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Curriculum Development of Home Economics

According to Globalization Era by Literature Study


Windi Eka Syah Putri1, Supari Muslim2
1
Vocational and Technology Education, State University of Surabaya, windiekasp@yahoo.com
2
Vocational and Technology Education, State University of Surabaya, supari@unesa.ac.id

Abstract: In the globalization era, the policy of higher education must be able to answer various
challenges both at national and international level. This policy can applied to the curriculum for
produce human qualified resources. The curriculum of higher education in Indonesia is published by
Presidential Regulation number 8 2012 on KKNI. The Colleges can not only be in accordance with
the field of expertise, but also able to develop in accordance with the lifestyle of society, business
and industry. This is relevant with Home Economics curriculum by International Federation of
Home Economics (McGregor, 2014) that Home Economics aims to: [1] help students discover and
further develop their resources and capabilities; [2] use above to direct their professional decisions
and actions; And [3] prepare student for professional life and life in general. Based on the
explanation, then the problem formulation in this research is: [1] what is Home Economics ?; [2]
how the Home Economic's curriculum abroad ?; And [3] how the development of Home Economics
curriculum in Indonesia?. The purpose of this research is: [1] definition of Home Economics; [2]
Home Economics curriculum in abroad; And [3] the development of Home Economics curriculum in
Indonesia.

The results of the literature review and relevant research can be concluded that: [1] Home
Economics is a branch of science that is very important to be understood and learned for the
development of family and society materially and spiritually to create prosperity; [2] Home
Economics in Abroad is essentially a different subject and in different grades, home economics can
be oriented as an applied academic subject, as a product or technology course, as a career education,
as an independent living skill, as health education, as a caring pattern, or as a family education. In
the past Home Economics was skill-oriented like baking, cooking and sewing, but now Home
Economics have concerns about coping with problems in the family like physical, psychological or
mental problems with critical thinking and social responsibility; [3] Development of the decision by
the government is certainly to answer demands of globalization, then the curriculum must be
implemented in the learning process well. In the current Home Economics curriculum not only
emphasize skills, but also knowledge and attitudes, and attach importance to the cultural component
and philosophical components (mission, values, principles). This is so that home economics can
contribute to produce preprofessionals human resources

Keywords: Curriculum, Home Economics and Globalization

Introduction

In the globalization era is characterized by the advancement of science and technology which greatly affect the
existence of life aspects, especially in the field of education. That is one of forces education policies to be
responsive to both national and international challenges. This opinion is relevant to Wikarsih's (2010) statement
that education must flexibly adapt to changes, since education must always follow technological changes, value
developments, and changes in people's thinking patterns not only at the national level but also at the International
level. Similarly, this curriculum has included Indonesia, especially higher education in Indonesia is a producer of
graduates and workers who are not only required for intelligent knowledge but also must be able to apply in
public life. One effort that can apply to the curriculum to produce quality human resources.
Windi Eka Syah Putri1, Supari Muslim2 / Curriculum Development of Home Economics According to
Globalization Era by Literature Study

Curriculum development is all about the purpose of study, content, methods and management that is consistent
with the progress of science and technology, changes in society, and the life and development of students.
Higher education curriculum in Indonesia one of them refers to Presidential Regulation No. 8 of 2012 on KKNI.
University graduates who are not only competent in their field of expertise, but also able to develop in
accordance with the demands of the development of society, business and industry. In Indonesia Home
Economics, actually has been known for a long time that begins the school of vocational high school until now
the Home Economics majors. Home Econmics is a field of study that focuses its research on the life and
livelihood of human beings, both as individual family members and as members of the community (Winarni and
Nurlaela, 2016).This is relevant to the Home Economics curriculum in accordance with the International
Federation of Home Economics (McGregor, 2014) that Home Economics aims to: help students find and
develop their abilities further; [2] directing students' professional decisions and actions; And [3] prepares
students for professional life and life in general. Home Economics may not be the only subject explaining how to
get welfare, but Home Economics can be said to be the only subject that learns how to get welfare in the family
with hard skills and soft skill. Therefore, it is necessary to review the Home Economics curriculum in Indonesia
to be able to improve the quality of graduates in accordance with the goals, qualified and competent to compete
in the era of globalization and 21st century demands.

Based on the explanation, then the problem formulation in this research is: [1] what is Home Economics ?; [2]
how the Home Economic's curriculum abroad ?; And [3] how the development of Home Economics curriculum
in Indonesia?. So the purpose of this research is: [1] definition of Home Economics; [2] Home Economics
curriculum in abroad; And [3] the development of Home Economics curriculum in Indonesia.

Methods

The methode of this research is literature that contains descriptions of theories, findings and other research
materials obtained from reference materials that can be used as the foundation of research activities. Data
collection is done by collecting papers, journals, result of previous research and books

Result and Discusion

1. Defining Home Economics

Home economis began to be popular especially in Indonesia society, so Home Economics has various
interpretations that sometimes have different rationales and views. The opinions about Home Economics by
authors, according to Rifai (2007) Home Economics can be interpreted into two terms, Home and Economics.
Home can be defined as family, family in the sense home is family welfare. More than the house with all the
furniture, but there is a more understanding of it, the existence of an atmosphere that binds family members with
a deeper and stronger inner bond. Economics can be interpreted by Greek. Ecos is household and Nomos is laws
or rules. So Home Economics can be viewed as how families should meet their needs. According to Time Warp
Wives Officially Retro, Home Economics is a profession and field of study related to economics as well as
home and community management. Home Economics is a formal field of study that includes topics such as
consumer education, institutional management, interior design, home furnishing, cleaning, crafts, sewing,
clothing and textiles, cooking, nutrition, food preservation, hygiene, child development, and family relations.

Home economics is described as an interdisciplinary and a multi-disciplinary profession, with the importance
of families at the core of everything undertaken by professionals in the field. The central focus of home
economics education is the well-being of people in their everyday living. This involves enabling students to
address increasingly complex challenges related to their well-being including those related to human
development and relationships and the provision of commodities such as food, clothing and shelter. It is also
concerned with effecting changes that will bring about a more just society for all people with respect to their

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well-being. Home economics embodies the dynamics of change. As we move through the new millennium,
society and indeed individuals, need the knowledge, skills and attitudes developed in the study of home
economics. (HEIA, 2002, Street, 2006). It can be concluded that Home economics helps students learn to deal
their problems with critical thinking skills to solve the problems as well as help students have welfare with their
attitude and knowledge skills.

Currently,the International Federation of Home Economics (IFHE) defines home economics as: a field of study
and a profession, situated in the human sciences that draws from a range of disciplines to achieve optimal and
sustainable living for individuals, families and communities (Smith and Zwart, 2010). Home Economics is a
field of study and a profession, situated in the human sciences that draws from a range of disciplines to achieve
optimal and sustainable living for individuals, families and communities.

Home Economics can be clarified by four dimensions or areas of practice (Dewhurst and Pendergast, 2017):

As an academic discipline to educate new scholars, to conduct research and to create new
knowledge and ways of thinking for professionals and for society

As an arena for everyday living in households, families and communities for developing human
growth potential and human necessities or basic needs to be met

As a curriculum area that facilitates students to discover and further develop their own resources
and capabilities to be used in their personal life, by directing their professional decisions and
actions or preparing them for life

As a societal arena to influence and develop policy to advocate for individuals, families and
communities to achieve empowerment and wellbeing, to utilise transformative practices, and to
facilitate sustainable futures.

The HEIA definition of home economics education aligns with that of the International Federation for Home
Economics (IFHE) which states that all home economics subjects and courses of study must exhibit at least three
essential dimensions (IFHE, 2008 in HEIA, 2010):

A focus on fundamental needs and practical concerns of individuals and family in everyday life
and their importance both at the individual and near community levels, and also at societal and
global levels so that wellbeing can be enhanced in an ever-changing and ever-challenging
environment

The integration of knowledge, processes and practical skills from multiple disciplines synthesised
through interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary inquiry and pertinent paradigms

Demonstrated capacity to take critical/ transformative/emancipatory action to enhance wellbeing


and to advocate for individuals, families and communities at all levels and sectors of society.

Based on these various opinions of Home Economics is a branch of science that is very important to be
understood and learned for the development of family and society materially and spiritually to create prosperity.
Home Economics deals with family life that is part of the community and the relationship between human and
child education. Families have an obligation to meet other family needs, psychological needs, social and spiritual
needs.
2. Home Economics Curriculum in Abroad

Home Economics is in the world since 1903, the establishment of The Macdonald Institute (MINS) founded by
Adelaide Hoodless and Sir William Macdonald for auctions in the field of manual training and domestic science
and art. Home Economics is taught in many continents of the world such as Asia, Africa, Europe, South
America, Central America, and Australia. Curricula in home economics as well as other subjects are generally
developed either by supervisory units or curriculum departements or centres. The degree of flexibility varies.
When the describe curriculum contains only the goals, objective and outlines of course contents, the fexibility is
high but when the detail teaching guides are avaliable the programmes become more rigid and there is less
initiative to adjust the programme to local situation. The development of the curriculum on continents is
different, as well as the explanation.

a) Asia

Home economics curricula in Asia countries are generally based on two different models. The earlier model
related home economics to the girls and womens role in the home and tends to concentrate on skills in
housework, cokery and needlework subject is meant only for the girls. The newer model sees home economics as
the whole integrated body of knowledge aiming at the quality of life and the well being of the family. This model
would include not only the skills in the housework, cookery and needlework, but also the other skills decision
making, problem solving, managerial skills and the sharing of rensponsibilities among members of the family. it
tends to involve everyone in the family male and female adults and children (Unesco, 1976).

In Singapore the home economics mission statement is: To develop pupils knowledge skills and attitudes in
home economics for the well being of self, family and the community (HEC Syllabus Lower Secondary, 2002).
It is a compulsory subject at this level, with the rationale that makes clear the inter-relationships between Food
and Nutrition, Textiles and Clothing and Consumer Education both in theory and practice. It enables students to
examine issues that affect individuals, their families and the community while developing knowledge and skills
to help them think critically and make decisions for themselves and their family (ibid ) (Street, 2006).

In Japan the recent curriculum reform identifies home economics as a compulsory course of study for post-
compulsory upper secondary courses. Students work towards obtaining four credits from general home
economics, living skills or general living skills. (Japan Curricula, 2005). In Hong Kong, home economics is
identified as an existing subject related to the well-being of the individual, family and society. It includes the
specific subjects of home economics (food, home and family), and home economics (dress and design) and
textiles. It identifies food and clothing as basic human necessities, and through the study of contemporary
technologies students will learn how to critically assess these and their impact on the well-being of individuals,
families and society (CDC, 2004). In the proposed new senior secondary curriculum the traditional five subjects
associated with home economics merge into two distinct areas titled home economics, and health management
and social care (Street, 2006).

b) Canada

The following phases describe the evolution of home economics as a school subject in Canada. They
demonstrate how the subject area, like other subject areas, has continually responded to prevailing cultural and
educational philosophies (Smith and Zwart, 2010)

19001925 Hands on life skills

Home economics was introduced into schools about the same time as the progressive education
movement was a prominent influence. Progressive education, a many sided effort to use the schools
to improve the lives of individuals, dominated educational philosophy. John Dewey, its best known
proponent, advocated active learning through doing, not merely passive absorption.

19261961Social efficiency

Home economics as a school subject survived the difficult years of economic depression and
war.The commercialization of food and clothing production, the explosion of advertising, womens
involvement in the war effort all contributed to the view of home economics as a means to create
economical home-making and positive family life.

19611990s Consumer decision-making and practical reasoning

Home economics continued to focus on scientific management and technical skill development but
began to put those in a broader social-political context of participation in a democratic society,
family institutions, and the economy. The second feminist wave created a backlash to home
economics as more radical feminists characterized it as an attempt to keep women at home and out
of the workforce. Others viewed home economics as a basic challenge to pedagogical practices
and forms of knowledge in schools (Peterat, 1989),because of its emphasis on practical problem
solving15(Reed, 1979),the practical application of critical theory,and its responsiveness to daily life
issues.

As a curriculum area, home economics facilitates students to discover and further develop their own
resources and capabilities to be used in their personal life (IFHE, 2008). The emphasis has changed
from a technical, skill-development, scientific approach to one that includes critical thinking and
social responsibility. Global perspectives, social justice,and sustainability are underlying conceptual
threads as home economics acknowledges the incompatibility of the scientific paradigm with post-
modern plurality and with inequities in the global marketplace (Smith and Zwart, 2010).

It can be concluded that Home Economics in Canada was initially concerned only with hard skills
and the saturation due to war to date includes about critical thinking for sustainable prosperity.

c) Africa

Today, Home Economics professionals, including those in Africa, agree that the scope of Home Economics is
much broader. It is no longer just limited to the home, but expand into the arger community, incuding the world
of work. By focusing on the trilogy of prevention, education and development (McGregor, 2010 p.28).
Regardless of when it is intoduced into the public school curriculum, most Home Economics programmes in
African school, including colleges and universities are characterized by a shortage of human resources and
equipment by irrelevant textbooks and by irrelevant content, among others (Mberengwa, 1997; Ogwu, 2010)

Home Economics in Africa should embrace the culture uniqueness of African people. For example african
hospitality, diet, shelter, parenting, child-rearing practice and artifacts should be woven into the higher
education curriculum. As well in order for families to presper, peace and stability are needed in African homes.
Home Economics university students should be conversant with theses issues (conflict, non violence, peace and
justice and human security). On the basis of all these theoretical and contextual underpinnings, an ideal
Africentric Home Economics higer education curriculum, which is modeled along the four IFHE dimensions of
Home Economics wa then suggested.

The major challenges faced by families in the SADC region are issues related to poverity, health
and disease, food security and nutrition, migration and urbanization, confilct and techlogical
changes
major criticsms for existing african home economics educational pregrammes and curricula include
1. irrelevant content that is operaionalized through western paradigms of the what, how and why of
home economics and 2. a lack of qualifed and commutted home economics professionals at all
levels

african home economics are encouraged to be sensitive to the unique challenges bestting african
families and to their programmes of study in higher education

the IFHE (2008) four dimensions of home economics can effectively be used to define the
parameters of home economics in higher education

It can be concluded that the current development of home economics in Africa is much wider. It is
no longer confined to home issues, but also to the environment and the world of work. A
curriculum suitable for Africa is a curriculum that is able to uphold the value and strength of Africa,
awaken the value of the nuclear family in Africa and embrace the uniqueness of African culture.

d) Australia

Areas study of Home Economics in Australia is individuals, families and communities; nutrition and
food; textiles and fashion. The learning in home economics integrates:

knowledge and understanding

thinking and reasoning

practical and creative performance

So that students can take critical and emancipatory action to enhance wellbeing and to advocate for individuals,
families and communities at all levels and sectors of society. Literacy and numeracy skills, ICT competence,
thinking skills, creativity, self-management skills, teamwork, intercultural understandings, ethical behaviour and
social competence are developed as students develop understandings, think, reason and engage in practical tasks
that prepare them to respond positively to real-life challenges. Quality home economics programs:

connect with students worlds

use contemporary educational research to guide planning

develop practices that are empowering, rather than isolated knowledges and skills

Not more different with the curriculum in other countries, in Australia also emphasizes soft skill

3. Curriculum Development of Home Economics in Indonesia

a) Vocational High School (1953-1962)

Sekolah Kepandaian Putri (SKP) is a first junior high school in Indonesia, that is vocational school to
complement knowledge and for an beneficial exercise to life in society later. There are 2 majors of SKP, namely
vocational A (cooking) and vocational B (sew). The purpose of SKP is for skill lives in the household and does
not have to continue to the higher school level. SKP in this country is only one in Salatiga, Central Java. SKP is
for 4 years. The four year lesson is in the same lesson at Junior High School / SMP, which different is there are
special vocational subjects. In grade 1 and 2 are given general classes and in grades 3 and 4 students have been
given a special undergraduate degree in accordance with the vocational taken. Subjects taught in Girls Woman
School is cooking, nutrition science of food, washing/ironing, management, recipe science, sewing, drawing
patterns, Decorate / make fabric techniques, patch, handycrafts, textiles, Indonesian language, English, Pancasila
and Citizenship Education / PPKn , Health sciences, natural sciences, life sciences, earth sciences, social
sciences, history, drawing, administration, sound art, physical education, religion. The learning activities begin at
07.00-13.00. During the lessons the students always obey the rules that apply in school and always respect the
teacher. The introductory language used is Indonesian but sometimes teachers also use Javanese. The aims of
SKP is the students can cook, sew, and organize the household or be entrepreneur, work or when student married
later. Experience in SKP, students are also happy to have many friends at school not only confined in the house
and help the work of parents (Setyowati, 2013).

b) Junior home economics school / SKKP and Senior home economics school / SKKA

The vocational school is operated at lower and uper level of secondary education. Junior home economics
school / SKKP offer 21, 20 and 19 hours per week of home economics subject in grades 7,8,9 respectively while
21, 20 and 21 hours per week of home economics subject are taught in grades 10,11,12 of the senior home
economics school / SKKA respectively (Unesco, 1976).

Table 1 Curriculum of Junior Home Economics School / SKKP


Curriculum of Junior Home Economics School grades 1
Group 1. Moral Group 2. Basic
Group 3. Specialization
Education Science
1. Religion 1. Chemistry / a. Main Subject: Introduction to FLE, food and
education National nutrition, home management-laundry,
2. Citizenship science clothing/science of cloth/clothing care, Fine
3. Indonesia languge (biology), arts/needlework, craft, child care and guidance,
4. Physical education physics/ health science of equipment, drawing
2. English b. Related Subject: Book keeping, co-operation,
art/singing and dancing
c. Training: Field work
Curriculum of Junior Home Economics School grades 2 and 3
Group 1. Moral Group 2. Basic
Group 3. Specialization
Education Science
1. Religion education 1. Chemistry / a. Main Subject: Food and Management A: FLE,
2. Citizenship National cooking , knowledge of recipe, nutrition, home
3. Indonesia language science menagement/laundry, consumer education, drawing
4. Physical education (biology), Clothing and textiles B: FLE, clothing construction,
physics/ health care of clothing, fine arts, consumer education,
2. English drawing.
Craft C: FLE, craft 1, craft 2, consumer education,
drawing, instution management
Child care and guidance D: FLE, child care,
developmental psycology, home nursing, drawing,
music/games/readings, institution management
b. Related Subject: Book keeping, co-operation,
art/music/dancing
c. Training: Field work
Table 2 Curriculum of Senior Home Economics School / SKKA
Curriculum of Junior Home Economics School grades 1
Group 1. Moral Group 2. Basic
Group 3. Specialization
Education Science
1. Religion 1. Chemistry / a. Main Subject: Introduction to FLE, food and
education National nutrition, home management-laundry,
2. Citizenship science clothing/science of cloth/clothing care, Fine
3. Indonesia languge (biology), arts/needlework, craft, child care and guidance,
4. Physical education physics/ health science of equipment, drawing
2. English b. Related Subject: Business management, co-
operation, art/singing and dancing
c. Training: Field work
Curriculum of Junior Home Economics School grades 2 and 3
Group 1. Moral Group 2. Basic
Group 3. Specialization
Education Science
1. Religion education 1. Chemistry / a. Main Subject
2. Citizenship National Food and Management A: FLE, foods , nutrition,
3. Indonesia language science home menagement/laundry, consumer education,
4. Physical education (biology), drawing, institution management
physics/ health Clothing and textiles B: FLE, clothing, care of
2. English clothing, fine arts, consumer education/textiles,
drawing, institution management for clothing ships
Craft C: FLE, craft 1, craft 2, consumer education,
drawing, history of culture, interior decoration,
instution management
Child guidance D: FLE, child care, developmental
psycology, home nursing, craft, dancing,
music/games/readings, institution management
b. Related Subject: Business management, co-operation,
art/singing and dancing, methodology
c. Training: Field work

c) Vocational High School/SMK

Curriculum of vocational education, especially tourism in Indonesia refers to the curriculum 2013 which aims to
prepare Indonesian people to have the ability to live as individuals and citizens who believe, productive,
creative, innovative, and affective and able to contribute to the life of society, nation , State, and civilization of
the world. The tourism group, whose graduates move into the hotel, catering, fashion, and beauty occupations.
Permendikbud, number. 7, 2013.

Table 3 Vocational High Schools Curriculum of Tourism Group


Vocational High Schools Curriculum of Tourism Group
Group A (Required) Group B (Required) Gropu C (Guide)
1. Religion education 1. Art and cuture a. Related Subject: Applied science,
2. Citizenship 2. Entrepreneurship tourism
3. Indonesia language 3. Sport Education b. Main Subject: Beauty, Fahion,
4. Mathematics Culinary
5. History of Indonesia c. Training: Field work
6. English
d) Home Economics / PKK

Formerly Home Economics in Indonesia is still less well-known even ruled out with a variety of negative
thoughts such as graduates are not valuable, do not need to learn to cook and sew with higher school, it turns out
this thinking not only in Indonesia but In Hong Kong, students largely view education as preparing them for
careers and post-school life. Home economics is considered useless if students intend to pursue tertiary studies
because they cannot go on to a higher level. Home economics education after secondary five was not
offered at a tertiary level (secondary 6 or above) or at degree level until the 21st century (Ma, 1996:27-
28,Ma, A., & Pendergast, D,2011)

Home economics in Indonesian universities has several majors such as culinary education, fashion education and
cosmetology education, family welfare education, hospitality tourism education, and so on. High university in
Indonesia refers to KKNI and Home Economics curriculum in Indonesia using KBK On Kepmendiknas No.232 /
U / 2000 and No. 045 / U / 2002 that the subject matter of a competency-based higher education curriculum
contains a core curriculum component that is applied nationally, and developed jointly with stakeholders
(MoNE, 2004). According to Lioew, the overall credits for undergraduate programs (S1) are 144-160 SKS.
Structure of curriculum in Decree no. 232 / U / 2000. Grouped in:

Personality Development Course / MPK

Scientific and Skills Course / MKK

Course Working Expertise / MKB

Course of Behavior / MPK

Community Lecture / MBB

Along with the curriculum of the Minister of Education issued Decree No. 045 / U / 2002 about the Higher
Education Core Curriculum consisting of

Competence of Study Program:

Major Competencies

Supporting Competencies

Other Competencies

Development of the decision by the government is certainly to answer the demands of globalization, then the
curriculum must be implemented in the learning process well. In the current Home Economics curriculum not
only emphasize skills, but also knowledge and attitudes, and attach importance to the cultural component and
philosophical components (mission, values, principles). This is so that home economics can contribute to
produce preprofessionals human resources. Higher Home Economics curricula should also include teaching
about computer technology and smartphones so that students can absorb and obtain legitimate important
information and share them within their networks, and how to distinguish between information and advertising.
Students can also solve problems according to their field of study by using information and communication
technology, such as making design with photoshop application, corel and so on
Conclusions

1. Definition of Home Economics

Home Economics is a branch of science that is very important to be understood and learned for the development
of family and society materially and spiritually to create prosperity. Home Economics deals with family life that
is part of the community and the relationship between human and child education. Families have an obligation
to meet other family needs, psychological needs, social and spiritual needs. It helps students learn to deal their
problems with critical thinking skills to solve the problems as well as help students have welfare with their
attitude and knowledge skills

2. Home Economics curriculum in abroad

Home Economics in Abroad is essentially a different subject and in different grades, home economics can be
oriented as an applied academic subject, as a product or technology course, as a career education, as an
independent living skill, as health education, as a caring pattern, or as a family education. In the past Home
Economics was skill-oriented like baking, cooking and sewing, but now Home Economics have concerns about
coping with problems in the family like physical, psychological or mental problems with critical thinking and
social responsibility.

3. The development of Home Economics curriculum in Indonesia

Development of the decision by the government is certainly to answer the demands of globalization, then the
curriculum must be implemented in the learning process well. In the current Home Economics curriculum not
only emphasize skills, but also knowledge and attitudes, and attach importance to the cultural component and
philosophical components (mission, values, principles). This is so that home economics can contribute to
produce preprofessionals human resources. Higher Home Economics curricula should also include teaching
about computer technology and smartphones so that students can absorb and obtain legitimate important
information and share them within their networks, and how to distinguish between information and advertising.
Students can also solve problems according to their field of study by using information and communication
technology, such as making design with photoshop application, corel and so on

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