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3/31/13

OUTLINE
Review: OrganizaPon of the Nervous System
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM EvoluPon of Nervous System
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Central Nervous System
Brain
dr. Sophie Yolanda, MBiomed Spinal Cord
Department of Physiology Peripheral Nervous System
Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia Aerent Division (Sensory)
Eerent Division (SomaPc Motoric & Autonomic)

Review:
OrganizaPon of the Nervous System
OrganizaPon of the Nervous System

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EvoluPon of the Nervous System:


EvoluPon of the Nervous System
Key Concepts
The complexity of nervous system relates to
complexity of behavior (basic tasks of life)
Clustered cell bodies into cephalic brain persist
throughout the more advanced phyla
The same basic principle of neural communicaPon
electrical signals (impulses/acPon potenPals;
chemical signals in synapses)
Same funcPon: sense and respond to environmental
changes reexes mechanism

Reex Arc

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

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ProtecPon of the
Anatomy of CNS
Brain
Cerebrum Hair, skin, skull
Cortex Blood of sinus venosus
Basal Ganglia Meninges
Limbic system Dura mater
Diencephalon Arachnois Membrane
Cerebellum Pia mater
Brain stem Cerebrospinal Fluid
Spinal Cord/Medulla Spinalis

Cerebrospinal Fluid Blood Brain Barrier

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Reex Arc CNS as IntegraPng Center


SPmulus Needs response? What/
Where/When/Who/How?
Learning and Memory
Behavior: MoPvaPon, EmoPon
Consciousness & AaenPon
Language

CNS: FuncPons CNS: FuncPons

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Cortex

FuncPons of cerebral cortex


PercepPon:
hearing, vision,
olfacPon, muscles
& viscera
Reasoning,
informaPon
integraPon
DirecPng
voluntary behavior

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Language Basal Ganglia


Control of movement

Limbic System Memory


Cingulated gyrus
emoPon
Hippocampus
learning & memory
Amygdala
emoPon & memory

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Memory Memory

Non-associaPve
Physiology of Learning and Memory
Learning
Non-associaPve
HabituaPon
SensiPzaPon
AssociaPve: Classical CondiPoning
Long-term PotenPaPon (LTP) or Long-term
Depression (LTD)

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Long-term
Classical CondiPoning
PotenPaPon

EmoPon and MoPvaPon Diencephalon


HomeostaPc control centers
Thalamus relay & sensory
integraPon
Hypothalamus
Hunger, stress
Thirst: body osmolarity
Flight/ght pathways
Anger & fear
Circadian rhythms
Coordinate with endocrine

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Diencephalon Limbic System and Hypothalamus


Pituitary trophic & Hypothalamus homeostasis of internal
other hormones environment (body uids)
Pineal Limbic system insPncPve behavior related to
Melatonin basic individual adaptaPons to environment
Sleep coordinaPon (basic individual survival)
Responses are exerted through autonomic
nervous system

Cerebellum Brain Stem


Collateral from sensory organs controls
voluntary movements (feedback mechanism)

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Brain Stem: Midbrain, Pons, Medulla Cranial Nerves


Many cranial nerves enter
Pyramids nerve tracts crossover
Midbrain eye movement control
Pons breathing, signal relay
Medulla involuntary funcPons
Examples: Blood pressure, vomiPng
RePcular formaPon:
Network in brain stem
Arousal, sleep, pain, & muscle tone

Brain AcPvaPon Systems RePcular AcPvaPng System


RePcular AcPvaPng System (RAS)
From stem rePcular bers
Modulates consciousness
Distributes neuromodulators
NT/neuromodulator systems
Noradrenegic norepinephrine
Serotonergeic serotonin
Dopaminergic dopamine
CholinergePc actetylcholine

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Neuromodulator Systems Neuromodulator Systems

Medulla Spinalis

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Ascending Tract Descending Tract

Review:
OrganizaPon of the Nervous System

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

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Aerent Nervous
Reex Arc
System

Sensory Pathway SPmulus: ProperPes


Modality
Location
Intensity and Duration

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Modality LocaPon
Each type of sPmulus will be responded by a The locaPon of a sPmulus is coded by these
specic receptor (except pain polymodal) mechanisms:
The brain associates a signal coming from a RecepPve eld
specic group of receptors with a specic Lateral inhibiPon
modality labeled line coding Somatotopy
Two point discriminaPon/sensiPvity/acuity

RecepPve Field Lateral InhibiPon

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Somatotopy Two Point DiscriminaPon

Frequency and DuraPon


Intensity and DuraPon
of AcPon PotenPal
Intensity and duraPon of a sPmulus are coded
by these mechanisms:
Frequency and duration of action potential
Receptor adaptation

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Receptor AdaptaPon Sensory Pathway

Sensory Receptors Sensory Receptors

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Sensory Receptors (Special Senses) Somatosensory Receptors

Proprioceptors Visceral Receptors

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Visceral Receptors Sensory Pathway

TransducPon TransducPon
The process of converPng sPmulus energy into
informaPon that can be processed by the
nervous system electrical energy (change in
membrane potenPal receptor potenPal
acPon potenPal)

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Site of AcPon PotenPal IniPaPon SENSORY PATHWAY

Ascending Tract Dermatome

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Pain Pain
ProtecPve mechanism to give awareness that
Pssue damage is/about to happen
The uniqueness of pain:
Followed by a moPvaPonal response (e.g. Self
defense)
Can be inuenced by previous experiences (e.g.
fear)
Does not adapt

ModulaPon of Pain ModulaPon of Pain

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Review:
Referred Pain
OrganizaPon of the Nervous System

Reex Arc

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Descending Tract

Motor Neuron & Neuromuscular JuncPon Events at the Neuromuscular JuncPon

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Mechanism of Fine Motoric Skills


Muscle
ContracPon

Autonomic Nervous System

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Receptors of ANS Autonomic Nervous System

Adrenal Medulla Autonomic Nervous System

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VaricosiPes Events at the VaricosiPes

Dual InnervaPon of ANS AntagonisPc FuncPon of ANS

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Autonomic
SUMMARY
Centers

REFERENCES
Sherwood L. Human Physiology from cells to
system, 7th ed. Australia. Brooks/Cole
Cengange Learning. 2011.
Silverthorn DU. Human physiology: an
integrated approach. 5th ed. San Francisco.
Pearson EducaPon, Inc. 2010.
THANK YOU

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