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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

PROJECT REPORT

ON

CASE STUDY OF PERFORMANCE MOCK-UP TEST OF SLIDING


WINDOW OF A G+42 FLOOR RESIDENTIAL TOWER

Submitted to the division of civil engineering

The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata,

In partial fulfillment for the award of degree

In

Civil Engineering

JAN/FEB -2015

Submitted by
SUDHANSHU CHAUDHARY (ST 479730-8)

Under the guidance of


Shri. Vivek Abhyankar (M-1404916)

The Institution of Engineers (India),Kolkata


Department of Civil Engineering
The Institution of Engineers (India),Kolkata
January- 2015

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY

This is certified that this project report on CASE STUDY OF


PERFORMANCE MOCK-UP TEST OF SLIDING WINDOW OF A G+42
FLOOR RESIDENTIAL TOWER has been prepared by Sudhanshu
Chaudhary, Senior technician member of institutions section-B civil
engineering in partial fulfillment of degree in civil engineering of The
Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata, under my guidance and supervision.
The work incorporated in this project work has not been submitted to this or
any other institution for the award of degree. The author has been working
with M/s Lodha Group as an execution engineer since past 2.5 years in
Facade works and has acquire thorough experience in various aspects of
Facade works.

I approve this project report.

Date:

(Shri. Vivek Abhyankar)

Project guide

The Institution of Engineers (India)

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

GUIDES COMMENTS

The candidate Mr. Sudhanshu Chaudhary (479730-8) is presently working in


a Private Company (M/s Lodha Builders) for past couple of years. Past couple of
years he is engaged in construction execution of Multi storeyed residential
buildings and faade works in them. Based on this he has selected Case Study on
Performance mock-up Testing of sliding window of G+42 floor residential tower.
In this project candidate has presented the performance test (water, fire and other)
which is witnessed by him. The Candidate has taken necessary permission from her
owner to refer / reproduce certain part of the data.

I have verified the data presented to me to a best possible extent. The


Conclusions drawn at the end of the project are based on the data available. The
author has also tried to present the future scope of this study. I have thoroughly
checked and approved the conclusions and the future scope. The evaluation of the
project (the mark given to the candidate) is based on the correctness of the data,
interpretation of the data, sincerity of the candidate and the presentation of the
data.

( Guide ) Director

V. G. Abhyankar (EEA) - - - (IEI)

M-140491-6

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

ACKNOWLEGEMENT

The author herewith take an opportunity to say thanks to Project Guide Shri Vivek
Abhyankar Sir for his valuable guidance for this project.

The author is also obliged to all seniors of Lodha Design Facade to allow him to
use the data for the Project presented here.

The author is also thankful to the The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata for
giving me opportunity to acquire graduation (AMIE) through distance education.

SUDHANSHU CHAUDHARY

(ST 479730-8)

Synopsis

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

1. Title of the Project:- Case study of performance mock-up test of sliding


window of G+42 floor residential tower.

2. Objectives of the study:- Through this project, the author wants readers to
know about the performane of sliding window of a residential building in
different-different extreme and dynamic conditions and environment and the
suggested measures and precautions to avoid any failure and make the entire
system strong and successful in terms of Performance.
1) To understand the necessity of Performance-mock up test
2) To conduct performance mock-up test of a sliding window.
3) To study the Do's and Dont's while carrying test.
4) To study the Test Criteria, Test procedure, Hazards, Precautions etc. and
significance of result derived.

3. Rationale for the study:- Author of this Project has been working with M/s
Lodha Group from last 2.5 years. During this period he notices the Facade work is
interesting and challenging as many small points are not known to common men.
Through this project, the author wants readers to know about the performane of
sliding window of a residential building in different-different extreme and dynamic
conditions and environment and the suggested measures to avoid any failure and
make the entire system strong and successful. While it is not possible to totally
avoid the infiltration and leakages and other worst effect of high speed winds in
highly marine environment, there are several methods to minimize their effect by
inducing various engineering tactics on material properties and design criteria by
testing its mock-up under extreme conditions.

4. Methodology of the study:-


1. Preparing test specimen and fitting it into the Chamber
2. Calibration of chamber
3. Air-Infiltration test
4. Static water-penetration test.
5. Dynamic water-penetration test.
6. Wind load Servicabilty test.
7. Structural Proof load test.

5. The expected contribution from the study:-


The study the performance mock-up test of sliding window will contribute to
the public and facade design authorities in understanding the performance of
sliding window under extreme environment of high winds

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

6. List of activities to be carried out to complete the project


1) Preparing Mock-up as per test specimen requirement.
2) Conduct test as per test procedures.
3) Witness test result as per test criteria.
4) Collection of required outputs from the test.

7. Places/labs/equipment and tools required and planning of arrangements


l) Laboratory Facade India Testing Laboratory.
2) Equipments
Test Chamber
Bi-directional Vortex Blower & VFD
8 Hose Duct
Water Spray Rack
High Pressure water pump.
Dynamic Propellar engine
Control Panel
Hygrometer
Rotameter
Deflection transducers

8. Problems envisaged in carrying out the project, if any.


Maintaining high precision in each steps of the test is difficult and time
consuming, hence needs to manage within limited time.There is a chance
of risk of near miss/accidents while carrying out test as it is conducted in
extreme artificial environment, hence needs to consider all safety
parameters.

9. Conclusion:-
Through the performance mock-up test, we came to know that
designed window is capable of maintaining its strength under extreme
artificial environmental condition or not? We also know whether the tested
window is in conformance with the provided project requirement or not?

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

INDEX

Sr.No Description Page No.

i. Certificate of Originality ...


ii. Comments by Project Guide ...
iii. Acknowledgement ...
iv. Synopsys ...
1 Introduction ... 8

2 Reference of the Project ... 8

3 3.1 - Purpose of Test ... 9

3.2 - Test Procedure/Method Statement ... 10

3.3 - Test Criteria ... 11 - 17

4 4.1 - Final Results ... 18-19

4.2 - Pre-Test precautions ... 20

5 Conclusion ... 21

6 Scope of future study ... 22

v. References ... 23-24

vi. Annexure ... 25

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

Chapter. 1 Introduction

1.1 Introduction Sliding window is a part of Facade work in building. A facade


is generally exterior side finish of building. The word comes from the French
language, literally meaning frontageor face. In most general sense, Facade is an
elevation of building. What you see when standing in front of building is called
FACADE.

Facade the first aesthetical feature of a building which distinguishes one building
from another, have to fulfill the basic concepts like protection against fire and
burglary, climatic influence and environmental pollution. Development in facades
has made it more functional, providing designers with the flexibility to create high
performance solution, which is visually exciting as well, both internally and
externally.

The performance mock-up test is full scale laboratory test of conventional sliding
window for the Project PRIMERO. The Performance mock-up test is conducted in
accordance with the performance requirement of the project specifications and
ASTM and AAMA testing standards.

Figure 1.1 Typical Sliding Window

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

Chapter.2 Reference for Present Case Study

The key information of the G+42 residential Structure Refered in this project is as
stated in below.

Name of the Project Lodha Primero


Location of Project Primero is a G+42 floor tower situated at Apollo mill
compound of Lower Parel (east), Mumbai, Maharashtra.
Client Lodha Group
Architect Kapadia Associated Pvt. Ltd. (KAPL)
Facade Consultant Building Engineering Services (B.E.S.)
Facade Contractor Alumilite Architechtural Pvt. Ltd. (AAPL)

Floor Plan - A Typical floor plan of the building referred is as below.

Figure 2.1 Typical Floor Plan

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

Chapter. 3 Performance Testing

3.1 Purpose of Testing The purpose of this test is to study the performance of
sliding window of a residential building in different-different extreme and dynamic
conditions and environment and the suggested measures and precautions to avoid
any failure and make the entire system strong and successful in terms of
Performance.

1) To understand the necessity of Performance-mock up test


2) To conduct performance mock-up test of a sliding window.
3) To study the Do's and Dont's while carrying test.
4) To study the Test Criteria, Test procedure, Hazards, Precautions etc. and
5) To explain the significance of the Result derived.

3.2 Test Procedure (Method Statement)

Following Procedures are adopted while carrying out test -

3.2.1 Preparing and fixing of test specimen - Test specimen is full size
3-Track sliding door system of size 3645mm wide x 2416mm height. The test
specimen or mock-up to be installed on the structural test chamber provided
by the test laboratory. Mock-up installation will be done as per approved
mock-up drawing. The test chamber to be sealed at the perimeter of the
sliding door by sealant and allowed to cure for 2-3 days. The test chamber to
be connected to test equipments prior to pre-test. Please find below photo
taken during fixing of Test Specimen.

Mock up system : 3-Track Sliding door system


Size : Width 3.645m X Height 2.416m
Total Area : 8.80m2.

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

Photo 3.1 Showing Fixing of Test Specimen/Mock-up


(The Red line seen in the photograph is ****)

3.2.2 Chamber Calibration At the time of Pre-test, chamber calibration to


be carried out to ascertain air leakages through chamber. This also forms part
of setting up chamber and excess leakages to be correct to minimal possible.
However this has , not much of relation to ascertain specimen leakages
except mathematical deductions for the value of chamber leakges from total
leakages.

The specimen mock-up to be sealed from outside with air seal tape . The
chamber door to be closed and sealed with polythene and air seal tape. Now
calibration process start. Chamber suction is created by Blower with the help
of vfd, Pressure differential is created and values recorded and chamber
leakages is recorded at different pressure values. This helps us precise value
of air leakages through chamber. This process is called chamber calibration.

Please find below picture taken during chamber calibration.

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

Photo 3.2 Showing Chamber Calibration

3.2.3 Air Infiltration test - After chamber calibration, the blower was set
to produce a negative pressure in the chamber. The blower was then adjusted
to negative differential pressure in the steps of 50 Pa, 75 Pa, 100 Pa, 150 Pa.
When the indicator pressure was stable at each pressure values, the
differential pressure in the conical nozzle inlet was recorded and the pressure
drop in the chamber was derived. This pressure difference between nozzle
inlet and chamber pressure was converted with the help of airflow
conversion table into flow of air in m3/hr. The leakage for the chamber
derived by this method is called extraneous leakge (Qe). Next polythene and
air seal tape was removed from the specimen and the procedure was
repeated . The leakage derived from this method was the total leakage (Qt).
Net leakage from the specimen therefore -
Qs = Qt Qe.
12

3.2.4 Static Water Penetration test The static water penetration test was
performed immediately after air infiltration test. The water supply to the
spray rack was opened and adjusted to 44 LPM in the Rotameter, negative
pressure of 300 Pa was applied to the test chamber, and start time was
recorded. For 15 minutes the pressure was held and on completion the test
pressure was returned back to zero and specimen was checked for leakages.
The result is mentioned in the result table.
Please find below picture taken during this test.

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

Photo.3.3 Shwoing Set up for Static Water-Penetration Test

Photo 3.4 Spray Rack

3.2.5 Dynamic Water Penetration test - The Dynamic water penetration


test was performed immediately after static water-penetration test. Wind
generator was adjusted to produce 22.1m/sec wind velocity equivalent to
300 Pa. The water spray in the spray rack was connected and adjusted to 44
LPM and the start time was recorded. The test was run for 15 minutes and on
the completion of time both wind generator as well as water spray system
was stopped. The specimen was inspected from inside for water-leakage. The
result is mentioned in the result table. Please find below the pictures of wind
generator-Dynamic Propellar Engine and Rotameter and leakage testing
machine used in this test.

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

Photo 3.5 Showing a Dynamic Propeller engine

Photo 3.6 Showing a Rotameter Used for Performance Testing

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

Photo 3.7 Leakage Testing Machine (Inside Chamber)

3.2.6 Wind load Serviceability test:

3.2.6.1 Structural Load Test (negative pressure) - The Structural Load


test was performed immediately after Static water-penetration test. The
deflection transducers were placed as per the drawing diagram and initial
values were set zero. The pressure was reduced to 1250 Pa (50% of the design
wind load) and the deflection values were recorded. Subsequently the
pressure reduced upto 2500Pa (100% of the design wind load) in chamber
and deflection values were recorded and held for 10 seconds. The
permissible deflection versus actual deflection were compared. The result is
mentioned in the result table. Please find below the image of transducer used
in this test.

Photo 3.7 Showing the Transducers

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

3.2.6.2 Structural Load Test (positive pressure) - The Structural Load test
was performed immediately after Static water-penetration test. The
deflection transducers were placed as per the drawing diagram and initial
values were set zero. The pressure was increased to 1250 Pa (50% of the
design wind load) and the deflection values were recorded. Subsequently the
pressure increased upto 2500Pa (100% of the design wind load) in chamber
and deflection values were recorded and held for 10 seconds. The
permissible deflection versus actual deflection were compared. The result is
mentioned in the result table.

3.2.7 Structural Proof load test:

3.3.1 At 128% of Design wind load (negative pressure) The Structural


proof load test was conducted at 128% design load. Prior to test initial values
of deflection transducers were set zero for shutter profiles. The chamber
pressure was decreased upto 3200 Pa and held for 10 seconds before reduced
to zero pascal . After waiting for 10 minutes the residual deflections were
recorded with the help of transducers. No glass breakage and component
failure observed. The actual deformation found was compared with the
Permissible deformation.The result is mentioned in the result table.

3.3.2 At 128% of Design wind load (positive pressure) The Structural


proof load test was conducted at 128% design load. Prior to test initial values
of deflection transducers were set zero for shutter profiles. The chamber
pressure was increased upto 3200 Pa and held for 10 seconds before reduced
to zero pascal . After waiting for 10 minutes the residual deflections were
recorded with the help of transducers. No glass breakage and component
failure observed. The actual deformation found was compared with the
Permissible deformation. The result is mentioned in the result table.

3.3 Test Criteria

The test were carried out in accordance with the following standards-

6.2 Testing Standards :- Following Standards are used -

6.2.1 Air Infiltration As per ASTM E 283-12 Standard test method for

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

determining rate of air leakage through exterior windows, curtain wall, doors
under specified Pressure differences across the specimen.

6.2.2 Static Water-Penetration As per ASTM E 331-09 Standard test method


for water penetration of exterior windows, skylights, doors and curtain walls by
uniform static air pressure difference.

6.2.3 Dynamic Water-Penetration AS per AAMA 501.1 -05 - Standard test


method for water penetration of exterior windows, doors and curtain walls using
dynamic pressure.

6.2.4 Wind Load Serviceability As per ASTM E 330-10 - Standard test method
for structural perfromance of exterior windows, skylights, doors and curtain walls
by uniform static air pressure difference.

6.3 Testing Requirement: - Following are the test requirement

a) Pre Load For 50% of positive wind pressure.

b) Air-infiltration Test to +150 Pascal Pressure Differential.

c) Static water Penetration Test to +300 Pascal.

d) Dynamic Water Penetration Test +300 Pascal (22.1m/sec Wind velocity).

e) Wind load Serviceability Test to +2500 Pascal.

f) Wind load Serviceability Test to -2500 Pascal.

g) Proof load Test @ 128% positive design wind load = +3200 Pascal.

h) Proof load Test @ 128% negative design wind load = -3200 Pascal.

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

Following are minimum test criteria for sliding window mock-up


irrespective of any test standards.

TEST STANDARD CRITERIA ALLOWABLE


LIMIT

AIR ASTM E 283 +/- 150 Pa Max. 1.6L/SEC/M2.


INFILTRATION

STATIC ASTM E 331 300 Pa water spray (intensity No Leakage


WATER TEST 3.4L/M2 sec) for 15 minutes

DYNAMIC AAMA 501 300 Pa created with Propeller No Leakage


WATER TEST (water pressure intensity
3.4L/M2 sec) for 15 minutes

STRUCTURAL ASTM E 330 +/- Design Pressure Pa for 10 Span/Deflection 1:125


TEST seconds or Max. 20mm
deflection

STRUCTURAL ASTM E 330 +/- 1.5x Pressure Pa for 10 No failure of frames,


PROOF LOAD seconds hardware, any part.
Gasket/adaptor should
not disengage

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

Chapter.4 Summary of Final Test Results

4.1 Final Test Results - Following is the summary of Test Results :-

SR. PERFORMANCE ALLOWABLE RESULTS CONCLUSION


No. TEST LIMIT

1) Air Infiltration Test 50.68 m3/hr 48.1 m3/s (Within PASS


acceptable limits)

2) Static Water No Water Leakage No leakage found PASS


Penetration test

3) Dynamic Water No Water Leakage No leakage found PASS


Penetration test

4) Structural Span/125 or Maximum deflection PASS


Performance test for maximum 20mm 19.25mm (within
positive pressure deflection. allowable limits)

5) Structural Span/125 or Maximum deflection PASS


Performance test for maximum 20mm 19.25mm (within
negative pressure deflection. allowable limits)

6) Structural Proof load No failure of frame No failure noted PASS


Test for positive , hardware or any
pressure parts.
Gasket/adapters
should not
disengage.

7) Structural Proof load No failure of frame No failure Noted PASS


Test for negative , hardware or any
pressure parts.
Gasket/adapters
should not
disengage.

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

4.2 PRE-TEST CHECKS -

Following are the Key points where prior attention to be made before Test.

1) The mock-up should be made as per approved drawing of sliding window for
the project which includes-
a) Sections and Material used
b) Hardwares, fixtures
c) Position of drain slot.
d) Joints/connections.

2) There should be proper fixing of Mock-up to chamber . It should be in plumb,


right angle.

3) No visible gap should appear between chamber and mock-up.

4) Chamber should be checked for any air leakage.

5) All necessary instruments and measuring equipments should be check before


test to a desire precision extent.

6) The system must provide essentially constant air flow at a fixed pressure for the
required test period.

7) The water spray system shall deliver water uniformly

8) The water-spray system shall have nozzles spaced on a uniform grid, located at
a uniform distance from the test specimen and shall be adjustable to provide the
specified quantity of water in such a manner so as to wet all the test specimen
uniformly and to wet those areas vulnerable to water penetration.

9) Calibration of chamber is must before start of test.

10) Give proper instructions regarding safety to the staff and workers. Install
safety sign-boards, signages at location of test as considerable energy and hazards
are involved at the pressures used in this test method.

While carrying out mock-up performances tests, we already take care all above
points and as a result, we have executed all the test successfully.

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

Chapter.5 CONCLUSION

The sliding window system has tested as described in this report and successfully
passed all tests as per specification and applicable codes. The specified tests
perfomed in accordance with the method statement and the specimen found is is
conformance with the Project requirement Provided.

On the basis of this test, it is proved that sliding window of Primero (G+42
storeyed building) is well enough stable to withstand against the extreme and
critical weather conditions inspite of its location as very near to sea face.

The sliding window is a aestheic element on the building and its inherent
task include providing protection and comfort to the user. The effectiveness of its
performance is also related to the level of maintenance implemented at its facilty.
Since there are so many components involved in sliding window system, the
design, installation and workmanship all contribute to its successful performance.
Sliding window play a key role in the performance of the building.

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

Chapter.6 Scope of Future Study

The performance mock-up test is not limited to sliding window only . These tests
are also performed on system of fully glazed buildings, malls, air-ports etc.These
tests are useful where the location of installation is under extreme weather
conditions.

Development in technology brings lot of changes in the method and process.


Technology advancements unables to use modern sophisticated technology instead
of conventional method. As technology introduces new system in the market, it is
important to access the synergy of these systems and qualitatively access what
improvement can be achieved? One such advance technology is wind tunnel test.

A wind tunnel is a tool used in aerodynamics research to study the effects of air
moving past solid objects. A wind tunnel consist of a tubular passage with the
object under test mounted in the middle. Air is made to move past the object by a
powerful fan system or other means. The test object often called a wind tunnel
model is instrumented with suitable sensor to measure aerodynamic forces ,
pressure distribution, or other aerodynamic related characteristic. It can be better
understood from the below image . Below image includes wind tunnel model of a
building.

Figure Building Facade model for wind tunnel test

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

In order to predict the full scale wind pressure acting on the building facade as a
function of return period, the wind tunnel data is combine with the statistical
model of the local wind climate that included the strength and directionality of
severe winds. The statistical model is based on the surface wind measurement of
locality. The data is analyzed to determine the probabilities of exceeding various
hourly mean wind speed.

Figure Wind Tunnel Test Model

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

v) REFERENCES

For testing following ASTM and AAMA standards are used.

1)Air Infiltration As per ASTM E 283-12

2) Static Water-Penetration As per ASTM E 331-09

3) Dynamic Water-Penetration AS per AAMA 501.1 -05

4) Wind Load Serviceability As per ASTM E 330-10

5) Wind loading and wind induced structural response, ASCE-NY-1987.

6) Design Wind Load for Buildings and Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Testing,
AAMA, CW-11-1985.

7) Wind Forces in Engineering, Pergamon Press, Maxwell House, NY 10523,


1972.

8) Wind loading on Buildings, Applied science and publishers, England, 1975.

9) Wind forces on Building and structures, John Wiley & Sons., Inc., New York,
NY, 1976.

10) Wind effects on structures, 2nd edition, John Wiley and sons. , NY, 1986.

11) Journal of wind engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol 53, 1994.

12) Wind Pressure Loading Cycles for Wall Cladding During Hurricanes, 1994.

13) IS 875 (PART-3) 1987 : - Code of Practice for Wind load.

14) BS 6213:2000 +A1:2010 Selection of Construction sealant.

15) ASTM C1376 - Performance Coating.

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

vi. Annexure

1) Hygrometer A hygrometer is a device used for measuring the humidity content


in the atmosphere. It is also used to measure the relative air humidity.

Figure - Hygrometer

2) Project Lodha Primero

Figure Lodha Primero (Top Elevation )

3) Primero Sliding window

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Case Study of Performance Mock-Up test of Sliding Window of a G+42 Floor Residential Building Tower

Figure 3 Track Sliding Window (Front view)

4) Sliding Window - 3 Track Sliding Window

Figure Sliding Window (Inside Elevation)

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