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Atomic structure and isotopy



 Describe the structure of the first 20 atoms.
 Show the electronic arrangement of an element given its
atomic number.
 Define isotopy and give three uses of isotopes.
 Explain the basis of arrangement of elements in the periodic
table. Radioisotopes are used in medicine and in industry. In the
treatment of cancer, gamma radiation from cobalt-60 is used to
Isotopes are atoms of the same element with the same atomic destroy cancerous cells. In biological research, iodine-131 and ACTIVITY
number but different mass numbers. For example, carbon can carbon-14 are used as tracers. Iodine -131 is given to patients 1. What are isotopes?
exist as C-12, C-13 and C-14. Notice all three atoms have the with defective thyroid glands, while C-14 is used in the dating of 2. What makes isotopes different?
same number of protons but different number of neutrons. Since plant and animal remains. 3. Give two examples of isotopes.
the atoms have the same atomic number, they represent the
4. Determine the number of sub-atomic particles in the
same element carbon, hence, they are isotopes. Radioactive isotopes, like uranium-235, are used to generate following isotopes: Cl-35 and Cl-37.
electricity. When a nucleus of this atom splits, a chain reaction 5. What are radioisotopes? Identify three uses of common
REMEMBER: is set up which releases vast amounts of heat energy. If this radioisotopes.
reaction is not controlled, this can lead to an atomic bomb.
It is the atomic number (protons) which determines the type
of atom. Atoms are arranged on the Periodic Table based on Francine Taylor-Campbell is an independent contributor. Send questions
and comments to
their atomic number.

Other common isotopes include isotopes of hydrogen,

chlorine and oxygen (see diagram above).
Farika Atkins, teacher at Wolmers Boys High
Atoms of some isotopes are unstable and can split to form School, Amir Woolery and Mario Brown as seen at
smaller atoms. When this occurs, their nucleus splits and the Jamaica Tourist Boards Tourism Lecture Series
radiation is released. These isotopes are called radioisotopes or and Exhibition held at the Kingston and St Andrew
radioactive isotopes. Parish Library on Thursday, October 1.


yl:english language

Examining sentences
MELISSA MCKENZIE more information about the subject. In the sentences below, the make your writing choppy. At this level, you are encouraged to
Conntributor predicate is underlined. write longer sentences that are reflective of your maturity.
TUDENTS, WELCOME to another weeks lesson. I hope For example:

S the lessons we have done thus far have highlighted the

importance of improving your written expression. Your
ability to write well will determine, to a great extent, the grade
1) Jane walks to school every day.
2) The rain was a welcome relief.
This is made up of two simple sentences joined by a
coordinating conjunction. There are several coordinating
you receive. Please continue to do all that is necessary to COMPOUND PREDICATE
enhance your use of the English language. conjunctions that can be used in a compound sentence and an
This is when two or more verbs are joined by a conjunction easy way to remember them is by using the acronym FANBOYS.
For the next few weeks we will be focusing on sentences. and share the same subject. Each letter stands for a coordinating conjunction. They are: for,
This is particularly important because you are expected to For example: and, nor, but, or, yet and so. Also, except for very short
utilise sentences, in all their varying types and structures, to 1) Trevor did his homework and checked it twice (compound sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma.
communicate your ideas in an effective way. It has been noted predicate).
that the essays, summaries and stories that students produce 2) The glass fell off the table and smashed on the floor
(compound predicate). EXAMPLES
are often marred by sentence construction errors. As such, it is 1. My brother loves music, but I prefer to read novels.
important that you either strengthen or refresh your knowledge 2. Their father works very hard to provide for them, yet they
of the components of a sentence. This way, you will be more Sentences are also made up of phrases and clauses.
rarely show appreciation.
consistent in writing sentences that are complete as well as PHRASE 3. The meeting was postponed, so we had to go home.
properly punctuated and structured. This is a group of words which does not have both subject
and predicate. It forms part of a sentence. For example: walking Another way of creating a compound sentence is by using the
For this lesson, we will focus on the basic parts of a sentence down the hill/ before the first. semi-colon if the ideas in the two sentences are related.
as well as the simple and compound sentences.
This is a group of words that has a subject and a verb. Please 1. The artist preferred to paint in oil; he did not like water
SENTENCE note that a clause does not necessarily express a complete colours.
This is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. thought. For example: If you do not tell the truth/after the party 2. Riding a bicycle is excellent exercise; I ride mine every
For example: All men are created equal. The sentence is ended/Jack entered the competition. day.
complete because it has a subject and a predicate that tells you
something about the subject. This is not complete: After the You will learn more about clauses when we focus on We will stop there for this week. Please complete the activity
storm. It is not complete because we are left wondering what complex sentences. below.
happened after the storm. The full stop/period at the end would ACTIVITY
be incorrect. You also need to develop competence in writing different
types of sentence. The simple and compound sentences are two Use an appropriate coordinating conjunction to combine
examples. each pair of simple sentences below.
SUBJECT 1. The library is a quiet place to study. Many students prefer
The subject is who or what the sentence is about. It is usually to study at home.
a noun or pronoun. 2. Tony is an excellent student. He received a scholarship.
For example: Jody jogs around Emancipation Park. Jody is It expresses a complete thought and has a subject and 3. Neil went to visit his friend. They went out for dinner.
the subject in this sentence. predicate. It can also be referred to as an independent clause. It 4. Susan thinks she should relax at home. She should go on
may have a compound subject, a compound predicate or both. a vacation.
5. Katherine has given up smoking five times. She cannot
EXAMPLES seem to break the habit.
This is a subject that contains two or more simple subjects
joined by and or or. For example: Jodian and Sheila visited 1. Troy and Gavin play football every evening.
2. The teachers are in a meeting. Next week, we will continue our focus on sentences. Until
Emancipation Park last week. Jodian and Sheila is the then, revise what we have covered and practise to write
compound subject.
Simple sentences have their place in writing. In stories, for sentences that are complete and varied.
example, they can be used to build suspense. In essays, they
PREDICATE can be used as repetition or to assert a point. Be careful how Melissa McKenzie teaches at Old Harbour High School. Send questions and
comments to
The predicate tells what the subject is or does. It provides you use them, however, because using them too much will



Population and settlement

JUDITH HENRY  Population is divided into males and females (sex), which base and a narrow top. This represents a high birth rate and
Contributor is shown on the left/right sides, respectively. high death rate. Population pyramids of MEDCs (More
 The percentage of the total population, or the actual number Economically Developed Countries) typically have a roughly
of each age/sex group on the X axis or the horizontal axis. equal distribution of population throughout the age groups.
1. What is population structure? The top obviously gets narrower as a result of deaths.
2. What is the population pyramid? To fully understand the purpose of the pyramid, lets take a
3. What does a basic population pyramid show? moment to look at several types. See if you can interpret a population pyramid. Before you try
4. What are the types of population pyramid? There are three basic types of population pyramids: to interpret it, take a moment and analyse the diagram below.
5. How to read a population pyramid? 1. Expansive The diagram is showing how a basic pyramid is interpreted.
6. How to interpret population pyramids? 2. Constrictive
3. Stationary
Students, the important characteristics of a population,
besides its size and growth rate, are the ways in which its Below is an illustration of the three types.
members are distributed according to age, sex and urban/rural
status. The distribution of a population in terms of its age, sex
and urban/rural status is referred to as population structure. It
gives a graphical depiction of the age/sex balance which exists
in a particular population. That is, it shows the number of males
and females within different age groups in the population. The
structure of a population is usually represented by a population
A population pyramid is a bar graph illustrating the Also, for you to correctly interpret a pyramid, you must
proportion (percentage) of males versus females within the The expansive population pyramids depict populations that understand the shapes. These are the general shapes of
different age groups (a graphic profile of the populations have a larger percentage of people in younger age groups. population pyramids
residents). It also shows what portion of people fall into each Populations with this shape usually have high fertility rates with
cohort. Population pyramids are one of demographys most lower life expectancies. Many Third-World countries have
useful graphics. Before we continue our discussion, lets look expansive population.
closely at the pyramid below. It shows the sections of a simple
pyramid. The constrictive population pyramids are named so because
Population they are constricted at the bottom. There is a lower percentage
pyramids show a of younder people. Constrictive population pyramids show

cross section of a declining birth rates, since each succeeding age group is
population at a getting smaller and smaller. The United States has a constrictive If you notice, they all show different stages of growth. At
paricular moment. population pyramid. which stage do you think your country is presently? Bare this in
mind as we continue our discussion.
They divide the The stationary population pyramids are those that show a
population by gender somewhat equal proportion of the population in each age Now, what does the shape of the population pyramid tell you?
i.e., male and female group. There is not a decrease or increase in population: it is  The more rectangular the shape of the graph, the slower a
and by age. The age stable. Austria has a stationary population pyramid. population is growing; we see a more uniformed population size
groups are called across age groups. Old generations are being replaced by new
cohorts. We are now going to learn how to read a pyramid. generations of approximately the same size.
To read a pyramid:  The more a graph looks like a pyramid, the faster that
1. Look at the key to see what is being measured. population is growing; old generations are producing larger,
All pyramids should have these essential features: 2. Look at the X axis to identify the units of measurement. new generations.
 They should show the population divided into 5-year age 3. Go up the pyramid and across to the Y axis to identify the  Another way to think of it is that the pyramid shape has a
groups on the Y or the vertical axis. age group. larger bottom than top; a larger percentage of the population is
 The age group should be divided into three groups: 4. Look at the shape of the pyramid, as this indicates the type in their reproductive years or hasnt even reach reproductive
 The young (0 to 14) of population growth that is occurring, which can be age. As a result, there is much potential for growth.
 The working population (15 to 64) indicative of future trends in different parts of the life course
 The elderly (65+) for a certain geography. Population pyramids of LEDCs (Less
 Each grouping (ex: males aged 0-4) is called a cohort. Economically Developed Countries) typically have a wide CONTINUED ON PAGE 22


yl:office administration
HYACINTH TUGMAN  Share the use of relevant files.

The office
Contributor  Make calculations using spreadsheet.
HE SIZE of the organisation does have an

T impact on the nature of the duties and

responsibilities an employee is given. For
example, in a large organisation an employees
Computer software is the non-physical or
intangible part of a computer system which
tells the hardware parts what to do, such as the
CPU, monitor and keyboard.
task will be more specialized and specific to the
department in which he/she works.
Software is divided into two main groups
In a small organisation, however, the system software and application software.
employees duties and responsibilities will be System software consists of operating software
and utility programs.
more extensive and varied. For example, a
receptionist may perform multiple tasks such
Application software are known as
as receiving and distributing mail, being in
productivity software. They are designed to
charge of accounts payable and receivable, and
perform specific tasks such as word-
even cleaning up the office. processing and spreadsheet.

This refers to an arrangement whereby office Ergonomics is the science of designing the
services which are used by all departments or job, equipment and workplace to fit the worker.
sections, for example computing, filing, mail Proper ergonomics design is necessary to
handling, reprographics data processing, are prevent:
organised at some central point, usually under  Repetitive strain injuries which can
the direction of a supervisor or manager. develop over time and lead to long-term
 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
 Better control over quality of work.
 Greater focus on standardization of work.
 Staff become more specialized and
skilled in carrying out their job functions. COMPUTER
 Equipment is kept at one place instead of Some of the many tasks performed by the
being spread around the building. computer have already been mentioned above.
 Noisy machinery is located in one place.
 Administration control can be more GUILLOTINE
effective. Cut paper to precise specifications.


 Time is wasted when staff have to leave Shred documents that may compromise the
department and wait to be served in a companys security or privacy.
centralized office.
 Sometimes files are being used by other RICARDO MAKYN/STAFF PHOTOGRAPHER RISOGRAPH
departments and that prevents quick access Copies documents on a large scale, where
Kingston Colleges Richard Byfield (front) shields the ball from Jos Martis
to needed services, which could result in hundred or thousands of copies of the same
Ricardo Thomas and Shamar Johnson in their Manning Cup encounter at
serious delays. document are desired.
Stadium East field on Friday, October 2.
 It could prevent other staff members
from developing those skills performed in
the centralized department, for example, duplicating equipment, computer and filing  Untrained personal can cause equipment FAX MACHINE
staff members in the other departments may facilities can be found in almost every to break down due to improper use, and this Receives and sends information electronically
not learn to type, file documents or use department. Everyone in the department may can lead to a loss of productivity.
have access or just one or two individuals. Next week, I will complete the last section of
specialized machinery, etc.
USE OF COMPUTER/SOFTWARE IN this unit. Your assignment is to identify other
BUSINESSES office equipment and give their function plus
DECENTRALIZATION DISADVANTAGES OF name some operating software.
Office workers use computers to perform
This refers to a situation where various office
services that support the organisations  Can create duplication of equipment and  Write letters and messages. Hyacinth Tugman is an independent contributor. Send
questions and comments to
operation are located in each department labour and this can lead to a strain on the  Send and receive emails.
throughout the company, for example, companys resources human and equipment.  Access saved data.


yl:information technology

Memory storage
Contributor (EPROM)
OOD DAY, students. This is lesson five of our series of

G lessons. In this weeks lesson, we will be looking at

memory storage media and unit of storage. At the end of
this lesson, you should be able to distinguish between at least
EPROM is a reusable PROM chip that can be erased by a
special ultraviolet light. EPROM holds its content until erased
and new instructions can be written on it. To reprogram an
EPROM chip, it has to be removed from the computer.
two types of memory and the unit of storage relating to a
The purpose of memory is to provide storage for data,
instruction and the result of processing. There are four main An EEPROM chip is similar to an EPROM chip, except that it
categories of memory storage chips and they are: is erased by applying electrical pulses to the chip, making it UNIT OF STORAGE
1. Random Access Memory (RAM) possible to reprogram the chip without removing it from the
2. Read Only Memory (ROM) computer.
 Bit this is the smallest unit of storage in a computer,
3. Cache which is usually 0 or 1.
 Byte this comprises eight bits.
Cache memory is a special, high-speed memory designed to  Word this is the amount of bits the computer can
A memory chip is a chip that holds programs and data either supply the processor with the most frequently requested process in one operation.
temporarily or permanently. Let us now look at each of these instructions and data. Instructions and data located in cache  Word size/length this is the number of bits in a word.
categories. memory can be accessed many times faster than instructions  Bi-stable device this is a device which exists in two
and data located in main memory. The more instructions and possible states. This device is similar to a light switch which
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) data the processor can access directly from cache memory, the can either be on or off.
RAM, or primary storage, is the faster the computer runs as a whole.
chip that is located nearest to the CPU Once you are considering to purchase a RAM chip (memory),
and is referred to as being volatile. BUFFERS hard drive or a flash drive, you will first likely consider the size
RAM is considered to be volatile in A buffer is an internal memory area used for temporary or the number of bytes the storage medium has. Let us now
that its content is erased whenever the storage of data records during input or output operations. For examine larger units of storage by the byte table shown below.
flow of electricity to the processor is example, most modern printers are equipped with buffers that
terminated. This is why your teacher will often remind you to store information or data to be printed. We have come to the end of this lesson. See you next week.
save your work frequently. Even if you have auto-save recovery, Remember, if you fail to prepare, you prepare to fail.
the computer will only recover up to a particular point.
Now that you are familiar with the different memory chips, let
us now look at the different units of storage available and key Natalee Johnson teaches at Ardenne High School. Send questions and
RAM performs three main functions: comments to
terms associated with unit of storage.
 Stores data for processing.
 Stores instructions for processing the data.
 Stores processed data (information) that is waiting to be NUMBER OF BYTES
sent to an output or secondary storage device.
NAME Symbol Approximately Binary Decimal Actual
Measurement Measurement
A ROM chip stores data permanently; it is often referred to as Kilobyte KB 1000 210 103 1024
being non-volatile. The information on a ROM chip is stored on it
by the manufacturers and cannot be modified or erased by the (1 thousand)
user. The processor can read and retrieve the instructions and data
from the ROM chip, but its content cannot be changed. Whenever Megabyte MB 1,000,000 220 106 1048576
you turn on your computer and your computer is booting up, ( 1 million)
messages are made possible by the information in ROM.
Gigabyte GB 1,000,000,000 230 109 1073741824
There are several variations to ROM: (1 billion)
Terabyte TB 1,000,000,000,000 240 1012 1099511627776
The PROM chip is left blank by the manufacturers and written (1 trillion)
to by the customer. Once written to the chip, it becomes read-
only memory.


yl:social studies

Becoming a good parent

MAUREEN CAMPBELL and potentially stressful. It is, therefore, self-esteem more than anything else. Praising they have any rights. Parents should reason with
Contributor important for a woman to reach a stage of a childs accomplishments, however small, will their children and allow them to understand and
O MANY persons become parents, but physical readiness to bear children. Biological make him or her feel proud. learn in a non-judgemental way.

S how many of these persons make

preparation for such a bold step in their
lives. Becoming a parent is said to be a most
immaturity can cause serious complications,
even death.
In society, socialization begins in the home.
If there is a problem, it should be described,
remarkable journey. It should be a positive, LEVEL OF EDUCATION Parents are, therefore, the primary socializing feelings towards it should be expressed and
transformative experience as it brings new While one does not have to be educated to agents. As the song says: Children live what the child/childrren should be invited to work
opportunities, challenges and, most of all,
have a child, it is necessary to establish a they learn. There is no better place for children on a solution with the parent. Consequences
added responsibilities.
career before deciding to have children. This to learn the norms, mores and values of their must also be included and suggestions offered
will help the parent to be more economically society than in the home and from their parents. for alteernative choices. It is believed that
It is necessary to prepare for parenthood,
ready to cope with the financial needs of child It is therefore important that parents display a children who participate in decisions will be
which should be seen as an opportunity to
rearing. A sound education will help to obtain good attitude, appropriate behaviour and, more motivated to carry them out.
prepare physically, mentally, educationally and
emotionally for rearing a child/children in the and maintain a good job. therefore, be the role model their children need.
best possible way. The ability to make KNOWLEDGE OF NUTRITION AND
informed decisions about childbirth, newborn EMOTIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISCIPLINARY SKILLS HEALTH
care and parenting practices is a critical PREPARATION It is important that every child knows the Parents must understand the nutritional
investment in the relationship between a parent Parents should reach a certain level of behaviour required of him/her and the needs of growing children. Healthy diet and
and child. maturity and experience to prepare them for the sanctions that will follow if he/she does not exercising is a must for all growing children.
challenges of raising children. The newborn of obey them. Discipline is necessary to maintain Parents need to be careful as habits that are
NOTE human beings, unlike most animals, is entirely control in the home. The goal of discipline is learnt in childhood will remain as children
dependent on other people to provide for all its to help children choose acceptable behaviours grow older.
 Education is a key component of
needs for the first three years of life. Parents and learn self-control. Establishing house
preparation for the difficult decisions required
must prepare for increase mental strain and rules will help children understand
of parents and is an ongoing process as each GOOD MONEY MANAGEMENT
physical exhaustion. expectations and develop self-control. An
stage of growth and development brings new Parents are the providers for their children.
effective parent is responsible for correcting
joys and challenges to both parents. This is so as society looks to parents to fulfil
and guiding a child/children.
ADEQUATE FINANCIAL RESOURCES their obligations regarding the proper care,
 When preparing for the birth of a child, it Parents must provide financially as they nurturing and the socialization of their
is easy to get caught up in the material things How corrective guidance is expressed
must meet the basic needs of the child, offspring. Parents must meet expected needs
associated with pregnancy, childbirth and makes all the difference in how a child receives
providing food, clothing and shelter. By law, a and be prepared for the unexpected. They must
newborn care. Tiny infant clothing, the latest it. When one has to confront a child, it is
parent has 18 compulsory years to provide for be able to budget, be thrifty and know from
maternity fashions and other baby resources necessary to avoid blaming, criticising or fault-
his/her child/children. Just remember, also, where the next money for spending will be
can all be part of preparing for parenting, but finding, all of which undermine self-esteem
that helping children financially may go coming. It is, therefore, clear that the most
the lasting investment of preparation involves and can lead to resentment. Instead, a parent
beyond age 18. This is so because if they enter significant role in each family and the greatest
becoming informed/educated in order to create should strive to nurture and encourage, even
tertiary institutions, they will require access to responsibility rest with parents.
a peaceful, loving environment in which to when disciplining a child. The child should
great resources. know that although better is expected of
grow, birth and care for a new life.
him/her next time, love is there and that is the ACTIVITIES
 Everyone can read parenting books and AN EFFECTIVE PARENT: reason for his/her parents concern, with regard a. Identify and explain three characteristics
consult with family and friends, but nothing to behaviour. of a good parent.
can really prepare one for parenthood, the birth b. Outline three factors necessary when
No matter how hard it is, how tired one is, or
of a first child and the impact he or she will preparing for parenthood.
how overwhelmed a parent may be feeling, COMMUNICATIONS AND PROBLEM-
have on the parents life. When a baby is first c. Suggest three ways in which parents who
he/she should give love like no other. There SOLVING SKILLS
brought home, the reality will suddenly hit the are not carrying out their duties may be
tends to be a love and warmth that only a One cant expect children to be willing to do
man/womn that he/she is a parent. forced to do so. Explain why you believe
parent can have for or give to a child. Children everything simply because the parent has said
these suggestions will be successful.
know when they are loved, as parents tend to so. They want and deserve explanations as
PHYSICAL READINESS AND GOOD show interest and concern for their safety, much as adults do. If parents do not take the Maureen Campbell teaches at St Hughs High School.
HEALTH happiness and achievement. Words and time to explain, children will begin to wonder Send questions and comments to
Being a new parent is physically demanding actions from parents affect a childs developing about their values and motives and whether



Spanish colonisation and its effects

on the indigenous populations
The official religion for Spanish America
OBJECTIVE was Roman Catholicism. Priests were
appointed to every village and were given land
grants. They were in charge of education,
1. Describe the administrative system in
medical care and the spiritual life of all
Spanish America. inhabitants, including the indigenous peoples.
2. Describe three effects of Spanish
colonization on the indigenous populations.
The Spanish, by the mid-16th century, had The establishment of Spanish settlements
amassed a large empire in the Americas. By in the Americas had a tremendous impact on
this juncture, the Spanish had settlements in the indigenous populations in those areas. In
South America, Central America and the fact, the greatest impact of Spanish contact
Caribbean. Our syllabus has us focusing on with the indigenous peoples was the
the Spanish settlements in the Caribbean, introduction of Old World diseases that
primarily identifying the settlements and decimated their populations. These diseases
administration of these settlements. See included smallpox and measles against which
Figure 1 below which identifies Spanish the indigenous population had no immunity.
settlements in the region. There was also the forced system of labour
(encomienda) which witnessed many
Spain, in creating such a vast overseas indigenous people dying from overwork. The
empire, had to organise a strong system of encomienda system was one in which
administration for governing these
MAP OF THE AMERICAS indigenous people were used for labour in
settlements. The table below provides an return for the trust of educating and
THE COLONISTS c) Viceroys d) Governors Christianising them. This resulted in the
explanation of the Spanish administration in
e) Audiencias f) Cabildos native population being forced into working
the Americas. The various groups in Spanish America by
g) Visitadors. on agricultural lands to provide food for the
the mid-16th century included peninsulares,
Spanish as well as working in gold mines.
THE ADMINISTRATION OF SPAINS Creoles, mestizos and African slaves.
The Council of Indies was responsible for Also, murders, suicide and infanticide also
AMERICAN EMPIRE Peninsulares, several of them lesser nobility played a role in the decimation of the Taino
(hidalgos), officials and peasants came establishing regulations and policies for the
colonies. There were four vice-royalties in population. The end result was a genocide.
THE SPANISH MONOPOLY directly from Spain. Creoles in the context of
Spanish America are whites born in the Spanish America and each was to supervise the
The system of mercantilism influenced the The decimation of the Taino population saw
colonies. The mestizos were individuals of settlements in a particular area and put laws into
trading system in the Spanish Americas. the Spanish introducing the Laws of Burgos to
mixed descent (Spanish and Indians). There effect. The governor was the individual in charge turn the tide of their decline. Some of its
Mercantilism referred to a policy of restricting
were also Africans, individuals captured from of a colony. The visitadors visited the territories stipulations included: a) natives could not be
the colonies in participating in foreign trade.
West Africa or born in the Caribbean into a life every two years to ensure that the vice-royalties enslaved for any reason; b) all enslaved
In other words, traders had to have a licence
of servitude. were being effectively administered. natives must be set free; and c) the courts
from Spain to trade in the colonies. This
ensured maximum profit for Spain, as they must protect the natives from ill-treatment.
were ensured with at least duties on all goods GOVERNMENT ECONOMY These changes did very little as less than a
traded. Even the trade in slaves was protected The natural resources of each settlement century after contact with the Spanish, the
The system of government introduced in
traders had to have a special licence called largely determined its most popular industry. Taino population was completely decimated.
Spanish America was largely influenced and
an asiento. The Casa de Contractacin was the controlled by the metropole. The hierarchy As a result, farming, mining, shipbuilding and
Debbion Hyman is an independent contributor. Send
body in charge of Spains economic was structured in the following format: ranching were the popular economic activities questions and comments to
management in the Americas. a) king b) Council of Indies in Spanish America.



CLEMENT RADCLIFFE Solution: 10% of $150,000 = /100 x $150,000 = $15,000


AVING REVIEWED this topic, let us complete it by
checking the answers to last weeks practice exercise. If
you are having difficulty, you may check the information
Consumer The school paid $15,000 less.

Note: The amount the school paid may also be found as

follows: 90/100 x $150,000 = $135,000.

presented previously.
The cost price represents 100%; therefore, if there is a
1. Calculate the value of 61/2 x 5/3 + 3/4. discount of 10%, then the selling price is 90 %. The amount
Solution paid less is $150,000 - $135,000. = $ 15,000.
61/2 x 5/3 + 3/4.
Note: The line in the question represents brackets and so the The next situation is:
The first step, of course, is to evaluate the product according denominator could have been first evaluated. (B) Finding percentages, given the values.
61/2 x 5/3 = 13/2 x 5/3 = 65/6 PRACTICE Example 1:
Calculate the values of: Express 30cm as a percentage of 80cm.
Completing, 65/6 + 3/4 = 130/12 + 9/12 Converting both to i) 3.122 - 1.053 (a) 30% (b) 37.5%
fractions of 12 ii) 32/3 + 51/2 x 1/4 (c) 62.5% (d) 130%
= 139/12 4 1 / 2 - 21 / 5
Solution: 30/80 x 100 = 37.5%
Alternatively: The lesson this week will continue with a review of selected The answer is (c).
65/6 + 3/4 areas of consumer arithmetic. Some popular topics are cost This is the basis of finding values such as percentage loss or
6 4 As the LCM of 6 and 4 is 12 price, selling price, discount, sales tax, hire purchase, simple gain, percentage tax, discount, etc.
65 x 2 + 3 x 3 and compound interest. The concept of percentage is
12 fundamental to these topics, as our review will illustrate. Example 2:
= 130 + 9 = 139/12 A radio cassette which cost $5,000 was sold for $4,500. Find
12 The following extract was taken from the syllabus: the percentage loss.
2. Simplify Convert among fractions, Conversion of Solution:
3 1 1 percentages and decimals percentages to Profit = Selling price - Cost price
fractions and = $4,500 - $5,000 = - $500 the loss = $500
Solution decimals. The percentage loss = Loss x 100
Using the order indicated by BOMDAS, we evaluate within Cost Price
the brackets by first converting the fractions: Convert from one set of Conversion within 500 x 100 = 10%
31/3 -15/8 = 10/3 - 13/8 (L.C.M. of 3 and 8 is 24) units to another the metric scale and 5000
= (8 x 10) - (3 x 13) = 80 - 39 = 41/24 currency The percentage loss is 10%. Please note that percentage
24 24 conversion. gain and loss are calculated as a fraction of cost price. A
Dividing next, 41/24 4/3 = 41/24 x 3/4 = 41/32 common error is to use the selling price.
3. Find the value of: 18.45 - (3.75)2 Percentage is a fraction with its denominator being 100, The third situation is:
Solution therefore a % = a/100 (C) Problems involving percentages.
18.45 - (3.75)2 = 18.45 - (3.75 x 3.75) = 18.45 - 14.06 It should be noted that a percentage may be expressed as a
= 4.39 You should use a calculator. decimal fraction or as a vulgar fraction, for example: Example 1:
40% = 4/100 = 2/5 = .40 If 30% of a number is 69, then the number is
4. Calculate the value of: 4 1/3 - 1 5/6 (a) 90 (b) 230 (c) 189 (d) 139
I will illustrate by looking at three situations in which the
1 2
2 /2 x 2 /3 problems may be presented: Solution: If 30% of a number is 69, then the number is
Solution (A) Finding the value representing a certain percentage. equivalent to 100%.
The line represents brackets and so the numerator may be Therefore 100% represents 100/30 x 69 = 230
evaluated first. Example 1: Find 75% of $16,800. The answer is (b).
4 1/3 - 1 5/6 = 13/3 - 11/6 The LCM of 3 and 6 is 6 Solution: 75/100 x $16,800 = $12,600.
= (2 x 13) - (1 x 11) This is the basis of finding values such as profit and loss, Alternatively:
6 sales tax, General Consumption Tax, discount, etc. If 30% of a number is 69.
= 26 - 11 = 15/6 Then 1% of the number is 69 30
6 Example 2: Then 100% of the number is 69/30 x 100 = 230.
Evaluating the denominator, we first convert to fractions: Schools were offered a 10% discount on the purchase of
5/2 x 8/3 = 40/6 football gear. If a set of gear is valued at $150,000, how much This is the basis of finding values such as cost price and
less was paid? selling price, hire purchase, etc.
Dividing: = 15/6 40/6 = 15/6 x 6/40 = 3/8 CONTINUES ON PAGE 22



guess what? You will be drawing these from
actual specimens, not from your text!
OW ARE you this week? Was your

H weekend restful? I certainly hope so and

that you were sufficiently charged to
meet the demands of this new week.
Your drawings mush be accurate in that they
must have the significant features of the
We started off this years series of lessons in specimen that you are drawing.
much the same way that we have started the  If you are drawing a flower, then you
pervious years, by looking at the SBA skills in cannot draw six petals if the flower has only 5.
which you need to become proficient and,  If you are drawing a leaf, then the
hence, gain enough marks to pass Paper 03. arrangement of the veins in your drawing must
This area of the syllabus is often approached be the same as in the specimen.
in a lackadaisical manner and its importance  If you are drawing a bone, then the
to understanding scientific concepts cannot be length-to-width ratio in your drawing must be
overemphasised. That is why we need to pay the same as in the actual specimen.
attention to it year after year.
If all of these criteria are not met, then you
This week, as we continue, we will look at are going to lose marks for accuracy. Your
the final SBA skill, which is, drawing. Most drawings must be properly labelled; labelling
times when this skill is introduced at this lines must be drawn with a ruler and labels
level, the response from students is, I cannot should be written in pencil and annotated.
draw. This is because they think that making
biological drawings is the same as creating The following sums up the characteristics
drawings for visual arts. It is most definitely that your finished drawing must have in order
not! They require different skill sets and both to gain full marks:
 Everything must be done in pencil the example, if the drawing is of a flower, then the  The title must be underlined: Drawing
are governed by different rules! There is one
drawing, label lines, labels and annotations, type of flower must be stated; if it is a bone, showing the interior of the mammalian kidney
thing that is common to both, though. In order
i.e., brief explanatory notes. then the type of bone (femur, tibia), on which x 1.5
to master both skills, you need to practise,
 The drawing must occupy at least 70% side of the body and from which view must  Do not use shading on your drawing.
practise, and then practise some more! I need
also be given. For example, Drawing showing
to remind you also that all the drawings done of the page.
the anterior view of the left femur of a I have included for you a marked drawing of
in the theory examination must be done using  Ensure as much as possible that your
mammal. If it is the drawing of a vertebra, then a flower. As you can see, this drawing earned
the same specifications. label lines, labels and annotations are to the
it must state the type of vertebra: Drawing the student the full 10 marks.
right of your drawing.
showing the posterior view of a lumbar
 All label lines must end at the same
WHAT DO YOU NEED TO BEGIN? vertebra. Based on the criteria that you were given, is
vertical plane.
 You will need a pencil, preferably HB.  The magnification of the drawing must there anything on the drawing that does not
 Label lines must be parallel to the top or
Why am I stating the obvious? This is because also be included. This is arrived at after a meet these requirements?
bottom of the page.
you would be surprised to know how many calculation is done and gives an indication of
 Labeling lines must not have arrowheads
students go to biology classes and exams the size of your diagram, compared with the Notice that the student received 2 marks for
or dots where they touch the structure that is
without pencils. actual specimen. It is advisable to include the
being labelled. clarity, 4 marks for accuracy, 2 marks for labels
 Typing sheets (blank paper), a clean calculation on your paper. It can be written
 The written title of the drawing must and 2 marks for the title and the magnification,
eraser and a ruler are also required. neatly to the left side of the paper. (The formula
begin with Drawing showing... giving a total of 10 marks.
 A calculator, if your multiplication and is: size of drawing divided by size of specimen)
 The title must be written in capital letters
division skills are not up to scratch.
and placed underneath the drawing.  The magnification is written beside the
Have fun drawing! See you next week!
 Cursive must never be used on your title with an x placed before the number.
WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DRAW? diagram. All labels and annotations must be in  Only one place of decimal should be Monacia Williams is an independent contributor. Send
You will be drawing flowers, fruits, seeds, script. included: Drawing showing the interior of the questions and comments to
storage organs, human organs and bones and,  The title must be precise, accurate! For mammalian kidney x 1.5


yl:principles of accounts

Double-entry and ledger accounts Y

Contributor  > 

S WE get closer to prepare the ledger for several accounts, I have presented examples to

A help guide you through in a simple way. In Table A, I have listed the transactions and the
accounts in which each item is to be debited with their corresponding credit entry.




  K   ^
& W
& ^

 Recommended answers to Question 1. Make you corrections if you did not get them all right.



W  /  /
^  E

,  ^ :   
   E E

, W ^  D

   E E

& W / & /> E

Table B below illustrates the effect of the transactions made by Samuel Laing during the month
of April 2014. Read each transaction carefully, internalise it and then read the recommended Roxanne Wright teaches at Immaculate Academy. Send questions and comments to
response listed under each related heading.





Z ^  E

   E E
&  From left: Suzette Wood, political section in the Embassy of Spain; Errol Haughton,
&  general coordinator of the AGM; Karen Donaldson, General Manager of The
Spanish-Jamaica Foundation (SJF); Mylne Ferriera, president of the Jamaica
ASSIGNMENT Association of French Teachers; Ambassador Anbal Jimnez Abascal, president, SJF;
Complete the following question on your own. When you are finished, check the answers. Stephanie Anderson Chung, coordinator of Spanish at the University of Technology;
and Emma June Bell, coordinator of the annual Spanish Carol Service.


yl:principles of business
YVONNE HARVEY recreational facilities. Greater access to these will

I, EVERYONE. This week we will begin a new
section of the syllabus: Social Accounting
and Global Trade, Section 9. The topics that
we will be looking at include: The Standard of
Social accounting surely increase the quality of life. Access, however,
may be dependent on the ability to pay.
Governments can increase a nations access to
these areas by subsidising the cost or by providing
them free of cost.
Living, the Quality of Life, National Income,
Economic Growth and Development International
Trade and Balance of Payments. Continue to enjoy
the subject.
and global trade  Diet and nutrition. The amount of food and drink
is not the important thing, as far as quality of life is
concerned. If people are not having balanced meals,
then their diet and nutrition will be poor and the quality
is that the quality of the goods and services may standard of living. However, for developing of life will fall even if they are consuming more.
STANDARD OF LIVING have deteriorated while the level of consumption countries like Jamaica, the cost and maintenance of  Life expectancy. This refers to the average
Standard of living refers to the level of living increased. The question, therefore, would be, did modern technology is high and it often results in number of years a person is expected to live. If people
which a person, family or whole nation maintains in the standard of living really increase? loss of jobs which, in turn, means a lower standard are expected to live longer than before, it will mean
terms of the various amounts of and kinds of goods  Average disposable income of the population. of living. that the quality of life would have, in fact, increased.
and services consumed. Standard of living varies Disposable income refers to net income the  The level of investment in research and  The rate of infant mortality. Infant mortality
from person to person, family to family and nation amount of money that is available to be used as one technology. The more a country spends money in refers to death among infants. If a country is
to nation. It also varies over time. The national would like to. In economics, disposable income is research and technology, the greater will be its experiencing reduced death rates among infants,
standard of living means the average standard of either spent on consumption goods and services or improvements in level and quality of goods and then the quality of life would have said to have
living of all the persons living in that country. saved. As far as standard of living is concerned, the services and, then, the greater the standard of living increased. This could be because of improved
higher the average disposable income of the will become. Again, however, cost becomes a research in health and better health, or greater
Quality of life looks at the extent to which a population, the higher will be the standard of living. dominant factor as research and technology can be access to health care.
person, family or nation enjoys the benefits of its The counterargument here is that the disposable very costly.
 Access to public utilities. The greater the
wealth. A country may have a high standard of income may be high, but if it is unequally distributed,
many people may have a low standard of living. access to public utilities such as electricity and
living, in terms of being able to provide many INDICATORS OF A COUNTRYS QUALITY portable water, the greater will be the quality of life.
goods and services for its people, but the quality of  The level of national ownership of capital
equipment. As a country increases its ownership of OF LIFE If only a few persons in a country have access to
life may be low if the people are not able to access Quality of life refers to the extent to which the
capital equipment, it is able to produce more goods these utilities, then, generally speaking, the quality
the wealth provided. country enjoys the benefits of its wealth. The factors
and services and, thereby, increase its standard of of life will be very low.
living. However, this means that it will first have to that affect this include:
FACTORS INDICATING STANDARD OF save or refrain from consumption in order to  The extent of security enjoyed. The greater the Well, that is it for this week. Next week, we will
LIVING OF A COUNTRY accumulate this capital. During this time, the level of security enjoyed by the citizens, the greater continue with this section by considering national
 The level of consumption of goods and standard of living may actually fall. will be the quality of life. High levels of crime can income. See you then.
services. Generally speaking, the greater the amount  Access to modern technology. Modern prevent citizens from accessing the wealth that will
of goods and services consumed, the higher will be technology enables a country to produce more and increase their quality of life. Yvonne Harvey teaches at Glenmuir High School. Send
the standard of living. The counterargument to this to produce more efficiently, thereby increasing  The availability of health, educational and questions and comments to

yl:english literature
BERYL CLARKE again and again, and makes its appearance over and over, you can safely

RIENDS, HOW are you this week? Are you satisfied with the
amount of academic work you have been putting in as examination
students? Do remember to make and follow your revision timetable
Discussing assume that it is one. Once you recognise a symbol, your next step is to
find out its significance. Repeated references to a dying tree, for
instance, may be used to signify a drought, a failing relationship, a lack
of care or consideration for something or someone.

the novel
and also to organise your study group, if you have not already done so.
Back we go now to a discussion of the novel. All stories have themes. The CXC CSEC English B syllabus no longer
has a section on themes. We are to be able, nevertheless, to discover the
A story must be told by someone; that is, there has to be a narrator. central idea(s) or themes in the novels that we study. Carefully trace the
One of your jobs is to identify that person or character and decide main concern(s) of the writer. Consider the relationship between the title
whether the narrative is being told by a first-person (I or we) narrator or as individuals, has his own way of expressing his ideas. As a result of and the main theme. Have you any thoughts so far about the book on
a third-person (he, she or they) narrator. Is the story told from a wide this, you are required to examine words, images, references and even which we are and will be focusing as of next week? Come, its title must
perspective or a narrow one where we get only one point of view? Is the the way sentences are structured. Have you ever been able to tell what arouse some interest in you; what or who falls apart, what does it mean
narrator only an observer or is he also a participant in the action? Does social or educational group someone belongs to from the persons to fall apart and what is the effect of this falling apart? Think, too, of the
the narrator understand the significance of the events he is describing? speech? You can do the same from the written word. The narrators tone ways the themes are brought out and through which characters. When
This is a question that you must answer, especially if the narrator is a can help you to know his attitude to a character or to events. It is usually you identify the theme in one novel, take the time to see if that theme
child. Please be mindful, too, that you have to evaluate the accuracy of through the tone, the style and the language that the writer lets us know
also exists in another text that you are studying. Please bear in mind that
the narrators view of events. Can he/she be trusted to give a truthful if the story is happy or sad, serious or comic, satiric or something else.
there can be more than one theme in a literary work.
version or is he/she biased? How much does he/she understand of what
is happening? You must also be aware that there is a narrator called Symbols are an important part of some stories. When you recognise
In our next lesson, we will return to Things Fall Apart. Until then,
omniscient because he knows everything. The author, himself/herself, one, you should try to find out the authors reason for including it in
continue to prepare for your success and God bless!
sometimes intrudes with information that he/she wishes us to have. his/her work. How one recognises a symbol is a question that is often
asked. If something is mentioned once or twice in a story, it is not likely Beryl Clarke is an independent contributor. Send questions and comments to
Now let us turn our attention to style. Each writer, just like each of us to be a symbol. If, however, it is repeated several times, is referred to


yl:geography yl:mathematics
IT ALSO GIVES: 1. Mr King bought a motor car for $1,900,000. The value of the
car depreciated by 5% each year. Calculate the value of the car
 Information on birth and death rate.
 Information on life expectancy. after two years.
 People living in a particular place or country.
2. In a certain country, electricity charges are calculated based
This pyramid below summarises it all. Please take a very close look at the pyramid then try to answer the on the following table:
question posed later. Fixed charge Charge per kwH used
$3,500 $2.30

(i) Calculate the electricity charges for a customer who used

1200 kwH.
There is a government tax of 17.5% on the electricity charges.

(ii) Calculate the tax on the customers electricity charges, giving

your answer to the nearest cent.

(iii) Calculate the total amount paid by the customer.

3. A businesswoman sells a bag for $ 5600, thereby making a

profit of 10% on the cost price to her.

i) The cost price of the bag to the businesswoman.
ii) The selling price the businesswoman should ask in order to
make a profit of 25%.

4. A tourist exchanged US $ 300 for Jamaican currency at the

rate of US $ 1.00 = Ja $ 115.
Government tax of 15% of the amount exchanged is payable.
Calculate in Jamaican currency:
i) The tax paid
We will stop here for this week. In the next lesson we will continue with our discussion on population
pyramids. ii) The amount the tourist received.

Judith Henry teaches at Ardenne High School. Send questions and comments to 5. The cash price of a computer is $ 48,000. The computer can
also be bought on hire purchase by making a 25% deposit and
simple interest payment that is equivalent to 20% on the
outstanding balance which must be repaid in 18 equal monthly

Calculate for the computer:

CONTINUED FROM PAGE 18 117.5/100 x $6,300=$7,402.50 i) The deposit paid
EXAMPLE 2: ii) The outstanding balance
SUMMARY iii) The balance to be paid
A set of tools is priced at $6,300 plus GCT of 17.5%. How
much is actually paid for the tools? The following points should be noted: iv) The hire purchase price
 Percentage is a fraction of 100. v) The difference between the hire purchase price and the cash
Solution: Cost Price is $6,300. Since the tax is 17.5%,  The whole is represented by 100%. price.
then 17.5/100 x $6,300 = $1,102.50. Therefore, the amount  If the whole is increased by x%, then the value becomes
paid is $6,300 + $1,102.50 = $7,402.50 (100 + x )%.
 If the whole is reduced by x%, then the value becomes Have a productive week.
Note: B. As the amount represents 117.5%, you could also (100 - x )%.
Clement Radcliffe is an independent contributor. Send questions and comments
have found it as follows: to