Sie sind auf Seite 1von 5

International Journal of Computation and Applied Sciences IJOCAAS, Volume 2, Issue 3, June 2017, ISSN: 2399-4509

Smart Photovoltaic System

Roshen T. Ahmed

Abstract- The world is spending all assets to meet the day by day The solar panel proficiency rating measures what rate
demand of energy and it is very expectable that sooner rather of daylight hitting a panel is transformed into power.
than later we will get to the end of any natural energy source Besides solar panels proficiency and size, there are different
such as petrol, mineral etc thus, renewable energy elements that influence how much power the solar panels
arrangement has accomplished.
will make [10]. Sun powered vitality yield is influenced by
The object of this research is getting all solar cell parameters that
affect its operation like temperature, wind speed, humidity climate and regular varieties. The angle of the sun to the
lighting, etc. The study results show with using PC in different solar panel changes with the day of season and occasional
ways (Curves, Digital numbers and Analog gauge pointers) that varieties. Shady and blustery days additionally add to less
the effectiveness of the PV cells are affected by dust, humidity, adequacy of the daylight gathering [11].
temperature, and settlement of the PV panel's surface. The rate Ref. [12] studied the environmental parameters impact
of efficiency drop varies from one variable to another depending on the PV modules efficiency. The review results clarified
on its reaction with other variables. the effect of some parameters for example, sun powered
radiation intensity, temperature and wind on the PV
Key words: Solar cell, weather parameters, Weather data logger.
outcome. Ref. [13, 14] studied the impact of relative
humidity on the power generated by PV modules. The
authors claimed that in highly humid weathers, the humidity
is the main environmental parameter that reduces the cell's
The quick depletion of the fossil fuels resources due to efficiency. Ref. [15] investigated practically the impact of
heavy consumption of such fuels, and the increase of the dust and pollution aggregation on the solar cell in Baghdad
environmental hazard associated with the burning of these city environments. The results manifested that PV modules
fuels such as air pollution, the ozone hole, and green house can operate efficiently on the Iraqi houses roofs with
effects. The humanity is facing in this century its fate Periodic cleaning every two to three weeks.
because these troubles are caused by the human activities In this research work, the effect of tidy, mugginess
[1]. The trend towards using renewable energies as wind, level and the air speed will be measured independently using
geothermal and solar energies starts to increase in the last meters lastly accumulate these parameters levels into a
twenty years [2]. These energies are clean, available, and computer using data interface and logger. The computer will
free [3]. The solar energy won the great interest due to its show the results in different gauge shape (Analogue
outreach and provided most of the year for free. Solar pointers, Digital numbers or curves) using suitable software
energy can be used to generate electricity by two main and in the same time the results can be translate to excel
figures: PV and concentrating power stations [4]. sheet for further analysing [16].
The solar cells (PV) are well known and widespread
all over the world. This technology reached advanced stages II. EXPERIMENTAL SETIP
in fabrication and construction costs. Also, it needs a very
simple maintenance and it has an operational age extended The photovoltaic wonder and material science of PV
to 25 years [5]. cell:
Iraq suffers from a huge lack in the electricity supply.
This situation caused long hours of energy cut which affect At the point when light contact materials surface it
the citizens' life [6]. Since 2003, Iraqi citizens have may be reflect, transmitted or consumed generally changing
depended on huge and medium power diesel and petrol over the photon power to warm. A few materials have the
generators to compensate the lack in electricity. This normal for changing over the energy of photons into electric
condition caused a high pollution for the air and power. The photons power is transferred to the electrons in
environment [7, 8]. Eyes are beginning to move effectively light of security of drive and vitality principals. At this
towards the use of alternative sources for the production of stage, the electrons are free to transfer over the valuable
electrical power, such as solar PV cells [8]. precious stone. This procedure represents photovoltaic
Many researches in solar cells systems have typically impact.
been focused in studies on radiation accessibility, productive Semiconductors are materials that have the ability to
working methodologies outline and estimating of these move electrons when exposed to sunlight. The effectiveness
frameworks. of the semiconductor is in the level of free electrons
Then again, the effect of climate on the execution of movement, which is a part of the terminal atoms. The
solar cells systems has not been given much consideration electrical conductivity is resulted from an external power
[9]. that determines the energy level of the electrons. Without
doubt, at the absolute zero temperature the electrons do not
move and transferring the energy. When the temperature of
Roshen Tariq Ahmed is currently assistant lecturer in the Energy the semiconductors are increased, the electrons get the
and Renewable Energies Technology Centre, University of Technology,
Iraq.E. mail:
required energy to start moving and transferring the
electrical power. When the photon energy reaches certain
extent that enables it to move across the band of the
semiconductor while the power is kept effective. There will
International Journal of Computation and Applied Sciences IJOCAAS, Volume 2, Issue 3, June 2017, ISSN: 2399-4509
be a distinct inconsistency between the photon power and logarithmically dependant. In the same manner, the short cut
the bands' hole at high temperatures of the semiconductor. current (Isc) is mainly dependent on PV module solar
The semiconductors are arranged into two groups, radiation level. When the PV cell is well oriented for the
which are separated by the bands' hole and indirectly hole of best power, the following g equation can be used:
the semiconductor band. Substances of the band, under
some circumstances, can move more slender while at other Pmax I m Vm FF I sc Voc (4)
conditions the pass is twisted. In all cases, it still equipped to
pick up a lot of radiation.
When there is an electric field in the semiconductor, Where:
the free electrons can float. The voltage difference between Pmax = Maximum power W
the semiconductors sides resulting from this electric field Im = Current at maximum power (A)
force the electrons to move to a specific direction through Vm = Voltage at maximum power (V)
the band to openings p-side. FF = Fill Factor % and shows the quality of the solar
A few materials can be enhancing the electric field by cell
the doping method. Power moves from side to side across Isc = Short circuit current (A)
the band from p to n, and this process depends on the Voc = Open circuit voltage (V)
amount of free electrons and the photons' energy in the Besides the expressed parameters, there are some
material. The current image of this trend can enhance the ignored parameters, for example, humidity, temperature
amount of photons to keep them at any bands' terminals or also, wind speed, which can influence the solar cell
the band length should be expanded [17-19]. execution and normally ought to be considered for
configuration purposes [20].
PV cells:

PV cells are sun-powered modules, which are gadget Effect of humidity, temperature and wind velocity on
PV cell:
that can generate electricity when a lights' source sparkles
on it. At the point when the sun-powered cell gets associated
with a circuit by means of wires, the electrical current When the impact of humidity is examined, two cases
courses through the wire. must be taken into consideration: the impact of water vapour
The PV cell operation can be portrayed by the particles on the solar radiation intensity level at daylight,
equation of diode. The current-voltage (I-V) curves can and the moistness breaking into the photovoltaic cell's edge.
unmistakably depict the execution of the PV module upon At the point when the solar light affects the water particles,
various natural conditions, for example, solar radiation and three cases occur: it might fracture, reflect or diffract. These
temperature [18]. influential factors derived all from the direct solar radiation.
The current-voltage characteristic relation is Moisture changes the solar radiation non-directly, and this
introduced beneath: solar radiation causes small variations in Voc in a non-direct

way and substantial varieties in Isc proportionally. The
I I l I s e qv / KT 1 humidity influences Isc yet has irrelevant impact on Voc the
Where: power yield, effectiveness drops.
Il = Cell current because of photons (A). In the second way to deal with the moister impact on
solar cell execution, humidity ingression inside the PV cell
Is = Reverse immersion current (A) and rely on upon must be examined. At the point, when PV modules
cell temperature. subjected to air humidity for long haul a small degradation
q = Electron charge = 1.610-19 C in its performance will occur, as Fig. 1 shows. Many
K = Boltzmanns steady = 1.3810-23 J/K valuable researches [21-22] indicated that the high relative
humidity cause encapsulate delaminating. Moisture will
cause the failure of linking the cell or cells in solar system
The current produced by a PV cell at different
irradiance levels is computed by the accompanying
l G l o
Go=Reference irradiance level(Kw/m2)=1Kw/m2
when air mass= 1.5 Fig. 1 Moisture entrance into solar cells
G=Irradiance level (Kw/m2)
Il (Go)=Cell current at Go (A) On the other hand the PV cells are very sensitive to
Il (G)=Cell current at G (A) temperature variation which is function of many parameters,
for example, weather variable (wind speed and climate
The generated power of a PV panel is the result of the temperature, etc), solar irradiance and cell material. The
product of current and voltage as shown in equation 3. level of cell temperature can be shown in the condition
Pcell I cell Vcell (3) below:
The solar radiation level is the primary affected
Tc f Ta ,V , Gs , material,......
parameter on the open circuit voltage, which is

International Journal of Computation and Applied Sciences IJOCAAS, Volume 2, Issue 3, June 2017, ISSN: 2399-4509
Where: direction, while the speed (V) is considered just even and
Tc = Cell temperature (Co) uniform on the PV surface.
Ta = Ambient temperature (Co) Protection of energy equation is
V = Wind velocity (m/s)

q G
Gs = Solar irradiance (Kw/m2)
The operating cell temperature at open circuit qcond . conv. s (6)
condition called Nominal Operating Cell Temperature
(NOCT), encompassing temperature of 20Co, air mass of
1.5, and solar radiation intensity of 1000 W/m2, while the When the speed of air expands, the module
wind speed of 1 m/s. temperature reduces and panel effectiveness improved. To
put it plainly, the humidity and air speed have a similar
influence on the performance of PV cells. However, when
Tc = Ta + [ (NOCT-20)/1000] G (5) assessing the efficiency of the cells, the study of each of
them should be independently to determine its impact away
How is heat exchange? from the interference of other influences. For these reasons,
a smart system is designed to monitor the weather
Heat transfers in three different ways: Conduction, parameters and collect data by using sensors in touch with
Convection and Radiation. The conduction and convection the PV cells and by using a suitable software and hardware
ways oblige the body particles to exchange heat. The heat to show and store the data in a PC. Figure 3 show the basic
transfer when there is a variation in the temperature between block diagram of the smart system [1, 7].
the two connected systems, as heat moves from warmer to a
cooler body according the zero thermodynamic law.
CONDUCTION (qcond.) W/m2
In conduction, the heat transfers between the systems when
they are in direct contact. The better heat transfer depends
on the high thermal conductivity of the material. The
material's higher thermal conductivity means more heat is
transferred. As an example: the metals are perfect
conducting materials.
CONVECTION (qconv.) W/m2
In convection, the heat transfers between two fluid systems
or one surface and a fluid. In these phenomena, the wormer
fluid rises up for cooler places due density differences. Fig. 3 Smart system block diagram
Cooler gas or liquid then compensate the rising fluid. This
process will continue until the two systems reached the same
System design and experimental work:
RADIATION (qrad.) W/m 2
As shown in the previous paragraphs the ambient
In radiation, the heat transfers in space without the need for parameters has great effect on the efficiency of the solar
transferring medium, which eliminate the need for direct cell, so a system has been designed to measure the weather
contact between the radiation source and the heated body
parameters on the surface of the cell.
like conduction and convection. The transfer of energy Figure 3 show the block diagram of the system while
through empty space is via infrared solar radiation that figure 4 show the system connected, the system components
transports heat while the rest of the radiation wavelengths are wind speed, temperature, humidity and light sensors
transfer light. connected to a computer via converter that connect all these
Light and heat in the solar radiation are sort of sensors to the PC by a USB cable, this converter is
electromagnetic radiation. In radiation, there is neither need programmed by using parameters settings and suitable
for mass exchange nor solid or fluid medium required. As an software so the data collected in the PC and shown as digital
example of radiation, case is the sun heat and light. online gauges and excel tables.
The sampling time is 2ms and number of channels is

Fig. 2 ideal PV cell heat exchange plan

Fig. 2 shows that there are three methods of heat

exchange happening into the PV panel. For simulation
purposes, we accept the heat move is in one dimension Fig. 4 System connections to the solar cells

International Journal of Computation and Applied Sciences IJOCAAS, Volume 2, Issue 3, June 2017, ISSN: 2399-4509

Fig. 7b The relation between number of samples and temperature

Fig. 5 show the PC screen output display

The output result are shown in Microsoft excel, table 1

shows sample of the output results.

Fig. 7c The relation between number of samples and humidity

Fig. 7d The relation between number of samples and light intensity


Dust accumulation on the PV cells' surface cause a

degradation for its effectiveness. In addition, the

humidity and temperature have the same impact. In

Fig 6 Output results as shown in the PC screen
like manner, quite often moister causes corruption in the
The output curves shown in Figure 7(a, b, c, d) below panel proficiency. By expanded wind speed, a part of the
for about 358 samples: heat stored in the PV cell will be removed and its
temperature will be reduced which enhance the PV
effectiveness. Similarly, higher air speed brings down the
barometrical air pressure in the location that prompts better
productivity. Despite what might be expected, wind causes
sand and dust lift making sand and dust storms, which bring
shading that results in lower performance of PV cells. The
effect of air velocity on photovoltaic must study it
independently of the rest of the weather variables to clarify
its effects on cells.

Fig. 7a The relation between number of samples and wind speed

International Journal of Computation and Applied Sciences IJOCAAS, Volume 2, Issue 3, June 2017, ISSN: 2399-4509

[1] M.T. Chaichan and K.A.H. Al-Asadi, "Environmental Impact

Assessment of traffic in Oman," International Journal of Scientific & Different Weather Condition," Energy Centre, Department of
Engineering Research, vol. 6, No. 7, pp. 493-496, 2015. Mechanical Engineering Maulana Azad National Institute of
[2] H. M. S. Al-Maamary, H.A. Kazem, M.T. Chaichan, "Changing the Technology, Bhopal, India, 2015.
Energy Profile of the GCC States: A Review," International Journal [22] A.Y. Al-Hasan, "A New Correlation for Direct Beam Solar
of Applied Engineering Research (IJAER), vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 1980- Radiation Received By Photovoltaic Panel with Sand Dust
1988, 2016. Accumulated on Its Surface," Solar Energy, vol. 63, No. 5, pp. 323
[3] M.T. Chaichan & H.A. Kazem, "Thermal Storage Comparison for 333, 1998.
Variable Basement Kinds of a Solar Chimney Prototype in Baghdad
- Iraq Weathers," International journal of Applied Science (IJAS),
vol.2, No. 2, pp. 12-20, 2011.
[4] H.A. Kazem, A.H.A. Al-Waeli, A.S.A. Al-Mamari, A.H.K. Al-Kabi,
M.T. Chaichan, "A Photovoltaic Application in Car Parking Lights
with Recycled Batteries: A Techno-Economic Study," Australian
Journal of Basic and Applied Science, vol. 9, No. 36, pp. 43-49,
[5] Roshen T. Ahmed, "Obtaining and analyzing the characteristics
curves of a solar cell", international journal of computation and
applied sciences IJOCAAS, Volume 2, Issue 2, April 2017,
[6] M.T. Chaichan & H.A. Kazem, "Status and Future Prospects of
Renewable Energy in Iraq," Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Reviews, vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 60076012, 2012.
[7] A.A Al-Waeely, S.D. Salman, W.K. Abdol-Reza, M.T. Chaichan,
H.A. Kazem and H.S.S. Al-Jibori, "Evaluation of the Spatial
Distribution of Shared Electrical Generators and their Environmental
Effects at Al-Sader City-Baghdad-Iraq," International Journal of
Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS, vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 16-23,
[8] M.T. Chaichan, H.A. Kazem, T.A. Abid, "The Environmental
Impact of Transportation in Baghdad, Iraq," Environment,
Development and Sustainability, 2016. DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-
[9] C.A. Gueymard, "The Suns Total and Spectral Irradiance for Solar
Energy Applications and Solar Radiation Models," Solar Energy,
vol. 76, No. 4, pp.42353, 2004.
[10] M.T. Chaichan, H.A. Kazem, A.M.J. Mahdy & A.a. Al-Waeely,
"Optimal Sizing of a Hybrid System of Renewable Energy for
Lighting Street in Salalah-Oman using Homer Software,"
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science
(IJSEAS), vol.2, No. 5, pp. 157-164, 2016.
[11] A.H. Al-Waeli, K. Sopian, H.A. Kazem and M.T. Chaichan,
"Photovoltaic Solar Thermal (PV/T) Collectors Past, Present and
Future: A Review," International Journal of Applied Engineering
Research, vol. 11, No. 22, pp. 1075-10765, 2016.
[12] H.A. Kazem, M.T. Chaichan, "Effect of Environmental Variables on
Photovoltaic Performance-Based on Experimental Studies,"
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science
(IJCMES), vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 1-8, 2016.
[13] H.A. Kazem, M.T. Chaichan, I.M. Al-Shezawi, H.S. Al-Saidi, H.S.
Al-Rubkhi, J.K. Al-Sinani and A.H.A. Al-Waeli, "Effect of
Humidity on the PV Performance in Oman," Asian Transactions on
Engineering , vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 29-32, 2012.
[14] H.A. Kazem and M.T. Chaichan, "Effect of Humidity on
Photovoltaic Performance Based on Experimental Study,"
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research (IJAER), vol.
10, No. 23, pp. 43572-43577, 2015.
[15] A.H. Al-Hamdani, M. Hassan, R. T. Ahmad, "Optimal Sizing of
Photovoltaic Irrigation Water Pumping System in Samara,"
Engineering and technology Journal, vol. 31 part (A), No. 16, 2013.
[16] M.E. Meral, F. Dinc "A Review of the Factors Affecting Operation
and Efficiency of Photovoltaic Based Electricity Generation
Systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 15, No.
5, pp. 21762184, 2011.
[17] G.M. Alonso, J. Balenzategui, "Estimation of Photovoltaic Module
Yearly Temperature and Performance Based on Nominal Operation
Cell Temperature Calculations," Renewable Energy, vol. 29, No. 12,
pp. 19972010, 2004.
[18] M. Mani, R. Pillai, "Impact of Dust on Solar Photovoltaic (PV)
Performance Research Status, Challenges and Recommendations,"
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 14, No. 9, pp.
31243131, 2010.
[19] H.A. Rahoma, E.H. Fathy. "Effect of Airborne Dust Concentration
on the Performance of PV Modules," Journal of the Astronomical
Society of Egypt, vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 2438, 2005.
[20] F.P. Incropera, D.P. DeWitt, "Fundamentals of Heat and Mass
Transfer," New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 2002.
[21] U. Qureshi, P. Baredar, A. Kumar, "Effect of Operating Parameters
on the Performance of the Hybrid Solar PVT Collector Under