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Final exam study guide, 2014

Matching, multiple choice, a couple of short answer (interpretation), some calculations.

Chapter 1 & 2: History and Application

Three parts of the definition of epidemiology


Three parts of a measure of association

Chapters 6-8: Study Design

Ecological, Cross-Sectional, Case-Control, Cohort, and RCT designs


Advantages, Disadvantages
Best studies for: rare outcomes, rare diseases, inexpensive and fast, gold standard, etc.
Analysis of Cohort Studies know the differences in life tables and survival curves
What is temporality?
Clinical Trials in India Video may want to review the video (1 question on it)

Chapter 9: Measures of Effect

Measures
o Burden of disease what measure? _____________________________
o Risk of acquiring disease what measure? _____________________________
o Relationship among prevalence, incidence, duration
o Odds ratio
o Risk difference p. 362
o Etiologic/attributable fraction (percentage) p. 366
o Population Etiologic/attributable fraction (percentage) p. 368
o Age-specific vs. age-adjusted
o Prevalence
o Incidence rate
o Incidence density/person-time incidence rate
o Person-time, person-years
o Rates: stratified rates vs. specific rates

Interpretation of Measures
o Odds Ratio
o Relative Risk
o Attributable Risk/Population Attributable Risk
o Hypothesis Testing
Continuous, Categorical, Dichotomous
One Sample, Two Sample
Models of Causation
o Know generally the difference between pie, wheel, and web model
Chapter 10: Data Interpretation Issues

Confounding p. 394
o How to test for confounding p. 394
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
o How to prevent confounding? P. 399
________________________
________________________
________________________
o How to deal with confounding after data collection?
________________________
________________________
Bias p. 391
o Bias is not random error p. 390-1
Sampling error p. 390
o Information p. 393
Interviewer
Recall
Prevarication (lying)
o Selection p. 392
Healthy worker effect
o Publication bias p. 403 (lecture chapter 10)
o Techniques to reduce selection bias p. 396
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Reliability vs. validity of a measure p. 418

Validity p. 419

o Internal versus External Validity


o Know what each one is and what is true about them
Know the Formulas and Calculate the following:

Incidence

Point Prevalence

Period Prevalence

Odds Ratio

Relative Risk

Attributable Risk

Population Attributable Risk

Etiologic Fraction

Population Etiologic Fraction