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BORN: April 29, 1917, Moscow, Russia
DIED: September 25, 2005 (aged 88), Ithaca, New York
His family moved from Moscow to the United States when he was six.
He later studied music and psychology at Cornell University, where he
received a bachelors degree in 1938. Two years later, at Harvard
University, he earned a masters degree in education, and in 1942 he
graduated with a Ph.D. in developmental psychology from
the University of Michigan.
Best known for having developed human ecology theory (ecological
systems theory).

- The study of the interrelations among living organisms in their natural
- It points out that a childs own biological make up impacts on his/her


- This theory presents child development within the context of relationship
systems that compromise the childs environment.

1. The Microsystem
o The prefix micro comes from the Greek for small.
o It is the layer nearest to the child.
o It comprises structures which the child directly interacts with.
o It is within the immediate environment that proximal processes operate to
produce and sustain development.
o Examples: Family, peer, school, church, workplace.

Bi-directional influences
- The child is affected by the behavior and beliefs of the parents, however, the child
also affects the behavior of the beliefs of the parent.
- Similar to Erikson termed, mutuality, in his psychosocial theory.

2. The Mesosytem
o It serves as the connection between the structures of the childs microsystem.
o Examples: Relations between home and school, school and workplace.

3. The Exosystem
o It refers to the bigger social system in which the child does not function directly.
o Comprises the linkages and processes taking place in between two or more
o At least one of which does not contain the developing person, but events occur
that indirectly influences processes in the immediate setting in which the
developing person lives.
o Examples: For a child, the relation between the home and the parents
workplace; for a parent, the relation between school and the neighborhood peer

4. The Macrosystem
o The prefix macro comes from the Greek for large, and is used because this
system was thought to be all-encompassing.
o It is found in the outermost part in the childs development.
o Examples: The cultural values, customs, laws and order.

5. The Chronosystem
O It covers the element of time as it relates to a childs environments.
O This involves pattern of stability and change.
O Examples: Changes over the life course in family structure, socioeconomic status,
employment, place of residence, or the degree of hecticness and ability in
everyday life.

I. Application
The class will be divided into two groups, Group A and Group B. Each groups will only
choose one answer in the activity. Two representatives for each group to explain and share
their work in the class.
Looking at their answers in the activity (Looking back), they have to draw a picture to
illustrate how those people or circumstances have influenced their attitudes, behavior and

II. References
Bronfrenbrenner, U. (1994) Ecological models of human development. In International
Encyclopedia of Education. Vol. 3, 2nd. Ed Oxford: Elsevier. Reprinted in: Guavain, M.
and Cole, M. (Eds), Reading on the development of children, 2nd Ed. (1993, pp. 37-43).
NY: Freeman
Corpuz, B., Lucas Ma.R., et al. (2010) Child and adolescent development: looking at learners
at different life stages. Lorimar Publishing, Inc. pp. 113-118.
Madeline learning theories. (2017) Bronfenbrenners bioecological model of development.
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