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Final Project : Large eEnsemble Aarrangement: Solo Ssection (Part 2)


In this lesson, we will talk about specific ways to build and decrease the intensity levels
in our arrangements. To see examples of these techniques, Wwe will listen to and follow
a score excerpt from my chart on for Walkin Up Hip Street,, a tune by Tower Oof
Power to see examples of these techniques.

We will also discuss some the characteristics of two very exciting contemporary jazz
writers, Bob Mintzer and Matt Harris.

We will look at some excerpts from a couple of Bob Mintzers compositions and
/arrangements, and discuss some of his harmonization and voicing choices, as well as.
Well also touch on some of his arrangement considerations, such as secondary focus
treatments of the solo section.

Matt Harris has written arrangements for the Maynard Ferguson Bband, as well as
manyand has published jazz- ensemble arrangements and music for movies and
television. We will listen to parts of one of Matts compositions, The Last Dive,
recorded by the Maynard Ferguson Bband. Then well, construct a verbal sketch, and use
it (along with one of Bob Mintzers compositions) as a role models for one of our
arranging exercises.

You will then continue your arrangement by creating a solo section with secondary focus
treatments by for different sections of the band. You may iIf you wish, you may use the
role- model sketch score exercise above as the basis of your secondary focus treatment,
or you may discard that exercise and create something new. The role- modeling activity
is to be used when the arranger is blocked and needs something to keep the creativity

Before the next lesson, you should complete your solo section with an idea of what will
follow so that you can treat the last eight measures of the solo section to help lead
smoothly into the next section.

This promises to be another full week of listening, observing, and writing, so lets get to

Building to a Cclimax

In our last lesson, we talked about finding your hook something that in some cases
will be the centerpiece of your chart. In my arrangement of Walkin Up Hip Street by
the band Tower oOf Power, I consider the solo section (particularly, the second solo
section) to be the centerpiece of the chart.

The arrangement was written for the University of Miami Concert Jazz Band, and the
only input I received from the director, Whit Sidener, was to keep it in the same groove
as the original and maintain the small group funk flavor as much as possible.

When you are writing an arrangement in this type of feel, you must understand that this
music is historically associated with the textures and arrangement features of the small
group as opposed to jazz- swing grooves, with which the big band has a long, rich

Some writers (Jay Chattaway, Adrian Drover, and Jeff Steinberg immediately come to
mind , with their arrangements for the Maynard Ferguson 70s s 70s bands) have
effectively incorporated big- band writing concepts such as shout choruses and sectional
interplay into their music. This is difficult to do to makeMaking the arrangement sound
fresh and uncontrived within the context of the modern funk grooves is difficult.
The other approach is to discard those big -band conventions and make more of a studio -
orchestra enhancement of the original format, keeping intact as many of the small-
group arrangement features as possible.

In Walkin Up Hip Street, I have chosen to take the second approach. The melodic
presentation is essentially a magnified version of the original 5five-piece horn section,
with additional horns (particularly the trombone section) duplicating the functions of the
rhythm section in some places. Without certain big- band arrangement features to rely
upon (like shout choruses or sax solis), I decided that the solo section of this arrangement
was the place where I could really make a statement that would make this treatment of
the song stand apart from the original. Here is the intro and head of the tune.

Audio insert: Walkin Up Hip Street/University of Miami Concert Jazz Band


There are two solos in this arrangement. The first immediately follows the melodic
presentation. Introduced by a sustained Dmin (add 9) chord by the trombone section, the
first solo section opens up to feature the alto sax soloist in a Dorian mode setting of four
measures of Dmin7 followed by four measures of G7. Like the original TOP Tower of
Power version of this song, there is no secondary focus behind the soloist during this
section. On cue, a new section is introduced that brings in a new harmonic setting of four
measures of Bb7sus followed by four measures of Ab7sus. This section features the
soloist continuing over punches by the trombone section/baritone sax and trumpet/sax
section countermelody figures. This is a very simple, but and effective secondary focus
treatment and development. It is not however, very climactic.

Insert 11-1
Audio insert: Walkin Up/U of M CJB

The second solo begins with the same 3three-note motif that begins (and ends) many of
the sections of this song. After that, the soloist is left with the rhythm section to play over
the 4four-measure Dmi7, 4four-measure G7 vamp. It is optional for the soloist to open
up this section, but given the lengthy duration of this solo I often suggest that this
open section be relegated to a total of no more than 16 measures before the secondary
focus begins. I also advise the musical director to tell his soloist to begin slowly, and not
to get too busy or passionate too soon, because there is a long way to go in the
emotional contour of this solo section.

At letter E, the trombone section is cued in (there are also cues for the saxes to double
the three voices in use) behind the sax soloist. The harmony is simple, passing G and F
triads over the Dmi7 tonality. The baritone sax functions independently here, answering
the figures played by the trombones. The independent bari- sax function is a common
characteristic of the band, Tower Oof Power. Overall, the intensity level is now a notch
higher from the previous open section, but still relatively low , with lots of room to

At the same time (letter E), two trumpets (4 & 5) begin a unison part that duplicates the
sustained notes played by the organ in the original. The trumpets maintain the same note
for four measures and then slowly climb the scale until they are holding a concert D that
will persist for another twelve 12 measures! Now, tThis is an impossible request, and the
trumpeters are instructed to stagger their breathing* in order to make the note sound

Staggered breathing means to agree not to take breaths at the same time, which Formatted: Font: Italic
should result in no breaks in the sound.

You may have also noticed that I left out trombone 1 during the first eight measures of
this section. The reason, was to allow trombone 1 to enter in the ninth measure with
plenty of energy to keep that countermelody vital. The figure is written in the
trombones upper middle register, and is very busy and punctuated. After a number of
repetitions, the performer will tire., tTherefore, it makes sense to split this line with the
second trombone (it also gives trombone 2 the chance to play the lead role for a while,
something that will keep the performer even more engaged).

In the ninth measure of E, the trumpet section highlights the punches in the first three
notes of the trombone figure. This develops the background, and bumps up the intensity
level another notch.

In the section described as E1, there is a surprise. Instead of the expected four measures
of G7, the harmony changes to Eb maj7. The horn section plays what is essentially a pad
function while the rhythm section instruments (keys, guitar, and bass) play a 2two-part
harmonized countermelody figure under the keyboard solo. Because of the surprise
nature of this section, and because of the subito piano/crescendo effect in the horns, the
intensity subsides a bit here, allowing for more building in subsequent sections. While
this is happening, the two trumpets still are holding the note D,. Sstaggering their
breathing, with no crescendo or decrescendo. This in itself is a very subtle intensity

E2 brings another harmonic surprise an Emi7(b5) chord, with a sharp accent and
fall by the horn section followed by a crescendo (this effect is commonly referred to as
sforzando). The lead note here is D, the same note held throughout the previous Formatted: Font: Italic
12 measures. Immediately following, there is another similar figure, only in a much
higher tessitura in the brass and on a much tenser chord, the A7 altered. The
intensity build here is significant.

The F section leads us into the real climax of the chart. This begins with the unison
saxes playing a figure that sustains a concert D throughout the entire 8eight-measure
section. At the same time, the trumpets play a harmonized figure that is highlighted by
the trombones below. This is a reverse technique of what happened a little earlier where
the trumpets highlighted the first three notes of the trombone figure. Its a Ssubtle, but
impactful development.

This effect only lasts for 4 four measures, at which point, the brass section changes their
melodic function to one in a higher register that is more imposing. The harmonization is
once again triadic (much cleaner and more in character of the funk style) and the
trombones couple the trumpet voicings an octave lower. The saxes are still sustaining the
unison D while the bari sax plays an independent answering figure to the brass. The
physical expenditure of the saxophonists, trying to maintain that note to the very end is a
very real (and intended) component of the climax-buildingbuilding the climax. I want the
audience to see the faces beginning to turn purple and feel the strain along with the saxes.

When the section at G arrives, the climax has been reached. Even though the soloist
still has eight measures to go, the intensity backs off dramatically at this point. Another
subtle but important effect that releases the climax is the lead trumpet note (A) that
begins each of the last 4 four phrases and also serves as the first lead note of the G
section (functioning as the 13th of the C7sus chord). Listen to this section and follow the
score excerpt a couple of times to pick up some of these subtle complexities.

Insert: 11-2

Audio insert: Walkin Up Hip Street/ U of M CJB


The music of Matt Harris

As I mentioned at the beginning of this lesson, Matt Harris is a prolific composer/ and
arranger in the world of published jazz- ensemble music, as well as the television and
movie industries. I first became aware of Matts music when I happened to hearheard one
of his compositions on a University of Miami recording, Piccadilly Lily.. The His Formatted: Font: Italic
song, The Last Dive, was one of many compositions on the recording that inspired me
to learn more about jazz writing, which prompted me to pursue my Masters Degree in
Studio-Jazz Writing at the University of Miami. Maynard Ferguson must have liked
Matts compositions (and playing) as well. He hired Matt to play keyboards in his band
and used several of Matts arrangements (including The Last Dive) on some of his
albums. Soon, you will get the opportunity to be similarly inspired as we follow along
with an excerpt of The Last Dive..

Matt, although very proficient in the jazz swing style, is very accomplished in modern
funk, fusion, and Latin styles. His composition The Last Dive is a funky rock-shuffle
blues that features the lead alto saxophonist (although on the U of M recording, tenor
saxophonist Ed Calle was featured) throughout most of the arrangement. I can imagine a
soloist with a style similar to David Sanborn being very effective on this chart.

To me, the hook occurs right at the beginning of the arrangement. The intro, which is
used again as the ending, grabs the listener immediately. It is merely a step-wise
sequence of chords that implies II-7 to V7, but the common- tone lead note and the call-
and -response effect between the soloist and the ensemble is very memorable.

Audio insert: The Last Dive/University of Miami Concert Jazz Ensemble


Matt uses pretty conventional voicings, not overly laden with tensions, as you can see
from the example below. The voicings are well structured, well orchestrated, and very
clear to the listener.

Insert: 11-3

The melody is first presented by the unison trombones (only two2 of four4, for proper
balance) and tenors, very much like the Crusaders sound. The unison saxes
then complete the A -section melody while the trombones (all 4four) and bari support
the SCR in the rhythm section.

Audio insert: Last Dive/U of M


The second A section features the sax section harmonized with the unison trumpets
providing a countermelody answer for the first four measures. As the harmonic
progression moves to the IV chord, Matt uses the trombone section to augment the
rhythm section which makes the transition even stronger. The three sections then merge
in the fifth and sixth measures to provide a strong melodic statement that is echoed
somewhat by the written keyboard comp in the next measure. This skillfully leads to a
nice culmination of this section with the bari leading into a trombone/rhythm section
SCR, immediately followed by unison sax statements answered by unison trumpet
statements finishing with a flurry of bluesy triplet figures to end this section.

Insert: 11-4

Audio insert: Last Dive/U of M


The B section of the head is all big band, a brass dominant opening theme that is
basically all SCR with a very well orchestrated and harmonized melody that is centered
around the common tone F (like the intro). Behind this is the saxophone section,
playing unison countermelodies and then a unison triplet figure that explodes into
harmony on the final long note (also with a concert F lead note). This is a wonderful
effect, and enhanced by the stylistic and tastefully executed vibrato by the U of M saxes.
This too (the vibrato) is something that can be suggested by the arranger. The section
ends with more interplay between the brass and saxes, concluding with another climbing
triplet figure in the saxes and a dramatic crescendo and high note in the brass.

Insert 11-5

Audio insert: Last Dive/U of M


The last A section of the song form reverts back to the melodies and arrangement
structures of the first A section, with a reduction back to what is essentially a blues
progression, leading to a big climactic moment in the last two measures before the solo

Insert 11-6

Audio insert: Last Dive/U of M


The intro and first head are clear examples of Matts ability to blend big -band
techniques into the modern rock-shuffle style. There are also many good examples of
raising and lowering the intensity level throughout.

Building the solo section

This arrangement features the sax soloist. Immediately following the presentation of the
head, the solo section begins with the sax soloist playing over the modified blues changes
in the rhythm section. The big reduction in horns lowers the intensity and leaves lots of
room to build.

On cue, the unison-octave trombones play three 2two-measure countermelody figures

that leaves room for both the soloist (the first time through this passage) and answering
figures by the unison saxes in the next chorus. In the final two measures of the chorus,
the rhythm section anticipates each chord. This SCR will be joined by the full brass
section on the repeat of this chorus.

Insert: 11-7

In the third chorus of the background figures, the saxes and trombones continue to play
what they have in the previous chorus, but this time the trumpet section plays a new
harmonized figure against the unison sax figure. Keep in mind that the soloist is at in
full throttle at this point too! This cacophonous effect is corralled in the final four
measures of this section when the horns all join together to recreate the climactic figure
played at the end of the head.

Insert: 11-8

Audio insert: Last Dive/U of M


Here is a verbal sketch of the solo sectionSolo Section Verbal Sketch

Chorus 1: Alto sax improvised solo (primary focus) with rhythm section

Chorus 2: Alto continues. Secondary focus is unison trombone line (3 three groups of
2two-measure statements) ending with SCR in rhythm section (last two measures).

Chorus 3: Alto solo continues. Trombone figures are repeated. Unison sax
countermelody is introduced that answers the trombone line. The full brass builds on the
SCR in the last two measures.

Chorus 4: Alto continues. Trombone and sax countermelodies repeat, this time with
harmonized trumpets (new figure) along with saxes. In the last four measures, all horns
join together to play a harmonized (SCR) climbing line that builds to the same climax
reached just before the solo section.

The remainder of The Last Dive begins with a vamp over F7sus. This section builds
with an improvised guitar solo followed by several layers of secondary focus. These
additions lead to a recapitulation of the B section of the song form. Following that, the
final A section is reintroduced, but with a surprise twist a modulation of a whole
step. Modulation is always an intensity builder, and modulation is rare in groove-
oriented arrangements of this type therefore this was an effective arrangement decision.
The one downside is that the key change to G major requires that the final climax of
the song take the lead trumpet player to a high concert G as the final note. The previous
cadences to the high F are very demanding too, but the G note (A on the trumpet) can be
accomplished effectively by only a few trumpeters. It is possible (and advisable) for
groups to play this arrangement with the lead- trumpet high notes played down an octave,
but the arrangement will definitely lose some of the intended intensity without the high

Audio insert: The Last Dive/ U of M


The album Piccadilly Lily by the University of Miami Concert Jazz Band may be out Formatted: Font: Italic
of print and may not be available for purchase. A somewhat reduced (in
instrumentation) version of The Last Dive is on the Maynard Ferguson album Body Formatted: Font: Italic
And Soul.

Discussion: We have been discussing different ways of building to a climax in an

arrangement. What are some other methods of raising and lowering intensity? Please post
your responses for all.

The mMusic of Bob Mintzer

Bob Mintzers Wweb site probably says it best when it describes him simply as a man
who lives many musical lives.. As a performer, he has played with practically everyone
of note in his career. For the last twenty years, he has been the front line (mainly tenor
saxophone) voice of Tthe Yellowjackets. Concurrently, Bob fronts his big band and is
an in-demand guest soloist and sideman. As an educator, he has several published books
and arrangements on a variety of topics and in many different musical styles , mostly
jazz-related. For the past several years he has been the Chair of the University of
Southern California Jazz Department.

As a writer, Bob has established himself as a very distinctive, creative artist of the highest
order. I first became acquainted with Bobs compositions when he was a sideman with
the Buddy Rich Orchestra in the mid-1970s. Not long after his association with Rich, he
began to produce his own big -band albums, my personal favorites being Spectrum and Formatted: Font: Italic
Urban Contours, both recorded in the late 80s. Formatted: Font: Italic

Mintzer is a first-rate composer, but he also creates great arrangements of the works from
other composers. The albums Homage To Basie, Big Band Trane and Art Of The Formatted: Font: Italic
Big Band are prime examples of his interpretive skills. Formatted: Font: Italic

Equally at home with a straight eighth or sixteenth -note groove as with a jazz swing
setting, Mintzer has several characteristics that I associate with his writing style.

1. He explores contemporary grooves. Funk (8th Avenue March), Samba (The Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5"
Happy Song) and Salsa (Frankies Tune) are important components of the Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
Bob Mintzer Big Band bookbig band book.
2. He uses common contemporary voicing structures including upper structure
triads over dominant seventh chords, sus-2 upper structures, quartal voicings,
and cluster voicings.
3. He uses shifting, harmonic textures over a pedal point to create tension -
release and intensity.
4. He will search for a unique way to present a simple concept (as in the intro to
The Heart Of The Matter , discussed later)
5. His melodies are often very diatonic and hook oriented, but the underlying
harmony is often more dissonant, often with unusual bass motion.
6. Mintzer likes to write horn section chorales without rhythm -section
accompaniment. His compositions Mr. Funk and Heart Of The Matter
begin with these types of chorales; his composition, The Happy Song,
features an a -cappella section after the presentation of the head.
7. Mintzer frequently uses the trombone section as a comping feature (Mr.
Funk,, 8th Avenue March)
8. Mintzer likes to feature the bass trombone as the bottom of the ensemble, and
gives the bass bone very demanding (as well as independent-function) parts
at times.
9. Mintzer likes to use contrapuntal effects. There is heavy layering between
sections in many of his arrangements.
10. Bob Mintzer epitomizes the concept of proper balance in the arrangement
form. For every simple idea, there is something complex. There are louds and
softs, highs and lows, solo versus ensemble, etc.

The Heart Of The Matter

The Heart Of The Matter is a Bob Mintzer composition recorded on for the album
Spectrum. The intro, is a chorale, a feature of many of Mintzers arrangements. The Formatted: Font: Italic
introIt is composed of three very simple melodic phrases. Centered in the key of F major,
the first phrase is an F triad up and down. The second phrase could be described as an
extension of the first phrase, arpeggiating the F triad from the third of the chord to the
ninth and back. The final phrase repeats the first phrase, but ends by adding the second

Insert: 11-9

As I stated before, simplicity in Mintzers music is almost always coupled with

complexity elsewhere. Notice how he takes these simple themes, and harmonizes them
with very rich, dissonant chords. On beat three 3 of the third measure, the chord is pure
Ionian, containing every note of the F major scale (interestingly , the root is not
introduced to this chord until the rhythm section is added on beat one 1 of measure four4)

Insert: 11-10

Insert audio: The Heart Of The Matter/ Bob Mintzer Big Band (from Spectrum) Formatted: Font: Italic

Another surprising twist is how Mintzer simplifies the intro melody, by presenting it
again, this time with the solo alto saxophone playing a developed (modified) version of
the first intro, accompanied by the trombone section as harmonic support. Here, there is a
more clearly defined chord progression, but with rich, modern sounding voicings

1. A sus-2 upper structure in the first measure. The chord is Bb sus2 (added 6), Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5"
the upper structure is an F sus2 (trombones 1-3). Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
2. A quartal voicing of an F/A chord in measure two.
3. A conventional G min voicing in measure 3, but with an independent moving
voice in the third trombone.
4. The fourth measure returns to the tonic chord, but in first inversion, using the
same voicing in measure one (the F sus2 upper structure in trombones 1-3)
with a different bass note.
5. Measure five features the D min11 and F/A chords, voiced in fourths.
6. The final three measures features very conventional chords and voicings.
Nnotice how the bass trombone is assigned the low C below the bass clef... ,
another Mintzer characteristic.
7. Also notice how this section leads to a third part of the intro, a short vamp on
the F add2 chord, before the melody arrives.

Insert: 11-11

Audio insert: Heart./Bob Mintzer


The melody of the intro reappears at the very end of the chart, in a most unusual way.
Using the intro as ending material is a common practice in many arrangements, but
Mintzer once again, couples predictability with a surprise for the listener. Notice how,that
as the rhythm section vamps on the F sus2 chord, the dissonant chords of the first intro
are cued in a very rubato fashion. The juxtaposition of steady time and the out -of - Formatted: Font: Italic
time presentation of the horn ensemble is a perfect example of the duality present in a
lot of the writing of Bob Mintzer.

Audio insert: Heart/Bob Mintzer


Copyright restrictions prevent us from viewing and listening to the entire chart and
recording, but I encourage you to buy a copy of this recording* and listen to how this
composition embodies a lot of the characteristics described above, also including

1. How the bass bone functions independently from trombones 1-3 during the Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5"
melodic presentation Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
2. The clustery voicing of the saxophone section in the eight measures prior
to the solo section.
3. How the trumpet, sax and trombone sections introduce three separate
melodies at different times during the chart tvery thick, contrapuntal
The full score of this (and Mr. Funk, discussed below) may also be available
from Kendor Music.

Mr. Funk

Below, you will see another example of Mintzers chorale -style writing. The opening
chord to Mr. Funk (from the Spectrum album) is typical of Mintzers preference for Formatted: Font: Italic
thick harmony. The 6th sixth and major seventh maj 7th are both present in the chord, and
notice in the bass clef, the close positioning of the 5th, 6th and 7thfifth, sixth, and seventh.
The passing chords in the first measure are diatonic, the min7 minor seven chords voiced
conventionally and the maj7 chords again including both the 6th and 7thsixth and seventh.

On beat two 2 of the second measure, he supports the E in the melody with a Bb Lydian
chord (an Amin7 upper structure over Bb maj7 #11, 13) leading to a B7 altered chord. In
the next few measures, he uses upper -structure triad voicings almost exclusively,
sometimes doubling the lead trumpet note an octave lower, sometimes not.

Again, you can see Mintzers use of the bass trombone as the bottom of the ensemble,
and as an independent voice in measure five5.

Insert: 11-12

Audio insert: Mr. Funk/Bob Mintzer


A prime example of Mintzers duality is evident in the melody to Mr. Funk. The 16-
measure melody is constructed over an F7 harmonic framework. The first (downbeat)
note of the melody is Bb , often thought of as an avoid note to many, but Mintzer
couldnt emphasize it more. He does resolve it immediately to the third, and later to the
flat third in a blues scale type of phrase. The harmonic support of this section features a
bass line (doubled in the bass trombone) that pedals the flat seven (Eb) while the
trombone section provides some passing triads based on the F Mmixolydian mode. A
Ssimple melody, but a complex accompaniment.

Insert: 11-13

Audio insert: Mr. Funk/B. Mintzer


The solo section to Mr. Funk begins unusually , with backgrounds and a
harmonic progression not strictly related to the melody. The form is still 16 measures and
is still basically in F.
The saxes and trombones are together for a large part of this section, providing punches
and pads behind the unison trumpet countermelody (to the improvised trombone solo, of
course). The interplay between the trumpets and saxes during the second eight measures
is especially effective. The next sixteen 16 measures allow the soloist to play with rhythm
section only (same progression) before the return of the same background figures that
introduced this section. A very subtle suggestion of the bluesy line (shown below) that
serves as a main theme of this composition (particularly in the ending) is found in half
notes by the saxes and trombones in the last four measures of the solo section.

Insert: 11-14

Insert: 11-15

Audio Insert: Mr. Funk/B. Mintzer


Mr. Funk is also recorded on the Spectrum Bob Mintzer Big Band album Spectrum. Formatted: Font: Italic

Role Mmodeling

We discussed defined role modeling in an earlier lesson as inserting preferences or Formatted: Font: Italic
characteristics of a particular artist in your composition. Role modeling can also be
applied to arranging.
This technique is useful when you are struggling for ideas of how to proceed in an
arrangement. Basically, what you do is copy the arrangement form of a model. If the
first solo is a tenor sax with rhythm section for one chorus (or form section), followed by
a 2-measure trombone countermelody background that develops over the next chorus,
followed by unison saxes that answer the trombone statement then you have role
modeled the first three choruses to the solo section of The Last Dive that we looked at
earlier in the lesson.

Role modeling wont help you create the melodies you choose, because your song wont
be exactly the same as The Last Dive, but the point of the exercise is to get you to start
writing. What usually occurs, is that your own creativity emerges and takes you in
different directions than the role model chart and no one will know that you used an
artificial stimulus to get you going.


Heres an activity to try Use the solo sections of The Last Dive or Mr. Funk as role
models. Choose a song from one of The the New Real Book or Worlds Greatest Formatted: Font: Italic
Fakebook volumes and construct a solo section (two or three line sketch score form: Formatted: Font: Italic
lead lines, chord changes, no voicings) that is based on one of those two songs. When
Formatted: Font: Italic
you are finished, you can post these for me feedbackand for everyones comments. If you
are pressed for time, and if it works for your current arrangement, you may consider this
process for your final project arrangement that you are currently working on. You may
even consider this process, working from a different role model to spark some new ideas
for your solo section. Or, you can bypass this exercise entirely if that is your wish and
concentrate on ideas you have in mind for your solo section and just work on that. Im
not going to penalize you for doing that, but I do want you to keep this technique in mind
for a time when you are in need.


Continue your arrangement by creating a solo section with secondary focus treatments by
different sections of the band. If you wish, Yyou may if you wish, use the role- model
sketch score exercise as the basis of your secondary focus, or you may create something

Before the next lesson, you should complete the solo section with an idea of what will
follow so that you can treat the last eight measures of the solo section to help lead
smoothly into the next section.

As usual, when you are finished, please post these for me, and for everyone.

Have fun!