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A New Approach of a Variable Geometry Turbocharger

to reduce lag and improve performance of the engine


Nevel Ode, Kaustubh Ramekar, Abhinayan Sridhar, Vibhanshu Grover, Krishna P,
Alok Sen, Rakshit Ratan, Ketan Warghat, Anurag Shukla, Shubham Harde

Abstract vanes is determined from a combination of


desired torque response, fuel economy, and
Turbocharger lag (turbo lag) is the time emissions requirements.
required to change power output in response to
a throttle change, noticed as a hesitation or A particular problem with turbocharged diesel
slowed throttle response when accelerating as engines is poor acceleration, particularly from
compared to a naturally aspirated engine. This idle or low engine speeds. This turbo-lag is
is due to the time needed for the exhaust due to the time delay associated with filling
system and turbocharger to generate the the intake manifold with enough fresh air to
required boost. Inertia, friction, and support the amount of fuel required to satisfy
compressor load are the primary contributors the operator's torque demand. To meet this
to turbocharger lag. Variable nozzle requirement, however, the delivered fuel often
turbocharger help reduce this lag by two must be limited as a function of the available
mechanisms: air in order to maintain the air-to-fuel ratio
above the threshold at which visible smoke
One has a ring of aerodynamically- occurs. The rate at which the air supply can be
shaped vanes in the turbine housing at increased is limited by the dynamics of the
the turbine inlet turbocharger and the transport delay between
In other, the vanes do not rotate, but the turbocharger compressor and the intake
instead the axial width of the inlet is manifold of the engine.
selectively blocked by an axially
sliding wall

Either way, the area between the tips of the


vanes changes, leading to a variable aspect
ratio.

Introduction

A typical turbocharger consists of a


compressor and turbine coupled by a common
shaft. The exhaust gas drives the turbine which
drives the compressor which, in turn,
compresses ambient air and directs it into the Variable-geometry turbochargers (VGTs),
intake manifold. Variable geometry (also known as variable nozzle
turbochargers (VGTs) allow the intake airflow turbines/VNTs), are a family of turbochargers,
to be optimized over a range of engine speeds. usually designed to allow the effective aspect
This may be accomplished by changing the ratio (A:R) of the turbo to be altered as
angle of the inlet guide vanes on the turbine conditions change. This is done because
stator. An optimal position for the inlet guide optimum aspect ratio at low engine speeds is
very different from that at high engine speeds. Using an antilag system
If the aspect ratio is too large, the turbo will Using a turbocharger spool valve to
fail to create boost at low speeds; if the aspect increase exhaust gas flow speed to the
ratio is too small, the turbo will choke the (twin-scroll) turbine
engine at high speeds, leading to high exhaust
manifold pressures, high pumping losses, and To increase the efficiency of Variable Nozzle
ultimately lower power output. By altering the Turbocharger, following methods are
geometry of the turbine housing as the engine proposed:
accelerates, the turbo's aspect ratio can be
To use coatings inside the
maintained at its optimum. Because of this,
turbocharger that reduces the friction
VGTs have a minimal amount of lag, have a
between the incoming exhaust gas and
low boost threshold, and are very efficient at
walls of the turbocharger. This ensures
higher engine speeds.
that not much of kinetic energy of the
exhaust gases is lost in overcoming the
friction.
To use high frequency solenoid
operated vanes that reduce the
response time for changing the angular
direction of vanes.

Conclusions

Using the above methods the ignition lag


can be reduced, required boost can be
obtained quickly and emissions are
Methodology reduced.
Engine designs reduce lag in a number of References
ways:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turbocharger
Lowering the rotational inertia of the
turbocharger by using lower radius http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variable-
parts and ceramic and other lighter geometry_turbocharger
materials
https://www.google.co.in/patents/EP0226444B
Changing the turbine's aspect ratio
1?cl=en&dq=variable+nozzle+turbocharger&e
Increasing upper-deck air pressure
i=lMOYVPcSjKi5BMqxgogJ
(compressor discharge) and improving
wastegate response
Reducing bearing frictional losses,
e.g., using a foil bearing rather than a
conventional oil bearing
Using variable-nozzle or twin-scroll
turbochargers
Decreasing the volume of the upper-
deck piping
Using multiple turbochargers
sequentially or in parallel