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UNIT-3

1) VOLCANO is an opening in the earths crust through which molten lava, volcanic gases and
fragments of rocks are ejected.

2) The process of LIQUEFACTION involves transformation of a solid state of soil in to a


liquid state due to increase in water pressure.

3) volcanic emissions cause release of more than 130 million tons of carbondioxide in to the
atmosphere.

4) TSUNAMI are caused when seismic wave produce powerful ocean wave due to the sudden
movement of the sea floor.

5) LAHARS is the mixture of water, rock, sand, mud and volcanic debris and can flow down at
a speed of 30km to 60km/hr.

6) The magnitude of earthquake is measured on the Richter scale.

7) The vibration of the earthquakes is measured using SIESMOGRAM instrument.

8) volcanic gases like CARBONDIOXIDE released in to the atmosphere causes global


warming.

9) LANDSLIDES are sudden and quick movements of rock and soil down a steep slope.

10) The EARTH is a spherical structure with a bulge at the equator and flattened at the poles.

11) The point at which the earthquake starts deep below the earths surface is called FOCUS

12) SHALLOW earthquake occurs when the focus point of earthquake is less than 60km.

13) LAVA HAZE is a mixture of hydrochloric acid and sews water.

UNIT-4
1) Floods in the estuaries are caused by SEA TIDAL SURGE.

2) EYE of the cyclone refers to the centre of the tropical cyclone characterized by the area of
lowest pressure, transquill region and no wind.

3) Cyclones are called Willy-Willy in AUSTRALIA regions.


4) NUCLEAR HAZARDS occur due to the release of massive amounts of radiate and radio
active material in to the environment.

5) GABIONS are cylindrical structures filled with bricks, boulders,used for stabilization of soil.

6) STREAK LIGHTNING is the most common type of lightning with a multiple Zig-Zag
pattern from cloud to ground.

7) SEDIMENTATION is a natural physical process occurring in the aquatic areas and land
based areas.

8) The picking up and movement of sediment particles or slope or from the bed and banks of
stream is called ENTRAINMENT.

9) RAIN WATER HARVESTING is one of the most important and economical tool of water
conservation.

10) The inherent tendency of population to increase in size results in exponential rise,called
POPULATION EXPLOSION.

11) Cyclones are called Hurricanes in CARIBBEAN region of the world.

12) CLOUD SEEDING is an artificial technique to stimulate the precipitation process and form
rain.

13) In MULCHING method,organic material is applied to the soil surface to conserve soil
moisture,prevents surface compaction,reduce runoff and erosion of top soil.

14) LIGHTNING is a large electric spark caused by electrons in the cumulonimbus clouds that
shoot through the air at very high speed.

15) CYCLONES are powerful and violent windstorms in which wind moves very fast in a
circular direction around a low pressure area.