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Sasidhara Rao

When two synchronous generators are connected in parallel, they have an inherent

tendency to remain in step, on account of the changes produced in their armature currents

by a divergence of phase. Consider identical machines 1 and 2, Fig. 35 in parallel and work-

ing on to the same load. With respect to the load, their e.m.fs are normally in phase: with

respect to the local circuit formed by the two armature windings, however, their e.m.fs are

in phase-opposition.

Suppose there to be no external load. If machine 1 for some reason accelerates, its

e.m.f. will draw ahead of that of machine 2. The resulting phase difference 2δ causes e.m.fs

to lose phase-opposition in the local circuit so that there is in effect a local e.m.f Es which will

circulate a current Is in the local circuit of the two armatures. The current Is flows in the syn-

chronous impedance of the two machines together, so that it lags by θ = arc tan(xs /r) ≈ 90◦

on Es on account of the preponderance of reactance inZs Is therefore flows out of machine

1 nearly in phase with the e.m.f., and enters 2 in opposition to the e.m.f. Consequently

machine 1 produces a power Ps ≈ E1 Is as a generator, and supplies it (I 2 R losses excepted)

to 2 as a synchronous motor. The synchronizing power Ps tends to retard the faster machine

1 and accelerate the slower, 2, pulling the two back into step. Within the limits of maximum

power, therefore, it is not possible to destroy the synchronous running of two synchronous

generators in parallel, for a divergence of their angular positions results in the production

of synchronizing power, which loads the forward machine and accelerates the backward ma-

chine to return the two to synchronous running.

The development of synchronizing power depends on the fact that the armature

impedance is preponderating reactive. If it were not, the machines could not operate stably

in parallel: for the circulating current Is would be almost in phase- quandrature with the

generated e.m.f.’s, and would not contribute any power to slow the faster or speed up the

slower machine.

When both machines are equally loaded pn to an external circuit, the synchronizing

power is developed in the same way as on no load, the effect being to reduce the load of the

slower machine at the same time as that of the faster machine is increased. The conditions

are shown in Fig. 35, where I1 , I2 are the equal load currents of the two machines before the

′ ′

occurrence of phase displacement, and I1 , I2 are the currents as changed by the circulation

of the synchronizing current Is .

not essential for them to be identical, nor to have equal excitations nor power supplies. In

55

Electrical Machines II Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

Load

V

v I vI

E1

2δ

Is

v

Zs1 Zs2 ls

v v

I1 θ

I2

Es

1 E1 E2 2

E2

Local circuit

(a) (b)

Es Es

I’1

E1

E2

E2 Is

2δ E1

δ δ I1.I2

Is

Is

Is

I’2

(c) (d)

56

Electrical Machines II Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

104

102

2

100

98

0 25 50 75 100 125

Percent of full-load output power

general, the machines will have different synchronous impedance Zs1 , Zs2 ; different e.m.f.’s E1

and E2 and different speed regulations. The governors of prime movers are usually arranged

so that a reduction of the speed of the prime mover is necessary for the increase of the power

developed. Unless the governor speed/load characteristics are identical the machines can

never share the total load in accordance with their ratings. The governor characteristics

take the form shown in Fig. 36. If the two are not the same, the load will be shared in

accordance with the relative load values at the running speed, for synchronous machines

must necessarily run at identical speeds.

57

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