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332460_0701.qxd 11/4/04 3:36 PM Page 446

446 CHAPTER 7

Applications of Integration

Section 7.1

Area of a Region Between Two Curves

Find the area of a region between two curves using integration.

Find the area of a region between intersecting curves using integration.

Describe integration as an accumulation process.

y

Area of a Region Between Two Curves

With a few modifications you can extend the application of definite integrals from the g
area of a region under a curve to the area of a region between two curves. Consider
two functions
f
and
g
that are continuous on the interval
a, b .
Region
between
the graphs of both
f
and
g
lie above the
x-
axis, and the graph of
g
If, as in Figure 7.1,
lies below the graph
two
of
f,
you can geometrically interpret the area of the region between the graphs as the
curves
area of the region under the graph of
g
subtracted from the area of the region under
f
the graph of
f,
as shown in Figure 7.2.
x
x = a
x = b
y
y
y
Figure 7.1
g
g
g
f
f
f
x
x
x
a
b
a
b
a
b
Area of region
between f and g
Area of region
under f
Area of region
under g
b
b
b
f x
g x dx
f x dx
g x dx
a
a
a
Figure 7.2
Representative rectangle
Height: f(x i ) − g(x i )
To verify the reasonableness of the result shown in Figure 7.2, you can partition
the interval
a, b
into
n
subintervals, each of width
x.
Then, as shown in Figure 7.3,
Width: ∆x
y
sketch a representative rectangle of width and height where is
x
f x
g x
,
x
i
i
∆x
g
i
in the th interval. The area of this representative rectangle is
i
A i height width f x i g x i x.
f(x i )
By adding the areas of the
n
rectangles and taking the limit as
→0
n →
,
you
f
obtain
g(x i )
n
x
lim
f x i g x i x.
a
x
b
n→
i
i 1
Figure 7.3
Because
f and
g
are continuous on
a, b ,
f g
is also continuous on
a, b
and the

limit exists. So, the area of the given region is

n

Area lim

n

b

i 1

f x i g x i x

f x g x dx.

a

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SECTION 7.1

Area of a Region Between Two Curves

447 Area of a Region Between Two Curves
If
f and
g
are continuous on
a, b
and
g x ≤ f x
for all
x
in
a, b ,
then the
area of the region bounded by the graphs of
f and
g
and the vertical lines
x a
and
x b
is
b
A
f x g x dx.
a

NOTE

rectangle is

relative position of the

in Figure 7.4.

The height of a representative

f x g x

regardless of the

x- axis, as shown

y

3

1

f(x) = x 2 + 2 (x, f(x))

3

1 2

1

1

(x, g(x))

g(x) = x

Region bounded by the graph of

graph of

g, x

0,

and

x

1

Figure 7.5

f, the

x

axis. This, however,

are

continuous and for all in the interval This result is summarized

In Figure 7.1, the graphs of

f

and

g

are shown above the

f x g x

x-

is not necessary. The same integrand

g x f x

x

can be used as long as

a, b .

f

and

g

graphically in Figure 7.4.

f(x) g(x)

Figure 7.4

y

 (x, f(x)) f g a b (x, g(x))

y a
b
x
(x, f(x))
f
f(x) − g(x)
g
x
(x, g(x))

Representative rectangles are used throughout this chapter in various applications

x,

of integration. A vertical rectangle

whereas a horizontal rectangle

of width x

implies integration with respect to

of width y

implies integration with respect to

y.

EXAMPLE 1

Finding the Area of a Region Between Two Curves

Find the area of the region bounded by the graphs of x 1.

y x 2 2, y x, x 0,

and

Solution

shown in Figure 7.5. So, the area of the representative rectangle is

Let

g

x x

and

f x x

2

2.

Then

g x f x

for all

A f x g x x x 2 2 x x

and the area of the region is

b

A

a

f x g x dx

0

1

x 2 2 x dx

x 3

3

1

3

x 2

2

1

2 2

2x 1

0

17

6

.

x

in

0, 1 ,

as

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448 CHAPTER 7

Applications of Integration

Area of a Region Between Intersecting Curves

In Example 1, the graphs of

values of

a region bounded by two intersecting graphs, where the values of

f x x

2 2 and

g x x

do not intersect, and the

a

and

b

a

and

b

are given explicitly. A more common problem involves the area of

must be

 calculated. EXAMPLE 2 A Region Lying Between Two Intersecting Graphs

Find the area of the region bounded by the graphs of

f x 2 x

2

and

g x x.

y g(x) = x
(x, f(x))
1
−2
−1
1
f(x) = 2 − x 2
−1
(x, g(x))
−2

Solution

intersection. To find the other and solve for x.

In Figure 7.6, notice that the graphs of

f

x- coordinates of these points, set

and

f x

g

have two points of

equal to each

and

g x

 2 x 2 x Set f x equal to g x . x 2 x 2 0 Write in general form. x 2 x 1 0 Factor. x x 2 or 1 Solve for x.

So,

representative rectangle has an area of

a 2

and

b 1.

Because

g x f x

A f x g x x 2 x 2 x x

and the area of the region is

for all

x

in the interval

2, 1 ,

the

Region bounded by the graph of graph of g

Figure 7.6

f and the

1

A 2 2 x 2 x dx x 3

3

9

2 .

x 2 2x 1

2

2

EXAMPLE 3

A Region Lying Between Two Intersecting Graphs

The sine and cosine curves intersect infinitely many times, bounding regions of equal areas, as shown in Figure 7.7. Find the area of one of these regions.

y g(x) = cos x
1
(x, f(x))
x
π
π
3
π
2
2
(x, g(x))
−1
f(x) = sin x

One of the regions bounded by the graphs of the sine and cosine functions

Figure 7.7

Solution

sin x cos x sin x

1

cos x

tan x 1

x

4

or 5 4 ,

0 x 2

Set

f

x

equal to g x .

Divide each side by cos x.

Trigonometric identity

Solve for x.

So,

a 4, 5

4

and

b 5

4.

Because

4 , the area of the region is

sin x

cos x

A

5

4

4

sin x cos x dx cos x sin x 5

2 2.

for all

4

4

x

in the interval

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SECTION 7.1

Area of a Region Between Two Curves

449

If two curves intersect at more than two points, then to find the area of the region between the curves, you must find all points of intersection and check to see which curve is above the other in each interval determined by these points.

EXAMPLE 4

Curves That Intersect at More Than Two Points

 Find the area of the region between the graphs of g x x 2 2x. f x 3x 3 x 2 10x and Solution Begin by setting f x and g x equal to each other and solving for x. This g(x) ≤ f(x) f(x) ≤ g(x) yields the x- values at each point of intersection of the two graphs. y
6
4
(0, 0)
(2, 0)
x
−1
1
−4
−6
(−2, −8)
−8
g(x) = −x 2 + 2x
−10

f(x) = 3x 3 x 2 10x

On

2, 0 , g x f x ,

f x g x

Figure 7.8

and on

0, 2 ,

3x 3 x 2 10x x 2 2x

Set

f x

equal to

g x .

 3x 3 12x 0 Write in general form. 3x x 2 x 2 0 x 2, 0, 2 Factor. Solve for x.

So, the two graphs intersect when

g x f x f x g x

and 2. In Figure 7.8, notice that

on the interval 2, 0 . However, the two graphs switch at the origin, and

on the interval 0, 2 . So, you need two integrals—one for the interval

x 2, 0,

2, 0

and one for the interval

0, 2 .

A

2 f x g x dx

0

0

2

g x f x dx

2 3x 3 12x dx

0

0

2

3x 3 12x dx

3x 4

4

6x 2 0 2 3x 4

4

6x 2

2

0

12 24 12 24 24

NOTE

Such integration produces

In Example 4, notice that you obtain an incorrect result if you integrate from

2 f x g x dx

2

2

2

3x 3 12x dx 0.

2

to 2.

y is a boundary of a region, it is often convenient to

use representative rectangles that are horizontal and find the area by integrating with

respect to

If the graph of a function of

y. In general, to determine the area between two curves, you can use

A

A

x

x

1

y

y

1

2

2

top curve bottom curve dx

in variable x

right curve left curve dy

Ve rtical rectangles

Horizontal rectangles

in variable y

where

involved or points on the specified boundary lines.

x

1 , y 1

and

x

2

, y

2

are either adjacent points of intersection of the two curves indicates that in the HM mathSpace® CD-ROM and the online Eduspace® system for this text, you will find an Open Exploration, which further explores this example using the computer algebra systems Maple, Mathcad, Mathematica, and Derive.

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450 CHAPTER 7

Applications of Integration

EXAMPLE 5

Horizontal Representative Rectangles

Find the area of the region bounded by the graphs of

x 3 y

2

and

x y 1.

Solution Consider

g

y 3 y

2

and

f y y 1.

These two curves intersect when

f

A g y f y y So, the area is

y 2

and

y 1,

as shown in Figure 7.9. Because

y

g y

on this interval, you have

3 y 2 y 1 y. 1
A
3 y 2 y 1 dy
2
1
y 2 y 2 dy
2
1
y 3
y 2 2y
3
2
2
1
8
2 1 2
2 4
3
3
9
2 .
f(y) = y + 1
y
(2, 1)
1
x
−1
1
2
∆y
−1
g(y) = 3 − y 2
−2
(−1, −2)

Horizontal rectangles (integration with

respect to

y

)

Figure 7.9

y

y = x 1 (2, 1)
y =
3 − x
1
x
−1
1
∆x
−1
∆x
−2
y = −
3 − x
(−1, −2)
Vertical rectangles (integration with respect
to
x )

Figure 7.10

In Example 5, notice that by integrating with respect to

x,

x 2,

y you need only one

you would have needed two integrals

integral. If you had integrated with respect to

because the upper boundary would have changed at

as shown in Figure 7.10.

A

1 x 1 3 x dx 2

2

3

2

3

1 x 1 3 x 1 2 dx 2

2

3 x 3 x dx

3 x 1 2 dx

x 2

2

x 3 x 3 2

3

2

2

1 2 3 x 3 2

3

2

3

2

2 2 2

3

1

2 1 16 2 0 2 2

3

3

9

2

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SECTION 7.1

Area of a Region Between Two Curves

451

Integration as an Accumulation Process

In this section, the integration formula for the area between two curves was developed by using a rectangle as the representative element. For each new application in the remaining sections of this chapter, an appropriate representative element will be con- structed using precalculus formulas you already know. Each integration formula will then be obtained by summing or accumulating these representative elements.

Known precalculus

formula

Representative

element

New integration

formula

For example, in this section the area formula was developed as follows.

A height width

A f x g x x

 A a b f x g x dx

EXAMPLE 6

Describing Integration as an Accumulation Process

Find the area of the region bounded by the graph of Describe the integration as an accumulation process.

y 4 x

2

and the

x-

axis.

Solution

The area of the region is given by

2

A

2

4 x 2 dx.

You can think of the integration as an accumulation of the areas of the rectangles

formed as the representative rectangle slides from Figure 7.11.

as shown in

x 2

to

x 2,

y

y 5
5
3
3
2
2
1
1
x
−3
−2
123
−3
−2
123
−1 −1
−1 −1
2
1
5
A
4 x 2 dx 0
A
4 x 2 dx
3
2
2
y
y
5
5
3
3
2
2
1
1
x
−3
−2
123
−3
−2
123
−1 −1
−1 −1
1
2 32
A
2 4 x 2 dx 9
A
4 x 2 dx
3
2

Figure 7.11

x

x

y 5
3
2
1
x
−3
−2
123
−1 −1

0

A

2

4 x 2 dx

16

3

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452 CHAPTER 7

Applications of Integration

Exercises

for

Section

7.1

See www.CalcChat.com for worked-out solutions to odd-numbered exercises.

In Exercises 1– 6, set up the definite integral that gives the area of the region. 1.
f 2 6x
x x
2.
g x 0
y
g
x
2
4
8
−2
−4
−6
f
−8
3.
f
x x 2 4x 3
4.
g
x x 2 2x 3
y
4
g
f
3
1
x
1
2
4
5
−1
5.
f
x 3 x 3 x
6.
g
x 0
y
f
1
g
x
−1
1
−1

In Exercises 7–12, the integrand of the definite integral is a difference of two functions. Sketch the graph of each function and shade the region whose area is represented by the integral.

7.

8.

9.

11.

4

0

1

x 1 x dx

2

1 x 2 x 2 1 dx

1

6

0

4 2 x 3 x dx

6

3

2 sec x dx

3

10.

12.

3

2

x 3

3

4

x x dx

3

sec 2 x cos x dx

4

In Exercises 13 and 14, find the area of the region by integrating (a) with respect to
x
and (b) with respect to
y.
13.
x
4 y 2
14.
y x 2
x
y 2
y 6 x
y
y
6
10
4
8
6
x
4
−6
−4 −2
46
−4
x
−6
−4 −2 −2
246
−6

Think About It In Exercises 15 and 16, determine which value

best approximates the area of the region bounded by the graphs

f

of and (Make your selection on the basis of a sketch of the

g.

region and not by performing any calculations.)

15.

f x x 1,

(a)

2

f x 2

(a)

g x x 1 2

2

10

g x 2 x

(c)

(c)

3

(d)

(d)

3

4

(b)

1

2 x,

6

(b)

(e)

(e)

16.

1

4

8

In Exercises 17–32, sketch the region bounded by the graphs of the algebraic functions and find the area of the region.

17.

18.

19. f

20.

21.

22.

23.

y

1

2 x 3 2,

y x 1,

x 0,

x 2

x 2,

y

 8 3 x x 8 , y 10 x x 2 4x, g x 0

1

2 x,

f x x 2 4x 1,

f x x 2 2x 1,

x 8

g x x 1 g x 3x 3 g x x 2

y 0

f x x 2 4x 2,

y x,

y 2 x,

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

y

1 2 ,

x

y 0,

x 1,

x 5

f x 3x 1,

f x x 1,

f y y 2 ,

3

g x x 1

g x x 1

g y y 2

f y y 2 y ,

f y y 2 1,

g y y

g y 0,

y 1,

y 2

30.

31.

32.

f

y

y 16 y 2 ,

f x 10 x ,

x 0,

g

y 0,

y 3

y 2,

y 10

g x

4

2 x ,

y 4,

x 0

ft

ft

ft

ft

ft

ft

ft

ft

ft

15
20

12
12

14
14

25
26

23

14.2 mi

14 mi

14.2 mi

mi

mi

15 mi

13.5

13.5

11 mi

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In Exercises 33– 42, (a) use a graphing utility to graph the region bounded by the graphs of the equations, (b) find the area of the region, and (c) use the integration capabilities of the graphing utility to verify your results.

33. x x x 2 3x 3 ,

f

g

x x 2

34. x x 3 2x 1,

f

35. x 2 4x 3,

36.

y x 4 2x 2 ,

y

g x 2x, y 3 4x x 2

y 2x 2

x 1

 37. f x x 4 4x 2 , g x x 2 4 38. f x x 4 4x 2 , g x x 3 4x
 39. f x 1 1 x 2 , g x 1 2 x 2 40. f x 6x x 2 1 , y 0, 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 41. 1 x 3 , y y 2 1 x 2, x 0

42.

y x

4 x ,

4 x

y 0,

x 4

In Exercises 43– 48, sketch the region bounded by the graphs of the functions, and find the area of the region.

43.

f x 2 sin x,

g x tan x,

3 x

3

44.

f x sin x,

g x cos 2x,

2 x

6

45. g x 2 cos x,

x

46.

f x cos x,

f x sec

4

f x xe x 2 ,

f x 3 x ,

0 x 2

tan

4

,

g x 2 4 x 4,

0 x 1

x

47.

48.

y 0,

g x 2x 1

x 0

In Exercises 49–52, (a) use a graphing utility to graph the region bounded by the graphs of the equations, (b) find the area of the region, and (c) use the integration capabilities of the graphing utility to verify your results.

49. x 2 sin x sin 2x,

f

50. x 2 sin x cos 2x,

f

51.

f

x

1 2 e 1 x ,

x

y 0,

y 0,

y 0,

0 x

0 < x

1 x 3

52.

g x 4 ln x ,

x

y 0,

x 5

In Exercises 53–56, (a) use a graphing utility to graph the region bounded by the graphs of the equations, (b) explain why the area of the region is difficult to find by hand, and (c) use the integration capabilities of the graphing utility to approximate the area to four decimal places.

53.

54.

55.

56.

y

y

y

y

4

x

3

x ,

y 0,

x 3

x e x ,

x 2 ,

x 2 ,

y 0,

x 0,

y 4 cos x

y 3 x

x 1

SECTION 7.1

Area of a Region Between Two Curves

453

In Exercises 57–60, find the accumulation function

evaluate

ically show the area given by each value of F.

F. Then

F at each value of the independent variable and graph-

57.

58.

59.

60.

x

0

x

0

1

y

1

F x

F x

F

F y

2 t 1 dt

1

2 t 2 2 dt

1

cos

2

d

4e x 2 dx

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

F 0

F 0

F

F

1

1

(b)

(b)

(b)

(b)

F 2

F 4

F 0

F 0

(c)

(c)

(c)

(c)

F 6

F 6

F

1

2

F 4

In Exercises 61–64, use integration to find the area of the figure having the given vertices.

61.

63.

64.

2, 3 , 4, 6 , 6, 1

62.

0, 0 , a, 0 , b, c

0, 2 , 4, 2 , 0, 2 , 4, 2

0, 0 , 1, 2 , 3, 2 , 1, 3

65.

Numerical Integration

green using (a) the Trapezoidal Rule and (b) Simpson’s Rule.

Estimate the surface area of the golf

66.

6 ft

Numerical Integration Estimate the surface area of the oil spill using (a) the Trapezoidal Rule and (b) Simpson’s Rule.

4 mi

In Exercises 67–70, set up and evaluate the definite integral that gives the area of the region bounded by the graph of the function and the tangent line to the graph at the given point.

67.

f x x

3 ,

f x

1

1, 1

68.

70.

y x

y

2x,

2

1 4x 2 ,

3

1, 1

1

2 , 1

1,

2

1

69.

x 2 1 ,

 Writing About Concepts 71. The graphs of y x 4 2x 2 1 and y 1 x 2 intersect at three points. However, the area between the curves can be found by a single integral. Explain why this is so, and write an integral for this area.

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454 CHAPTER 7

Applications of Integration

 Writing About Concepts (continued) 72. The area of the region bounded by the graphs of y x 3 and y x cannot be found by the single integral 1 1 x 3 x dx. Explain why this is so. Use symmetry to write a single integral that does represent the area. 73. A college graduate has two job offers. The starting salary for each is \$32,000, and after 8 years of service each will pay \$54,000. The salary increase for each offer is shown in the figure. From a strictly monetary viewpoint, which is the better offer? Explain. S D Salary (in dollars) 60,000 Offer 2 Deficit (in billions of dollars) 60 Proposal 2 50,000 50 Proposal 1 40,000 40 30,000 Offer 1 30 20,000 20 10,000 10 t t 2 4 6 8 2002 2006 2010 Year Year Figure for 73 Figure for 74 74. A state legislature is debating two proposals for eliminating the annual budget deficits by the year 2010. The rate of decrease of the deficits for each proposal is shown in the figure. From the viewpoint of minimizing the cumulative state deficit, which is the better proposal? Explain.

divides

the region bounded by the graphs of the two equations into two

In Exercises 75 and 76, find

b

such that the line

y b

regions of equal area.

75.

y 9 x

2 ,

y 0

76.

y 9

x

,

y 0

In Exercises 77 and 78, find

the region bounded by the graphs of the equations into two

regions of equal area.

77.

divides

a

such that the line

78.

y

2

4 x,

x a

x 0

y x,

y 4,

x 0

In Exercises 79 and 80, evaluate the limit and sketch the graph of the region whose area is represented by the limit.

n

79.

lim

0

i

x i x 2 x,

i

where

x

i 1

n

80. where

lim

0

i

x

i

4 x 2 x,

i 1

i n

and

x 1