the lesson.

2.3.1.4 Instructors
orange2fly authorised ground instructor/ HCAA DG instructor or any other training organisation.
Dangerous goods training documentation, IATA DGR, and company O. M. Part. A Ch. 9 and ICAO emergency
response guide. CBT will be used to enhance the risk awareness of the students.
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2.3.1.5 Review

At the end of the course a review is held. A review is a combination of checking and instruction where the
instructor verifies the obtained standards by orally asking questions and discussing the matters that needs to
be highlighted.

2.3.1.6 Checking requirements


A written test is included in the course schedule. The participants shall take a test, and finish it with a
minimum of 75% correct answers to pass.
If the test is failed, additional training will be given to the student concerned and a new test performed.

2.3.1.7 Dangerous Goods training syllabus


Subject Pilots Cabin
General philosophy on the air transport of dangerous goods 1
Limitations on dangerous goods in air transport 1
Marking and Labelling dangerous goods for carriage by air 1
Recognition of undeclared Dangerous Goods 1 1
Emergency procedures concerning Dangerous Goods (including lithium
1 1
batteries guide for crew)
Provisions for passengers and crew
Test
TOTAL 6h 4h

2.3.2 Aviation Security Training


orange2fly shall establish, maintain and conduct approved training programmes for the categories listed
below in order to enable the employee to contribute to preventing and minimise the consequences of an
unlawful action against civil aviation:
Personnel with explicit security responsibilities;
Crewmembers;
Handling personnel;
Some categories of personnel involved in cargo processing; and
Other personnel with access to restricted areas.
The syllabus for the above personnel categories are established in the Security Manual (OM SEC), the syllabus
for crewmembers is also presented in para 2.3.2.6 below.

2.3.2.1 Handling agents and other subcontractors


All personnel involved in passenger and/or cargo handling of orange2fly flights shall have received security
training according to the local national security programme, to a minimum level of the company security
programme (OM SEC)
The audit procedure, which is the responsibility of the Compliance Monitoring Manager, assures that such
training is performed and documented by the subcontractor.
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2.3.2.2 orange2fly Policy

All orange2fly personnel shall receive the training required to enable them to fulfil their duties in
compliance with the security quality standard described in orange2fly Security Programme and in the
National Security Programme.
All company personnel shall receive the training required to gain knowledge of the airport regulations
regarding access to sterile and restricted areas.
All company personnel shall have the knowledge required in their respective duties in order to handle any
type of unlawful action against the civil aviation and to minimise the risk for and/or effects of such action.

2.3.2.3 Course schedule


All crewmembers and operations personnel shall receive security training. Review of video and other training
materials shall be used as a part of this training.

2.3.2.4 Instructors
orange2fly authorised ground instructor approved by HCAA.

2.3.2.5 Realisation
Means tested training shall be conducted when employing new personnel.
Training completion shall be recorded and kept on file.

2.3.2.6 Syllabus
Responsibilities and duties for flight deck and cabin crew according to orange2fly security program;
Basic knowledge of dangerous and suspicious objects, weapons, bombs and other explosive objects;
Procedures for handling gate no-show passengers;
Procedures for handling of possibly disturbing passengers;
Procedures for protecting the aeroplane on ground and prevent unauthorised access to the
aeroplane;
Procedures for pre-flight check and aeroplane search;
Recognising typical patterns and modus operandi of possible perpetrators;
Action plans for hijacking while on ground and/or during flight;
Important psychological factors regarding actions towards hijackers;
Procedures for handling dangerous or suspicious objects and bombs during flight;
Aeroplane search procedure checklist;
Flight crew compartment security;
Individual duties and responsibilities in risky or acute situations of emergencies and reporting
procedures;
Understanding of security procedures in the air and on ground (including security regarding crew and
their baggage).
Understanding of relevant parts of the police organisation, objectives and procedures;
Knowledge of the responsible security authority and its audit responsibilities;
Knowledge of orange2fly information policy towards the media;
Company information procedures after an occurrence.
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2.3.3 Safety Management

Lesson Title / subject Duration Documentation Instructor

Safety Manager
Safety Management SMS Manual Flight Safety Officer
1 12.00
System (SMS) ICAO/EASA or other qualified
personnel

2.3.4 Compliance Monitoring System briefing


AMC1 ORO.GEN.200 (a) (6) Management system
(e) Training
(1) Correct and thorough training is essential to optimise compliance in every operator. In order to achieve
significant outcomes of such training, orange2fly ensures that all personnel understand the objectives as
laid down in orange2fly management system documentation.
(2) Those responsible for managing the compliance monitoring function have received training on this task.
Such training has covered the requirements of compliance monitoring, manuals and procedures related to
the task, audit techniques, reporting and recording.
(3) Time is provided to train all personnel involved in compliance management and for briefing the
remainder of the personnel.
(4) The allocation of time and resources is governed by the volume and complexity of the activities concerned.

orange2fly shall ensure that all the personnel will receive an introduction to the company Compliance
Monitoring system audits purpose and associated procedures when first joining the company which may be
combined with the SMS introduction. In this case the tuition duration mentioned above (2.3.3) will be
extended by 02.00 hrs.

2.3.4.1 Syllabus

Lesson Title / subject Duration Documentation Instructor

Compliance Monitoring
1
management
The concept of Safety
2 Safety and / or
Assurance
Safety and Compliance Compliance
3 Safety and
Monitoring manuals Monitoring
Compliance
2:00 Manager/
4 Audit techniques Monitoring Manual
Auditors
5 Reporting and recording
The way in which the
Compliance Monitoring
6
system will function in
the company
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2.3.5 Cosmic & Solar Radiation

Flight crewmembers accumulating a dose exceeding 1 mSv per year must be informed by the company of the
hazards involved.
All flight crewmembers and all personnel involved in crew planning shall participate in this briefing before
performing their duties.
The company should keep the records of the training and the records of calculation of accumulated dose for
each flight crew member.

2.3.5.1 Training material


For the purpose of informing the affected personnel a leaflet from the Flight Safety Foundation (HUMAN
FACTORS AND AVIATION MEDICINE) is used together with other available information.
A copy is given to each student.

2.3.5.2 Syllabus
Duration 2 hours
What is cosmic radiation?
How does it affect the human body?
Pregnancy
Calculation of accumulated dose

2.4 Operations Personnel other than crewmembers


GM1 ORO.GEN.110(c) Operator responsibilities
OPERATIONAL CONTROL
(b) An operator employs flight operations officers in conjunction with a method of operational control;
training for these personnel is based on relevant parts of ICAO Doc 7192 Training Manual, Part D-3. This
training is described in the operations manual.

2.4.1 Training
orange2fly must make sure that all personnel involved in the company operations (dispatcher, operation
officer, commercial agent, handling agent) have the required competence and knowledge for the duty. If not,
they must attend the required training set out below.
All orange2fly staff must attend safety and security training.
The Training Manager is responsible for managing this training, for establishing and for updating the list of
the concerned staff, for scheduling the required training.

2.4.2 General Training Syllabus


Sub-course name Duration

Operations Manual (If Required). 7.00


Transport of dangerous goods by air. 4.00
Safety 12.00
Security Initial 12.00 / Recurrent 4.00
Compliance Monitoring 2.00
Fuel policy& Flight Planning System (If Required) 6.00
Performance and Mass and Balance 3.00
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2.4.3 Operations manual

Lesson Title / Subject Duration Documentation Instructor

1 OM A, B, C and D 2.00 OM Part A Ground Instructor


2 Ground operation manual 2.00 OM Part A Ground Instructor
3 Documents and record 2.00 OM Part A Ground Instructor
4 Flight Time Limitations 1.00 OM Part A Ground Instructor

2.4.4 Fuel policy & Flight Planning System

Lesson Title / subject Duration Documentation Instructor

System operating Qualified


Fuel policy & Flight Planning
1 6:00 Manual (Provided by Contractor
System
the Contractor) Instructor

2.4.5 Performance & Mass and Balance

Lesson Title / subject Duration Documentation Instructor

Performance & Mass and


1 3:00 AOM Ground Instructor
Balance
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2.4.6 Flight Operations Officers / Flight Dispatchers Training

Flight Operations Officers / Flight Dispatchers Training is based on ICAO DOC 7192
To cover the various backgrounds of trainees, it is recommended that training be divided into two phases as
follows:
Phase one consists of basic knowledge; its completion ensures that a trainee has the necessary
background to proceed with phase two of the training.
Phase two consists of applied practical training and route experience.
Trainees who do not have previous aviation experience will have to undergo the complete training
programme as recommended in phase one. Trainees who have had suitable aviation experience, however,
may not need to undertake this complete programme;
A shortened training duration is established for the training of experienced personnel and for the
requalification of FOO/FDs.
Flight Operations Officers / Flight Dispatchers remain valid as long as they exercise their duties within 6
months in one-year period.
PHASE ONE - BASIC KNOWLEDGE
Subject matter Duration (hours)
Trainees Trainees with
without previous aviation
previous experience
aviation
experience
Civil air law and regulations
Certification of operators
The Convention on International Civil Aviation (The Chicago
Convention)
International air transport issues addressed by the Chicago
Convention 30 18
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
Responsibility for aircraft airworthiness
Regulatory provisions of the flight manual I
The aircraft minimum equipment list (MEL)
The operations manual
Aviation indoctrination
Regulatory
Aviation terminology and terms of reference 12 6
Theory of flight and flight operations
Aircraft propulsion systems
Aircraft systems
Aircraft mass (weight) and performance
Basic principles for flight safety
Basic mass (weight) and speed limitations
Take-off runway requirements 27 15
Climb performance requirements
Landing runway requirements
Buffet boundary speed limitations
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Flight Operations Officers / Flight Dispatchers Training (cont.)


Navigation
Position and distance; time
True, magnetic and compass direction; gyro heading reference and
grid direction
Introduction to chart projections: The gnomonic projection; the
Mercator projection; great circles on Mercator charts; other
cylindrical projections; Lambert conformal conic projection; the
polar stereographic projection
ICAO chart requirements
Charts used by a typical operator 24 12
Measurement of airspeeds; track and ground speed
Use of slide-rules, computers and scientific calculators
Measurement of aircraft altitude
Point of no return; critical point; general determination of aircraft
position
Introduction to radio navigation; ground-based radar and direction-
finding stations; relative bearings; VORDME type radio navigation;
instrument landing systems
Navigation procedures
ICAO CNS/ATM systems (an overview)
Air traffic management
Introduction to air traffic management
Controlled airspace
Flight rules
ATC clearance; ATC requirements for flight plans; aircraft reports 39 21
Flight information service (FIS)
Alerting service and search and rescue communications services
(mobile, fixed)
Aeronautical information service (AIS)
Aerodrome and airport services
Meteorology
Atmosphere; atmospheric temperature and humidity
Atmospheric pressure; pressure-wind relationships
Winds near the Earth's surface; wind in the free
atmosphere; turbulence
Vertical motion in the atmosphere; formation of clouds and
precipitation
Thunderstorms; aircraft icing
Visibility and RVR; volcanic ash
Surface observations; upper-air observations; station model 42 21
Air masses and fronts; frontal depressions
Weather at fronts and other parts of the frontal depression; other
types of pressure systems
General climatology; weather in the tropics
Aeronautical meteorological reports; analysis of surface and upper-
air charts
Prognostic charts; aeronautical forecasts
Meteorological service for international air navigation
Field trip to local meteorological office
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Flight Operations Officers / Flight Dispatchers Training (cont.)


Mass (weight) and balance control
Introduction to mass and balance
Load Planning
Calculation of payload and load sheet preparation
Aircraft balance and longitudinal stability 27 15
Moments and balance
The structural aspects of a/c loading
Dangerous goods and other special cargo
Issuing loading instructions
Transport of Dangerous goods by air
Introduction
Dangerous Goods, emergency and abnormal situations 9 9
Source documents
Responsibilities
Emergency procedures
Flight planning
Introduction to flight planning
Turbo-jet aircraft cruise control methods
Flight Planning charts and tablets for turbo-jet a/c
Calculation of flight time and minimum fuel for turbo-jet a/c.
Route selection 18 9
Flight planning situations
Re-clearance
The final phases
Documents to be carried on flights
Flight planning exercises
Threats and hijacking
ETOPS
Flight monitoring
Position of aircraft
Effects of ATC reroutes
Flight equipment failures 16 16
En-route weather changes
Emergency situations
Flight monitoring resources
Position reports
Ground resource availability
Communications Radio
International aeronautical telecommunications service
Elementary radio theory
Aeronautical fixed service 18 6
Aeronautical mobile service
Radio navigation service
Automated aeronautical service
Human Factors
The meaning of Human Factors
Dispatch resource management (DRM) 15 15
Awareness
Practice und feedback
Reinforcement
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Flight Operations Officers / Flight Dispatchers Training (cont.)

Security (emergencies and abnormal situations)


Familiarity
Security measures taken by airlines
Procedures for handling threats, bomb scares, etc. 8 6
Emergency due to dangerous goods
Hijacking
Emergency procedures
Personal security for the FOO/FD

PHASE TWO - APPLIED PRACTICAL TRAINING


Subject matter Duration
Applied practical training
Applied practical flight operations 25 h
Simulator LOFT observation and synthetic flight training 4h
Flight dispatch practices (on-the-job training) 13 weeks
Route familiarisation 1 week
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2.5 Training Syllabus Fatigue Management Training


ORO.FTL.250

(a). orange2fly shall provide initial and recurrent fatigue management training to crew members,
personnel responsible for preparation and maintenance of crew rosters and management personnel
concerned.
(b). This training shall follow a training programme established orange2fly and described in the
operations manual. The training syllabus shall cover the possible causes and effects of fatigue and
fatigue countermeasure.

Note: This training must be completed prior to the initial approval being issued.

2.5.1 Training Syllabus Fatigue Management Training


AMC1 ORO.FTL.250
The training syllabus contains the following:
(a). Applicable regulatory requirements for flight, duty and rest;
(b). The basics of fatigue including sleep fundamentals and the effects of disturbing the circadian rhythms;
(c). The causes of fatigue, including medical conditions that may lead to fatigue;
(d). The effect of fatigue on performance;
(e). Fatigue countermeasures;
(f). The influence of lifestyle, including nutrition, exercise, and family life, on fatigue;
(g). Familiarity with sleep disorders and their possible treatments;
(h). Where applicable, the effects of long range operations and heavy short range schedules on
individuals;
(i). The effect of operating through and within multiple time zones; and
(j). The crew member responsibility for ensuring adequate rest and fitness for flight duty.

Note: There are other existing training requirements that are relevant, for example regarding crew resource
management (CRM) training.
The relevant training requirements are described in the following EASA regulations and guidance:
For Flight Crew ORO.FC.115 & 215;
For Cabin crew ORO.CC.115 & CC.TRA.215 & 220;
For Senior cabin crew AMC1 ORO.CC.200(c) (e/f) - human factors, CRM & FTL requirements.
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2.5.1.1 Training Syllabus Fatigue Management Training for Crew

The syllabus provides crew with an understanding of their responsibilities regarding fatigue management.
The training thus provides crew with information on:
1. orange2fly fatigue management procedures, and the responsibility of management and employees
to manage fatigue risk.
2. Crew members responsibility to:
i. Prior to beginning a duty, to declare to the operator if they are unfit to operate;
ii. Not begin a duty or continue to operate during a duty, if they know they are, or believe they will
become, unfit to operate safely;
iii. Inform the Commander and/or other crew members of their situation if, during a duty, the crew
member becomes unfit to continue to operate;
iv. Report to their operator all issues relating to fatigue and their fitness to fly; and
v. Engage in the safety system of their operator.
3. How to manage off-duty time and make optimum use of rest opportunities.
4. The effects of fatigue as a result of commuting.
The fatigue management training syllabus shall incorporate lessons learned regarding the effects of fatigue
and mitigation initiatives that are specific to orange2fly.

2.5.1.2 Syllabus for Crewing, Scheduling and Rostering Staff


The individuals responsible for constructing and administering rosters (e.g. rostering, crewing or scheduling
personnel) clearly have a vital role to play in managing crew fatigue.
According to the new EASA regulations, it is now necessary for these personnel to receive fatigue
management training. EASA has not provided a suggested syllabus for these groups, but clearly the training
is to be designed to equip staff with the knowledge and skills required to carry out their considerable fatigue
management responsibilities.
The following table provides a list of topics to be covered by training for crewing, scheduling and rostering
personnel.

Topics covered by training for crewing, scheduling and rostering personnel


1 All of the topics considered in the crew fatigue management training syllabus.
2 The factors that may affect a crew members ability to obtain sufficient sleep for them to be
properly rested for duty.
3 How relationships between duties (frequency, length and pattern), as well as their associated rest
periods, contribute to fatigue.
4 Concept of Block Windows the impact on planned rest of changing report / off duty times.
5 Delayed reporting impact of delaying crew vs new crew.
6 Use of standby crew recognising time and nature of the impact of standbys on subsequent duty.
7 Crew members requirement to have knowledge of rostered duties, rest periods and recovery
periods in advance, in order to plan use of rest periods.
8 The effects of long duty periods on rest requirement.
9 Clear guidance on when to call crew members who are off duty.
10 Roster disruption and its effects on human performance.
11 How fatigue risk can be compounded, or alleviated, depending on other associated risks (e.g.
training, weather, airfield categorisation, crew experience).
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2.5.1.3 Training Syllabus Fatigue Management Training for Management

The new regulations (ORO.FTL.250) state that fatigue management training should be provided to
management personnel concerned. EASA does not define who these personnel are, but presumably it
includes managers who make decisions that have the potential to impact on roster design and other
contributors to crew fatigue. Thus, the group would include, the Accountable Manager, Safety, Operational
and Commercial managers.
There is no guidance from EASA on what should be included in training for managers, so orange2fly would
focus on their fatigue management responsibilities, and include a condensed version of the training provided
for crew and crewing, scheduling and rostering personnel.

2.5.1.4 Overview of Syllabus Fatigue Management Training Programme

Overview of Syllabus Fatigue Management Training Programme


Fatigue Awareness and Managing Introduction to Essentials of
Course Title Countermeasures roster-related fatigue fatigue
Training (FACT) fatigue management management
Safety
Department
CRM
Instructors
Crewing,
Group Scheduling
and
Rostering
Senior
Management
Flight Crew
Cabin Crew
Format Classroom Classroom Classroom Classroom
Frequency Initial training and Once Once Once
annual refresher training
Duration Approx. 3 hours 1 day 2 days 1/2 day
Developed by Safety Safety Safety Safety
Department Department Department Department

2.5.1.5 Refreshers Training Content and Frequency


EASA requires that fatigue management training is provided initially and refresher training is provided on a
recurrent basis (ORO. FTL.250). The content and frequency of the recurrent training should be proportional
to orange2fly size, complexity and potential fatigue risk exposure. When significant changes are made to
the flying operation (e.g. the addition of new routes, destinations or bases), additional route-specific training
is required to reflect the changes in risk profile. Refresher training provides an opportunity to review existing
fatigue training and to publicise the results of research conducted (e.g. crew fatigue surveys, a summary of
fatigue reports submitted to the safety team), as well as explaining new procedures (e.g. incident
investigation) and tools for managing fatigue that may have been introduced since the training was last
conducted and is incorporated into the CRM recurrent schedule.
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2.5.2 Assessing the Effectiveness of Fatigue Management Training

The effectiveness of training should be regularly assessed to ensure that it still meets orange2fly requirements
and reflects current operational risks.
At the simplest level, an assessment consists of students completing a before/after test designed to measure
change in knowledge. A more useful method for evaluating training effectiveness is to assess, after the
training, the competency of the attendees to use what they have learnt to actually manage fatigue risk. For
example, a set of operational scenarios could be devised, presenting fatigue risks which may by encountered
when on duty. The students task is then to use the information acquired during the training to develop
solutions to manage the risk.
However, ultimately, the true test of the effectiveness of fatigue management training is whether it
contributes to a long-term change in attitude, behaviour and a reduction in fatigue risk. Assessing this requires
the identification of relevant fatigue metrics and long term monitoring. Example metrics could include: an
increase in the number of crew using fatigue countermeasures after duty; or an increase in the number of
crew using the safety reporting system to report fatigue issues.
A survey will be conducted at a fixed time after training (within the first year).
Findings from the quiz and surveys can be used to:
a. Revise the content of the training package, to improve the training on topics which a significant
proportion of crewmembers have not fully understood;
b. Provide feedback to trainers on areas where they may need to change or improve their teaching
approaches; and
c. Identify areas that need to be reviewed or added in recurrent training.

QUIZ (for use before and after initial training)


Are these ideas true or false? Please tick one box for each question.
1. Sleep is a time when your brain switches off. True False
2. Dreaming sleep is better for you than non-dreaming sleep. True False
3. In the end, the only way to get rid of sleepiness is to get some sleep. True False
4. You can always beat sleepiness, if you try hard enough. True False
5. As you get sleepier, your reaction time slows down. True False
6. Napping is a sign of laziness. True False
7. The circadian body clock adapts easily to sleeping during the day. True False
8. There are two times of day when your circadian body clock makes you feel most sleepy, around 3-5 am
and 3-5 pm. True False
9. Having a regular routine at bedtime can help you to fall asleep more easily. True False
10. A dark, quiet room helps you sleep better. True False
11. If you drink too much coffee and cant sleep, you should drink some alcohol to help you relax.
True False
12. Even if you are not sleepy, you should start each flight with a cup of coffee, to fight fatigue.
True False
13. You are on the flight deck and you feel incredibly sleepy. The best thing to do is not to tell anyone,
and to try extra hard to stay focused. True False
14. Fatigue would not be a problem if the schedules were properly designed. True False
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2.5.3 Keeping Training Records

In accordance with the EASA regulations regarding training record keeping (AMC1 ORO.MLR.115), records of
training content and attendance should be maintained to show satisfactory completion of the fatigue
management training by all crew and other relevant personnel.
For crew members, training records must be kept for 3 years and for other personnel, it is sufficient to keep
details of the last two training sessions. Ideally the training will include an assessment and show satisfactory
completion of the fatigue management training by all attendees.