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TYRAGETIA INTERNATIONAL

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Design and print: Bons Offices

Cover: Ivan Litsuk, Simion Coad

Descrierea CIP a Camerei Naionale a Crii


Mensch, Kultur und Gesellschaft von der Kupferzeit bis zur frhen Eisezeit im
Nrdlichen Eurasien (Beitrge zu Ehren zum 60. Geburtstag von Eugen Sava) =
Man, culture, and society from the Copper Age until the Early Iron Age in Northern
Eurasia (Contributions in honour of the 60th anniversary of Eugen Sava) /
Nat. Museum of History of Moldova, Freie Univ. Berlin; ed.: Aurel Zanoci [et al.].
Chiinu: S. n., 2016 (Tipogr. Bons Offices). 348 p. (Tyragetia International,
ISBN 978-9975-87-101-3; 1).
Tit., cuprins paral.: lb. germ., engl. Texte: lb. rom., germ. Rez.: lb. rom., engl.
Bibliogr. la sfritul art.
ISBN 978-9975-87-100-6.
902/904(4+5)"636/637"(082)=112.2=111
M 58
NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY OF MOLDOVA
FREIE UNIVERSITT BERLIN

TYRAGETIA INTERNATIONAL
I

MENSCH, KULTUR UND GESELLSCHAFT


VON DER KUPFERZEIT
BIS ZUR FRHEN EISENZEIT
IM NRDLICHEN EURASIEN
BEITRGE ZU EHREN ZUM 60. GEBURTSTAG
VON EUGEN SAVA

MAN, CULTURE, AND SOCIETY


FROM THE COPPER AGE UNTIL THE EARLY
IRON AGE IN NORTHERN EURASIA

CONTRIBUTIONS IN HONOUR
OF THE 60TH ANNIVERSARY OF EUGEN SAVA

EDITORS:
AUREL ZANOCI, ELKE KAISER, MAYA KASHUBA,
ELENA IZBITSER, MIHAIL B

CHIINU 2016
INHALT / CONTENTS
Tabula gratulatoria 9

Dr. habil. Eugen Sava at 60 11

Eugen Sava ist sich trotz strmischer Zeiten treu geblieben 14

Liste der Publikationen von Eugen Sava / List of Eugen Savas publications 17

Rezensionen der Verffentlichungen von Eugen Sava / Review of Eugen Savas 24


publications

SVEND HANSEN, REGINA UHL 25


Vom Debris zum Fundament Neue Erkenntnisse zum Bauen in der
Kupferzeit sdlich und stlich der Karpaten

STANISLAV ERNA, KNUT RASSMANN, MARIANA VASILACHE, KAI RADLOFF 41


Stolniceni I new research on a Cucuteni-Tripolye large site

IGOR MANZURA 53
th
North Pontic Steppes at the End of the 4 Millennium BC:
the Epoch of Broken Borders

MARIUS ALEXIANU 77
In Search of the Indo-European Homeland: the Indo-Uralic Hypothesis

BLAGOJE GOVEDARICA 85
Violin-Idole aus Hgelgrbern der beginnenden Bronzezeit in
Nordalbanien und Montenegro

JOZEF BTORA 103


The question of the presence of Yamnaya and Catacomb culture in the
area of Middle Danube and North Carpathians

ELENA IZBITSER 117


rd
A Unique Painting of the 3 Millennium BC from the Kuban Region

NIKOLAUS BOROFFKA 121


The miniature columns of Bronze Age Eurasia new indications of ritual
meaning from Gonur Depe, Turkmenistan

BERNHARD HNSEL 127


Invasion, Immigration, Infiltration im bronzezeitlichen Makedonien?

7
ELKE KAISER, MAYA KASHUBA 145
Die vorgeschichtlichen Glasobjekte der Bronzezeit im nrdlichen
Schwarzmeergebiet. Ein forschungsgeschichtlicher berblick

TUDOR SOROCEANU 163


Der Bronzefund von Jabenia (Grgnysakna), Kr. Mure, Siebenbrgen

FLORIN GOGLTAN, CRISTIAN IOAN POPA 181


Gligoreti Holoame (Kreis Cluj), eine sptbronzezeitliche Siedlung
aus Mittelsiebenbrgen

VASILE DIACONU, GHEORGHE DUMITROAIA 203


The Late Bronze Age settlement from Oglinzi-Faa Slatinei (Neam county,
Romnia) and several observations regarding the control of the salt
resources

PETAR ZIDAROV, SERGEY AGULNIKOV 215


The pestles-scepters from Bulgaria and the southern contacts of the Noua,
Sabatinovka and Coslogeni cultures

VALENTIN PANKOVSKIY 225


Deer Antler Cheekpiece from Ushkalka-I. Expertise and Advice on
Typological Classification

NECULAI BOLOHAN 243


A short note concerning a Late Bronze Age socketed gouge unearthed in
Eastern Romania

DENIS TOPAL, MARIANA SRBU 251


New hoards and solitary finds of the Bronze Age - Early Iron Age from
the territory of Republic of Moldova

OLEG LEVIKI 269


Study on the lower chronological limit of the Chiinu-Corlteni
grooved ware of the Hallstatt culture from the East Carpathian regions

ION NICULI, AUREL ZANOCI, MIHAIL B 295


The horizon with incised pottery of the Holercani-Hansca type in the
Middle Dniester River region

SORIN-CRISTIAN AILINCI 319


Analysis and interpretation of Babadag culture pottery decorating style

BIBA TERAN 337


Bogenfibeln vom Typ Poiana und verwandte Formen zwischen dem
Ostbalkan- und dem Ostalpenraum whrend der Hallstattzeit

Abkrzungsverzeichnis / List of abbreviation 347

8
TABULA GRATULATORIA

Serghei Agulnicov (Chiinu) Dr. Roxana-Gabiela Curc (Iai)

Dr. Vadim Alekshin (St. Petersburg) Dr. hab. Valentin Dergaciov (Chiinu)

Dr. Sorin-Cristian Ailinci (Tulcea) Dr. Lilia Dergaciova (Chiinu)

Dr. Marius Alexianu (Iai) Dr. Vasile Diaconu (Trgu Neam)

Dr. Andrei Asndulesei (Iai) Dr. Alexander Dyachenko (Kiyv)

Dr. Ludmila Bacumenco-Prnu (Chiinu) Dr. hab. Ion Eremia (Chiinu)

Prof. Dr. Jozef Btora (Bratislava) Dr. Yakiv Gershkovych (Kiyv)

Mihail B (Chiinu) Dr. Florin Goglatan (Cluj-Napoca)

Dr. Ioan Bejinariu (Zalu) Prof. Dr. Blagoje Govedarica (Berlin)

Veaceslav Bicbaev (Chiinu) Vasile Haheu (Chiinu)

Vadim Bochkarev (St. Petersburg) Prof. emer. Dr. Bernhard Hnsel (Berlin)

Sergiu Bodean (Chiinu) Prof. Dr. Svend Hansen (Berlin)

Larisa Bogataia (Chiinu) Prof. Dr. Anthony Harding (Exeter)

Dr. Dumitru Boghian (Suceava) Serghei Heghea (Chiinu)

Dr. Ana Boldureanu (Chiinu) Dr. Vasile Iarmulschi (Berlin/Chiinu)

Dr. Neculai Bolohan (Iai) Dr. Constantin Iconomu (Iai)

Dr. Nikolaus Boroffka (Berlin) Dr. Mircea Ignat (Suceava)

Prof. Dr. Octavian Bounegru (Iai) Dr. Theodor Isvoranu (Bucureti)

Valeriu Bubulici (Chiinu) Dr. Elena Izbitzer (New York)

Vitalie Burlacu (Chiinu) Vitali Jelezni (Chiinu)

Dr. Valeriu Cavruc (Sfntu Gheorghe) Prof. Dr. Elke Kaiser (Berlin)

Ion Ceban (Chiinu) Dr. Maya Kashuba (St. Petersburg)

Dr. Lyudmila Chernyh (Kiyv) Dr. hab. Lyubov Kircho (St. Petersburg)

Dr. Vasile Chirica (Iai) Serghei Kurceatov (Chiinu)

Larisa Ciobanu (Chiinu) Dr. Olga Larina (Chiinu)

Dr. Horia Ciugudean (Alba Iulia) Prof. Dr. Attila Lszl (Iai)

Andrei Corobcean (Chiinu) Dr. hab. Oleg Leviki (Chiinu)

Dr. Vasile Cotiuga (Iai) Ivan Litsuk (St. Petersburg)

Dr. Serghei Covalenco (Chiinu) Dr. Igor Manzura (Chiinu)

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Dr. George G. Marinescu (Bistria Nsud) Dr. Aleksey Rezepkin (St. Petersburg)

Dr. Liviu Marta (Satu Mare) Dr. Alexander Rubel (Iai)

Dr. Sergiu Matveev (Chiinu) Dr. Mikhail Rysin (St. Petersburg)

Prof. Dr. Carola Metzner-Nebelsick (Mnchen) Ghenadie Srbu (Chiinu)

Prof. Dr. Micheal Meyer (Berlin) Livia Srbu (Chiinu)

Dr. Virgil Mihailescu-Brliba (Iai) Mariana Srbu (Chiinu)

Dr. Tatyana Mishina (Moscow) Dr. Tudor Soroceanu (Berlin)

Irina Midari (Chiinu) Acad. Victor Spinei (Iai/Bucureti)

Dr. Octavian Munteanu (Chiinu) Dr. Elena Starkova (St. Petersburg)

Dr. Sergiu Mustea (Chiinu) Veronika Stegantseva (St. Petersburg)

Dr. Bianka Nessel (Heidelberg) Dr. Lcrmioara Stratulat (Iai)

Dr. Andrei Nicic (Chiinu) Victoria Surdu (Chiinu)

Dr. Eugen Nicolae (Bucureti) Dr. Nicolai Telnov (Chiinu)

Dr. Alla Nikolova (Kiyv) Dr. Felix Adrian Tencariu (Iai)

Dr. hab. Ion Niculi (Chiinu) Dr. Ion Tentiuc (Chiinu)

Dr. hab. Vitaliy Otroschenko (Kiyv) Stanislav erna (Chiinu)

Dr. hab. Ilja Palaguta (St. Petersburg) Prof. emer. Dr. Biba Teran (Ljubljana)

Dr. Nona Palinca (Bucureti) Denis Topal (Chiinu)

Dr. Valentin Pankovskiy (Kyiv) Dr. Viktor Trifonov (St. Petersburg)

Natalia Paenciuc (Chiinu) Regina Uhl (Berlin)

Juriy Piotrovskiy (St. Petersburg) Dr. Constantin-Emil Ursu (Suceava)

Dr. hab. Elena Ploni (Chiinu) Dr. Ion Ursu (Chiinu)

Dr. Dan Pop (Baia Mare) Prof. Dr. Nicolae Ursulescu (Iai)

Dr. Cristian Ioan Popa (Alba Iulia) Dr. Eugen Uurelu (Chiinu)

Dr. Galina Poplevko (St. Petersburg) Mariana Vasilache (Chiinu)

Dr. hab. Gheorghe Postic (Chiinu) Ivan Vlasenco (Chiinu)

Kai Radloff (Frankfurt am Main) Dr. Vladimir Vornic (Chiinu)

Dr. Juriy Rassamakin (Kiyv) Dr. Aurel Zanoci (Chiinu)

Dr. Knut Rassmann (Frankfurt am Main)


Dr. Svetlana Reabeva (Chiinu)
Dr. Agathe Reingruber (Berlin)

10
DR. HABIL. EUGEN SAVA AT 60
Eugen Sava was born on August 4, 1956 in the village of Mereni, Anenii Noi District. He
attended school in his native village, and in 1973 Eugen Sava became a student of the De-
partment of History in the State University of Chiinu, the most prestigious higher educa-
tion institution in the Moldavian SSR.
From his very first days of being a student, Eugen Sava encountered, like many other
young students from that period, the harsh reality of the totalitarian regime. Endowed
with a sharp mind and analytical skills to adequately analyze historical processes, it was
difficult for him to accept the criticism of ideas of K. Kautsky, Ju. Martov, A. Van der Velde
and other revisionists of Marxism without reading their works, since they were classified
under the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, banned in the USSR. How one could disagree
with E. Duhring if his reactionary and non-scholarly theories were known only by
Anti-Dhring written by F. Engels?! But probably the most intriguing fact was that both
students and professors teaching the subject were aware of the foolish situation rooted in
the university system. These circumstances, most certainly, have influenced the choice of
a specialization in archeology by the young learner, where ideology, yet present, was less
visible. The first papers presented at the student academic seminars, at various regional or
national student conferences and symposiums were distinguished by originality in appro-
aching the subject; logical, clear and accessible presentation, and mastering of Russian or
Romanian language.
After graduating with honors from the history department, the young specialist recei-
ved a position in the Archaeology Section of the Academy of Sciences of the Moldavian
SSR, where he went through all the hierarchical steps, from Assistant to Dr. Habilitation
and Researcher Coordinator. From the outset, Eugen Sava understood one important
thing that professional perfection is endless. In 1984-1985, he is accepted as an intern at
the Institute for the History of Material Culture of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in
Leningrad, and in 1985-1988, as a PhD student at the same institution. In 1989, he success-
fully defended there his PhD thesis in archaeology. Soon, in 1991, Dr. Sava becomes fellow
at the Archaeological School at Sutton Hoo in England, and in 1996-1998 he is postdoctoral
fellow at Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in Germany. The scholarships and multiple
travels to England, Germany, Romania, Russia, Ukraine, and other countries were orga-
nically combined with intensive research in academic libraries and the study of museum
collections in visited countries. His inexhaustible scholarly activities resulted in publicati-
on of seven monographs and about 100 articles in various prestigious journals in Moldova
and abroad.
The monographic study Die Bestattungen der Noua-Kultur: Ein Beitrag zur Erfor-
schung sptbronzezeitlicher Bestattungsriten zwischen Dnestr und Westkarpaten, Band
19, Kiel 2002, is marked by its factual material, rigorous analysis, originality of ideas; con-
clusions, clearly formulated and argued, demonstrated the need for the re-dating of the
Noua culture from the 14th-11th centuries BC, as it was accepted previously, to about two
hundred years back, to the 16th-12th centuries BC.

11
Remaining faithful to traditional research methods, E. Sava is constantly seeking and
using new methods of research, primarily turning to interdisciplinary studies. The result of
these efforts is the monograph Die Siedlung mit Aschenhgeln beim Dorf Odaia-Miciurin,
Republik Moldova (Archologische und naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen) written
in collaboration with Elke Kaiser, with contributions of scientist in other disciplines a
pioneering work in our historiography. Based on excavated archaeological materials and
extensive laboratory research, the monograph is an attempt to prove that the so-called
ashmounds are the remains of housing and cult structures that functioned within each
site over several centuries. The conclusions reached in the research stimulated discussion
on the subject among scholars.
A recently published Aezri din perioada trzie a epocii bronzului n spaiul pruto-nis-
trean (Noua-Sabatinovka)/Settlements of the Late Bronze Age (the Noua-Sabatinovka
cultures) in the Prut-Dniester Interfluve (Chiinu 2014) is an outcome of the authors
research conducted over the last decades. The volume presents a large and comprehen-
sive analysis of sites and artifacts of the Noua-Sabatinovka cultural complexes. The study
of this rich material made possible the advancement of a new vision on the evolution of
cultural, chronological, and demographic processes in the period of the Late Bronze Age.
The mature scientist chose to remain close to his Alma Mater, holding a part-time po-
sition as Associate Professor, as an advisor for doctoral students, and as President of the
specialized academic seminar, hence making an important contribution to the formation
of highly qualified specialists in the field of archaeology. Perhaps, the feeling of nostalgia
prompted him to enroll in postdoctoral program at the Department of Archaeology and
Ancient History of MSU, leaving other offers and opportunities behind. After receiving, in
2003, the Dr. Hab. degree for his thesis on cultural and chronological context of the Late
Bronze Age cultures in the Carpathian-Dniester region, Eugen Sava, besides research ac-
tivities, focuses his efforts on other areas, such as valorization of archaeological heritage.
He manages to blend organically archaeological investigations at several sites in Mol-
dova with participation in various international research projects. In 1999-2000 and later, in
2002-2004, he is a member of the project Megalithic constructions in the North Caucasus
initiated by the Institute for the History of Material Culture (Russia) and the Field Research
(USA). In 2003-2008, he is already head of the Moldovan German project Paleoecono-
my of the Late Bronze Age Communities in the Carpathian Balkan Region implemented
by the National Museum of History of Moldova in collaboration with the Freie Universitt
Berlin (Germany). Participation in international projects and excavations of archaeologi-
cal sites in Germany, Romania, Russia, Ukraine, etc., have significantly contributed to the
promotion of a positive image of the museum he represents, and to the recognition of
Moldova as a country with rich cultural and historical inheritance.
Field archaeological research is closely related to valorization of archaeological heri-
tage. Out of over 30 archaeological excavation campaigns initiated and conducted by Dr.
Eugen Sava, the overwhelming majority of them were the rescue missions. Moreover, the
rescue campaigns at archaeological sites have become, in fact, a vital feature of the pro-
fessional activity of archaeologist E. Sava. Having very good knowledge of the research
and exploration methods of archaeological objects, the practice he gained by working with
research teams in different countries, the scholar demonstrated and supported, like no
other, the need for rescue archaeology at historic sites, and its significance for the protecti-
on and promotion of cultural heritage. This work has intensified with his arrival at the helm
of the National Museum of History of Moldova in 2006. Although the enthronement on
the position of General Director was initially perceived as an exit, albeit partial, from the
research process, the passage of time has proved otherwise. The unsuspected managerial
potential of archaeologist E. Sava in the field of museology and valorization of cultural he-
ritage had fully manifested itself in these 10 years of directorship. Under conditions of ext-

12
remely low funding, the museum was able to struggle through the obstacles and maintain
a normal activity of the institution. Moreover, new restoration workshops were opened, an
Editorial Department was established, and new research directions were introduced. Now
we can affirm with certainty that Tyragetia became one of the most prestigious journals in
the field, and Biblioteca Tyragetia became a well-known monographic series, already at its
27th volume, covering fields of archeology; museology; numismatics; medieval, modern,
and contemporary history. Also, the museum pays particular attention to museological
research, for long time neglected due to the shortage of specialists.
Today, the National Museum of History of Moldova is a serious competitor to other re-
search institutions, owing to a large number of curators and researchers who possess a
doctorate degree; the volume of publications; a broad spectrum of areas of research ex-
pertise. Besides these, the museum has organized, on a regular basis, numerous scholarly
and educational events; has held archaeological, historical, and art exhibitions with ob-
jects from the museums collections and from the museums of France, Germany, Hungary,
Romania, Russia, and others; objects from the museums collection have participated in a
number of international traveling exhibitions. It is very hard to imagine the efforts made
by the museum management and, in particular, by the general director for a successful
implementation of all scholarly, exhibition, or educational activities.
Among the many tasks that arose for the new general director of the National Museum
of History of Moldova were collections reorganization; the creation of the necessary con-
ditions for the proper operation of the museum and maintenance of permanent exhibits;
establishment and strict implementation of regulations for preservation of the museums
heritage; updating documentation; recording the exhibits, etc. Also a big challenge was
the acquisition of the entire holdings of the former Museum of Archaeology of the ASM
after the latter merged with the National Museum of History of Moldova. Despite the nu-
merous difficulties the Research Archive was created as a separate unit, and this is largely
the accomplishment of director E. Sava. The archive keeps excavation reports from the
mid-20th century onwards, with full inventory of finds, and original field documentation.
Homo locum ornat, non ornat hominem locus this Latin proverb seems to be still valid.
The deep thinking, clear and well-documented reasoning, and original ideas expressed
by E. Sava in his studies and publications have made him one of the best scholars in the
field of prehistory. His activity has been highly praised by academic and research com-
munities both in Moldova and worldwide. E. Sava serves as a member of editorial boards
of the most prestigious national and international archaeological journals; he is a mem-
ber of the National Committee of Museums in Moldova, the National Committee of Mo-
numents and Sites in Moldova, the European Archaeological Association, and Chairman
of the Centre for Protection and Research of Historical and Archaeological Monuments in
Moldova. Sava is also a Knight of the Order of Labor Glory and holds the honorary titles
of corresponding member of the German Archaeological Institute and honorary member
of the Institute of Archaeology of the Romanian Academy, the Iai branch. These are the
achievements of one of the most worthy man of our nation born in Mereni, whose name
is Eugen Sava.
Many more fruitful years ahead!
Vivat! Crescat! Floreat!

Dixi et animam levavi!


Univ. prof., Dr. hab. Ion Niculi
Univ. prof., Dr. hab. Gheorghe Postic

13
EUGEN SAVA IST SICH TROTZ STRMISCHER
ZEITEN TREU GEBLIEBEN
ber unseren Freund und Kollegen Eugen Sava knnen wir sa-
gen, dass ihn drei Wesenszge auszeichnen, die alle seine Mit-
menschen, gleichwohl wann sie ihn kennengelernt haben, an ihm
schtzen gelernt haben und die fr ihn heute weiterhin typisch
sind: Zuverlssigkeit, Hartnckigkeit und Humor. Bei Eugen Sava
finden sich diese drei Eigenschaften in einer gelungenen und ein-
zigartigen Mischung.
Vielleicht machten gerade diese Charakteristika Eugen Sava
zu einer legendren Persnlichkeit, der wie Valentin Dergaciov
ihn zu seinem 50. Geburtstag bezeichnet hat? Zumindest ist unser
Freund und Kollege ein auergewhnlicher Mensch, der auf gro-
e Erfolge wie schmerzliche Verluste zurckblickt. Eugen Sava ist
als ltester Sohn seines Vaters Nikolaj Sava, einem moldawischen
Buchhalter und seiner russischstmmigen Ehefrau Taisija in Me-
reni, einem groen Dorf in der Nhe von Chiinu aufgewachsen.
Er begann ein Geschichtsstudium an der Staatlichen Universitt
von Chiinu und lehnte sich soweit das in sowjetischen Zeiten
E. Sava als junger Archologe in Hansca 1974.
mglich war gegen die staatlichen Reglementierungen auf. In
der Folge wurde er der Universitt verwiesen, sogar gleich zwei-
mal, unter anderen da er fters nicht zu den politischen Paraden
nicht erschienen war und bei einer erzwungenen Teilnahme das
Portrt eines Mitglieds des Politbros verloren hatte. Heute kann
man ein derart mutiges Vorgehen nur bewundern, das sicherlich
einen Einsatz fr eine strkere Beteiligung von Brgern an politi-
schen Prozessen zu verstehen ist, aber vor allem fr einen unab-
hngigen starken Charakter spricht. Um einen solchen zu beugen,
hielt die sowjetische Fhrung noch andere Methoden bereit. Eu-
gen Sava wurde zu einem dreijhrigen Militrdienst auf dem Rake-
ten-U-Boot RPK-SN verpflichtet. Das U-Boot war im Weien Meer
unterwegs und teilweise bis zu 69 Tagen ununterbrochen unter
Wasser.
Nach einem anschlieend sehr erfolgreichen Abschluss des
Hochschulstudiums begann Eugen Sava als wissenschaftlicher
Mitarbeiter am Institut fr Archologie der Moldawischen Akade-
mie seine Karriere als Archologe. Ungeachtet seiner unterschied-
lichen Ttigkeitsfelder im Akademieinstitut), als Leiter zahlrei-
cher Grabungskampagnen und mannschaften, als Stipendiat der
Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung, als Direktor des Nationalmuse-
ums fr Geschichte der Republik Moldova war er in seinen Unter-

14
Die erste Ausstellung von
E. Sava organisiert
(Taraclia 1984).

nehmungen ausgesprochen erfolgreich. Dies war und ist nur mit den fr ihn so typischen
Merkmalen seiner Persnlichkeit mglich. Seine Aktivitten sind von groem Verantwor-
tungsbewusstsein und unbedingter Zuverlssigkeit geprgt, die er auch von anderen er-
wartet. Unerwarteten Herausforderungen stellt er sich hartnckig entgegen, versucht L-
sungen zu finden, um Schwierigkeiten zu berwinden. Dabei kann man, insbesondere bei
Enttuschungen, schon manchmal den Humor verlieren. Eugen Sava verliert ihn fast nie
und versucht jeglicher Situation noch eine komische, manchmal ironische oder sarkasti-
sche Seite abzugewinnen.
Die Ironie der Geschichte brachte es mit sich, dass Eugen Sava viel spter lange Zeit an
der Staatlichen Universitt Chiinu, also der Institution, die ihn als aufrhrerischen Stu-
denten einstmals ausgeschlossen hat, als Dozent zahlreiche Seminare und Vorlesungen
hielt, Diplomarbeiten und Dissertationen betreute sowie in verschiedenen Gremien ttig
war.

Gelndearbeit in Odaia-
Miciurin im Frhjahr 2005.

15
E. Sava zusammen mit
B. Hnsel in Berlin 2001.

Die Zeiten haben sich nicht nur einmal gendert. Eugen Sava hat die Wechsel immer
wieder aktiv genutzt, um seine wissenschaftlichen Kenntnisse und Kontakte intensiv aus-
zubauen. Das zeigt unter anderem sein Promotionsaufenthalt in den 1980er Jahren am
Institut fr die Geschichte der Materiellen Kultur der Akademie der Wissenschaften in St.
Petersburg, wo er 1989 erfolgreich seine Dissertation ber die Bestattungssitten der Kultur
mit Mehrwulstkeramik abgeschlossen hat.
Kaum war die Sowjetunion endgltig zerfallen, reiste Eugen Sava nach Grobritannien,
denn er hatte sich erfolgreich fr ein Stipendium bei der Archaeological School at Sutton
Hoo beworben.
Sein Forschungsaufenthalt an der Freien Universitt Berlin bildete einen weiteren gro-
en Schritt fr Eugen Sava. Nicht zuletzt wegen der herzlichen Aufnahme durch den dama-
ligen Institutsleiter Bernhard Hnsel und einen bis heute gepflegten persnlichen Kontakt
fhlt sich Eugen Sava dem Institut fr Prhistorische Archologie sehr verbunden. Die di-
rekte Folge dieser Verbundenheit sind die zahlreichen Forschungskooperationen in Form
von Grabungen, Konferenzen, gemeinsamen Publikationen mit Mitarbeitern des Univer-
sittsinstituts sowie der Eurasien-Abteilung des Deutschen Archologischen Institutes.
Abermals profitieren alle Beteiligten von Eugen Savas Charakterzgen; sie knnen sich auf
seine Zuverlssigkeit bei Organisation, Durchfhrung und Auswertung der gemeinsamen
Unternehmungen verlassen. Sie wissen, dass er hartnckig versuchen wird, dass vorge-
nommene Ziel zu erreichen und seine humorvollen Bemerkungen lassen oft schwierige
Situationen in einem anderen Licht erscheinen.
Eugen Sava ist in vielem auch mit den Zeiten gegangen ist und geht weiterhin mit ih-
nen. Die Konzepte, die er fr das Nationalmuseum fr Geschichte der Republik Moldova
entworfen hat, sind auf die Zukunft ausgerichtet. Sei es, in dem das Museum mit ausrei-
chendem Platz fr Magazine fr die Sammlungen ausgestattet wird, dass mit Museumsta-
gen und ausgezeichneten Ausstellungen die Zahl der Besucher um ein Vielfaches gestiegen
ist, seit er Direktor ist. Bei den siedlungsarchologischen Ausgrabungen in Odaia-Miciurin
konnten mit einer intensiven interdisziplinren Zusammenarbeit wichtige und zum Teil
berraschende Erkenntnisse fr die Siedlungsttigkeit in der spten Bronzezeit ermittelt
werden. Mit einem landschaftsarchologischen Ansatz wird nun die erfolgreiche gemein-
same Forschung von Eugen Sava und dem Institut fr Prhistorische Archologie im S-
den der Moldova fortgesetzt.
Lieber Eugen, wir wnschen Dir an dieser Stelle, dass Du weiterhin mit den Zeiten ge-
hen wirst und gleichzeitig Dir selbst treu bleiben wirst,

Aurel Zanoci, Elke Kaiser, Maja Kashuba

16
LISTE DER PUBLIKATIONEN VON EUGEN SAVA /
LIST OF EUGEN SAVAS PUBLICATIONS
1984
.. , .. , . . .:
( 1984), 98-108.
1985
.. , . .: -
1983 . ( 1985), 460-461.
.. , .. , . . .: -
1981 . ( 1985), 64-82.
1986
.. , -
. .
: III ( 1986),
126-127.
.. , .. , - . . .:
1982 . ( 1986), 34-54.
.. , . .: 1984
. ( 1986), 387.
.. ,
. : , , .
( 1986), 90-91.
1987
.. , -
. .: . , 1 (
1987), 62-71.
.. , .. , . . .: -
. , . 2 ( 1987), 71-74.
.. , . . .: -
( 1987), 87-91.
.. , -
. : . , I (
1987), 80-82.
1988
.. , . . .: -
1983 . ( 1988), 44-59.
.. , -
- . .: . , 3
( 1988), 57-68.

17
1989
.. , -
- . : ,
. . . -
( 1989), 20-23.
1990
.. , ,
- . : -
( -
) ( 1990), 32-34.
.. , -
- ( ). .: -
, . . -
, 8-9 1989 . ( 1990), 40-52.
1991
.H. , .. ,
. .:
( 1991), 46-60.
.. , - -
- . :
(V .. - V ..). -
, , 10-14 1990 . ( 1991), 133-134.
E. Sava, Relaii ntre cultura mnogovalikovaia dintre Nistru i Prut i cultura Monteoru.
Thraco-Dacica XII/1-2, 1991, 15-37.
1992
E. Sava, Contribution au probleme de la genese de lensemble des cultures Noua-
Sabatinovka-Coslogeni. In: Simpozia Thracologica, nr. 9 (Bucureti 1992), 107-109.
.. , .. , .. , ( 1992).
.. , - -
( ) ( 1992).
.. , .. , . . .:
1986 . ( 1992), 88-104.
.. , .. , .. , . . .:
1986 . ( 1992), 171-189.
.. , .. , .. , -
. . In: Anuarul Muzeului Naional de Istorie a Moldovei, vol.
I (Chiinu 1992), 95-107.
1993
. , - VII-VI . .
. ( . ). : -
e . -
, 1993, 55-56.
V. Haheu, E. Sava, Thraco-Getto-Dacian sites and urbanization stages of the northern
Thracians. In: Urban origins in Eastern Africa. Precirculated papers. WAC Intercongress, 25-
29 January 1993 (Mombasa 1993), 27.
.. . .. , : Adrian C. Florescu, Repertoriul culturii No-
ua-Coslogeni din Romnia. Aezri i necropole. Cultur i civilizaie la Dunre de Jos, vol.
IX, 170 p. 209 pl. Clrai 1991. Revista Arheologic 1, 1993, 145-149.

18
O.G. Levitsckii, E.N. Sava, Novelles recherches des tablissements de la culture Noua
dans la zone comprise entre la Prout et le Nistru. Cultur i civilizaie la Dunrea de Jos IX,
1993, 125-155.
1994
I. Manzura, E. Sava, Interaciuni Est-Vest reflectate n culturile eneolitice i ale epocii
bronzului din zona de Nord-Vest a Mrii Negre. Schi cultural-istoric. Memoria Antiquita-
tis XIX, 1994, 143-192.
E. Sava, Epoca bronzului perioada mijlocie i trzie, sec. XVII-XII .e.n. Thraco-Dacica
XV, 1994, 141-158.
E. Sava, Investigaiile istorico-arheologice n microzona Rudi-Tatruca Noua-Arioneti,
raionul Dondueni. In: Cronica cercetrilor arheologice. Campania 1993. A XXVIII-a Sesiune
Naional de rapoarte arheologice, Satu Mare, 12-15 mai 1994 (Satu Mare 1994), 114.
E. Sava, Schi despre geneza culturii Noua i rolul ei n formarea culturii Halstattului
tracic timpuriu. In: Simpozion Internaional. Masivul traco-cimerian. Probleme actuale.
Rezumatele referatelor (Chiinu 1994), 9-10 (rom); 29-30 (rus).
1995
E. Sava, Sur la gense de la culture Noua et son rle dans la formation de la culture du
Hallstatt thrace ancien. In: Buletin de Thracologie, vol. II (Mangalia 1995), 70-71.
I. Manzura, E Sava, L. Bogataya, East-West Interactions in the Eneolithic and Bronze
Age. In: Cultures of the North-West Pontic Region. The Journal of Indo-European Studies,
vol. 23, nr. 1-2 (Los-Angeles 1995), 1-51.
G. Postic, E. Sava, S. Agulnicov, Morminte ale nomazilor turanici medievali din tumulii
de lng localitile Taraclia i Cazaclia. Memoria Antiquitatis XX, 1995, 141-171.
O. Leviki, E. Sava, Aezarea culturii Noua Petrueni La Cigoreanu (investigaii de an-
tier n 1991). In: Cercetri arheologice n aria nord-trac, vol. I (Bucureti 1995), 157-188.
E. Sava, I. Manzura, M. Tcaciuc, S. Kurciatov, V. Bubulici, R. Rabinovici, V. Gukin, R. Alai-
ba, M. Bdu-Wittenberger, Investigaii istorico-arheologice efectuate n micro-zona istori-
co-natural Rudi-Ttruca Nou-Arioneti (raionul Dondueni, R. Moldova). In: Cercetri
arheologice n aria nord-trac, vol. I (Bucureti 1995), 281-357.
1996
Gh. Postic. E. Sava, Complexe funerare ale nomazilor medievali de lng satul Blba-
ni, raionul Taraclia, R. Moldova. SCIVA 47/1, 1996, 63-89.
E. Sava, La composante indo-iraniene des cultures du Bronze Moyen et Final de les-
pace nord-ouest pontique. In: The Thracian world at the crossroads of civilisation. The 7th
International Congress of Thracology. Constana-Mangalia-Tulcea, May 20-26, 1996 (Bucu-
reti 1996), 213-215.
E. Sava, The Middle and Late Bronze Age of the Carpathian-Dniester region. In: XIII In-
ternational Congress of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciense. The Sections of the Interna-
tional Congress of prehistoric and protohistoric sciences. Forli-Italia-8/14 september 1996.
1 Abstract (Forli 1996), 308-309.
E. Sava, Necropola tumular Blbani-II. ArhMold XIX, 1996, 191-220.
E. Sava, Scientific public fund ,,Rudi-Maetonium. History of the thracian culture. ArhMold
XIX, 1996, 336-337.
1997
. , - -
- . : : -
. I-
10-18 1990 . (-- 1997), 62-63.

19
E. Sava, E. Klociko, Necropola culturii Noua de lng Chirileni. Angustia 2, 1997, 77-101.
E. Sava, Bestattungsriten in der Noua-Kultur Osttliche onder Westliche Tradition?
In: The third International Simposium of furnerar archaeology (Tulcea 1997), 31-33.
1998
E. Sava, Die Rolle der ,,ostlichen und ,,westlichen Elemente in der Genesis des No-
ua-Sabatinovka Kulturkomplexes (Nach den Materialen des Pruth-Dnestr-Zwischenstro-
mgebiets). In: (Hrsg. B. Hnsel, J. Machnik) Das Karpatenbecken und die osteuropische
Steppe. Nomadenwegen und Kulturaustausch in den vorchristlichen Mettallzeiten (4000-
500 v. Chr.) (Mnchen: Rahden/Westf. 1998), 267-312.
N. Boroffka, E. Sava, Zu den steinernen Zeptern/Stssel-Zeptern, Miniatursulen
und Phalli der Bronzezeit Eurasiens. In: Archologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan,
Bd. 30 (Berlin 1998), 17-113.
1999
E. Sava, Ritul funerar i periodizarea culturii Noua. Symposia Professorum. Seria Isto-
rie. ULIM (Chiinu 1999), 11-12.
E. Sava, Istoricul cercetrilor i contribuii noi la periodizarea i cronologia absolut a
culturii Noua. In: Studia in Honorem Ion Niculi. Omagiu cu prilejul mplinirii a 60 de ani
(Chiinu 1999), 54-84.
2000
E. Sava, Die Siedlungen und der Aschenhgel der Sabatinovka-Kultur im Prut-Dnestr-Zwi-
schwnstromgebiets. In: Symposia Professorum. Seria Istorie. ULIM (Chiinu 2000), 8-10.
E. Sava, Ritul funerar n cultura Noua. Analele tiinifice ULIM. Istoria, nr. 1 (Chiinu
2000), 7-18.
.. , .. , XVIII ?. Stratum plus 6,
2000, 432-434.
2002
. , , (
). : .
, 100-
.. , 1 (- 2002), 221-223.
E. Sava, Die Bestattungen der Noua-Kultur. Ein Beitrag zur Erforschung sptbronzezei-
tlicher Bestattungsriten zwischen Dnestr und Westkarpaten. Mit Katalogbeitraegen von N.
Boroffka, L. Dasclu, Gh. Dumitroaia, E.V. Jarovoj, T. Soroceanu (Kiel 2002).
.. , .. ,
. .: :
( ) ( 2002), 149-179.
E. Sava, Materiale din perioada trzie a epocii bronzului din aezarea Mereni. ArhMold
XXV, 2002, 69-92.
.. , .. ,
. Stratum plus 2, 2001-2002, 526-562.
2003
. , - --
-. : , 100- ..
. , I
( 2003), 147-149.

20
E. Sava, Condition of System of Protection and Rescue Archaeological Monuments in
Republic Moldova. In: 9th Annual Meeting EAA. 10th - 14th September, 2003, St. Petersburg,
Russia. Final Programme and Abstracts (St. Petersburg 2003), 152-153.
E. Sava, S. Agulnikov, Contribuii noi la definirea ritului funerar n cultura Sabatinovka.
In: Interferene cultural-cronologice n spaiul nord-pontic (Chiinu 2003), 113-138.
E. Sava, Interferene cultural-cronologice n epoca bronzului trziu din spaiul carpa-
to-nistrean (complexul cultural Noua-Sabatinovka). Autoreferat al tezei de doctor habilitat
n tiine istorice (Chiinu 2003).
2004
E. Sava, E. Kaiser, Investigaii de antier n aezarea culturii Noua de la Odaia. In: Cerce-
tri arheologice n Republica Moldova (2000-2003) (Chiinu 2004), 40-49.
E. Sava, Unele aspecte economice din perioada trzie a epocii bronzului (complexul
cultural Noua-Sabatinovka). Studii de istorie veche i medieval. Omagiu profesorului
Gheorghe Postic (Chiinu 2004), 68-75.
V. Bicbaev, E. Sava, Interpretarea fotografiilor aeriene ale unor situri Noua. Memoria
Antiquitatis XXIII, 2004, 335-353.
. , . , . : i
i , XI (i 2004), 99-103.
E. Sava, Die sptbronzezeitlichen Aschehgel des Noua-Sabatinovka Kulturkomplexes.
Archologische und ethnographische Aspekte. In: International Symposium. Aspects of
Spiritual Life in South-East Europe from prehistory to Middle Ages. October 17-20, 2004
(Iai 2004), 20-24.
.. , .. ,
(K 2004).
V. Stvil, E. Baciu, V. Bujac, A. Caraman, V. Malanechi, V. Oglind, I. Postic, Gh. Posti-
c, E. Sava, Mereni. Monografia unui sat rzeesc (Chiinu 2004).
2005
E. Sava, Die sptbronzezeitlichen Aschehgel (Zolniki) ein Erklrungsmodell und
einige historisch-wirtschaftliche Aspekte. Praehistorische Zeitschrift 80/1, 2005, 65-109.
E. Sava, Viehzucht und Ackerbau in der Noua-Sabatinovka Kultur. In: (Hrsg. B. Horejs,
R. Jung, E. Kaiser, B. Terzan) Interpretationsraum Bronzezeit. Bernhard Hnsel von seinen
Schlern gewidmet. Universittsforschungen zur Prhistorischeen Archologie, Band 121
(Bonn 2005), 143-159.
2006
E. Kaiser, E. Sava, Ausgrabung an einer Gruppe von Aschehugel in Moldawien. Ar-
chaeologia Circumpontica 4, 2006, 3-6.
E. Kaiser, E. Sava, Die Aschehuegel der spten Bronzezeit im Nordpontikum. Erste Er-
gebnisse eines Forschungsprojekts in Norndmoldawien (mit Beitraegen von M. Hochmuth
und G. Schneider). Eurasia Antiqua 12, 2006, 137-172.
. , -.
: II . . 24-30 2006,
- ( - - 2006), 94-95.
2007
E. Sava, Cercetrile cenuarelor din aezarea de tip Noua de la Odaia-Miciurin, raio-
nul Drochia. Rezultate i perspective. In: Sesiunea tiinific a Muzeului Naional de Arheo-
logie i Istorie a Moldovei (ediia a XVII-a), 18-19 octombrie 2007. Rezumatele comunicri-
lor (Chiinu 2007), 15-16.

21
2009
E. Kaiser, E. Sava, Die absolute Datierung der nouazeitlichen Fundstelle Miciurin-Odaia,
Nordmoldawien. In: (Hrsg. J. Apakidze, B. Govedarica, B. Hnsel) Der Schwarzmeerraum
vom neolithikum bis in die Frheisenzeit (5000-500 v. Chr.). Kommunikationebenen zwis-
chen Kaukasus und Karpaten. Prhistorische Archologie in Sdosteuropa, Band 25 (Rah-
den Westfalien 2009), 147-159.
E. Sava, Neue Funde der Bronzemetallurgie aus Komplexen der Noua-Sabatinov-
ka-Kultur im Prut-Dnestr-Gebiet. In: Humboldt-Kolleg in Chiinu, Republik Moldova (4-8
Oktober 2009). Internationale Fachtagung von Humboldtianern fr Humboldtianer. Der
Schwarzmeerraum vom neolithikum bis in die Frheisenzeit (5000-500 v. Chr.). Globale
Entwicklung versus Lokalgeschehen (Chiinu 2009), 35-36.
E. Sava, M. Srbu, Aezri cu cenuare n bazinul Rutului (catalog). Tyragetia s.n. III/1,
2009, 169-192.
E. Sava, National Museum of Archaeology and History of Moldova. In: The Lost World of
Old Europe. The Danube Valley, 5000-3500 BC (New York-Oxford 2009), 16-17.
2011
E. Sava, Neue Gussformen der spten Bronzezeit aus dem Gebiet zwischen Prut und
Dnestr. In: Der Schwarzmeeraum vom neolithikum bis in die Frheisenzeit (5000-500 v.
Chr.) Globale Entwicklung versus Lokalgeschehen. Prhistorische Archologie in Sdos-
teuropa, Band 27 (Verlag Marie Leidorf, Rahden/Westfalen) (Kiel 2011), 178-187.
. , . , -,
( ) / E. Sava, E. Kaiser,
Die Siedlung mit Aschehgeln beim Dorf Odaia-Miciurin, Republik Moldova. Archolo-
gische und naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen (Chiinu 2011).
. ,
. : -
-
-
( 2011), 86-89.
2012
E. Kaiser, E. Sava, Neue Daten zur Entstehungen und Funktionalitt so genannter As-
chehgel in den Siedlungen der Noua-Kultur. In: Humboldt-Kolleg Der Schwarzmeerraum
vom Neolithikum bis in die Frheisenzeit (6000 - 600 v. Chr.). Kulturelle Interferenzen in der
Zirkumpontischen Zone und Kontakte mit ihren Nachbargebieten. Varna, Bulgarien, 16-20.
Mai 2012 (Varna 2012), 37.
E. Sava, Noi piese de bronz din perioada trzie a epocii bronzului descoperite pe terito-
riul Republicii Moldova. In: Probleme actuale ale arheologiei, etnologiei i studiul artelor.
Conferina tiinific cu participare internaional. Chiinu, 31 mai - 1 iunie 2012 (Chii-
nu 2012), 27.
2013
. , . , , . :
-2013. ( 2013), 329-331.
E. Sava, I. Tentiuc, Cuvnt nainte. In: (Ed. S. Carp, G. Chiria, T. Carp, E. Grbu, Tradiii
Militare (Trecut, prezent i viitor) (Chiinu 2013), 8-11.
E. Sava, Muzeul Naional la 30 de ani de activitatea. In: Studii de muzeologie (Chiinu
2013), 5-6.
. , , (Noua). : , 23 ( 2013),
97-98.

22
A. Levinschi, E. Sava, The military camp of Charles XII at Varnia near the Bender For-
tress. Tyragetia s.n. VII/1, 2013, 389-396.
2014
. , -
. Revista Arheologic s.n. IX/1, 2013, 166-187.
E. Sava, I. Tentiuc, A. Boldureanu, I. Eremia, M. lapac, Cetatea Benderului. O propu-
nere de cercetare i restaurare. In: Studii de arheologie i istorie n onoarea profesorului
Gheorghe Postic (Chiinu, ULIM 2014), 184-199.
E. Sava, I. Tentiuc, A. Boldureanu, Cetatea Tighina/Bender una dintre cele mai
enigmatice fortificaii medievale din spaul pruto-nistrean. In: Regional Co-operation
for Cultural Heritage Development, Journal nr. 4, 2014 (http://www.rcchd.icomos.org.
ge/?l=E&m=4-4&JID=4&AID=34&l2)
. , - ( --
- - -
. .: - -
( 2014), 399-400.
. , . , -
, . :
. XXVIII . .. -
( 2014), 203-204.
E. Sava, Cuvnt de salut. Acta Muzei Tutovensis IX-X, 2014, 28-29.
E. Kaiser, E. Sava, Mllhalde oder Opferplatz? Ausgrabung eines sptbronzezeitlichen
Fundplatzes im Norden der Republik Moldova. In: Vom Nil bis an die Elbe. Forschungen aus
fnf Jahrzenten am Institut fr Prhistorische Archologie der Freien Universitt Berlin.
Internationale Archologie. Studia honoraria. Bd. 36 (Rahden/Westf. 2014), 133-145.
2015
T. Soroceanu, E. Sava, Metallgefe zwischen Karpaten, Nordkaukasus und Ural wh-
rend der Bronze- und Frheisenzeit. Vorlufige Betrachtungen auf Grund der Verbreitung
dieser Fundkategorie / ,
. -
. In: Der Kaukasus im Spannungsfeld zwischen Os-
teuropa und Vorderem Orient: Dialog der Kulturen, Kultur des Dialoges (im Gedenken an den
140. Geburtstag von Alexander A. Miller) /
: ( 140- . ). 5-8
2015 ., . - () (- 2015), 85-89.
2016
. , . In: Culturi,
procese i contexte n arheologie. Volum omagial Oleg Leviki la 60 de ani (Chiinu 2016),
154-161.
. , . , 1979 .
In: Eds. S. erna, B. Govedarica.) Interactions, Changes and Meanings. Essays in honour of
Igor Manzura on the occasion of his 60thbirthday (Chiinu: Stratum Plus 2016). In print.
E. Kaiser, E. Sava, Neue Daten zu Entstehung und Funktionalitt so genannter Ascheh-
gel in den Siedlungen der Noua-Sabatinovka-Kultur. Die Rekonstruktion des Fundplatzes
Odaia-Miciurin in der Republik Moldova. In print.
Eugen Mistreanu

23
REZENSIONEN DER VERFFENTLICHUNGEN
VON EUGEN SAVA / REVIEW OF EUGEN SAVAS
PUBLICATIONS
.. , - -
( ) Die Mehrwustkeramik-Kultur im
Dnestr-Pruth-Zwischenstromland (nach der Grabsitte).
, 1992. ISBN 5-376-01447-9. 225 Seiten, 64 Abbildungen, 7 Tabbelen, Englische
und Rumnische Zusammenfassung (Ja. P. Gerkovi). Eurasia Antiqua 4, 1998, 489-492.
E. Sava, S. Agulnikov, Contribuii noi la definirea ritului funerar de tip Sabatinivka. In:
Interferene cultural-cronologice n spaiul nord-pontic. Centrul Editorial Poligrafic USM.
Chiinu 2003. ISBN 9975-9787-0-3 (I. Motzoi-Chicideanu). http://www.archaeology.ro/
imc_sabatinovka.pdf
E. Sava, Die Bestattungen der Noua-Kultur. Ein Beitrag zur Erforschung sptbronzezeit-
licher Bestattungsriten zwischen Dnestr und Westkarpaten. Mit Katalogbeitraegen von N.
Boroffka, L. Dasclu, Gh. Dumitroaia, E.V. Jarovoj, T. Soroceanu. Prhistorische Archolo-
gie in Sdosteuropa. Bd 19. Oetker Voges Verlag, Kiel 2002. ISBN 3-935305-04-4/ISSN 0732-
1725. 266 Seiten mit 51 Abbildungen, 34 Karten und 168 Tafeln (Wanzek Burger). Germa-
nia, Jahrgang 84, 2006, 2. Hallland, 491-499.
E. Sava, Die Bestattungen der Noua-Kultur. Ein Beitrag zur Erforschung sptbronzezeit-
licher Bestattungsriten zwischen Dnestr und Westkarpaten. Mit Katalogbeitraegen von N.
Boroffka, L. Dasclu, Gh. Dumitroaia, E.V. Jarovoj, T. Soroceanu. Prhistorische Archolo-
gie in Sdosteuropa. Bd 19. Oetker Voges Verlag, Kiel 2002, 266 p., 168 plane (Florin Go-
gltan). Ephemeris Napocensis XIII, 2003, 325-327.
. , . , -,
( ) /E. Sava, E. Kaiser,
Die Siedlung mit Aschehgeln beim Dorf Odaia-Miciurin, Republik Moldova. Archolo-
gische und naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen. Biblioteca Tyragetia XIX (Chiinu
2011). ISBN 978-9975-80-525-4. 532 /Seiten; 105 /Abbildungen, 19
/Diagrammen, 29 /Tabellen; 55 /Foto (Tiberiu Vasilescu). Studii de
Preistorie 9, 2012, 183-186.
. , . , -,
( ) / E. Sava, E. Kaiser,
Die Siedlung mit Aschehgeln beim Dorf Odaia-Miciurin, Republik Moldova. Archolo-
gische und naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen. Biblioteca Tyragetia XIX (Chiinu
2011). ISBN 978-9975-80-525-4. 532 /Seiten; 105 /Abbildungen, 19
/Diagrammen, 29 /Tabellen; 55 /Foto (Horia Ciugudean). Apulum,
Series Archaeologica et anthropologica 50, 2013, 261-264.

24
STOLNICENI I NEW RESEARCH
ON A CUCUTENI-TRIPOLYE LARGE SITE1

Stanislav ERNA, Knut RASSMANN, Mariana VASILACHE, Kai RADLOFF

Keywords: Copper Age, Republic of Moldova, Cucuteni-Tripolye large sites, Stolniceni, geophysics, archaeological excavations.
Abstract: The article presents the preliminary information on the 2015 campaign from the Cucuteni-Tripolye large site Stolniceni
I, Edine district, Republic of Moldova. The fieldwork included geophysical prospections and archaeological excavations. The
prospections covered circa 40% of the site revealing its complex structure with radial groups of houses as well as pits, three
ditches, causeways and other anomalies. The excavations have been limited to a test-trench on one of the pits and have yielded
rich archaeological material as well as samples for XRF soil analysis and absolute dating. Further investigations of the site and its
surroundings shall be able to provide new important data for understanding the process of formation of large sites on the Cucuteni
B - Tripolye C1 stage in the Prut-Dniester interfluve as well as getting new insights into the phenomena of appearance and distribution
of bigger and huge complex Cucuteni-Tripolye settlements.

Cuvinte-cheie: Eneolitic, Republica Moldova, situri mari Cucuteni-Tripolie, Stolniceni, geofizic, spturi arheologice.
Rezumat: Articolul prezint informaii preliminare privind cercetrile arheologice din vara anului 2015 desfurate n situl de
dimensiuni mari al culturii Cucuteni-Tripolie - Stolniceni I, raionul Edine, Republica Moldova. Campania a inclus prospeciuni
geofizice i spturi arheologice. Prospeciunile au acoperit circa 40% din suprafaa sitului, dezvluind structura sa complex cu
grupuri radiale de case, gropi, trei anuri, drumuri i alte anomalii. Spturile s-au limitat la un sondaj amplasat pe una din gropile
identificate i au furnizat un bogat material arheologic precum i probe de sol pentru analiz XRF i oase de animale pentru datare
absolut. Ulterioarele investigaii ale sitului i imprejurimilor sale vor fi n msur s furnizeze noi date importante pentru inelegerea
procesului de formare a siturilor mari din etapa Cucuteni B - Tripolie C1 aflate in interfluviul Prut-Nistru precum i deschiderea unor
noi perspective asupra apariiei i distribuiei aezrilor complexe de dimensiuni mari i foarte mari din cadrul culturii Cucuteni-
Tripolie.

1
We are delighted and proud to publish this article in the honorific
volume of Prof. Dr. Eugen Sava; a person who has contributed so much
to the contemporary research of Cucuteni-Tripolye large sites from the
Republic of Moldova. Also, we would like to thank the editors of the
volume for their kind invitation to participate to this book.

41
Introduction

In the last years, thanks to geomagnetic scans performed with a high-resolution modern
equipment, the research of large and complex Cucuteni-Tripolye settlements has been ex-
periencing a new impetus. Obtaining new detailed plans allowed the archaeologists to
verify and improve the older ones, achieved by V. Dudkin in 1970s - 1980s, as well as to
identify new anomaly types and to check them by means of archaeological excavation.
Thus, on settlements like Nebelivka, Maydanetske, Talianki, Dobrovody (Ukraine) and Pe-
treni (Moldova) fieldwork based on new geophysical plans has been carried out, yielding
extremely interesting features like the mega-structure from Nebelivka, pottery kilns from
several sites, pits, ditches and unburnt dwellings (Uhl 2014; Mller, Rassmann, Videiko
2016; Chapman et al. 2014; . 2015). Furthermore, the use of high-precission
geomagnetic plans allows the specialists to develop a research strategy which would take
into account various models of functioning and evolution of large complex settlements,
sometimes termed as proto-urban (Rassmann et al. 2014; Chapman et al. 2014).
The first large Cucuteni-Tripolye settlement from the Prut-Nistru interfluve to be
scanned with modern equipment and checked by excavations was the one from Petreni,
with a surface of circa 36 hectars (Rassmann et al. 2016). Some other large sites with an
inner concentric structure have been known thanks to aerial photographs and older geo-
physical investigations (, 2004; 2007).
In order to understand the structural and chronological relation between Petreni, other
complex settlements from the Prut-Nistru region and the Bug-Dnieper large sites, continu-
ation of modern geomagnetic scans on large sites from the territory of Republic of Moldo-
va is of great scientific potential. That is why in summer of 2015 we decided to focus on a
settlement from the Prut Basin, namely the one near the village of Stolniceni.

Stolniceni I history of research

The Cucuteni-Tripolye site of Stolniceni was discovered in the 1970s by K. Shishkin, a mili-
tary topographer interested in aerial photography of archaeological sites. Deciphering of
aerial images allowed him to identify several prehistoric settlements between the villages
of Stolniceni and Pociumbui (Edine and Rcani districts). Among these, a very large
settlement with a concentric structure attracted the attention of the researcher. The site
got the name Stolniceni I. In 1980, a team led by V. Marchevici visited the site and opened
a test-trench on one of the burnt houses. The plan of the settlement was first published
in 1993 by V. Sorochin (Sorochin 1993). Later, the site was mentioned in works by V. Bic-
baev and M. Videiko in the context of a larger evaluation of the problem of large complex
sites from the late phase of Cucuteni-Tripolye evolution ( 2007; 2012;
2013). It has been estimated that the settlement near Stolniceni would have an
area of circa 80-100 hectars and therefore is the largest Copper Age site known from the
territory of Republic of Moldova.
In 1980, a team led by V. Marchevici performed the visual investigation of the settle-
ment and placed a test-pit on one of the burnt dwellings from its northern part. Materials
from the test-pit are kept in the National Museum of History of Moldova and include six re-
stored painted vessels, some vessel fragments and two grinding stones. One other painted
bowl was recently published in a catalogue (Stratulat 2009, nr. 97).
In 2008, the site was visited by V. Bicbaev and I. Tentiuc, who collected some painted
pottery from its surface and also some Late Bronze Age shards from the settlement Stolni-
ceni II, located nearby.

42
Location and geographical background

The settlement is located at a distance of circa 1.5 km to south-


west from the southern extremity of Stolniceni village (Edine dis-
trict), approximately at half the distance to the Pociumbui village
(Rcani district) (fig. 1). The border between the two districts is
actually crossing the site and is marked by a line of trees which di-
vide the settlement area in two parts, the north-eastern one (circa
one fourth of the whole surface of the site) and the south-western
one (where most of the sites territory is located) (fig. 2/2). The geo-
graphical coordinates of the settlements center are 525127 E and
5318277 N (UTM 35N) or 4812.25N and 272013.04E.
From a physical-geographical point of view, the Stolniceni area
belongs to the forest-steppe zone of Northern Moldova, namely the
region of plateaus and hills from the left bank of the Prut river. Geo- Fig. 1. Location of the Stolniceni I settlement within the
morphologically, the settlement is located on a high oval-shaped Prut-Dniester interfluve.

promontory created by a meander of the Ciuhur river, which is a


left tributary of the Prut. From three sides (north-east, east and
south), the promontory is connected to a large hill flanked by two
Ciuhur tributaries; from north-west and west, the promontory is
bordered by the river. Here, the slope is pretty steep and builds a
canyon, while the relief to the east of the settlement is character-
ized by a smooth increase of amplitude. In the vicinity of the site,
the river flows from east to west, turning south after contouring the
promontory (fig. 2/1).
In prehistory, the large and flat promontory was offering opti-
mal conditions for a big site, taking into account the proximity of
water and the vast territory to the east, suitable for agriculture. The
steep rock slopes of the promontory ensured access to lithic raw
1
materials. At the same time, the whole microzone is surrounded by
higher hills and is thus protected from strong winds.
Further to the west, on the other side of the river, another
smaller promontory is located, formed by a sudden turn of the
course of the river. It has a triangular shape and is oriented on the
NW-SE axis. On that promontory, there is another settlement lo-
cated which, judging by surface material, could be contemporary
with Stolniceni I.

2
Fig. 2. 1 - topographical context of the Stolniceni I
The 2015 campaign 2
settlement; 2 - aerial photo of the site (Google Earth).

The main scope of the 2015 campaign was to start the complex
investigations of the Stolniceni microzone with the main focus on
the Stolniceni I settlement. Thus, three main objectives have been
elaborated: 1. geomagnetic prospection of a portion of the Stol-
niceni I site; 2. test-excavations of an anomaly in order to obtain 2
A comprehensive report on the
archaeological material suitable for relative and absolute-chrono- campaign will be published in the
forthcoming volume of Germania
logical dating, as well as to collect soil samples for XRF-analysis, to journal (RGK DAI, Frankfurt am
characterize the stratigraphy, depth and conservation of anthropo- Main).

43
Fig. 3. Geophysical plot of the site (2015 campaign).

genic features/depositions; 3. visual investigation of other archaeological sites located in a


close proximity. As a result, 23 hectars have been scanned, a test-trench was placed above
one of the pits from the north-eastern periphery of the settlement and several other sites
from Stolniceni microzone have been visited.

The geomagnetic plan

The prospection in Stolniceni was performed with a 5-channel magnetometer (SENSYS


MAGNETO-MX ARCH). The gradiometers were set at 0.50 cm intervals on a 2.50 m wide
carrier frame. The prospection area covers 23 ha in the northeastern part of the settle-
ment and its periphery (fig. 3). Our investigation revealed around 140 burnt houses, c. 280
pits and a triple ditch system (fig. 4). As already suggested by the aerial photos or satellite
images (fig. 2/2) indications for paths within the settlement and its periphery were found.
The size of the settlement is around 33 ha. Inside this area 14 ha were prospected. The
satellite images and aerial photos enable us to interpolate the information of the geomag-
netic prospection to the whole settlement area.

Geomagnetic signatures of houses


The survey revealed c. 140 houses-anomalies with a mean size of 68 m2. The size is similar
to houses-anomalies in Petreni (64 m2), Dobrovody (64 m2), Maidanetske (67 m2), Talianky
(71 m2) but much larger than in Sngerei (48 m2). There are only two larger houses in Stol-
niceni with more than 150 m2. They are located centrally and separately outside the house

44
Fig. 4. Interpretation of the
geophysics and aerial photo
(Google Earth).

cluster. Nearly all house anomalies are characterized by measurement values around 30
nT, suggesting a massive layer of burnt daub. Clear cues for unburnt houses have not been
found. The majority of houses are axially oriented, with fewer located radially.
Based on the prospection area of 40%, with c. 140 house anomalies, we estimate the
total number of houses for the whole settlement to be around 340 houses.

Geomagnetic signatures of pits


The prospection revealed 280 pits. For the whole settlement area we can calculate more
than 600 pits. This number is much higher than the 320 pits in Petreni. This difference
needs to be verified by further prospection. Similar to Petreni, the pits vary in size from a
diameter less than 1 m to 5 m. Noteworthy are some pits located outside of the settlement,
to the east. It is very probable that they are contemporary to the site.

Geomagnetic signatures of kilns


Besides some similarities to Petreni, such as the settlement size and the spatial layout of
radially oriented house groups, some differences were observed such as the lower density
of buildings and the larger number of pits. A remarkable further difference is the near-ab-
sence of kiln-anomalies. Only one anomaly might be classified as a kiln. The object is situ-
ated in the northeastern part of the settlement close to the triple ditch.

Geomagnetic signature of ditches, palisades and entrances


Three ditches enclose the settlement. The signatures of the ditches are rather less signifi-
cant. The width of the anomalies is c. 2 m. Alongside the outer ditch entrances are visible
in some places, which are aligned with alleys between houses. Some gaps in the ditches
are visible but they are less characteristic. Close to the inner ditch a weak linear anomaly
indicates a palisade ditch.

Geomagnetic signature of paths


Outside the settlement and the triple ditch four linear anomalies, representing paths, are
visible running to the center of the settlement. This type of anomaly was revealed on other

45
Cucuteni-Tripolye settlements such as Talianki (Rassmann et al. 2016, 24, fig. 8B). In Talian-
ki and Stolniceni the alleys are oriented towards gaps between house clusters. The alleys
in Stolniceni are crossing the triple ditch in four places. Gaps in the ditches or indications
for entrances are not clearly visible.

Summary
The size of the area enclosed by the triple ditch measures 33 ha. 14 ha of them (c. 40%) was
prospected. The circular layout of houses is similar to Petreni but not that regular. In the
prospection area c. 15-17 house groups might exist. Interpolation of the area of 33 ha leads
to a number of c. 35-40 house clusters, which is similar to Petreni with 39.
The number needs to be checked by further prospection as well as the lack of kilns, the
smaller number of special buildings and the lower building density. The triple ditch, ob-
served for the first time on a large Cucteni-Tripolie settlement, is a clear difference to other
complex settlements. It might indicate a symbolic meaning of the fortification to express
the individuality of the inhabitants of the settlement. Anyway, only further archaeological
excavations shall clarify the function and characteristics of the ditches.

Archaeological test-trench and its inventory

A test-trench of 6 m2 (32 m) was placed above a circular anomaly from the eastern part
of the settlement, interpreted as a pit (fig. 5/1). The sondage was oriented on the NE-SW
line, above the southern periphery of the pit, with the long axis perpendicular on the three
ditches. Judging by the dimensions of the anomaly from the geomagnetic plot, one could
estimate that the sondage covered circa 20-25% of the total surface of the dugout feature.
The stratigraphy of the test-trench was the following: 0-0.23 m black ploughed top-
soil; 0.23-0.45 m black unploughed topsoil; 0.45-0.75 m dark grey compact soil with

Fig. 5. 1 - location of the test-trench; 2 - agglomeration of archaeological inventory from the


excavated pit.

46
Fig. 6. Drawing of
the agglomeration of
archaeological inventory from
the excavated pit.

tiny chalk inclusions; 0.75-1.05 m mixture of dark grey and light grey compact soil with
tiny chalk inclusions; 1.05-1.50 light brownish clayish fine-grained soil with small chalk
concretions and tiny sandstones. After 1.50 m came the yellow sterile clay.
The fill of the pit contained much archaeological material. Most of the finds however
built a compact uneven layer at a depth of 1.00-1.20 m, coming down from the margin to
the bottom (fig. 5/2; fig. 6). This shows that the pit was left open for a certain time and then
a high amount of material was discarded into it (including restorable vessels). Afterwards,
the pit was filled with soil mixed with normal discard/refuse.

Pottery
The test-pit yielded a rich pottery assemblage, numbering over 1000 shards. Two main
technological categories are encountered coarse ware (8.8%, called also kitchen ware
or Cucuteni C pottery) and fine ware (91.2%, most of them painted, but there are also
few fragments of initially not painted fine vessels).
The spectrum of ceramic shapes includes bowls (fig. 7/1), krater-like vessels (fig. 8),
amphorae (fig. 7/7), cups (fig. 7/9-10), lids (fig. 7/2), vessels with globular body (fig. 7/8),
bitronconical vessels (fig. 7/3, 6). Bowls are the most numerous type of fine ware, all of
them are painted on the inner side. The coarse ware is ornamented with incised or relief
patterns, impressions, comb decoration (fig. 7/8). The ornament on the fine ware is of-
ten structured in metope-like pattern. The paint (mainly dark-brown, sometimes red) was

47
1

9
5 cm 10

Fig. 7. Pottery from the test-trench.

48
Fig. 8. Crater-like vessel from
the test-trench.

5 cm

applied directly over the vessels surface or over a tiny layer of engobe. Main ornamental
elements are half-oval figures, volutes, horizontal, vertical or oblique stripes composed of
narrow parallel lines (fig. 7/5).
Interesting are two vessels with ornitomorphic/zoomorphic ornament. On one of
them, there are several representations of birds (fig. 7/3). On the other, represented by a
single fragment, there is an animal figure (dog?) and two flying birds near it (fig. 7/4).

Lithics
The test-trench yielded 22 chipped stone finds, made out of different varieties of flint (fig.
9/1, 2, 7). From a typological point of view (formally, basing on exterior traits), there are
several categories of debitage products to be considered primary unused ones (unre-
touched flakes with cortex), primary unprocessed and used (unretouched blades, frag-
ment of an outworn core) and tools (simple scrapers, scrapers on blades or flakes, re-
touched blades). The discard of numerous tools and primary debitage products in the fill
of the pit points towards local flint processing.

Clay miniatures
This find category includes 17 artifacts found in the pit.
Six of them represent fragments of anthropomorphic figurines with a discoid bilobate
head, short neck, button-like breasts and incised lines pointing the sex (fig. 9/4). Interes-
ting is a fragment of an eyeless statuette with a high cylindrical pillar-like neck (fig. 9/3).
The zoomorphic figural finds include four fragments of figurines body (fig. 9/6) (with
the head, tail or legs) and a miniature clay horn. One figurine is ornamented with several
rows of dots. The horn is pretty large and might come from a massive statuette. All of the
zoomorphic figurines were found in a single excavation square (A/2).
The pit yielded also one miniature vessel (fig. 9/5) and 5 cones (fig. 9/9).

49
1 2 3

6
4 5

8
9

10

1 cm 11 12 13

Fig. 9. Some of the small finds from the test-trench.

Bone and antler finds


Four bone and one antler artifact originate from the pit. All of the bone implements are
partly or fully polished on one side and represent fragments of different varieties of spatu-
lae. One of the finds bears traces of burning. Best preserved is a long flat polished spatula
with a perforation for suspension on one of the extremities (fig. 9/8). The only one antler
mattock (red deer antler?) has a broken edge and a contoured but not completely perfo-
rated hole at the base (fig. 9/10).

50
Daub fragments
40 daub fragments were found in the fill of the pit from the test-trench. 12 pieces originate
from the walls and ceiling of burnt constructions (fig. 9/11). They have vegetal admixture
in the clay and display traces from intense secondary burning; some fragments are even
vitrified. On several pieces imprints from planks and beams can be noticed. Wall fragments
are coated with several successive thin layers of daub traces of reparations or renova-
tions. 28 pieces come from certain horizontal elements of the interior of burnt construc-
tions (house floor and clay installations/bins). These fragments are thinner and look like
narrow plaques with smoothed surface (fig. 9/13). Floor fragments bear several successive
very thin (1-2 mm) layers of clay traces of regular renovations. One of the pieces has an
imprint from the paw of a small-sized animal (fig. 9/12).

Interdisciplinary analyses

Soil samples have been taken from the profile of the test-trench and from a drilling located
nearby, on an empty space with no anomalies. The samples from the pit have shown high
phosphorus-rate corresponding to the agglomeration of finds, indicating an accumulation
of settlement refuse. In the drilling, rates of phosphorus and strontium are extremely low,
pointing to a lack of cultural layer or any archaeological fills. This corresponds completely
to the configuration of the geomagnetic plan.
Several C14 samples were collected from animal bones located in the pit.

Further perspectives

New research on Stolniceni I settlement has provided important data for a better under-
standing of the phenomenon of large complex Cucuteni-Tripolye sites, which reaches
its peak in the Bug Dnepr interfluve where several settlements measure hundreds of
hectars. It looks that the formation of large settlements has been a general process from
the Prut to the Dnieper basin. At the same time, lack of huge sites over 100 ha in the west-
ern part of Cucuteni B - Tripolye C1 distribution area should be explained. Perhaps, this
difference was conditioned by various strategies of land use and by different mechanisms
of complex settlement organization. In this respect, Stolniceni I is a crucial site since it of-
fers perfect conditions for further archaeological investigations and it is located in a zone
close to the sites from eastern Romania, which could surely contribute to in understanding
the process of large settlement formation. It is very possible that the origins of mega-set-
tlements should be sought here, in the Prut basin area. Further geomagnetic prospections
and excavations on large settlements in the Republic of Moldova can provide an important
contribution to the understanding of roots of the phenomenon of appearance of bigger or
huge settlements in the Cucuteni B - Tripolye C1 period.

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Nebelivka, Ukraine. Journal of Neolithic Archaeology 16, 2014, 135-157.
Chapman et al. 2014: J. Chapman, M. Videiko, D. Hale, B. Gaydarska, N. Burdo, K. Rassmann, K. Mischka,
J. Mller, A. Korvin-Piotrovskiy, V. Kruts, The second phase of the Trypillia mega-site methodological
revolution: a new research agenda. European Journal of Archaeology 17 (3), 2014, 369-406.

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Mller, Rassmann, Videiko 2016: J. Mller, K. Rassmann, M. Videiko (eds), Trypillia-Megasites and
European Prehistory. 4100-3400 BCE (Leeds 2016).
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Tripolie. ArhMold XVI, 1993, 69-86.
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Stanislav erna M.A.


High Anthropological School University
Zimbrului Str. 10a, MD-2024 Chiinu, Republic of Moldova
E-mail: ternastas@mail.ru

Dr. Knut Rassmann


Rmisch-Germanische Kommission, Deutsches Archologisches Institut
Palmengartenstrae 10-12, D-60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
E-mail: knut.rassmann@dainst.de

Mariana Vasilache M.A.


The National Museum of History of Moldova
31 August 1989 Str., 121 A, MD-2012 Chiinu, Republic of Moldova
E-mail: marianavasilake@gmail.com

Kai Radloff M.A.


Rmisch-Germanische Kommission, Deutsches Archologisches Institut
Palmengartenstrae 10-12, D-60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
E-mail: kai.radloff@dainst.de

52