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Napoleonic Uniforms VOLUME II Col. John R, Elting (USA-Ret.) Herbert Knotel, Illustrator Macmillan Publishing Company New York. Maxwell Macmillan Canada Toroxro ‘Maxwell Macmillan International New York Oxroxp SINGAPORE SYDNEY ‘Copyright © 1993 by Macmillan Publishing Company A division of Macmillan, Inc. 3 {All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any ‘means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information stor~ age and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Macmillan Publishing Company 866 Third Avenue New York, NY 10022 Maxwell Macmillan Canada, Ine. 1200 Eglinton Avenue Bast, Suite 200 Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3N1 Macmillan Publishing Company is part of the Maxwell Communication Group of Companies. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 91-18073 Printed in the United States of America printing number 123456789 10 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Eling, John Robert, Napoleonic uniforms / John R. Eling pm. ISBN 0-02-897115-9 (set) 1, France. Armée. Grande Armée—Uniforms. 1. Title UCHSS FESS 1993, 355. 147096420 9318073, cr ‘The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials. ANSI 2239.48-1984. Napoleonic Uniforms 7; Howse Antillery, Trumpeter Sergeant, 1809. 8; Horse Artillery, Captain, 1812. Plate 10: Foot Artillery, Officer, 1812. "Plate 11: th Foot Anillery Regiment, Drum Major, 18 Plate 12: 6th Foot Artillery Regiment, Drummer, 1809. _ Plate 13: Foot Artillery, Private, 1812. Plate 14: Pontonier, 1813. Plate 15: Arifcer, 1813. Plate 16: Armorers, Captain, 1805 Plate 17: Armorers, Private, 1812. Plate 18: Anlley Train Troops, Battalion Commander, 1812. Plate 20: Anllry Train Troops, Private, 1805, Plate 21: Anillery Train Troops, Pontoon Bridge Train Driver, 1812. Plate 22: Anillery Train Troops, Private, Field Uniform, 1813. Plate 23: 6th Battalion Arllery Train Troops, Veterinarian, 1808. ‘Plate 24: Coast Defense Anillery, Officer, 1807. Plate 25: Coast Defense Artillery, Colonel, 1811. Plate 26: Coast Defense Artillery, Drummer, 1811. Plate 27: Coast Defense Anillery, Private, 1809. Plate 28: Sedentary Cannoneers of Lille, 1811 Artillery Napoleon said, “It is with artillery that one makes war.” He began his military career as rather thread- ‘bare 2nd lieutenant of that arm, carefully trained by France's best artillery officers, who were acknowl- ‘edged some of the world’s finest. He mastered every detail of his new profession, Before him there had ‘been kings who made a hobby of being artillery officers; the Emperor Napoleon was an artlleryman ‘who made and unmade kings. Throughout his reign he worked at improving and strengthening his antllery: His guns were his “prety girls.” ‘The French artillery had been a proud and efficient arm before the French Revolution; its loyalty and skill had saved the new French Republic at Valmy in 1792. It even survived the disintegrating ‘effects of the Revolutionary Wars, but it was badly worn when Napoleon became First Consul in 1799 and promptly began its rejuvenation. Napoleon's artillery was headed by a large staff, which supervised the production of weapons and ‘munitions, the armament of fortresses, the operation of the anillery schools, and related administrative tatters. It also provided artillery staff officers for both the armies in the field and the larger fortresses, ‘There were five types of artillery troops: horse artillery (artillerie a cheval), foot artillery (artillerie 4 pied), pontoon bridge troops (pontonniers), artificers (ouvriers), and armorers (armuriers). Associated with them were the antllery train troops (train dartllerie), the coast defense artillery (can- noniers garde-cotes), veteran arillerymen (cannoniers véiérans) and local units of home-guard antllerymen (cannoniers sédentaires). The Naval Arillery (Artllerie de la Marine) was a branch of the French Navy. Anillery service was hard and dangerous, requiring strong and intelligent soldiers. French artillery officers used their cannon aggressively, often pushing them forward in advance of their own infantry ‘within 100 to 120 yards of the enemy's battleline, (At that range the antllery's canister was murderous ly effective, while the opposing infantry's muskets were too inaccurate to pick off the cannoneers,) ‘They learned to maneuver masses of guns—like the 102 cannon that held the French center at Wagram {in 1809—swiftly and surely. And their enlisted men shared their professional pride, caring for their {guns like “their sweethearts.” | General Je Division O-Rriilterta | 18H12 | Plate 1: General of Division of Arillery 1812. Generals aways have had fee hand in designing ther own wifes. This “general of division” (the equivalent ‘of aS, major general) has decked himsel—exoept for his gold-aced cocked hatin fll hasarstyle gory His told and scare sash and the thee stars on his sabretche proclaim his grade, So dressed, even en a day of bate he “went into the fre” with his gunners. Tis might well Be Antoine Drovot in 1813, bringing forward 70 guns a Litzeno demolish the center of the enemy line orate! F< Gerde d‘Artillerie 1812 Plate 2: Gante of Artillery 1812. Both the Anilley and the Engincers had these quasi-military employees who functioned as slorekoepers, repair men, caretakers, and clerks a the rear-area depots, artenals. and fortresses. They held assim sergcants, and sergeant majors. This garde, with his sword and cane, obviously belongs to possibly he is @ ed rank a corporal hat lst category: quite ined noncommissioned officer. His stats asa garde is indicated by his sky blue collar ts two old loops show his grade Ariillerie is cheval, 1800 Plate 3: Horse Artillery, Private, 1800. ida Small units of horse artillery appeared in Frederick the Great's Prussian Army as early as 1750, but it was 1792 ‘before the French adopted itn this new arm every cannoncer had his oxen horse; consequently its light guns could ‘accompany cavalry and maneuver rapidly across most types of terrain. Its orginal personne! were mostly volun ters, reckless, rowdy lot, always ready fora fight or a folie: Uniforms varied during the Revolutionary Wars, but many units had this dragoon-style helmet made of ste, ‘bass, or eather witha “horsetail” crest. His coat i the long-tailed cutaway type ofthe period: he wears pantalons A cheval, battoned down the side, over his boots and breeches. Note his powdered ait, Criilterie @ cheval Ofiiter, 1805 Plate 4: Horse Artillery Lieutenant, 1805. After 1800 the horse arillery adopted light cavalry style of dress similar t the uniforms ofthe chasseurs & cheval and The two stripes of gold lace on this offi arms ae the front of his breeches indicate his grade. The pointed cuffs were typical of light troops, whether cavalry infantry, or ati Diner horse artillery officers sported red leather boots, fur colbacks, and even pelises (outer jackets lke that wom by the genera) | Arteria d deval, 1805 Plate 5: Horse Artillery, Private, 1805. Napoleon took over six regiments of horse anillery in 1799 and gradually increased ther strength wo an average of ‘one dept company and eight "war" companies. While their primary service was with his cavalry divisions, he also short queue ad braided sidelocks Rate WE- Aalilleria cx eval, Tromperke-Mareiteal de Kegis 7809 Plate 7: Horse Artillery, Trumpeter Sergeant, 1809. French ties forthe noncommissioned officers of mounted troops differed from those used inthe infantry and foot tle: brigadier for corporal, mardchal des logs for sergeant, maréchal des logiv-chef for top sergeant ‘This smartly uniformed sergeant isthe senior trumpeter of his regiment; the single gold chevron on his forearm shows his grade, and the biue chevron on his upper arm signifies more than 10 years of service. His square-topped Ineadgear isa schapska, a Polishstye helmet that became popular with musicians, bandsmen, and aides-de-camp after 1806-07, q Gaisth PI Fartillerie & cheval, Capitaine, 71812 Plate 8: Horse Arillery, Captain, 1812. For reasons of economy, an effort was made 1 simplify horse artillery uniforms during 1807-12, replacing the light cavalry-syle jacket with a cutaway coat that was to be worn ove &re-braded blue waistcoat. This was far from universally sucessful contemporary aft continued to show braided jacket, ed boots, fur clhacks, and even an occasional plisse and sabretache. This captain's coat quite according to 1812 uniform regulations, but his tweeches sill are husar sie Airtillerie & cheval, 1812 Private, 1812. Plate 9: Horse Artie to the gun Qoistel WE Aritlerie & pied , fficrer, 1812. Plate 10: Foot Artillery Officer, 1812. jah sword with Goitel >= Regiment aFrlilerie, Tambour-Major, 1914 Pate 11: 9th Foot Artillery Regiment, Drum Major, 1811. Foot artillery drummers and bands to many infantry drum majors, anillery trumpeter sergeant he war more than 15 year of service somarily wore red cous. While quite modestly uniformed rman nevertheless makes an impressive appearance tpska: the two gold chevrons on his upper arm mark him Aqdtel ~E— «6 KRegiment watilerie & pied, Tambour, 7809 bk | Mate 12: 61h Foot Artillery Regiment, Drummer, 1809. His white waistcoat indicates summer dre e Co c wool In keeping with the warm weather, he wears his trousers lo 3 c 1 canvas “half {apron covers his left thigh to protect it from the friction ofthe drum: the brass plaque on his drum sing has two Sockets for carrying hs drumsticks when he isnot playing. French drums ofthis period had brass shell, heavy’ but finely resonant His blue overcoat, the regulation color for atilerymen, is neatly rolled on top of his pack. Jirtillerie & pied 1312 Gvstel 2 Macc Plate 13: Foor Artillery, Private, 1812, Fally equipped 1, this canmoncer be 1). The black object Fastel 0G— JS dnionmer, 1813 late 14: Pontonier, 1815 ‘The Grande Armée hal 90 bit ned by companics to its ary ihe Cavalry Reserve, and its field train's headquarters. When their heavy haguets (pontoon wagons) were beld up by had roads, they could improvise bridges out of any available boas, rafts built from demolished buildings, or empty wine barrels. Their great day of glory was atthe Beresina River in 1812 during the retreat from Moscow Ther, the two bidges they hastily put together and maintain! across the icy river saved the army ‘Thee wniform differed from tht ofthe f ry proper in having red cuff flaps—a distinction aot always IMaiiained when uniforms had to be procured in a hurry. His plume is the heartily disliked economy model ced during 1810-12, which quickly wilted in the rain and wind Gaitel 25 | Firiilene G& pied, Ouvrier, tts t ie Plate 15: Artificer, 1813. These normal duty were specialists inthe construction and repair of artillery gun cartiages and other vehicles. Their nents of them served with the armies in the field. Napoleon 1 in 1801 to 19 in 812. The 19th Company was composed of forming of the Grande Armée red cul Gaatel 2 Fulillerie: Comp, de Armuriers , Capitaine L 1805 Plate 16: Armorers, Captain, 1805, ‘The armorers repaired weapons of all types, serving both in the arsenals and withthe artillery"s forward depors in the field. Napoleon found one company in 1799 and increased that to six in 1813. The Sth Company war taken fom the Dutch Army when Holland was ann rance in 1810, f senerally wore some type of bicorme cocked hat (chapeau). It of clothing. The armorers" uniforms had the distinctive red collar Gastel 2%. Qodtel 0 Train 2'Artilterie, Chef veBotuilon, 1812. ate 18: Ailery Train Troops, Battalion Commander, 1812 ‘Organized in 1800, the Train d’Arilerie replaced the contr © French ‘Army's gun teams and ammunition wagons and had made the h ence fy and heroism. It quickly became a highly Ot and Hncreased this 1 13 in 1808. Each battalion was prepared < a cadre for a new te boatalion in wartime, as was done in 1809, 181 - Dutch An 10. This officer is captain, his companies are commanded by te The white strip above his boots the top ofhis lef-leg manchete, a kace- gu loth wor to protect his expensive buckskin breeches from the rub bing of his boots Train 2’ Firtilerie, Trompette, 1809 Plate 19: Artillery Train ‘Troops, Trumpeter, 1803. “his regulation uniform shows the conventional reversed and fe show and so “decorated” thei trumpeters with such unofficial items as fur colbacks, red ‘rousers, and plentifl red braiding on their coats, not to mention red trumpet cords. Gavel OSs | | L rain d'Artillerie, os Pate 20: Artillery Train Troops, wagons. Despite helonging to diffe tioned as one | Train de Sontonniers, 1812 ak Pate 21: Allry Train Troops, Pontoon Bridge Train Driver, 1812. During 1810-11 the wan wou wastes were replace by audriers shoulder be), giving them this crossbet cd appearance. (The bet ove he et “Tis uniform has two une tard for uniform regulations by the arly train companisasssne to the pontonierRatalions. Note thatthe pompon on this sles sak stows the numberof his company by combination of color. Train delFristterie & cheval, 1813 Tenue de campagne ‘of the tran troops coat was offically gris de fer (ron gray), a term that covered wide range of blush grays and grayish blues. The red braiding around its dark blue facings appeared in some tain battalions as cay as 1808 This driver belongs toa train company serving witha horse arti cavalry bows. His shako has a pr over: his pantalons dy cheval ar as type, poss wo in place of the usual leather breeches rather than over them because they ae tacked into his books. His coat the pre-1812 model | a Gantal BS: Srtiste Veltérinatre au 6°Batl. du Train OWAriterie, 71808 | ‘Mate 23: 6eh Battalion Artillery Train Troops, Veterinarian, 1808. in battalion’ efficiency depended on its veterinarians, horseshoers, and harness-makers. This re is something ofa puzzle, differing from that of the horse atile hussar sash. It may be that he was originally a horse atillryman and adopted it out of necessity. The double gold chevron above his left cu ‘satus asa senice noncommissioned officer. Bate 24: Coast Defense Artillery, Office, 1807. Before and dering the Revolution this had ben a xr of local mia or volume uni inthe seacoust areas, sf Sey afew veteran naval gunners. Napoleon abolished itn 1802 after making peace with England bt seine Htayear ter when hosts recommenced. ter extending it long the coms of Holland and northern aly os hs eps grew. In 1812 there were approximately 148 “active” companies signed tothe Arley and 33 conden {a7 companies for pariime service at minor island port. Lite hasbeen published on its cepaiation, epee Hons, and dress. This white uniform was authorized in September 1803; supposedly contemporary at recoded te Inte 1813, sometines wih whit or dark buc cu aps, instead ofthe ed shown here. However, nots well Known asthe uniform illustrate bythe following thre plates; more research i een to detcrane the len between thers Gaistel 2-5— | Garees Coles, Colonel, 7811 Plate 25: Coast Defense Artillery, Colonel, 1811. ‘This uniform with its sea green facings is a “moder Revolution and the one speciied in the decree rect: authoritative reference works that worn by coust defense anillerymen before the n on 28 May 1803. I also is the version shown in This colonels shako has the tall white plame and gold braiding indicative of his grade, which epaulets confirm. His tall boots are app ‘ompanies he will ave to-do much ding to supervise his wi Cumnoniers Garde Cotes, Tambour, 8H _ 2 a iba Plate 26: Coast Defense Artillery, Drummer, 1811 Instead ofthe usual reversed colors, this drummer wears the same uniform as other clisted men, but lvishly deo: {nied with red braid and imperial yellow and green lace. As might be expected of oops stationed in smal, isolated coastal gaison, he wears oly tll leggins, whic the Yoot artillery abandoned four or five yeas eae. Garees- Ciles, 1809 “oast Defense Artillery, Private, 1809. ‘Stationed at minor seacoast forts, far from the Grande Armée’ campaigns. the Coast Defense Arillery tended become slipshod and sluggish. In 1811-12, Ns up the whole service, sending officers to spec schools and generally waking up everybody by surprise inspections. In 1814, several “mobile” companies were transferred to the field armies. The Bourbons abolished the Coast Defense Anillery later that at Goitel -F- Camnonter Sedentarre %e lle, 1811 ate 28: Sedentory Cannoncers of Lille, 1811. This two-company ome guard oreanization could trace is history back wo 1483, when it bepan asa religions fbtherhod dedicated o Saint Barbar, the patron of arillerymen, Napoion gave it offical recognition in 1803 slog with an armory, two 4-pounder guns and some captured English muskets-described ax “heavy” In run bey were to maimain thie discipline and wraining. tn T813, sich sedentary companies were activated in many Fisch frontier towns wo prepare forth: coming invasion by the Allied armies Ths "weekend. warriors” unifors Balmostthe same as hat ofthe repuar fot artillery but ealivened by red epaulets and eu flaps Engineers Index Plate 1: Topographical Engineers, Captain, 1810. Plate 2: Topographical Engineers, Captain, Field Uniform, 1812. Plate 3: Engineers, Captain, 1805, Plate 4: Engineers, Garde Ist Class, 1812. Plate 9: Engineer Train, Officer, 1812. late 10: Engineer Train, Private, Field Uniform, 1812. late 11: Engineer Fireman, Officer, Summer Full Dress, 1812. Plate 12: Engineer Fireman, Ist Sergeant, 1812. late 13: Black Pioneers, Private, 1804. Plate 14: Spanish Pioneers, Private, Fatigue Uniform, 1812. ‘Engineers before the Revolution French military engincers had a high international reputation; a small ‘of them rendered invaluable service o the Continental Army during our American Revolution. however, all officers who were assigned to army or fortress headquarters staffs a required 1793, the French government created Engineer troop units (sapeurs du génie), which were the ‘of our modern combat engineers. Under Napoleon the engineers became the Corps Imperial consisting ofa sizeable headquarters (which also functioned as a pool of officers available units of Sapewrs du Génie, Miners, and engineer train troops. ‘Topographical Engineers (Ingénieurs Géographes) were a separate organization, consisting, Royal Army's engineer corps, entirely of officers. ‘work, especially in the interior of France, was normally carried out by labor (pionnier) ‘Most of these were composed of prisoners of war or soldiers undergoing punishment and so ‘ot be employed with armies in the field. Such duty was performed by volunteers from among ‘and Spanish prisoners and Frenchmen condemned to such service as a punishment for self. in an attempt to avoid conscription. firemen (Sapeurs-Pompiers) of Paris and several other major cities were semimiltary organiza- with the engineers, agehieurs Gegraphes Ze Ongenicur- Geograph, 1818 Plate 1: Topographical Engineers, Captain, 1810. Established in 177, the Toposrpbical Engineers (ngéncurs Géographes) were the Grande Armde's surveyors and mapas and probably the best i he word a oth tasks. Thc speciality waste apd mapping of coun ty tding with he advance guard as tbe amy advance, then combining Wc Guick surveys This captain is dressed for summer comfort in ighweigh white wascot and beeches. The Géopraphes dis tnctive color was curore, which—as here—normally is depicted as a definite orange. In 1814 it was changed to Ay ble with re pis Plate 2: Topographical Engineers, Captain, Field Uniform, 1812 Hs coat isthe newly regulation habitat, ct othe wait in font. The eather bag under his ef arm hols map Ping equipment the strap over hs let shoulder undoubtedly supports a powerful telescope (ike thal shown i the receding plac) nits eather case His boar simple top boots (bres aU écuvére. Une them he appeas tobe wearing some form of oot stocking Wo protect his lower legs frm hore sweat and dst ‘Tere probably never were more than 0 ofthese oficer, and they were as hard-worked as any inthe Grande Armée Rodel = | Goel 9S) Sapeurs Ou Génie, Qpilarne, 05° Geme, Gare re 1” classe, 1812. Hate 3: Engineers, Captain, 1805 “This officer may be asignod to ther one of the btaos of speurs dni ov some sa. His uifarm, excep for x tcolor cockade and imperil batons is esentaly the same as that assigned the Royal Comp of Engineer” in 1758—dark be, faced with lack vet. Tht ed piping (paseo!) was eed at A sgl later date to accentuate the diference between the blac and the black and ive them a more miltay perce Plate 4: Engineers, Gande 1st Class, 1812. (Garde is one of those peculiarly French terms that defy exact translation.) As in the aillry, these quas-miltary “employees” had assimilated rank as corporal, fouriers, sergeants and sergeant majors. This eager faced young ‘man obviously belongs in the last category. Like infantry and cavalry adjutant, his uniform differ from his off ‘er only in details of nig Goal 2S Genio, Sapeur 182 Mlate 5: Engineers 1st Sergeant, 1812 The spears de génie adopted the cnginece uniform, changing from chapeas 0 sakos with he infantry and Arley in 1806-07. At tat ime they are shown by cne source in high whe legion andre hak ord fo ful dre ‘hiss veteran wih mor than 20 year of service, as shown bythe thee gol chevros on is upper tam. Besdeste two gokden chevron on his forearms the mix of gold an re in hs shako conds and his pets atest His rade. Engincer troops were armed os infty and might be employed as sch in emergencies te 6: Engineers, Private, Siege Equipment, 1812 The five baton of sapews cu géie (ree more small Batalions of Dutch, Kalan, and Spaniards were aod daring 1810-12) wee specials inthe attack and defense of foie pacer Becaune such Baty could te highly dangerous nginces working in exposed positions would be isscd the heavy cis and helmet shown hee The Black sit both prevented ot and proved carlage for night operations Sapeur—Mineur 1809 Batt de Miners, Fimbour, 1810 Plate 7: Miners, Private, 1809. The sapeur-mineurs (orginally nine independent rpanis: after 1808, two battalions) were experts in the min img/countermining underground war that was a part of mont sieges. Because ofthe dangerous nature of such ser vice, they were considered the elite of the engineer troops and 50 took the right of tei line at all cere Except for the different design oftheir buttons and the color of their ep ‘equipment as the sapeurs du génie. (Some usiformologists insist that, a8 lite oops, they should have had red cpaulets and the sapeurs du géni yellow ones. Knitel’s view is plainly shown here: in adition, be has given ths sminct yellow shako coats.) ts they had the same uniform and Plate 8: Miners, Drummer, 1810. Asa gener rule, engineers avoided show and pomp. Nevertheless this drummer's uniform — dress, decorated with broad orange brad Mate 9: Engineer Train, Officer, 1812. ‘Organized between 1806 and 181 on the mode! of the artillery tain troops, the engineer train consisted ofa single battalion, with six war companies and one depot company. The companies normally served separately. supporting the sapperbatalions and the engineer “parks” (supply tains) of the major armies. ‘The train wore the same iron-gray uniform as the other tain toops but with the engineers” black facings i con {rast the arillerytrain’s dark blue ad the supply train's brown. This officer's facings are black velvet. ‘Mate 10: Engineer Train, Private, Field Uniform, 1812. ‘This driver still wears the old-style habit, issue of habit-vestes being incomplete. His white crossbelt supports the black cartridge box fr his carbine ammunition; his shor infantry saber hangs from his waisthe ‘The only picture of an engineer train trumpeter I have seen shows this sime uniform, witha broad white bra ‘on the lapels, cuffs, and collar and a buf waistcoat | Vs F | N 4 ( Boar 95 = Fons 23 Sipeurs-Sampire, OPhr grande tomee | Sapeur-Pompier, Sergeant, 112 k ‘Plate 11: Engineer Fireman, Officer Summer Full Dress, 1812. Parishad its frst municipal fre department in 1716; sometime before mid-century it acquired uniform resem bling the one the engncers would adopt in 1758. Iwas not until 1809, however, that Napoleon modernized and calarged the fre. pving ta paramiary stats. When parading wit ther oops firemen aways took the let of the line and the al ofthe carn, Plate 12: Engineer Fireman, 1st Sergeant, 1812. His insignia are those of an army Ist sergeant-—note that even the braid and tassels om his shor leggins are mixed red and gold. For active service he has removed the top-heavy fur crest from his helmet and pushed up its visor compare withthe preceding figure) fr beter visibility. “The Paris Fire Department's band wore the uniform of engineer enlisted men with showy epaulets (yellow strap, crescent piped with red, and red fringes) and red crests on thie helmets. Drummers had four broad white chevrons on cach sleeve and red "swallows nests Mate 13: Black Pioneers, Private, 1804, Ds ‘This battalion was organized in 1803 from Haitian prisoners of war, capured daring the swift French reconquest of that island in 1802. (Apparently they were combined with another battalion of blacks, the Chasseurs Africae which had been formed in France from West Indies blacks for service in the East Indies but had cen unable to sail) ‘This unit was issued muskets of inferioc quality it seems to have received shakos in 1806. As a special favor to its commanding officer Colonel Joseph Damingue, once an officer of his guides, Napoleon granted tan eagle, In Tate 1806, he transfered the bataion tothe Neapoitan Army where it became the Royal Afica (th) Regiment Plate 14 a aia ‘The mass of Spanish prisoners and deserters in France formed more than 30 pioneer battalions, which were wsed for work on roads, bridges, cousal fortifications, and farms. In 1812 a com! Spanish Pioneers, Prioate, Fatigue Uniform. 1812. Same color. The Spaniards in combat pioneer units also had shakos. Their weapon was the short infantry ser (br ‘quet); only thee sergeants (wo-thirds of whom were French) had muskets and bayonet. Gendarmerie, Police, and Disciplinary Organizations Index Plate 1: Gendarmerie, Mounted Gendarme, Field Uniform, 1806, Plate 2: Gendarmerie, Foot Gendarme, 1812. Plate 3: Gendarmerie, lonian Islands, 1812. Plate 4: “Little Gendarmerie of Spain,” Foot Gendarmes, Corporal, 1810. Plate 5: “Little Gendarmerie of Spain.” Gendarme-Lancer, 1811 Plate 6; “Little Gendarmerie of Spain,” Legion of Burgos, 1810. Plate 7: Departmental Guards, Paris, Ist Company, Fusilier, 1809. Plate 8: Departmental Guards, 7th Legion, Fusilier, 1808. Plate 9: Departmental Guards, 33rd Legion, Fusilir, 1811 Plate 10: Guard of Paris, 1st Regiment, Colonel, 1810. \: Guard of Paris, 1st Regiment, Grenadier, 1808. Guard of Paris, 2nd Regiment, Voltigeur, 1807. Guard of Paris, Fusilier, 1812. Guard of Paris, 2nd Dragoon Company, 1812. 5: Guard of Paris, Ist Dragoon Company, Trumpeter, 1809, Customs Service, 1812. Plate 17: Customs Service, Mounted Detachments, Brigadier, 1812. Plate 18: Customs Service, Field Uniform, 1813. Plate 19: Forest Guard, 1812. Plate 20: Rural Constabulary, Department of Seine and Oise, (no date), Plate 21: Colonial Battalion, Fuslier, 1803, Plate 22: Ist Colonial Battalion, Voltigeur, 1808. Plate 23: Ist Colonial Battalion, Fusilier Company Drummer, (no date) Plate 24: Draft Dodgers Training Unit, 1809. Gendarmerie, Police, and Disciplinary Organizations ‘The development of effective police forces, especially municipal police, had barely begun in the early ‘ineteenth century. France had an assortment of law enforcement agencies, the most important of ‘hich was the Gendarmerie Impériale—a paramilitary national constabulary, which also functioned as ‘military police with the field armics. Customs enforcement, which might include the interception of enemy spies, was the duty of the Corps de Douanes. Gardes Forestiers patrolled the national forests; Gardes Maritimes* patrolled the coastal areas. Rural districts had their own Gardes Champétres; cities, had various—and usually inefficient—types of civilian police. To give these organizations some quickly available military backup, Napoleon formed a “Municipal Guard of Paris” in 1802 and départemental reserve companies in 1805, Behind these would be the ‘National Guard and units of limited service veterans." For those soldiers who fell foul of military justice, there were two types of disciplinary units: pun- ‘shment units of varying degrees of severity, which were employed on civilian and military construc tion projects, and rehabilitation units for apprehended draft dodgers (réfractaires), designed to make {good and willing soldiers of them. ‘The uniforms of these organizations varied from that of the gendarmerie (which remained almost tunchanged during the Revolution, Consulate, Empire, and final Bourbon restoration) through that of the Paris Guard (which had one major change), to those of the minor police units (which remain largely ‘unknown), *Unfortunately these are not represented in this collection a Goat Gemormerie @ cheval, petit Tenue , 1806 | Gotta PE Gerdarm @ pied, 1812 Plate 1: Gendarmerie, Mounted Gendarme, Field Uniform, 1806. His wniform while on constabulary duty in France would resemble that shown by the next figure (with boots in place of lepgins and his sigilletes instead of epaulets). Gendarmes always wore their chapeaus em baile (cross- wis): the aiguilletes wom by mounted gendarmes were a further distinction, generally limited othe gendarmerie and the Imperial Guard cavalry and staff. Captains and lieutenants wore a fringed silver epaulet on the right shout: der. Some contemporary sketches show mounted gendarmes on military police duty wearing blue or gray pantalons 8 cheval Plate 2: Gendarmerie, Foot Gendarme, 1812. ‘Chamois-coloed breeches and waistcoats were another distinctive feature of the gendarmerie's uniform. (The lat ter does not show under this 1812 habitveste.) Like grenades, foot gendarmes had scarlet epaulets, plumes, and ‘sword knots—aiguilletes would have fumished drunk and disorderly soldars too convenient a handhold on a ge darme attempting 1o take them into custody! The blve cuff and caf Map, braided with scarlet, are according tothe 1812 regulation. Previously, as shown by contemporary pictures, the cuffs had been red. Goitel MI Site Gendarmerie creme Saypenir 8 ate Plate 3: Gendarmerie, lonian Islands, 1812. Tis special detachment of gendarmerie was formed for police duty onthe lonian (Septinsulie) Islands. Having witha mixre of Greeks and rencgade Albania they were heavily armed. Fr some reason, posi Iscause they were locally recruited, they were ised shakos in place of the Pench gendarmes” chapeau Tht facing color was specitid a ponce (poppy ce lame colored red. Plate 4: “Little Gendarmerie of Spain,” Foot Gendarmes, Corporal, 1810. __ Following the French occupation of Spain in 1808, Napoleon formed a Gendarmerie Espagne, nicknamed the *Litle Gendarmerie” wo guard and pol the main ond tcept forthe unexplained ferences inthe epaulets and sword knot, this isthe atonal fot gendarme’ Aniform including the buff and white cronsbelts. On occasion the beeches and lggins were replaced by bide Afowses over short black or white leggins. Drummers scem to hve worn this same uniform, ornamented aly with Iwaad white bad onthe colar and ets sGrcier-Gendarm en Expagne, 1811 ‘Plate 5: “Little Gendarmerie of Spain,” Gendarme-Lancer, 1811. As part of an 1810 reorg in the “Legion of Burgos.” The scem to have particularly dreaded ofthe “Lite Gendarmerie.” most of the mounted gendarmes wi 3 were reuniformed and equipped with lances—a weapon that t Spaniards is uniform in reversed colors—red coat faced with bive, with broad white lace on the cuts sof the Trumpeters wore and collar. Waistcoat and trousers were blue. Some sources show a narrow red braid around the Schabrague ‘Plate 6: “Little Gendarmerie of Spain,” Legion of Burgas, 1810. Made up ofthe unmarried mounted gendarmes, this “legion” (gendarmerie equivalent of reg ‘was base atthe city of Burgos in northern Spain, where it soon became famous Te retained the tradi are & cheval were replaced—at least at times as hereby epaulets. (Unit records show tl tes, whic from France.) This gendarme wears his overcoat in a horseshoe rll fo protection agains sword cuts and ballets Garre Deparlemenitale de Charente , 1808 (1 dion) T:-Departmental Guards, Pars, lst Company, Fusilier, 1809. Pats ares had baalion of departmental guards. Their original sky bloc uniforms were changed to white in those companies that had white facings were avsigned sky bv. Shakos pradally replaced chapeaus during OB asthe later wore ot. Weapons and equipment wer thos of ine infant Tis parde’s showy epaulets, bique,shako plate, and all plume are nonregulation—undoubedly added by the eat the Sein for greater show atl pret ‘8: Departmental Guards, 7th Legion, ppacentel G ‘gt din 1805 the Réserve Departemental consisted of one infantry « ‘of an American state), its strength varying according to the depar were grouped by f cach of which had a distinctive arrangement of facing col the 7ih, 14th, 21st, and 28th legions had black facings—but the [4th had only black collars and lapels the black cuffs and lapels, and the 28th back lapels. Companies also could be distinguished by thee buttons, {aid the name of ther respective departments ny in each département (he French is’ size and population, ‘Plate 9: Departmental Guards, 33nd Legion, Fusilier, 1811. es Because the départements supplied the uniforms of their respective companies. considerable variation was inevitable Here the only nonrepulation item is the white shako cords, but some departments gave thet companies _reen or gray coats on occasion. Departmental guards seem to have retained beeches and high legins longer than ‘as common inthe fel armies bat were put nto white osers and shor legins afer 1812. Drummers generally wore reverse colors—thus those of 19th Legion in 1808 had bright orange coats faced with sky ble. ‘Plate 10: Guard of Paris, ist Regiment, Colonel, 1810. es Formed in 1802 asthe “Municipal Guard of Paris" from picked veterans, it consisted of two infantry regiments and 2 squadron of dragoons, under the contro! of the civilian authorities ofthe Seine Department. In 1806 Napoleon enamed it the “Guard of Pars” and made it definitely apart of the French Army. I was considered an elite organi “ation and drew extra pay {1808 its infantry regiments were put ito white uniforms. the It Regiment with green facings, the 2nd with ve, Boel AS Shfurteric Dela Garde d Paris, 2° Reyiment, 1807 1°° Regt, Grenadier, 1208 ‘adieu Plate 11: Guard of Paris, 1st Regiment, Grenadier, 1808. Except for thir special colors, the uniforms and equipment ofthe Paris guardsmen were the same as those of line infantry: War battalions” (bataillons de guerre) from the guard frequently served with the field armies, usually dis svishing thermclscs ate 12: Guard of Paris, nd Regiment, Vleigeur, 1807 hese two repiments were known to Parisians as “The Greens” and “The Reds.” Aer 1808 thir voligewr” white Uniforms had yellow collars; for flldress voigeus had bearskin cas (without a cap plate) and yellow-tpped igeen plumes. One picture ofa comet of a 2nd Regiment voligear company shows a bright blue coat wih fed alls, lps and ining the collars yellow, epaulets ar yellow with a prec fringe, and cuffs lapels and colar Ane edged with goken-yllow lac. His comet cords mined yellow and green a or Plate 13: Guard of Paris, Fusiler, 1812. In 1812 the two infantry regimens were comoidated ino one, which retained the Ist Regimens uniform. ‘October it was converted to the [34th Repiment of lin infantry. ‘Plate 14: Guard of Paris, 2nd Dragoon Company, 1812. ‘Compare to the infantry regiments, he dragoons ofthe Paris Guard were pinky dresed. Nowe that while thir ‘weapus and equipment and the style of their uniforms were the same as the regular dragoon regiments’ they had a lighter type of boot. Plate 15: Guard of Pars, 1st Dragoon Company, Trumpeter, 1809. Me ove distinction herween the two companies was thatthe 1s had an all-scuret plume and the 2nd scarlet and Hack This is varian of reversed colors, sky blve being used inscad of gray cause of is more effective contrast ‘with. Plate 16: Customs Service, 1812. IAs armed service of the Finance Ministry, this Corps de Dowanes had definite police powers. Besides enforcing festomns regulations i waged war on imercepted spies, periodically lashed with British coastal raids, nd reinforced the gendarmerie sn emergencies Dowaniers provided their own weapons and wniforms; i 1806 they were issued infantry muskets but had to pay Hor them, In 1808 a citizen of Luncburg, Germany, noted the passage ofa detachment “in dark green with muskets land sabers and black crosbelts" All lace was white (silver fr officer) Gost 5 Deueanes Tapreniales,, Brigadier «2 cperal, 1812 Douonter enTJenue de campagne, 1815 J ‘Plate 17: Customs Service, Mounted Detachments, Brigadier, 1812. [Asin the gendarmerie, the basic unit of the Customs Service was the “brigade,” consisting of « “brigadier” and five toseven dowanicrs.(UValike the brigadier in Army mounted units who ranked with infantry corporal, gendarmerie and customs brigadier. were considered noncommissioned officers and s0 men of consequence.) Mounted brigades were estential for eoasial patrol. Note the hussar-style breeches and. boots, which give thei uniform a touch of swank their foot slogging comrades could only envy ‘Plate 18: Customs Service, Field Uniform, 1813. Because of his urgent need for trained men after his heavy losses in Russia during 1812, Napoleon formed most of his owaniers ino infantry battalions and transfered them to the Army. Clothing and equipment became stems of “This ex dowanier as white trousers for summer wear. For cold weather green breeches and short leggins were retained. One source shows their shakos ornamented with broad green braid in the same fashion that grenadicrs shakos were with red. The marking onthe from of this man’s shako cover probably is his unit designation. Gast OS Garde Forestier, 1812 Garde-fanpitre, Dept. de Seine et Oise Plate 19: Forest Guard, 1812. Like the Customs Service, the Administration of Waters and Forests was under the supervision of the Finance Ministry. Gardes Foresters therefore were uniformed in greea, much like the dowaniers, green being Finance's cer ‘Originally they were issued only a coat (the cost of which was deducted from their pay) and a briquet However, because they often had to work with gendarmes of local police, they soon were given shotguns, which later were replaced by military muskets. In 1814, they served as light infantry or garrison troops, Kite has omitted the garde’s white-metal eagle badge, which was wom either om his left breast or sword bel. Mate 20: Rural Constabulary Department of Seine and Oise, (no date). ‘The Gandes Champétres were local constables, established ia 1795 to patrol rural areas and minor villages too small 19 have their own police (gardiens de la pals). They were appointed by civil authorities, who probably spe fied their wiforms and weapons. In 1814 Gardes Champtires and Gardes Foresters inthe southern department of Landes formed a “fanket" ‘uit for scouting and outpost service with Marshal Soult’ army. Plate 21: Colonial Battalion, Fusilir, 1803. Originally holding units for military offenders and rejects until they could be shipped overseas as replacements for the garrisons of France's tropical colonies these were reorganized as infantry battalions in 1803 and assigned grr son and labor service om various unbcalthy islands along the French coast. ‘Their uniform was originally ordered to be grayish beige. but all pictures show a type of gris de fer (iron gray the exact shade possibly varying from one uniform issue wo the nex) faced with red—a good-looking uniform, but ako one easly recognized by prowling gendarmes and anxious maxhers, This is summer dress with its loose shite trousers the fasilicecais his squad's stew pan on his pack Plate 22: 1st Colonial Battalion, Voltigeur, 1808. ‘Though a disciplinary unit, the Ist Colonial Battalion had handsomely uniformed elite companies, at leat until 1810. Is grenadier company had tll red plumes and red pompons, epaulets, sword knots, and shako cords Fasiliers had ordinary iron-gray shoulder straps piped with re, white shako cords, and a tall dark blue (possibly black) plume with «red tip. They were not issued Briguets and x0 ad ony the ne erossbelt for cartridge box and bayonet scabbard. In 1808, another voltigeur is shown inthis sare uniform but witha bright, medium blue coat snd black legion Plate 23: 1st Colonial Battalion, Fuslier Company Drummer, (no date) Tess srcher mance of gris defer shown in several pictures of colonial batalons. The uniform bs single bat setatatonly “ifference” from those ofthe fusiliers by is broad white riding and ve swale set Shouler. The brass tubes on the drum ling are for carrying thee In 1810 Napolcon ordered that ony the Ist Company of cach cole Were tobe fsued engineer tools and wed as labor oops, Plate 24: Draft Dodgers Training Unit, 1809. Zhe French Army had a very effective stick-and-carot weatment for tuning apprehended draft dodger (rr fares ino willing sors. Their uniforms were adequate but very pain: thet only headgear was the onde cd fatigoe cap (bonnet de police), and they were not isved bayonet. This was combined with scmi-isolation, reduced pay, hard drilling and hard work on fori ations, and the ministrations ofa fim but fatherly cade