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NPC VACUUM DISTILLATION UNIT SITE TRAINING 9700-124


SUEZ
EGYPT REPORT SEP. 28, 2014

Nasr Petroleum Company (N.P.C)


Vacuum Distillation Unit Site Training Report
GFL 03-0491
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CONTENTS

1.0 INTRODUCTION

2.0 PROCESS OVERVIEW

3.0 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

4.0 FEED AND PRODUCTS SPECIFICATIONS

5.0 PROCESS EQUIPMENT

6.0 UTILITIES

7.0 TROUBLESHOOTING

8.0 CONSIDERATIONS ON CURRENT DESIGN


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1. Introduction

A Site visit has been conducted during the period from 30/8/2014 to 11/9/2014 to Nasr Petroleum
Co.(N.P.C) in order to be familiar with the operation and the design consideration of Vacuum
Distillation Unit (VDU). Eleven engineers from the process technology division were nominated
for attending this training.

Training Program covered the following:

1- Introduction to PFD of VDU


2- VDU Operation
3- VDU Process Equipment Troubles
4- Asphalt handling and storage
5- Instrumentation on VDU tower
6- Process Troubleshooting

Vacuum distillation units employ the principle that the boiling points of substances are lowered
with a decrease in pressure for petroleum fractions that have high boiling points, atmospheric
distillation may lead to thermal decomposition of the components or excessive coke formation
inside fired heater coils. In such cases, vacuum distillation can be used in production of Asphalt
from atmospheric reduced crude streams.

The main purpose of VDU in (N.P.C) is to split the heavy atmospheric residue into:
Light Distillate (vacuum gas oil).
Heavy Distillate (Wax Distillate).
Asphalt.

The main product is Asphalt, Vacuum gas oil (VGO) is usually blended with atmospheric gas oil
(AGO) to reduce gas oil market deficiency and Wax distillate is blended with fuel oil and
directed to power plants.
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2. Process Overview

The long residue feed is charged with the main feed pumps from storage tanks through a series of
heat exchangers where it gains heat from hot products (bitumen and wax Distillates) which raise
the temperature of feed from (50-100 oC) to (180-220 oC).

The exchangers allow preheating the residue before feeding to the fired heater and hence reduce
the duty of the heater which lowers fuel gas consumption in the heater. On the other hand; the hot
products from the column are cooled in the exchangers before sending them to the storage tanks.

The heated residue from the preheat train exchangers is fed to the fired heater unit for increasing
feed temperature to the required column inlet temperature (320-370 oC) that will allow flashing
of all the light fractions in the residue and hence produce the asphalt from the bottom of the
column achieving the required specifications.

The heated residue from the heater is fed to the flash zone of the vacuum distillation column (30-
60 mm Hg); Where the light fractions are flashed form the asphalt product, Stripping steam is
introduced in the bottom of the column to ensure that no light fractions are entrained with the
asphalt product coming from the bottom of the column.

Overhead vapors are drawn using the overhead vacuum steam ejectors where the light distillate is
condensed first in the light distillate condenser, Condensate from light distillate condenser
accumulates in a vertical drum connected to the light distillate condenser so as to provide surge
capacity for VGO pump, Condensate is then pumped to a vertical separator for water settling.

A part of light distillate is recycled back as a reflux to the column and the other part is taken as top
product. Non-condensable from light distillate condenser are then partially condensed in the first
barometric condenser, Vapors were not condensed in light distillate condenser and the first
barometric condenser are drawn by the first stage ejector to the second barometric condenser,
Non-condensable from the second barometric condenser are drawn by the second stage ejector
and vented to atmosphere with ejector's steam, Condensate from barometric condensers is
drained via barometric legs to an open sump.

Wax distillate is drawn from the side of the column via wax distillate pump which sends the heavy
distillate to feed preheat exchangers, After being cooled in the exchangers wax distillate is sent to
storage and a part is recycled back to the column as a pump around.

Finally the asphalt product is taken from the bottom of the column to feed preheat train
exchangers, After being cooled in the exchangers the asphalt stream is sent to storage.
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3. Process flow diagram:

Vacuum Unit for Asphalt Production PFD


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4. Feed & Products Specifications:


4.1. Feed Characteristics (Fuel Oil) :

Sp. Gravity at 60 F 0.954


Salt Content Wt. % 0.005
Pour Point 55 F
Flash Point oF Over 150
Sulfur Content Wt. % 3
Water Content Vol. % 0 .05

4.2. Product Specifications:


Asphalt (Bitumen) specifications
Test Allowable Limits
Penetration @ 25 oC (0.1 MM) 60-70
Flash Point Temperature At least 250
Viscosity @ 135 oF/Cm Stock At least 350

Wax specifications
Test Spec. Value
Specific Gravity @ 60/60 oF 0.9013
Flash Point Temperature oF 280
Viscosity (Redwood 1) @ 100 oF.(Sec) 91
Pour Point Temperature oF 90
Sulpher % 2.3

Gas oil specifications


Test Spec. Value
Specific Gravity @ 60/60 oF 0.8533
Flash Point Temperature oF 170
Viscosity (Redwood 1) @ 100 oF.(Sec) 35
Pour Point Temperature oF 50
Sulpher % 1.6
Color 1.5
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4.3. Operating Conditions :

Feed Rate M Ton/ Day 550


Feed Temperature oC 60-100
Heater Inlet Temperature oC 130-180
Heater Outlet Temperature oC 320-380
Tower Overhead Temperature oC 210-235
Tower Bottom Temperature oC 300-340
Cooling Water Temperature oC 20
Outlet Temperature from light dist. Condenser oC 45-60
Feed Pumps Outlet Pressure Kg/ Cm2 18-20
Heater Inlet Pressure Psia 57-86
Heater Outlet Pressure Psia 19-19.7
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5. Process Equipment
5.1. VDU Feed Pre-Heat Section:

Long residue (fuel oil) feed is pre-heated by exchanging heat with wax distillate and asphalt, First
fuel oil enters the shell side of fuel oil/wax distillate exchanger (E-1),Then long residues heated
in shell side of fuel oil/asphalt exchangers (E-2,E-3,E-4,E-5).

Typical operating conditions of Pre-Heat train are listed below:


Fuel Oil Inlet Temp. C 60 - 100
Fuel Oil Outlet Temp. C 180 - 200
Wax Distillate Inlet Temp. C 250 - 260
Wax Distillate Outlet Temp. C 100 -120
Asphalt Inlet Temp. C 300 - 340
Asphalt Outlet Temp. C 160 - 180

All Exchangers in Pre-Heat Train have almost the same geometry configuration .The tables below
indicate specifications of pre-heat train exchangers:

Wax Distillate/Fuel Oil Heat Exchanger (E-1) Specifications


Tube Side Shell Side
No. of shells 1
TEMA Type BFS
Duty(Kcal/Hr) 500549
LMTD C 55.2
Orientation Horizontal
Fluid Hot Wax Distillate Cold Fuel Oil
Design Press. Kg/Cm2.g 12.8 24.7
No. Of Tubes 382 -
O.D (cm) 2.54 (1) 87.8
BWG 14 -
Thickness (mm) 2.11 14
I.D (cm) 2.118 (0.834) 85
Length (m) 4.87 5.661
Effective Length (m) 4.8 -
No. of Passes 8 2
Pitch (cm) 3.2(1.25) -
Gross External Area (m2) 148.4 -
Effective External Area (m2) 146.3 -
No. of Cross Baffles 8 -
No. of Longitudinal Baffles 1 -
Flow rate. Kg/Hr 6875 22917
Inlet Temp. C 260 100
Outlet Temp. C 120 142
Inlet Press. Kg/Cm2.g 10.2 19.7
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Allowable Press. Drop (psi) 10 10


Nozzles (In/Out) 4/4 4/4
Nozzles(Drain) 2 2
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Asphalt/Fuel Oil Heat Exchanger (E-2, E-3, E-4, E-5) Specifications


Tube Side Shell Side
No. of shells 4 in series
TEMA Type BFS
Duty(Kcal/Hr) 953527
LMTD C 49.3
Orientation Horizontal
Fluid Asphalt Cold Fuel Oil
Design Press. Kg/Cm2.g 12.8 24.7
No. Of Tubes 382 -
O.D (cm) 2.54 (1) 86.4
BWG 14 -
Thickness (mm) 2.11 14
I.D (cm) 2.118 (0.834) 85
Length (m) 4.87 5.661
Effective Length (m) 4.8 -
No. of Passes 8 2
Pitch (cm) 3.2 (1.25) -
Gross External Area (m2) 148.4 -
Effective External Area (m2) 146.3 -
No. of Cross Baffles 8 -
No. of Longitudinal Baffles 1 -
Flow rate. Kg/Hr 11458.5 22917
Inlet Temp.(C) 320 142
Outlet Temp.(C) 160 215
Inlet Press. Kg/Cm2.g 10.2 19.7
Allowable Press. Drop (psi) 10 10
Nozzles (In/Out) 4/4 4/4
Nozzles(Drain) 2 2
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Feed Pre-Heat Train


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Tube side passes Tube Side Pass Partitions (Front Head)


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5.2. Fired Heater:

After feed preheating fired heater is used to bring up feed to the desired temperature. Acceleration
steam is injected into furnace coils to increase flow velocity inside coils so as to decrease coke
formation inside heater coils. The following table summarizes Fired Heater main specifications:

Fired Heater Specifications

Design Heat Duty ,MMK Cal / H 5.4


Feed ,Kg/hr 48075
Injected Steam Rate (Acceleration) , Kg/hr 500
Fire box
Height 4.5
Width 5.4
Length 4.8
Capacity (m) 949.158
Tubes
Convection Radiation
No of tubes 56 26
Inner diameter (inch) 3.5 3.5
Thickness (mm ) 6.3 6.3
Overall length (m) 4.5 8

Burners
No. of burners 4

Stack
Top diameter (m) 1.3208

Bottom diameter (m) 2.4384

Height (m) 41.148

Flue gases area


Height (m) 1.2448

width (m) 1.21292

Length until stack center 9.144


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Convection

Radiation

Radiation Section:
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Extended surface rows (studs)

Burners ( Dual Burners)

Oil Gun Pilot


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Firebox

5.3. Distillation section

The feed enters the column to the feed plate that is equipped with a fixed swirl plate which causes
a circular motion and breaking vortexes.

The tower is composed of fractionation trays (five tunnel trays) at the top, tunnel cap trays increase
the residence time for better separation to minimize the entrainment of the heavy distillate with
the gas oil at the tower overhead.

Wax distillate is drawn off from a box just below the bottom fractionation tray cooled in the feed
heat exchanger (E-1) and directed to storage tank.

Asphalt falls to the bottom via stripping trays (five disc and doughnut trays). The following table
summarizes VDU column specifications.

Vacuum Distillation Column Specification

Overall height .m 19.9


I.D. m 3
O.D. m 3.03
Design pressure Kg/Cm2.g 1
Design temperature o C 400
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5.4. Overhead section


5.4.1. Steam Ejector:

Steam jet ejectors are used for inducing vacuum through motive steam, the figure below indicates
the ejector internals and the pressure profile inside the ejector. Steam is first expanded through
converging and diverging nozzles, This results in a high supersonic speed of steam off the motive
nozzle and a low pressure zone for pulling the suction load into the ejector. At this region the
mixture (steam and suction load vapors) velocity is still supersonic .Next, the mixture passes
through a venture, In the converging region velocity is converted to pressure as cross sectional
area decreases, At the throat area a normal shock wave is established where a simultaneous rapid
decrease of velocity and increase of pressure occurs.
Flow velocity drops to subsonic range at the end of the throat area, In the divergent region flow
velocity is further converted to pressure as cross section area increases, The throat area is sized to
pass a specified quantity of steam that is sufficient to achieve the required compression ratio
across the venturi. Motive steam pressure and temperature are critical variables for ejector
performance. Variations in steam pressure or temperature lead to variations in steam quantity to
ejector resulting in unstable ejector performance due to discharge pressure fluctuations.
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The following table summarizes the main ejector specifications:

No. of units 2
Stages/unit 2
Suction Pressure (mm Hg abs.) 30
Suction Temp. (F) 100
Discharge Pressure (inch Hg abs.) 32+
Non-Condensibles Load (lb/hr) 120 (Mwt. 65)
Operating steam consumption (kg/hr)
1st stage 135
2nd stage 199.5

5.4.2. Light Distillate Condenser:

Tower overhead vapors are first condensed in Light Distillate condenser (W-3). The following
table summarizes Gas Oil Condenser specifications. The light distillate condenser has a drain leg
so as to provide surge capacity for the downstream condensate pump.

Light Distillate Condenser Specifications

Tube Side Shell Side


No. of shells 1
TEMA Type AFS
Duty(Kcal/Hr) 1846271
LMTD (C) 75.5
Orientation Vertical
Fluid Cold Sea Water Hot Light Distillate
Design Press. Kg/Cm2.g 4 6
Design Temp. (C) 70 300
No. Of Tubes 421 -
O.D (cm) 2.54 (1) -
BWG 16 -
I.D (cm) 2.21 (0.87) 134.6
Length (m) 4.642 -
Effective Length (m) 4.572 -
No. of Passes 4 2
Pitch (cm) 3.55 -
Effective External Area (m2) 153.59 -
No. of Longitudinal Baffles 1 -
Flow rate. Kg/Hr 11458.5 179216
Inlet Temp.(C) 30 230
Outlet Temp.(C) 40 50
Inlet Press. Kg/Cm2.g 2 52 mmHg absolute
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Nozzles (In/Out) 6 /6 30/16


Nozzles(Light Distillate Outlet) - 4
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Light Distillate Condenser (Tube Bundle) Light Distillate Condenser (Shell side)

5.4.3. Barometric Condensers:

Barometric condensers are direct contact heat exchangers that utilize water for condensing vapors
that were not condensed in the light distillate condenser, Barometric condensers have long drain
legs to a sump open to atmosphere, These legs (Barometric legs) have a function of providing
sufficient static head for transferring condensed steam and vapors from vacuum at the condenser
to the open sump, A part of barometric legs is submerged in the liquid in the open sump to act as
a seal.
Two barometric condensers are used in the unit, The first one is located after the light distillate
condenser and the second one is located after the first ejector. The first barometric condenser
uses spray nozzles so as to provide good distribution of water droplets. The second one uses
some kind of plates that act as baffles for water distribution .The following table summarizes the
first barometric condenser specifications:
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Barometric condenser Specifications

Suction Pressure 30 mm Hg abs.


Suction Temp. 78C
O.D 30
Overall Height 8-4
Capacity 2619 lb/hr water vapor
134.5 lb/hr Non-condensable gases (Mwt.=60)
Inlet water Temp. 68F
Outlet water Temp. 80.6F
Condenser water flow 942 GPM
Inlet /Outlet Nozzles
Vapor Inlet 24
Non Condensable Gases Outlet 4
Water Inlet 6
Water Outlet 10
Spray Nozzles
No. 6
Diameter 2
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1st Barometric Condenser 2nd Barometric Condenser

1st Barometric Condenser(Cross Section) 2nd Barometric Condenser Internals


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6. Utilities
6.1 Steam:
The steam comes directly from the central boiler house of the refinery with the following
properties:
P= 10 kg/cm2
T= 280 oC
The main areas where steam is used are:
A) Motive fluid for the ejectors.
B) Acceleration steam in the fired heater.
C) Stripping steam in the tower bottom.
D) The soot blowing system and in case of purge.
E) In the finished product storage tanks to trucking.

The acceleration steam is used in case of low feed flow rates to prevent coking and cracking
inside the tubes of the fired heater .

The stripping steam is only used if there is a high percentage of light ends in the feed and these
are disrupting the operation of the tower, The addition of the steam in the vapor phase reduces
the partial pressure of the hydrocarbon vapors, This forces these components to migrate from the
liquid phase to the vapor phase to increase their partial pressure again so as to reach equilibrium
composition again.

The soot blowing system is used only when the burners are running on fuel oil, Due to the
properties of this fuel incomplete combustion is frequent and deposits carbon on the walls of the
heater tubes which reduce heat transfer. An electric motor is used to create pulses with steam to
blow away the soot deposited on the tubes.

Steam in the storage tanks which are in the loading area is used to ensure no asphalt
solidification occurs. The tanks fill up the trucks by gravity and as such are placed at a height of
about 7 m, The effluent pipes at the bottom of the tanks are surrounded by steam coils to
maintain a high temperature inside the line and reduce the risk of the dead zone inside the tank
solidifies.

Steam Consumption in Steam Ejectors


First Stage :399 lb/hr
Second Stage :415 lb/hr
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6.2 Cooling water:


The source of the cooling water is the Gulf of Suez. There are two lifting pumps stationed at the
coast with a delivery pressure of 2.5 kg/cm2 which provide all the unit cooling water
requirements, These two pumps provide the feed for the pre-condenser cooling water pump and
the pumps for the barometric and intermediate condensers of the vacuum system.

The cooling system is an open loop system; the water is taken from the sea to the lifting pumps to
the specified service pumps (pre-condenser and vacuum pumps) to the sea again. Design
precautions have been made to ensure that the temperature of the cooling water return is below
45 oC

These pumps were protected with strainers and filters to prevent gravel and microorganisms from
damaging the pumps impellers. Due to lack of maintenance and lack of spare parts these filters
are not functioning at the moment.

Also chemicals were injected in the feed to protect the piping downstream and prevent
microorganism reproduction but only the oxygen scavenger and the hypochlorite are working
now.
These chemicals are:
1. Anti-scaling agent.
2. Anti-fouling agent.
3. Hypo chlorite.
4. Oxygen scavenger.

Due to the above problems, the small tubes of the pre-condenser are clogged because of
microorganisms, fouling and impurities present in the cooling water. This tube bundle is made of
Copper (Cu) and has a unique shape; so it is expensive to replace.

This problem does not happen in the barometric condensers because they operate by direct contact
between the water and the gases.

6.3 Chemical injection:


The only type of chemical used is caustic soda (NaOH). This chemical is injected by a
reciprocating pump into the hydraulic leg of the light gas oil pre-condenser leg to neutralize the
acidic components found, Mostly it is used to neutralize the sulfur-containing organic acids.
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The dosage is determined manually by taking a sample from the gas oil and analyzing it in the lab.
By a correlation between the amount of feed, acidity and soda concentration the reciprocating
pump is adjusted manually to achieve the required dosage.
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Another less accurate way but far less time consuming is by using a manual pH meter to measure
the acidity of the rundown or reflux gas oil, a range of 6 7 pH is acceptable and the pump is
adjusted by the operator accordingly.

The choice of this injection point is mandatory because the soda is injected as a liquid and this is
the first equipment to have a liquid phase product.

There is a pump that takes from this hydraulic leg to a full-of-liquid vertical settling separator to
separate the water from the hydrocarbon phase.

The soda concentration is about 5%, so most of the chemical stream is water. Although this leads
to an efficient mixing inside the pump, but some of the unreacted soda returns to the tower
through the reflux line taken after the vertical separation vessel and may cause foaming inside the
tower.

6.4 Drain and purge lines:


The typical blow down and purge lines exist in this unit with their normal configuration. But there
is a provision to account for the extreme viscosity or even solidification of asphalt at low
temperatures; a gas oil line is connected to all the lines containing asphalt to act as a solvent in
case of emergency or purge.

But this is not always done with gas oil, typically steam or nitrogen should be used to clean the
lines and then they themselves are vented to the atmosphere (nitrogen) or drained (steam).

The special drain line in the unit is called a drop-out line. This line is specifically designed to
quickly get rid of hot asphalt or gas oil in a matter of minutes to protect the critical equipment in
case of emergency. This line is connected to the fired heater and to the exchangers in the preheat
train.

These lines end in an isolated tank, The tank is 65% full of cold water and the main drop-out
collection line enters from the top to a perforated coil inside the tank at about 20% of the overall
tank height. This ensures rapid cooling of the material inside the drop-out line and then can be
disposed of safely.
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7. Troubleshooting:

1. The main objective of NPC VDU is to maximize Asphalt production with Penetration
Index in the range of (60-70), so any disturbance in asphalt penetration index require rapid
Troubleshooting, the following is the common checklist in case of changes in asphalt
Penetration.

I. Check on Feed specifications (asphaltene content-viscosity) to assure that the operating


Conditions of the unit is appropriate to produce the required asphalt Penetration.
II. Check on Vacuum System which includes condensers and steam ejectors.
III. Check on tower operation conditions (which includes the following points):
If the temperature of the top section of the tower is higher than (220-230 oC) this
will affect the Vacuum inside the VDU fractionator, increasing gas oil reflux will
lower the temperature to the allowable range.
If the pressure in the top of the tower is higher than (30-50 mmHg) check on
Vacuum System which includes condensers and steam ejectors will be done .
Due to poor separation of caustic soda from gas oil in the gas oil drum, caustic soda
will be entrained in the gas oil reflux and solidification of caustic soda may occur
on the first tray, this will prevent vapors from the second tray to the pass to the first
tray, this will affect the vacuum in the middle of the tower resulting in poor
separation and off spec asphalt product.

Solar water separation drum solidification of soda on the tray

If there is a problem with Asphalt Penetration due to entrainment of gas oil in it due to
poor separation of gas oil from feed or due to change in feed specs (the indication of
this will be high flash point of asphalt) stripping steam will be used for gas oil
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separation from asphalt


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Steam coil in the bottom of the tower

If There is a problem in Asphalt Penetration due to contamination of wax with asphalt


due to poor separation of wax from feed or due to change in feed specs stripping steam
will not be convenient for wax separation so check on feed temperature to be in the
range (350 370 0 C) will be done or raising this temperature if feed is changed.

Slope of any tray must be in the range of (1-5 mm) to assure good distribution of liquid
on the tray to prevent over heating in the tray

Failure of tray due to overheating in definite positions

IV. Check on heat exchangers by making comparison between asphalt penetration before
and after each heat exchangers
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8. Considerations for N.P.C VDU design:


8.1. Tower:
1. Increasing tower height (no of trays) for easier control of the tower and increase the
temperature gradient inside the tower.
2. Increasing tower diameter in the middle section than the bottom section for more suction of
vapors.
3. Using packed tower rather than using trays will be more convenient for vacuum operation..
4. Pressure indicator in the bottom and middle sections for easier prediction of any problem
in the tower.
5. Using pressure indicator (for measuring vacuum)in the top section of the tower not in the
Overhead vapor line will be more accurate.

8.2. Heat Exchangers:


Problems Claimed by site operators for shell &tube exchangers:

A. Pre-Heat Train:

1. Tube blockage by asphalt: 2. Corrosion:

Tube blockage Corroded Pass Partitions

3. Tube Leakage

Tubes are fitted in tube sheet through expansion, so frequent leaks occur from shell side to
tube side.
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B. Light Distillate Condenser:


Thermal Fatigue of tubes due to frequent stops of cooling water pump and large
temperature difference between cold side (30C) and hot side (220C)

Tubes Thermal Fatigue

Tube blockage by Calcium Carbonate scale:

Tube Blockage

Tube Bundle Corrosion:


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Tubes are corroded internally by sea water and externally by vacuum tower overhead
vapors that contain a high percentage of naphthenic acids.
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C. Problems Claimed by site operators for Barometric Condensers:

Most problems with barometric condensers are attributed to sea water used for cooling. Those
Problems include spray nozzle clogging and corrosion.

D. Design considerations for heat exchangers in VDU:


1- All shells are F type shells that are not commonly used due to leakage between shell passes
or large temperature difference inside the shell that may lead to thermal fatigue as (in light
distillate condenser).
2- Provision for studying the use of desalinated water to reduce corrosion induced by cooling
sea water.
3- Provision for injection of anti-fouling chemicals and solvent washing of asphalt
exchangers
4- Provision for injection of Ammonia and Corrosion inhibitors at the tower overhead line to
reduce corrosion in tower overhead and downstream condensers.
5- Provision for fitting tubes in tube sheet through welding other than expansion to reduce
leakage.

8.3. Fired Heater:

1. Feed distribution
Due to a wrong piping configuration:
Feed is unevenly distributed into furnace coils so an acceleration steam is used in
case of low feed flow rates to prevent coking and cracking inside the tubes of the fired
heater and provides sufficient velocity for tower entry.
Un balanced acceleration steam quantities.

2. De-Coking
A de-coking procedure is provided with the VDU fired heater so as to remove coke deposited
inside furnace coils. De-coking system uses a combination of steam and air injection into
furnace coils for coke removal.
Coking is the buildup of deposits inside the tubes acts as an insulator reducing the heat
transfer to the process flow, so less heat is carried away by the process stream and this lead to
building up heat in the tube metal (hot spot).
A furnace can be de coked by the following:-
Shut down the heater
Injecting superheated steam and air through the tubes, this operation burns off the
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coke and cleans it out of the tubes.


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NPC VACUUM DISTILLATION UNIT SITE TRAINING 9700-124
SUEZ
EGYPT REPORT SEP. 28, 2014

De-coking System

3. Fuel oil Burners:


Using fuel oil as a fuel for fired heater burners has many drawbacks that include:
A. Unstable burner firing leading to flame impingement
B. Soot deposits on convection section tubes.
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