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Method of analysis for cyclically loaded R.C.

plane frames including changes in geometry


and non-elastic behaviour of elements under
combined normal force and bending

Autor(en): Menegotto, Marco / Pinto, Paolo Emilio

Objekttyp: Article

Zeitschrift: IABSE reports of the working commissions = Rapports des


commissions de travail AIPC = IVBH Berichte der
Arbeitskommissionen

Band (Jahr): 13 (1973)

PDF erstellt am: 27.04.2017

Persistenter Link: http://doi.org/10.5169/seals-13741

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Method of Analysis for Cyclically Loaded R.C. Plane Frames Including
Changes in Geometry and Non-Elastic Behavior of Elements under Combined
Normal Force and Bending

Methode d'analyse de cadres plans en b.a. charges cycliquement, comprenant


les variations de geometrie et le comportement non-elastique d'elements soumis
effort normal et flexion composes

Untersuchungsmethode fr zyklisch belastete ebene Stahlbeton-Rahmen


einschliesslich der Geometrie-nderungen und des nicht-elastischen Verhaltens
von Elementen unter zusammengesetzten Axial- und Biegungskrften

Marco MENEGOTTO Paolo Emilio PINTO


Istituto di Scienza e Tecnica delle Costruzioni
Universit di Roma, Italia

INTRODUCTION. The advances gained by structural analysis, coupled


with the availability of large capacity Computers, could lead to the
idea that today the "exact" Solution of any structural problem exi
sts, and its obtainment is only a matter of assembling in a program
the appropriate ingredients, all of them already well established.
This is not the case for reinforced concrete structures in non
linear rnge: neither the constitutive laws of the materials nor the
behavior of the structural elements can be said to be conveniently
clarified. The method that will be briefly exposed in the following
() includes most of the ingredients necessary to be defined as "ge
neral", but nevertheless its Classification as "exact" is justified
only within certain simplifying hypotheses that are listed below wi
thout comment:
- the constitutive laws of the materials are independent of time
- the contribution of concrete in tension is disregarded
- linear distribution of strain along the depht of section is assu
med, excluding bond slip during all the loading history, and local
buckling of steel bars
- properties of the materials are assumed not to deteriorate after
repeated stressing, while Bauschinger effect on steel is considered
- actions of shear stresses are disregarded
QENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE METHOD. The procedure follows an incre
mental way. Each step requires Solution of the set of equilibrium e-
quations: \k\s {as}-{ap} (1)
The vectors{A5}and{AP}contain the increments of nodal displace
ments and external loads: both have 3n(n-number of nodes) dimension
and are referred to a global coordinate system x,y
() A more extended illustration is contained in ref.|H|
16 I
- METHOD OF ANALYSIS FOR CYCLICALLY LOADED R.C PLANE FRAMES

The geometric al behavior of the structure in the


and mechanical
course of st ep is described by the stiffness matrix \k\
each which 9

is the result of the assembly of the stiffness matrices |#|determi-


ned for every ind ividual member in which the structure has been dis-
creti zed.
The essence o f
the method lies evidently on the calculation of
matrix \K\sfor ea ch step. The procedure requires an which iteration,
ends when two coi ncidental successive solutions{A5}are obtained for
the same{AP}from Eqs. (1).
Two causes of
non-linearity are contained in \k\s: behavior of
materials and var iations in the geometry of the structure. They can
be analized separ ately, and so will they be presented.
NON LINEARITY DUE TO INELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF THE ELEMENTS.
Constitutive laws of the materials. The calculation of the stresses
a for given e is performed in two separate subroutines so that any
particular law ca n be inserted simply; figs.l and 2 show the laws
presently adopted

<r* o/a0
STEEL
<r - o/cq CONCRETE arctQ b
4- -4- r

1-a

3 -2
6*=/o
0 2
e*s/e0 05
<i*e*(2-e*) e%i
a* *er* o -a*+a) e*> i

FIG 1 FIG 2

The r am in fig.l rep roduces the well known Hognestad formula,


d i ag
extende d to g eneral stress p aths with straight unloading or reloadi ng
1
ines paral1 el to the initi al tangent. The law for the stee is de- 1

s c r i b e d in de tail elsewhere |7|. It can reproduce with good approxi-


mation the be havior of diffe rent types of steel: the constan t b defi-
nes the slope of the hardwor king line; the exponent /?, which varies
after e very i nversion, affec ts the curvature of the diagram, to repre-
sent th e Baus chinger effect.
Stiffne ss mat rix of an elemervt^ A matrix |xn|defines the re lation-
ship between the three nodal force components (incremental), and the
three nodal "deformations" { ASn}. This relationship is estab 1i shed i n
the intrinsic coordinate sys tem myn. Elements must be such, that 2
order effects within them ar e negligible (see fig.3).
First the flexibility ma trix of the element is determine d. The co-
lumns of the three-by-three |_rn |"1contain the increments of nodal de-
formations versus the increm ents of the components of{APnK The coef-
ficients are calculated by n umerical integration along the ength of 1
Marco MENEGOTTO
- Paolo Emilio PINTO
the element,applyin

6
^ 5*
<\

t
Mj + AMj AN Ae
Mi + AMi/ V^^* ^ {AFn} AMi
AMj
|ASn)= AQ>i
A<DjJ

FIG .3

perform the integration along the element, the current deforma


To
bility a suitable number of internal cross-sections must be deter
of
mined, which is defined by the relationship: {Ae}=|tf| {AE} (see fig.4;
Ai
jbi
m -r=>i-
__4A^a_
At _ A6c
7ANk>
AM H- [Ac () AN
AM
AEc e AN

w Ao
A& w-K
FIG.4

where matrix |tf|of the section is generally varia ble from step to step.
The cross-section is subdivided into a number of concrete and steel a-
reas: the path of every area in the space a-e mus t be recorded, becau-
se it determines the behavior of the area for the load history.
Provided that Aov and Ae^ are the actual stre ss and strain varia-
tions due to application of combined AM and Atf on the -th concrete or
steel area its secant modulus E^ for the current step will be defi n-
ed H Ae< Thus, the cross-section can be tre ated as
by elastic parts with varied moduli. The
composed
followin g relations can be
if
written, referring to the current homogenized cro ss-section centroid 0:
1
Ae, A^o
0
(2)
A6, AM0
whi ch, transferring tKe vectors{Ae0},{AZ0}to the 'fixed geometric cen-
ter C, become:

l\N A
Ae, {A A2J
>
"TT
AJ
Ae, ~ A#
S
^iEidi (3)
AJ J J
A

Bg. 2 VB
I
- METHOD OF ANALYSIS FOR CYCLICALLY LOADED R.C. PLANE FRAMES
Du "general" iteration is performed to obtain the
ring the step, a
so t i on of equations (1). Within each cycle of it, for each element
1 u
every cross-section is given a vector{AE}, corresponding to the pro-
posed {AFn}, and, by "internal" iterations, relations (3) are solved,
yieldi ng matrix \e\. Thus, the general iteration proceeds dealing al-
ways w hfth deformabi1ities updated with actual state and history of
stress
It may be noted that matrices |#|are symmetrical. The same proper-
ty con sequerntly extends to all \Knj"1,\k\and to \k\8 matrices.
NON LINEARITY DUE TO CHANGES IN GEOMETRY. Finite deflections of ela-
stic p ane frames
1
have been the object of recent extensive studies|8|
|io|.| 13]so that only a brief account of the relations employed will
be rep orted
Pr ior t o their assembly into the overall matrix \k\8, matrices
Klof indi vidual elements must be trasferred from the local system
m>n to a gl obal system xsy. When the displacements of the elements du-
ring t he lo ad history cannot be neglected, the transformation from ^n
to Xyy i s n on linear. The technique of 1inearization adopted is the
approx imati on of a first order differential expansion with finite in-
cremen ts.
In orde r to pass from the intrinsic to the global system, an in-
termed i ate coordinate system u,v is employed.

y Y1+AYj
Kmj+ AMj \&r
NVA.
*ts \+<0+ ft\)
Yi+AYi
-3* AXj M* bN ;&
T
S>v
Mi+AMi ** M
Sk
Yi+Ayj *A\* M^
^ M*

Xt+AXi
Yt+Ay xj+Axj NU

i Xi+Axi

JAFx} [AXi AYi AMi AXj AYj AMjJ JAFu}= [AU AV AMi AMj]T
PIG.B JASx}- [Axt Ayi A^ Axj Ayj A&j] FIG.6 {aSu}= [Au Av A&i Aj]T

For finite displacements, the relationships between the componen


ts of the vectors{Sw}and{Sn}are:
e= l-/ (l-u)2+v2
Q.-aretgrz <j></- Qj-arotg^
<frv= (4)
By differentiation, the preceding relations can be given the li
near form: {ASn}=|__| {ASW>, with increments in place of di f ferenti al s
The relationship between the vectors of nodal forces in the two
Systems is: {Fu>- \a ' iFn}; and, by diffentiating:
|

{l\Fu}= \A\ '{L\Fn}+\D\ {l\Su} (5)


The matrices \a\ and \d\ have the expressions:
Marco MENEGOTTO - Paolo Emilio PINTO 19

l-u -V 0 0
l-e l--e
-v -d^u) 1 0
(l-e)2 (l-e)2
-v -(l-u) 0 1
(l-e)2
(l-e)2
d11dl2 0 0 dll= 1 (6)
d22 0 0
(l-e)h V2(l-u) U+{2(l-u)2-tV2}vV\
d^=-7~-Tr \-v3U+(l-u)*v\
(symm) 0 0 (l-e)*
0 '22-
(l-e)h (l-u){(l-u)2+v2}U-v(l-u)2v\

their coefficients the components of the


Both matrices contain in
displacements accumulated in the previous history; the "geometric"ma-
trix \d\ contains also the accumulated force components U and v.
Thetransformation of displacements and forces from u9v to x9y is
accomplished by a matrix with constant coefficients |t|,
defining the
initial position of the element (through its angle w with x axis).
Making substitutions, the stiffness relation \Kn\ {A~>n} {APn> be
comes: \K\ {AS }={AF }
x
with:
\T\< \A \K\ \A\ |T|)+|r|- \D\ \T\ (7)
The matrix |z|contains in |x |the 1inearization of the mechanical
behavior, and in |_4|and |#|the ineari zati on of the kinematical beha
1

vior. It has to be noted a difference between the two criteria of


nearization. The matrix |n|has a "secant" character, in what its coef
li-
ficients are checked with the Situation at the end of each step. Tak
ing into account possible inversions of strain variations in the areo-
las from step to step, this matrix could not be expressed as "tangent".
As much as |#n|is concerned, the lenght of the step would be only limi
ted by the possibility of missing strain inversions during the step it
self.
matrices |_4|and |>|on the other hand, by the way they have been
The
obtained, are "tangent initial" since their coefficients are calculated
with %\\e values of variables at the beginning of each step. Therefore
the lenght of the step has to be commensured to the importance of the
effects of changes in geometry.
EXAMPLE. It has been chosen as example a frame tested by Ferguson and
Breen (Ref. [51 Here the frame has been subdivided in 12 elements and
the loading paths of 3960 concrete and 264 steel areas were recorded.
The constants adopted for the materials were (kg/cm2): concrete: a0=
280, initial modulus E 250000, a (3,8%) 0.85-a0; steel: ao 3850, in E=
2050000, 0.02, i?o 20. In fig. 7 experimental and theoretical curves
Z?

are compared: the agreement is excellent. The curve(c) shows the first-
order non elastic analysis of the same problem.Ultimate stress diagrams
of two cross-sections appear in fig.9, while fig.8 shows the calculated
deflected shape in case (&).
20 I
- METHOD OF ANALYSIS FOR CYCLICALLY LOADED R.C. PLANE FRAMES

. FAIL. LOAD CALC. 40.3 t CO P*H P-H


2H
JUS
r^nri
EXPER .170t(a) T
f
FAIL. LOAD
CALC 174t(b)
i
2--3?6- J*.
____] *4 m
CALCULATED DEFLECTED
7.X 202
I <?-
SHAPE FOR P-17.4 t 12

H-O.OlP
y
7<-4T3

SL- EXPER (REF 0


...CALC (b),(C)
y 8

213 cm

FIQ.7 DEFLECTION - NODE 5 (cm) FIG.8

13 24
247 &3
Z__i_ _____ + H^878
SECT. A SECT. B
As 2x| 42 cm2 (b) Aj 2x516 cm2 (b) Cc)
CC) d_.
?44 -3815
-jm
FIG.9 STRESS DIAGRAMS AT FAILURE CCALC kg/cm2

The same frame has been submitted to two


cyclical horizontal loa
dings,(case d): P=o3 case e): P=6t). The influence of F is relevant
both in(2#-<5)and(/y-e)diagrams. case e) has higher moments but
overall
plasticization is very low and the frame for instabi1ity.The col fails
lapse in case ci)is due to attainment of strains on concrete. limit
-
2H_(vorJ
Jsa
N-54i N-0

case(d)

DEPLCCVION XNOQC 5) dl
r-^ 6 -
Cl RVATURE
_____ s
SQ_
6t i 6t 6t 6t
2 "? <>2H

T
2Hftqrj
P,6 -40

___ Nllm 051 0.44


case(d) case(e) Ml.m_3 -60
cosec)- ->
1 1 1 1 1
M,,m-592

FIQ.10 - HR. LOAD-DEFLECTION (NODE 5) FIQ1I- MOMENT-CURVATURE (SECT. A)


Marco MENEGOTTO - Paolo Emilio PINTO 21

case Cd) case (e)


__2J _.?__9. 248
p=__---^,276 271 _

949 -3608 N 5.46t 1834


\
N*-0.46
n 0.44 r 0.47 t N* 6.52 t M*56.0tm 6.54 t
M*47.0tm
M-48.9hn 1626 -4947 M - -54.0 tm M=-56.1tm J654 -3579 M*-59.2tm
FF3.
53S
FIG. 12 STRESSES ON SECTION A (Kg/crn2}

REFERENCES
BERTERO, V. V. BRESLER, B. - Seismic Behavior of Reinforced Concrete
Framed Structures. "IV World Conf. on Earth. Eng. " - Chile, 1969.
BLAAUWENDRAAD, IR, J. - Realistic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Fra
med Structures - "Heron vol. 18, 1972, n4".
CRANSTON, W. B. - A Computer Method for Inelastic Analysis of Plane Fra
mes. "C. CA. Tech. Rep. " TRA 386, 1965.
DE DONATO, O. MAIER, M., - Mathematical Programming Methods for the
Inelastic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Frames Allowing for Limit
ed Rotation Capacity. "Int. Journ. Num. Meth. Eng. " Vol. 4, 1972.
FERGUSON, P. M. BREEN J.E., - Investigation of the Long Concrete Column
in a Frame Subject to Lateral Loads.Symposium on Reinforced Concre
te Columns - ACI publ. SP. 13.
FERRY BORGES, J. ARANTES E OLIVEIRA, E. R. - Non linear Analysis of
Reinforced Concrete Structures. "Memoires A.I.P.C,", vol. 23, 1963.
GIUFFRE1, A. PINTO, P.E., - II Comportamento del Cemento Armato per
Sollecitazioni Cicliche di Forte Intensita. "Giornale del Genio Civile",
Maggio 1970.
JENNINGS, A. - Frame Analysis Including Change of Geometry. "Journ. of
Struct. Div. ", ASCE, vol. 94, March. 1968.
MACCHI, G. - Methodes de calcul des structures hyperstatiques. "C. E. B. Bul
letin" n. 53, 1964.
MALLET, R. H. MARCAL, P. V. - Finite Element Analysis of Nonlinear Struc
tures. "Journ. of Struct. Div. ", ASCE, vol. 94, Sept. 1968.
MENEGOTTO, M., PINTO, P. E. - Method of Analysis for Cyclically Loaded
R. C. Frames Including Changes in Geometry and Non-elastic Behavior
of Elements under Combined Normal Force and Bending - Ist. Scienza e
Tecnica d. Costruzioni - Univ. of Rome - Rep. n32, Oct. 1972.
PARK, R. KENT, D. C. ,SAMPSON, R. A. - Reinforced Concrete Members with
Cyclic Loading", "JnL of Struct. Div. ", ASCE, vol. 98 July 1972.
POWELL, G. H. - Theory of Nonlinear Elastic Structures. "Journ. of Struct.
Div.", ASCE, vol. 95, Dec. 1969.

SUMMARY

The procedure is based on the stiffness method in incremental way, and has
been programmed for Computer. The Solution is obtained by the calculation f a lineari-
22 I
- METHOD OF ANALYSIS FOR CYCLICALLY LOADED R.C. PLANE FRAMES
zed stiffness matrix for every increment. The element matrices derive from an analysis
of the behavior of several internal cross-sections: these are discretized into concrete
and steel areolae, for each of which the loading path is recorded, following any non-
holonomic constitutive law. Geometric effects are included in the overall matrix by
adjusting the projection of elements displacements and forces at every step.

RESUME

Le procede se base sur la methode des deformations appliquee par increments,


et a ete programme pour ordinateur. La Solution s'obtient en calculant une matrice de
rigidite" linearisee chaque increment. Les matrices des eiements derivent de
l'analyse du comportement d'un certain nombre de sections: celles-ci sont discretisees
en aroles de beton et d'aeier, dont l'histoire de charge est mmorise, suivant
une loi constitutive quelquonque. Les effets geometriques sont inclus dans la matrice
d'ensemble, par le reglage de la projection des deplacements et des forces des eie
ments chaque pas.

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

Das Verfahren sttzt sich auf die Steifigkeitsmethode auf inkrementalem Wege
und wurde auf dem Computer programmiert. Die Lsung ergibt sich durch Berechnung
einer linearisierten Steifigkeitsmatrix fr jeden Zuwachs. Die Elementmatrizen
folgen aus der Analyse des Verhaltens einer bestimmten Anzahl innerer Querschnitte:
diese sind in Beton- und Stahlareolen diskretisiert, deren Belastung nach einem
konstitutiven Gesetz aufgezeichnet wurde. Die geometrischen Aenderungen sind in der
Gesamtmatrix durch Anpassung der Projektion der Elementver sc hiebungen und -krfte
bei jedem Schritt inbegriffen.