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Only chlorophyll a can take part directly in light reactions

2 centrioles make a centrosome

Centromere : point between 2 chromatid

Variation : meisis : late prophase 1 crossing over : metaphase 1 independent assortment

Heterozygous di hybrid ( 2 separate genes on diff chromosomes ) : 1:1:1:1 genotyype ratio of homozygous

Chiasmata formed between bivalents for crossing over

Backcross / testscross : unknown genotype ( B_ ) crossed with homozygous recessive.

Lay of independent assortment : applies when a cross is carried out between 2 individuals that are hybrid for 2 traits on
spate chromosomes(duhybrid cross) . this law states , during gamate formations genes of pne trait are not inherited
along with the genes for another trait

Multiple alleles: bld group

Poly genic : skin colour , hair colour , height

Sex linked : traits carried on the X chromosome. . if its a recessive mutation , females need 2 recessive to express the
phenotype wheras for men 1 recessive mutation is enough to express the fault

Eg blindness , hemophilia (clotting factor 8 )

Son inherites sex linked trait from mother . all daughtes of affected fathers are carries .

Sex influenced : not genetically affected but by ways in which the genotype is expressed , eg baldness

Pedigree : carrier state not always shown

Nondisjunction : homologous chromosomes fail to separate in meiosis

P represents dominant allele freq

Archaeopteryx shows both reptile and bird features (transitional fossil)

Homologous structures reflect similar anatomy ( function varies) divergence

Analogous structures reflect adaptation ( function similar , anatomy varies) convergence

Lamarck use and disuse was an idiot

Nat. selection can alter the fre of the allele

Disruptive selection causes balanced polymorphism 2 or more phenotypes coexist

Genetic drift bottleneck and founder effect

Gene flow movment of alleles in/out of pop ( migration , gamate exchange )

Hardy Weinberg describes a stable , nonevolving population in which allelic freq dosent change . Eqn used to
calculate freq of alleles in a population. P=dominant
Pop must be large

No natural selection

Random mating

No mutation

Must be isolated from other pop

Punctuated equilibrium gould and eldridge

Gradualism Darwin (nor used ) as not supported by fossils as transional fossis not seen

Spontaneous generation living things from non living things DISPROVED

97% of life extinct

Heterotroph hypothesis states that the first cells on earth were anaerobic heterotrophic prokaryotes

Endosymbiosis lynn margulis

Cambrian explosion 40 mil years multi cellular to every phylum- animals moved from oceans to land

Parallel evol- same ancestor and same environment so v similar

Coevolution mutual evolutionary set of adaptation eg pollinator plant relationshio

Low water potential = water moves out of the cell

Excretion : deamination

Ammonia> urea

Also removal of co2

Also sweat (urea)

Kidney 1.5 litres urine

Adh targets collecting tube ..

Nephron : filteration(diffuse , passive ultrafilteration stops RBC , WBC , protein . Allows urea for excretion) :
secretion ( active- tubules ) reabsorption(tubule , loop of henle , collecting tubulue) excretion

Podocytes : inner linings of bowmans capsule

Na K 3 Na out , 2 K in
solute potential decreases with higher solute

Contractile vacuoles fresh water protozoans osmoregulation

Anhydrydobiosis : characteristic of terrestrial animals to tolerate dehydration eg tardigrades

Excretophores : falling of yellow leaves , getting rid of wastes

Ammonia chief nitrogenous waste in animals with highly hypotonic environment ( as its toxic and soluble )

Ecdysone (hormone ) controls metamorphism in insects

Calcium necessary for blood clotting

Abscisic acid closes stomata

Resing potential : Na+/K+

Depolarization : Na+

Repolarizing : K+

Refractory : Na+/K+

Strength of stimulus by frequency of action potential and number of neurons NOT strength as strength is same for each

Synapses decrease overload of information in brain an also involved in memory

Syncytium : multinucleate

Sarcoplasmic reticulum stores calcium

M line : myosin meet

Z line :actin meet

Sarcomere between z lines

A band : both myosin and actin present

H band : monly myosin present

I band : only actin present

During contraction A band is unaffected : whereas H(myosin) and I(actin) decrease in length

Ca troponin which moves tropomyosin

Estrogen stimulates fsh and lh which then causes ovulation

HIV attacks helper t cells

Vaccines prevent viral infections ( eg flu vaccine)

Auxins- transported by active transport root and shoot elongation

Elongation by softening cell walls . suppresses development of axial buds (lateral growth) . iAA naturally occurring
auxin . 2,4 D manmade weed killer . seedless tomatoes ( induce fruit production without pollination)

Gibberalins stem elong and seed germination

Seed germination seeds are dormant absorbs water which stimulated gibberalin gibberalin causes
breakdown of Della protein that inhibit transcription coding for amylase begins

Amylase acts on starch(in endosperm) >> maltose >> glucose

Cytokinins cytokinesis + cell division . also delay aging by inhibiting protein breakdown.

Microarrays : identify genes and the genes that are being expressed compare genes in diff . species

Lentiviruses can be inactivated

Modified crop can become agricultural weeds , can introduce genes to wild and become invasive

Population growth biotic potential dependent on :-

1 age at ehich reproduction begins

2 lifespan of reproductible life

3 no of reproductive periods

4 no of offspring capable of having at one time

Carrying capacity can osscilate

Mammals are K strategists not opportunistic(r strategist- reproduce one but 1000x babies ) reproducers

Population interaction

1 competetion : 2 species cant co exist if they share a niche one will evolve

2 predation ;adpataions like spines and thorns and poisons prevent predation for plants .And animals have developed
hiding / fleeing . also passive defenses like Aposematic coloration bright colors to scare , Batesian mimicry copycat
coloration ; harmless org mimics harmful org , Mullerian mimicry : 2 or more harmful species share a feature to scare in

3 feeding : mutualism(flora of bacteria in human body) (+/+) , commensialism ( barnacles on whales) ( + / o) , parasitism
( eg tapeworm ) (+/ - )

Producers(marine) include diatoms(protists ) and phytoplankton (algae + photosynthetic bacteria)

Pioneers : lichems (algae+fungi) and mosses

Changes in altitudes mimics changes in latitues ( biomes)

Marion biomes : most stable and largest , most of earth food and oxygen

Pesticides disadv 1 cancer 2 pest resistant starians

Whittaker- 5 kingdom monera

5 kindgom modified by margulis and schwarts

Vaccination eddward jenner

Acid rain : N and S pollutunts turn into nitrous , sulfurous and sulfuric acids

Nitrogen cycle :

Nitrogen fixing bacteria : (roots ) conver nitrogen in ait to ammonium

Nitrifying bacteria : ammonium to nitites and nitrates

Denitrifying bacteria : convers nitrates to atmospheric nitrogen

Decomposers : bacteria that release ammonium from org matter

Trop rainforest : greatest diversity of any

20% of carbon fixation

Stable temperature

Desert : extreme fluctuation

Temperate grasslands : low rainfall , burrowing mammals common . bison , pronghorn wildebeest and gazelle

Temperate deciduous / boreal forest : verticle stratisfication of plants and animals .. rich soil due to decomposion of
falling leaves

Taiga: conifer forest . largest terestial biome. Mammals = moose , blackbeat , lynx , elk , wolverines

Flying insects and birds in summer

Tundra: permafrost , little rainfall , insects abundant , birds in summer . mammals = reindeer , caribou , artctic wolves ,
polar bears . no of species v small thugh number high
Platyhelminthes flame cells

Benedicts test : benedicts reagent plus glucose = green . yello . orange . red depending on conc

Iodine test : presence of strch = blue black

acylglycerols, are esters formed from glycerol and fatty acids.

Peroxisome : catalase ( higher eukaryotic

Glyoxysome: peroxisome of plants .. glyoxalate

Viroids : ss rna genome and smallest known pathogen (affects planst)

Prions : just infectious proteins

Vernalization : cooling of seed during germination in order to accelerate flowering when it is planted

Florigen : hormone responsible for inducing flowering in plants directly

Phytochrome : light absorbing pigment

Epigeal germination : cotyledons raised out of the soil

Hypogeal : cotyledons remain underground

Viviparous germination : mangrove plants seedling seperates eg rhizophora

Apical meristem : tips of root and shoots

Heterochromatin : more condensed

Epistasis is the phenomenon where the effect of one gene (locus) is dependent on the presence of one or
more 'modifier genes'

Pleitropy : 1 gene , multiple effects

Pearson : data normally distributed

Bacteria : uni ;can be aerobes also ; peptidoglycan cell wall ; blue green algae (cynobacteria photosynthe)

Akinets nonmotile asexual spores ( during unfavourable conditions

Mesosomes :inward folded plasma membrane

Atrichous , bacteria without flagella

Transduction : genetic recombinanation in which bacterial gen material transferred into a cell through bacteriophage

Violet / blue dye : gram +

Archae : uni ; introns are present in some genes . cell wall dosent have peptidoglycan

Eukarya :
Protest : widest variety of org , uni and multi : hetero 9 amoeba and paramecium) and auto ( euglenas) ; conjugation

Fungi : asexual ( budding , spore , fragmentation) and sexual

Plantae : sexually ( alternation of generation )

Sponges : unspecialized collection of cells ( not tissues)

Profira and cniderians : diploblastic (mesoglea)

Echniderms : bilateral symmetry as larvae and radia as adults

Most bilateral are tribloblastic

From flatworms : cephalization

Medusa jellyfish motile sexual

Monotremes egg laying mammals

Primates descend from insectivores .

Warm blodeed homeotherms endotherms birds and mammals

Operant : b f skinner

Imprinting geese Lorenz

Genetic drift founder and bottle neck

Gene flow

Birds are not mammals

Vitamins are co enzymes . minerals are cofactors

Calvin cycal makes sugar , it requires atp and dosent produce ATP

Artificial selection is selectiv breeding

Plant cell no lysosomes and no centrioles/centrosome

Phase contrast unstained cell living

Purine : adenine and guanine

Back cross : matching with recessive

Phloem is outside

Pith stores starch

2pq is hybrid , not just pq

Crossing over prophase 1

Solid ball morula

Hollow ball blastula

Caecum in herbivore digest cellulose

Metatherians close to marsupials carry young in pouch

Eutherian - placental

Enzyme plus coenzyme is holoenzyme

Plnaria falme cells/ protonephridium

Tonoplast - vacuole chrmoplast orange color .leukoplast storage of start

Ecdysis sheeding old cuticle/skin arthropods /reptile respectively

Total codon 64

The gymnosperms and angiosperms together compose the spermatophytes or seed plants.

No vessels in gymnosperm only tracheids

Centrioles 9 tripletes microtubules . Flagella 9+2

Periplasmic : space between cell membrand and cell wall

Phycobilin , red and blue in bacteria

Thallus lacks xylem and phloem , no true roots stem and leaves eg thallus

Fungi store glycogen

Chlorella uni , nonmotile alga ; chlamydanomas uni , motile ; spirogyra flimaenta algae (thalloid)

Plant root + fungi = mycorrhiza obt nutrients for vascular plant

Rhizoid anchor filament

Adelphous bundle of stamens

Adventitious roots (aerial(swamp) and prop(support)) when roots arise from orgn other than root eg stem

Adapttion of a plant gamates and zygotes form a protective jacket called gametangla to prevent drying

Its the dicot stem that is organized not the root


Cortex storage parenchyma- plastid(starch)

Stele(middle column) (xylem+phloem) surrounded by pericycle(betweel vessels and endoderm)(lat roots arise from

Pith present in monocot

Endoderm surrounds stele wrapped by casparian strip control what goes in

Absorption of nutrients and water

Lat apoplast(cellwall and intercellular) and symplast(cytoplasm)

Mycorrhizae (fungi) and rhizobium (bacteria fixes nitrogeen )


Pith in dicot

Types of plant tissue dermal , vascular , ground tissue and in tips meristem

Trichomes on epidermis protect plant

Epidermis no chloroplast no photosynthesze except stomata

Vascular Xylem ( tracheids and vessel) . phloem ( seive tube and companion)

Ground para=enchyma( only primary thin cell wall - vacoules support when turgid) ,

Xylem- tracheids has lignin(support)

Phloem translocation sugar stored in leaves process requires enertgy

Calyx - green part of flower ( sepal)

Dioecious plant species having individuals that are either male OR female

Gymnosperm non flower pines and spruse conigers cone bearing --- both ovules nd seeds are bourne on the
surface of sporophyll

Cymose terminates in flowers ------ racemouse main axis continues growing

Megasporangium contains megaspores , this is a diploi cellin ovule of conifers that produce 4 megaspores out of
which only 1 develops into a female gamatephyte

Mosses and other bryophyte(seed not enclosed in an ovary- they on surface-nofruit cuz no ovary) : dominated by
gameophyte , sporophyte is dependent on gametophyte

Ferns between bryophyte and tracheophyte (seedless vascular plant) . dominated by sporophyte and independent of

Tracheophyte( heterosporous-micro and mega) angio(floweing) gametophyte is inside the sporophyte and
completely dependent on sporophyte .. gymnosperms ( pne) gametophyte generaton develops from haploid
spores in sporangia

Sporophye (2n) produce spores (n) by meiosis

Pollen 3 haploid nuclei (1 tube and 2 sperm)

In monocot , food remain in endosperm . in docor food move to cotyledon(so dicot lack endosperm)

Radicle:first organ to develop from seeds

Sessile hydra(has tentacles to feed) / sponges

Exoskeleton chitin

Hydrostatic skeleton: nematodes(roundworms) , flatworms(planaria) anellids(earhworm)

Excertion : Ammonia (water animals (hydra and fish) ; Urea (humand and earthworm formed in liver from ammonia) ;
uric acid (insects reptiles birds min water loss)

Earthworm (annelid) hermaphrodite. Aerates the soil , food stored in crop , gizzard digests, typhlosole enhances
digestion (SA /\) , air diffusion by moist skin , has closed circulatory

Hydra (cnidarian) : Tentacles , Nematocyte , nerve net

Grasshopper arthropoda : nitrogenous wate ( malpigian tubules) , tubular heart open circulatory but internal

Enterocoelus : coelum formed by outpocketing of archenteron

Gastrozooids coenletrates (snidaria) nutritivepolyp

Terpenes , small hydrophobic molecules in plants

Phytochrmoe blue green pigment inplants regulates various developmental process


Some need cofactors (coenzymes) (non protein) metal ions (fe mg cu ) or organic molecules ( haem , biotin , FAD ,
NAD CoA) many derived from vitamins

Active enzyme plus coenzyme : holoenzyme

Just the protein part without coenzyme : apoenzyme

Irreversible inhibition : mostly by heavy metal ions permanantly change protein portion of enzyme

Ph affects the charge of the amino acid eg acid uncharged at low ph

Covalent modification(Not alloseteric where theres no covalent chnge ) , where one enzyme activates the other eg Hcl
activates pepsin

Competetive inhibitor : antibacterial drug sulfanamide

Satellite dna : Non transcribed dna (in centromere)

Mesosomes for respiration in bacteria