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Day 3

Learning task lecture 1

1. Explain the classification, structure, and function of leucocyte!


2. Explain the formation of the leucocyte!
3. Explain the regulation of the leucocyte formation!
4. Explain the maturation of Lymphocyte!

Answer :

1. The leucocyte divide into 2 major group named Granulocyte and Agranulocyte. For the
Granulocyte, we divide it into 3 classification there are : Neutrophil , Eosinophil, and
Basophil. And for the Agranulocte we divide into two there are lymphocyte that been divide
into two (lymphocyte T and lymphocyte B) and Monocyte.

The structure and the functions are :


Neutrophil :
- bigger than Red blood cell
- Multi-lobus core (2-5)
- Early formation is unsegmented nucleus
- Function is are as the sign for acute infection and fagositize the bactery
- Life span is about 12-13 days
- Half of them goes to endothelial cell, and the other half goes to blood circulation.

Eosinophil

- The size is bigger than red blood cell


- Bilobus core
- Specific granule reddish orange colored
- Function are for reaction against unknown protein, if there is infection caused by
parasite and if there are allergy,cancer and specific medication
- 0 %-2% from white blood cell counts

Basophil

- The size is bigger than red blod cell


- Granule covered the core and dark bluish colored
- Granule contains of histamine, heparin, and hyaluronat acid.
- The function is has role in inflammation

Lymphocyte

- The core is nearly covered the plasma


- The cytoplasm is clear enough
- The function : a. T-cell : defense against foreign cell
b. B- cell : to form antibody (igG,igA,igM,igE,igD)
c. NK cell : the first one that comes out if there is tissue destruction.
Monocyte
- The core is kidney-shape
- As the agen for fagocyte
- The function is to fagocyte the pathogen, death tissue, and others

2. The formation of the leucocyte :

An HSC can enter one of two pathways; the lymphoid pathway or the myeloid pathway to form a
common lymphoid progenitor cell or a common myeloid progenitor cells, respectively. If it forms the
lymphoid progenitor, it can become either a B progenitor or T progenitor. The B progenitor forms a
mature B cell, while the T progenitor forms a thymocyte which leaves the bone marrow and enters
the thymus, where it differentiates to form a mature T cell (helper or cytotoxic).

If the HSC becomes a myeloid progenitor, it can become a )

granulocyte-monocyte progenitor, which forms a monocyte (which further differentiates


into a macrophage) or a neutrophil (and probably dendritic cells)
eosinophil progenitor, which forms an eosinophil
basophil progenitor, which forms the basophil (and very likely, mast cell)
megakaryocyte, which forms platelets
erythroid progenitor, which form erythrocytes (RBCs)

3. The regulation of leukocyte formation :


The regulation of leukocyte formation needs several growth factor. There are :
IL 1,3,6 is for maintaining the population
IL 6.11.12 is for granule
And there also special cytokines such as IL 1o to enhance T-cell, natural killer. And IL 2 to
stimulates cell T and natural killer.

4. The maturation of lymphocyte

As we know that lymphocyte grows from HSC that transform into CFU-Ly. And from that will
be divide into 2 (CFU- Ly B and CFU-Ly T), the CFU-LyB will goes to Bursa equivalent and will
become immunocompetent lymphosite B and the last will become lymphocyte B. and for
the CFU-Ly T will go to Thymus and grows into immunocompetent lymphocyte T and then
will become lymphocyte T. the mature lymphocyte located outside of the bone marrow, it
will be found in lymph node,lymphoid organ, and others.
Learning task lecture 2

1. Describe about trombopoiesis


2. Describe about the mechanism ofplatelets release
3. Describe about thrombocyte maturation
4. Describe about regulation of trombopoiesis

Answer :

1. Trombopoiesis is a process to produce trombocyte or platelets .


2. The mechanism of platelet release : as the megakaryocyte become mature by the
endomitotic replication, it will become bigger and the cytoplasm will become granular. At
this stage, invagination will be happen and demarcation membrane will showed up. At this
condition, some of the cytoplasm will be thorn off and become the platelet itselves.
3. Maturation of trombocyte : divide into 3 stage :
Stage I: megakaryoblast:
19% of population
20 30 m
Round, indented or lobed nucleus
Cytoplasm basophilic and scanty cytoplasm

Stage II: promegakaryocyte

25% of population
Large (30 70 m)
Lobulated nucleus, more abundant cytoplasm
The number of granules is increased

Stage III: megakaryocyte

56% of population
Extremely large, low N/C ratio, demarcation membrane system
Abundant granular cytoplasm, the nucleus is often pushed to one pole of the cell.

It follows by the release of the platelets from the cytoplasm of the megakaryocyte and become
mature trombocytes.

4. The regulation of trombopoiesis :


- Trombopoletin (TPO) :
a. Stimulate the proliperation of the progenitor cells
b. Support the megakaryocyte differentiation
- IL-3 to support the development of CFU MK and BFU MK
- IL 6 sinergic with TPO for increasing the amount of megakaryocyte s
- IL 11 to stimulate the platelet production