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Pearl:Introduction Pearl:Introduction by: SarahStanbury (Editor) from: Pearl 2001 Thepoemknownas Pearl

Pearl:Introduction

Pearl:Introduction

by:SarahStanbury(Editor)

from:Pearl 2001

ThepoemknownasPearlwaswritteninEnglandinthefourteenthcentury.Itexiststodayinasmallvellummanuscript,oneofthe

treasuresoftheBritishLibrary,MSCottonNeroA.x.,asthefirstoffourpoemscopiedbyasinglescribe.FollowingPearlarethree

morealliterativenarratives,twoofthem,PatienceandCleanness,retellingsofOldTestamentstories,andthelasttheArthurian

masterpiece,SirGawainandtheGreenKnight.Allfourpoemswereprobablywrittenbythesamepoet,butwhothatpoetwas

remainsamystery,asindeeddoesmuchofthemanuscript'shistory.Thereislittlesurprisingabouttheabsenceofanauthor'sname

attachedtooneorallofthesepoems;untilthefifteenthcenturyandlater,writersworkinginEnglishseldomsignedtheirwork.

Englishwasperhapsdeemedtoocommonand"vernacular"tobearclaiminginaworldwhereFrenchhadremainedthelinguafranca

ofinternationalcourtlybusinessandofEnglishhighculturesincethetimeoftheNormanconquest.Whatismoresurprisingisthe

apparentmarginalizationofthesesophisticatedandexuberantpoems.Togaugethepopularityofatextinapre­printculture,wecan

oftenusethenumberofsurvivingmanuscriptsasageneralguide.ForPearl,Patience,Cleanness,andSirGawainandtheGreen

Knight,thereremainsonlytheoneinwhichtheyhavesurvivedtogether.Togainasenseofawork'simportanceinitsowntimewe

canalsopayattentiontoitscriticallegacy,theresponsesofcontemporariesandfollowers,forpopularnarrativesintercalaterichly

withothertextsaswritersreadandborrowfromeachother.ForthetextsinthePearlmanuscriptthereexistonlythevaguestof

echoesinlaterwritingstosuggestthattheywerereadorknownatall.YetthesepoemsrankwiththeworksofChaucerandLangland

forwit,virtuositywithlanguageandprosody,learnedness,andsheerskillintellingastory.

Pearl,thefirstpoeminthemanuscript,leadsoffwitharichdisplayofthesequalitiesinastoryofcrossing­over,thesteppingoutfrom theordinarylifeintoaparalleluniversewherethingsoperatebydifferentnaturallaws:downtherabbithole,throughthewardrobeor lookingglass,acrosstheoceantobeshipwreckedonProspero'sislandor,morerecently,acrossabridgetotheislandofWillow SpringsinGloriaNaylor'shauntingnovel,MamaDay,wherethecrossing­overmovesintoaplaceofmemoryandhope,thenostalgic spaceofhomeaswellasBeulahorEden,theearthlyparadise.IfPearlresistsidentificationbyauthor,date,occasion,orplaceof composition,itcanbelocalizedbyitsconversationwithotherstoriesofcrossing­over,whichmostoftentaketheformintheMiddle Agesofdreamvisions,storiesoftransportthatoccurwhenthefiguretellingthestoryfallsasleep.Asanarrativestructure,thedream visionclaimsadeepheritageinsomeofthemostwidelyreadvernaculartextsofwesternEuropeanculture.TheItalianDivine ComedybyDanteandtheFrenchRomandelaRose,begunbyGuillaumedeLorrisandcontinuedbyJeandeMeun,bothseemto havebeenreadandknownbytheauthorofPearl.TheuseofthedreamasanarrativepointofdeparturealsostructurestheEnglish PiersPlowmanbyWilliamLanglandandthefourgreatdreamvisionsbyGeoffreyChaucer.Whatthesenarrativesshare­andindeed, whatitmaybesaidthatallstoriesofcrossing­overshare­isaplaceofpossibility,wherethenarrativebeginswithasenseofbeing stuckoreventrappedandthenmovesintoaplaceoffreedomorexpansiveness.InhisdreamthenarratorofPearlslipsintoan

"aventure,"whichmeans"marvel"or"quest"(line64).DanteattheopeningofInfernoistrappedinadarkwood,inthemiddleofhis

life,butinhisvisionbecomesatravelerintimeandspace,circlingdownthroughhellandthenclimbinguptoavisionofparadise.

HarryPotterisvirtuallyaprisoneroftheDursleys,buttransposedtoHogwarts,heistheairbornestarofquidditch.

Pearlsimilarlyopensinasettingthatemphasizeslimits:"clos,"meaning"set"or"enclosed,"isakeywordofthesecondline.Inits stagingofadreamvision,Pearlisexplicitlysituatedwithinacourtlyandaristocraticworld;andindeed,thepoeminmanyrespects takesitsshapeandparticularpowerfromtheinterplaybetweenacourtlyhabitus,aplaceofmoney,judgment,pleasures,andrulesof behavior,andtheuncannyyetfamiliarspaceofthecrossing­over.Beginningwithapreciousobject,thepoemalsoopenswith attentiontolocationandsurveillance,setinmotionthroughactsofjudgmentinfamiliarkindsofspaces.Thejeweler/narratorlooks

atandjudgesgemsingeneral;hehasoneinparticularinasplendidsetting,so"clanlyclos"(line2),butitfallsfromhimand

disappearsintotheground;his"[a]llas"(line9)precipitatesthepoembackwardsintothepastthroughamemoryofloss.

Thepoemtakesofffromthispointofdepartureasastoryoflossandaquest,openingaswellinaspacethatcanonlymoveoutward fromcontainment:thepearlinasetting,theearthintowhichthepearldisappears,thegardenintowhichthenarratorenterstogrieve it.Followingthenarrator'sswooninthegarden,hefindshimselfinalandscapepeculiarlytransformedintoaplaceofnaturaldelights, evocativeofaccountsoftheearthlyparadiseandalsoofthesensuouslovegardensthatappearsofrequentlyinmedievalliterature.In thissinuousEdenheforgetswhathehaslost.Hefollowsastreamandenjoysthepleasuresofthesenses­fragrancesofflowersand fruit,birdsong,thelightthroughtheleaves.Soon,however,heisliterallybroughtupshortwhenheseesayoungwomanstandingon theothersideofthebrook.Dressedallinwhite,withalargepearlinthemiddleofherbreast,sheisdisturbinglyfamiliar.Heasksher ifsheishislostpearl,aquestionthatsheevadesasshepointstohisfaultylogicinsayingthatsheislost.Fromthispointthestory movesintoadialogue.Inapassionateinterrogationthenarratorstrugglestoplaceherwithinknownframesofreferenceandevento reclaimher:howcanshebelost(dead)andfound?Nowthathehasfoundheragain,howcanhegiveherup?Wheredoesshelive?

Howcanshe,wholived"nottwoyer"(line483)inourland,beaqueeninheaven?Tohisquestionssherespondswithanswersthat

arebothlearnedandmeasured,andoccasionallyevendisciplinary,meetingtherageofhisquestionswithcooltheologicalpuzzles:he

cannotunderstandthedividebetweenthembecauseshehasmovedtoaplacethatoperatesbyanapparentlydifferentsetoflaws­

andwhoseoperationsformtheintellectualsubstanceofherreplies.Tohisquestionsaboutwhereshelives,shepromiseshimasight

ofherhome,andfinallyleadshimtoavisionofabeautifulcity,theNewJerusalem,whereshelivesasabrideoftheLamb.Thisforms

thefinallocationofthevision,avisionarychthonicmomentthatmoveshimtotrytocrossthestream.Itisatthatpointthathewakes

up,andthepoemends.

MetaphorandForm

InthegreatdreamvisionstoriesoftheMiddleAges,thedramaoftheother­worldadventureismadeexplicitlyhomelyorfamiliar

throughuseofafirst­personnarrator,andonewhoconventionallyfallsintocertaincategoriesof"ordinariness":heisfoolishor

middle­aged,orovertired,orsad.Theuseofafirst­personvoice,coupledwithtechniquesoffamiliarization,makeiteasytoassume

thenarrator'spersonaandgoalongfortheride.InPearlthatassumptionorcostuminginthenarrator'sidentityquicklyplaysintoa

storyoftroubledequivalence,sincefromthefirstwordwegetitwrong;whatwetakeasapearl,wesoonfindout,ismorethanapearl.

Thepearlisametaphorwhosevariousmeanings,unfoldingasthestoryprogresses,aresubjecttorepeatedreassessment.Paul

Ricoeurspeaksofmetaphorasa"plannedcategorymistake"inwhichlinguisticlimitsandcategoriesarewillfullybrokentoengage

newpossibilities:"thepowerofmetaphorwouldbetobreakanoldcategorization,inordertoestablishnewlogicalfrontiersonthe

ruinsoftheirforerunners." 1 Metaphor,thatis,forcesareevaluationofassumedtruths:thingsmaybeastheyseem,butarealsomore thantheyseem.Asittakesonnarrativeform,orderingasetofmeaningsoverandbeyondtheliteral,metaphorbecomesallegory.In medievaldreamvisions,mostofthemallegories,weareparticularlyawareofthedividebetweenthingsintheiressencesor"object­ hoods"andthecontingenciesofvalueanddesirethatcirculateaboutthem.Evenasthenaïvewandererinthedreamvision encountersacyberworld,richandstrange,thelivingbodyofthenarratorisalwayspresentatthemarginsofthestory,asleepina swoon,howevermuchweforgethimorher(inmedievalvisionliterature,invariablyhim)­andisareminderthatthingsoperate accordingtofamiliarphysicallaws.

Pearlmobilizesasetof"calculatedcategorymistakes"throughtheresponsesofboththereaderandthenarrator,andalsothroughan extraordinarilyrichsetofchangesrungonlanguagethroughoutthepoem.Bothnarratorandreaderengageinactsofmisreadingand misinterpretation;and,infact,thenarrator'sactsofpassionatemisreadingstructurethedialoguewiththePearl­maiden,whichtakes theformofaquizinwhichherepeatedlytriestocategorizeherwithinknownandfamiliarframesofreference­asetofcollisions,we couldargue,thatpitthefamiliarsurroundofcourtlyculture,thenarrator'sambit,againstthescripturalstoriesandvisionsthatthe maidenlaysoutintheanswers­thatsetsallegorical"truths"withparticularabruptnessagainstsenseperception.Webeginwiththe lossofapearlinagarden;thatpearl,wefindout,isalsoagirl,thenarrator'stwo­year­olddaughter;itisalsothekingdomofheaven

describedinMatthew14:45­46:"thekingdomofheavenislikethemerchantseekingvaluablepearls,who,whenhehadfoundapearl

ofgreatprice,wentandsoldallthathehad,andboughtit."Pearlsetsinmotionasetof"categorymistakes"thatcommentuneasilyon

theverynatureofcategories:whatisapearl?Whatisagirl?Howdoweknoworevaluatewhatwesee?Whatarethebasesof

aristocraticidentityandaffinity?

OneoftheparticularachievementsofPearlliesinitsoverlayofalinearnarrativewithasetofmetaphoricregistersthatwith

extraordinaryfacilityrewritesthedefinitionsofthepoem'scentralterms.Thatwhichappearsfixed,stable,andknownisnot:likethe

pearlitself,whichslipsawaytotransformintosomethingelse,wordsrecurthroughoutthepoemwithnewmeanings.Theeconomyof

metaphor,orratheritshyper­economy,liesinitsuncannyabilitytoexpressbothequivalenceandmultiplicity;ostensiblyanequation

ofidentity,markedbyanequalsign,metaphoralsoaddsuptothesumofitsparts. 2 Thepearlisagem,isatwo­yearoldchild,isa beautifulyoungwoman,istheimmortalsoul,istheheavenlycity­aswellasacollectiveofthepropertiesthatinheretoeachterm singly.ThelanguageofPearlisunusuallyrichinthedoubleentendre,alsoaformofmetaphor,particularlyintermsforjudgmentand

evaluation. 3 Indeed,Pearlusesadizzyingpunnology,embeddedwithinconcepts,wordsandgrammaticalstructuresandevenwithin

thesystemofitsmeterandrhyme, 4 asifininvitationtoengagewithlanguageasanencounterwithhauntingandrepetition.Inthe firstsetofstanzas,thestanza­groupinwhichthenarratorreturnstotheplaceorspotwherehispearl­néedaughter­waslost,"spot" recursinwaysthatforceassociativerelationshipsbetweenlocationandabsence,betweenthesetofcompasspointsthatplaceshim physicallyandthenegativitythatmarksthepearlasbothwithoutstain(without"spot")andwithoutaplace(without"spot")inhis world.Inthiselegy,theinstabilityoflanguagerecapitulatesor,wemightsay,performsthepoem'sstoryofbereavement.Language itselftellsusallweneedtoknowaboutloss.

Integraltothepoem'splaywithlanguageareformalpatterningsthatbuildrepetitionandchangeintothestructureofthepoem.Inits principlesofrhyme,versification,andnumbering,PearlisunmatchedforcomplexityinMiddleEnglishpoetryandperhapsrivaled onlybyDante'sDivineComedy.Attentiontonumberisavitalpartofthepoem'sdesign.Theuseofatwelve­linestanzaseemstobe carefullychosenaspartofanumerologicalstructure:theNewJerusalemhastwelvetiersinitsfoundationandisalsotwelvefurlongs

long;thepoemitself,1212lineslong,isacompositeoftwelves.Conceptsofperfectionandblemishparlayedthroughtheimageofthe

pearlarealsographedthroughnumber.Comprisingtwentysetsoffive,thestanzasaregroupedtoaddupto100,anumberof

perfection.Thissymmetryisoffset,however,bythecuriousadditionofanextrastanzainthefifteenthset­withtheresultthatthe

stanzastotal101.Onehundredandone,astrongnumberthatsuggestsnewbeginningafterreturn,isdoubtlessnoaccident.This

numberappearsasastanzaorchaptertotalinseveralothermedievaltexts;andmoststrikingly,101isalsothesumofthestanzasof

theCottonNeroA.x.manuscript'smostfamouspoem,SirGawainandtheGreenKnight. 5

RepetitionandchangealsostructuretheprosodicformofPearltoanunusualdegree.Thestanzasthemselvesfollowatightrhyme scheme,withthreesetsofrhymeappearingineach:ababababbcbc.Instanzaform,PearlsharesmanyaffinitieswithFrench,Italian, andLatinfourteenth­centurypoemsaswellaswithotherlyricsinEnglishfromthelatethirteenthcenturythroughtheearlyfifteenth

century.InitsuseofheavyalliterationandacomplexstanzaformPearlbearssomesimilaritiestothelyricsfromMSHarley2253,c.

1340.Inprosodicform,however,itsharescloseraffinitieswithlaterpoems.Pearl'suseofarefrainandatwelve­lineformofthe

balladeorpseudo­balladestanzalinkitwithacontinentalformthatfirstappearedinEnglishwithlyricsbyChaucer,c.1380,andthat

isusedinseveralofthelyricsintheVernonmanuscript(c.1390). 6 Pearl'sstanzamoveswitharipplingkindofmusicality:tworhyme wordsalternateuntilthefinalfourlines,whichoftenworkasaquatrain,whereoneoftherhymescontinues,andanewcounterpoint ispickedup.Rhymemovesthepoeminincrementsofrepetitionandchange.AsMarieBorroffdescribestheeffectofrhymeinthe

balladestanza,itis"likeaseriesofshiftstothenexthighermusicalkeyinsuccessivechorusesofapopularsong." 7

WherePearldepartsfromEnglishandcontinentalformsoftheballade,however,isinitsuseofanintricatesystemofverbalechoes.

Whilearefrainandverbalrepetitionarecommonfeaturesoflatemedievallyrics,bothEnglishandcontinental,Pearltransformsthe

refrainintoanechoicplayofconcatenation.Notonlydothefivestanzasineachstanza­groupsharearepeatinglastwordandoften

entireline,butstanzasarealsolinkedtogetherbyrepetitionofthelastwordoftherefrainofonestanzainthefirstlineofthenext,an

echoiceffectthatstringsstanzastogetherlikepearlsonanecklace.Pearl'smathematicallyprecisesystemofstanzanumberingandits

usesofrepetitionandverballinkingproduceapoemthatiscraftedwithunusualcare,thepoemitselfasakindofpreciousobject.At

thesametime,however,repetitionofitslink­wordsalsoallowsanunusuallatitudeandplaywiththepossibilitiesofmeaning.Ineach

stanzawithinastanza­groupthefinalwordisalwaysthesame,butthelineinwhichthatwordisembeddedisnot,someaningcan

varybysyntaxaswellasbytheplayoflexicalpossibilitieswithinwordsthemselves.Farfromrestrictingorconfiningmeaning,Pearl's

elaborateformallowsthefullestplayofitspunnology.Wordsmayrepeatandreturn,butreturnasalteredbearersofmeaning.

TheexperienceofreadingPearlcanthusbeunsettling,forwhilethestory,asanarrative,appearstoproceedinasequentialorlinear

way,themultiplemeaningsthatradiateoutfromcentralterms,andtheshiftsinitscategoriesthatdisplacefromitscentralimage,are

farlessclear,particularlyinthehallucinatorytransformationofthepearltothebeautifulyoungwomanwhoherselfisunderstoodto

representatwo­year­oldchild,presumablythenarrator'sdaughter.Yetatthesametimethatlanguageandprosodyenactprocessesof

transformationonthepearl,andeventheologicalpossibilitiesofpost­mortemtransfiguration,itscentralmetaphorneverdepartsfully

fromitsprimaryidentity:thepearlisapearl.Writingofthecuriousmaterialityofmetaphor,DarrelManselllocatestheimpulseto

metaphorinadesiretogroundlanguageinobjects,animpulseheassignstoayearningforamythiclosttimeofpre­linguistic

plenitudewhenthingswereastheyseemed:inmetaphor,whichisalwaysasurplus,"theoriginalworldofmatterisglimpsedstill

almostinnocentofpredication." 8 InPearl,languageandimageneverabandonthematerialityoftheirmetaphoricpointofdeparture. Pearl,thatis,continuestobetheword/namethatthenarratorutterswhenaddressingthemaiden.Pearlsappearthroughoutthe transformedlandscapeofthecrossed­overworld:inthegemsgleamingintheriver,intheclothingofthemaidenandindeedinthe verywhitenessofherskin,onthegatesoftheNewJerusalem,and,metaphorically,inthepearlyfleeceoftheLamb.

Thismaterialgroundinginpearlspointstoaquestion:ispearlafferentorreferent?Signifierorsignified?Whilethepearlisofcourse

asymbolfortheevanescentorthespiritual,thechildand/orimmortalsoul,andthenarrator'ssearchforthepearlanallegoryfora

spiritualsearch,thepearllendsthepoemapeculiarmaterialityandpresence;itisnotjustapointofdeparture.Inhisstudyofthe

elegyPeterSackswritesofthewaysthatelegiacpoetrygroundsitselfrepetitively,indeedobsessively,inobjects,replayinginpoetry

andinlanguagethecentraltraumaofloss,Freud'sfort/da.Theelegy,Sackswrites,ishauntinglyrecapitulativeinimpulseandform,

replayingaseriesoflossesthatlooksbacktoanoriginarytrauma,theprimalseparationfrommaternalplenitude. 9 Languageinelegy isunusuallyconcretized,Sacksargues,andinPearlwecanperhapsseehowthepoem'scentralmetaphororobjectalsoenactsthis

materialrequirement. 10 Thepoemoffersconsolationthroughthemaiden'sdiscourseonthedelightsofheaven,butperhapsaneven deeperconsolationinthevisualpromisethatthatwhichislost,thepearl,doesnotgoaway.

Contexts:Date,Authorship,Occasion

TothispointIhavebeenconcernedwiththepoem'susesofwordsandoftechniquesofprosodyastoolsskillfullydeployedtoproduce

emotionalandaestheticeffects­andeffects,asweshallsee,thatarealsoethicallyandpoliticallycharged.Thepoem'susesof

languageandofimages,andespeciallythepearl,canalsohelptolocalizeapossibletime,place,andoccasionforitscomposition.

EffortstoidentifyadateandoccasionofcompositionandanauthorforthepoemsofthePearlmanuscript,indeed,haveoccupiedthe

attentionofnumerousscholarsinthelastcentury.Pearl,alongwithPatience,Cleanness,andSirGawainandtheGreenKnight,is

remarkablyevasiveonmattersthatcouldidentifyatimeandplaceofitscomposition,suchasnamesoflivingpeople,realplaces,or

currentevents,afeatureofallfourpoemsthatCharlesMuscatinehasspeculatedisaformofescapismorreactionthrough"allegiance

tohigh­medievalfeudalism." 11 Someevidenceforlocalizingthemanuscriptisprovidedbydialect,whichhasbeenidentifiedas NorthwestMidlands.BothtextandmanuscripthavebeenlocalizedtoCheshire,witharecentstudybyHoytDugganplacingthepoet's

nataldialectinStaffordshireandthescribesomewhatmorenortherly. 12 Thedialectofthepoemsisdifficultformostspeakersof Englishtoday,forstandardmodernEnglishhasdescendednotfromtheCheshiredialectoftheNorthwestMidlandsbutfromLondon English,usedbyChaucerandhisLondoncontemporaries.Althoughthedialectcanlocatethelanguageofpoetandscribewithina fairlypreciseisoglos,itdoesnotnecessarilyidentifytheplaceofcomposition;andonequestionthathasperplexedscholarsiswhether thepoemsaretheproductofaregionalandprovincialculture,orwhethertheycouldbeathomeinamuchmorecentralandurban

location,oreventheLondoncourt. 13 Asfordating,languageprovidesnoclearevidencethatcanpinpointthepoemswithprecision, thoughonecomputer­basedstatisticalstudycalibratingthepercentagesofwordsofGermanic,French,orScandinavianorigin

indicatesthattheetymologicalmixofCottonNeroA.x.isconsistentwithMiddleEnglishin1390. 14 Useofdescriptivedetailsinthese

poemsforpurposesofdatingcanbeparticularlyslippery.OnescholarhasattemptedtolocateGawaininthemid­1300sonthebasis

ofcostumeandarmor;yetthosedetailscouldwellbetheproductofcalculatedinventiontosituatethepoeminasomewhatearlier

time. 15 InherstudyofPearlandtheballadeformSusannaFeinarguesfordatingPearlinthemid­1380s,butthatdatemayattempt

topinpointitsproductionsomewhattooexactly. 16 Aswithlanguageordetailsofplaceandcostume,evidencefromprosodycanmore

securelysuggestanearliestdateratherthanafinalone,sinceapoetworkingsomewhatlater(1390s)couldhavechosentowork

withinatraditionalformratherthanattemptthelatestthing.Forfixedpointsregardingtheproductionofthesepoemswehavetwo

datesthatarequitewidelyseparatedintime.Theearliestdatemustbe1348,thedateforthefoundingoftheorderofthegarter,

whosemotto,"honisoitquimalpense,"appearsasacodatoSirGawainandtheGreenKnight.Onpaleographicalevidencethe

terminusadquemmustbec.1400,thelatestdateforthecompositionofthemanuscript. 17 Whilethequestionisbynomeanssettled, recentresearchonthepoemsofthePearlmanuscript,andespeciallyGawainandPearl,hastendedtofavoralateratherthanan

earlydate,inthe1380soreventhe1390s.

AuthorshipremainsoneoftheprizequestionsaboutthepoemsofCottonNeroA.x.WerethefourpoemscontainedinthePearl

manuscriptwrittenbyasinglepoet,andmightthatpoetalsohavewrittenSt.Erkenwald,apoemthathassurvivedinaseparate

manuscript?St.Erkenwald,analliterativeLondonpoemintheCheshiredialect,sharesmanyfeaturesoflanguageandimagery,and

onthatbasishasbeenlinkedwiththePearl­poet,thoughmostreadersnowdiscounttheconnection. 18 Theargumentforlinkingthe fourpoemsintheCottonNeroA.x.manuscripttoasingleauthorrestsonagooddealofsubjectivecriteriabutalsooncertainfeatures ofthemanuscriptitselfthatgiveitanunusualintegrity.ItistheuniqueMiddleEnglishmanuscripttocontainonlyalliterativepoems;

italsocontainsillustrations,anunusualfeatureinaMiddleEnglishversemanuscript. 19 Dialectalsoarguesinfavorofcommon authorship,asdosharedmetricalandstylisticcharacteristics.Threearenarrativeswritteninanalliterativelongline,andPearl,a metricallyregularpoem,alsomakesuseofalliterativepatterning.Lessquantifiably,thepoemssharecertainthematicpreoccupations:

allfourrepeatedlypressurequestionsofbehavior,orwhatwemightcallmodeling,howone"confourns"orconformstoidealsof

courtlyorChristianbehavior,touseawordfromCleanness.Allfourtellstoriesofcrisesincommensuratingindividualbehaviorwith

top­downordivineordinances.Allfourpresentbrilliantlyvisualizeddescriptions,particularlyofnature,andmakeskilledand

strategicusesofpointofview.Allfourare"courtly." 20

Thereisnofirmevidenceatalltosuggestwhomighthavewrittenthepoems,thoughnumerousnameshavebeenputforth.The

scholarswhoproposethatPearlisanelegywrittenonthedeathofMargaret,daughterofJohnHastings,EarlofPembroke,also

suggestthatthepoemwaswrittenbyeitherJohnPratorJohnDonne,bothofthemclerksofPembroke. 21 Byfarthecandidatewith thegreatestlongevityinthecriticalliteratureisMascyorMassey.Aspateofdiscussionshasdebatedthepossibilitythatthepoems werewrittenbyamemberoftheMascyfamily,adiscussioninitiatedbylinkingtheinscription"Hugode"inthemanuscripttothe name"Masse"inSt.Erkenwald,producing"HugodeMasse,"anamethatcanbeconnectedtoanimportantCheshirefamily. SubsequentsupportforMascyhasdrawnonavarietyofcryptographicevidence,findingsignatureshiddeninthemanuscript

marginaliaandencodedinthenumberingandlettering. 22 TheideathatPearl,inparticular,couldcontainacryptograminits elaborateprosodicandmathematicalstructureisplausible.AsIdiscussbelow,someofthemargueritepoemsofMachautand Froissart,withwhichPearlcanperhapsbelinked,hidethenamesofthepoetandthepoeticsubjectwithincryptograms,asifto

suggestthatahiddenauthorialsignatureispartofthegamewithmetaphor. 23 Evidencefromcryptographyorotherformsoftextual andhistoricaldatahastodateproducednoconsensusontheauthorshipofPearloranyofthepoemsinCottonNeroA.x,althoughit hasproducedmanyassertions.

InconsideringtheoccasionforwhichPearlmighthavebeenwritten,thenarrativeformprovidesperhapsthemostarticulate

evidence.QuiteafewreadershaveapproachedPearlasaformalallegoryorspiritualquest,apoemthatdetailsthesoul'sprogress,

withthepearlasasymbolforcertainbodilyorspiritualqualities:purityorvirginity;thesoul;heaven. 24 Pearlclearlyisinformedby mysticalanddevotionalpracticescurrentinlatefourteenth­centuryEngland.YetPearl,informanallegory,isaboveallanelegy,a poemwrittenaboutthedeathofonewhowasbeloved.MostearlyreadersofPearlassumedthatthepoetwaswritingofthedeathof

hisowndaughter,withtheimplicationthatthepoemwaswritteninaneffortto"workthrough"hisgrief. 25 Anunderstandingofthe systemsoftextproductionintheMiddleAgeswithinstructuresofpatronagenowwouldargueagainstidentifyingtheauthorwiththe narrator,andsuggestinsteadthatthepoemwasmorelikelyacommissionedwork,probablywrittenasaconsolatorypieceto commemoratethedeathofadaughter,andprobablythedaughterofanimportantmagnateormemberoftheroyalhouse.Asa possiblesourceormodelforPearl,Boccaccio'sOlympiaisoftenmentioned,apoeminwhichamannamedSilvioisgrantedavision

ofViolante,hislostdaughter,transformedandlivingasOlympiawiththeVirginandSononaparadisalmountain. 26 Although OlympiaandPearlbearsomenotableparallels,theformofBoccaccio'spoemasLatineclogueanditsclassicizingallusionsgiveita markedlydifferenttenorfromPearl.ClosertoPearlinformandfeelingisChaucer'sBookoftheDuchess,adreamvisionelegywritten ontheoccasionofthedeathofBlanche,wifeofJohnofGaunt.Namesproposedforwhomthepoemcouldbecommemoratinginclude

Margaret,granddaughterofEdwardIII, 27 andAnneofBohemia. 28 Speculationsontheoccasionofthepoemarenotlimitedtoelegy, however.IanBishophassuggestedthatthepoemmarkstheinitiationofanadultcatechumen,ornewlybaptizedperson,andmore recentlyLynnStaleyhassuggestedthatthepoemwascomposedtocommemoratetheentranceintoanunnery,afigurativedeathto

theworld,ofanaristocraticchild,andspecificallyIsabel,bornin1384asthirddaughterofThomasofWoodstock,oneoftheyounger

sonsofEdwardIII. 29

CourtlyEconomicsandtheRicardianCourt

Byidentifyingthenarratorasajewelerandthecentralimageasapearl,thepoetseemstobewritingwiththevaluesandpossessions

oftherichclearlyinmind.Thetermjewelercanencompassnotonlyagoldsmithorartisanbutalsoadealerinorevenownerofgems

orartobjects,andhencetheprojectedidentityofthespeakercouldbeentirelyathomeamonganaristocraticaudience. 30 Thepoem's centralimagekeepsthepoemfirmlygroundedinaworldofmoneyandexchange,aworldwhosevaluesanddeluxedetailingare consonantwiththeculturalvaluesandfittingsofthefourteenth­centuryEnglishcourt.Ifconsolationiseffectedinpartinthereturn ofitsrepressed,thepearl,itisalsoeffectedinthecertaintythattheworldinwhichthepoemis"set"isalsofixedandstable."Paye," thelastwordofthepoem'sfirstlineandalsothelink­wordofthelaststanza­groupand,indeed,finalwordofthepoem,bespeaksaset ofcomfortablytransposedvalues,andvaluesthatarefullylegiblewithinidealizedtermsofmoniedexchange:"paye"inthefirstline

referstothejudgmentandpleasureofprinces,whovaluepearls;"pay"inthelastlinereferstotherewardandpleasuresofheaven. 31 Indeed,thepoem'selaborategemmologyandinterestinaristocraticvalueshaveledrecentscholarstoarguefordatingitinthelast yearsofthefourteenthcenturyandspecificallywithinthemilieuofRichardII'scourt.Whiletheseargumentsarespeculative,the

circumstantialevidenceisrichandtantalizingenoughtomeritsummarizinghere.Untilrecentlythepoem'sdialecthasledscholarsto

assumethatitwasproducedwithinamonasticestablishmentorbaronialhomeinCheshire,andprobablybyalearnedcleric

intimatelyfamiliarwiththeBibleandalsowell­versedinFrenchandItalianpoetry.Recentstudiesontheculturalandevenmanpower

interchangesbetweenCheshireandtheroyalcourthaveledtoareevaluationofthisview.MichaelBennetthasarguedpersuasively

thatthepoet'sregionaldialectdoesnotlimittheplaceoforigintoaregionallocation.RichardII'scourtwasfullyhospitabletoarts

patronageofthekindthatwouldsupportthePearl­poet.RichardalsosurroundedhimselfwithalargegroupofknightsfromCheshire

andelevatedCheshiretoaregionofprimeimportance:farfrombeinganalientongue,thedialectofthePearl­poetwouldhavebeen

fullyathomeinRichard'scourtcircles. 32 Perhapsahighlysophisticatedandlearnedcleric,writingwiththeinterestsandtastesofa courtinmindandaucourantwiththereadingtastesofinternationalhighculture,thepoetofPearlwasabovealla"courtier's

courtier." 33

JohnBowershasfurtherarguedforasetofparallelsbetweenthepoemandtheculturallifeofRichard'scourt,withparticular

attentiontosomeofthepoem'smoredramaticandvividimages,includingthepearl,thelamb,andtheNewJerusalem. 34 The remarkabledetailingofornament,theloveofdescriptionasakindofpilingonofthedeluxe,fitswithparticularconsonancein Richard'scourt,whichwasoftencitedandcriticizedforextravagancebycontemporarychroniclers.Richard'scourtwasmarkedbyits

loveofallthingsFrench,"apassionforjewelryinthecourtcircles"andaloveofaristocraticregalia. 35 Bowers,proposingadatefor

Pearlinoraround1395,arguesthatPearlbespeaksRichard'spoliticalaspirations,withthepoem'scourtofheavenasavisionary

courtlybodypolitic. 36 BothBowersandBennetthavearguedthatthelocusofthePearl­poetwithinRichardII'scourtcouldalso

accountforthedemiseanddramaticmarginalizationofthisspectacularsetofpoems. 37 Thisscenario,whilebuiltoncircumstantial evidence,providesafascinatingifhypotheticalpo­liticalbackdropforthemanuscript'shistory.Themanuscriptthatsurvives,insingle form,isdoubtlessacopyofanearlierexemplar,andanexemplarthatperhapswasquitelavish.Onescholarhasargued,onthebasis

ofscribalerrors,thatthesurvivingmanuscriptisatsixorsevenremovesfromtheoriginalversion. 38 WiththeascendancyofHenryIV

andtheLancastriansafterRichard'sdeathorexecutionin1399,thenewcourtexactedathoroughrepressionofsignsofthedeposed

king,extinguishingwithparticularthoroughnesstheCheshireconnectiontopromoteLondonastheplaceofthenewcourt,andof

LondonEnglishasthenewlanguageofthestate.IfthepoemsofthePearlmanuscriptwereaproductoftheRicardiancourt,they

couldwellhavesufferedasimilarerasure.WrittenintheCheshiredialect,themanuscriptofPearlmightalsohavebeenthetargetof

thissystematicpoliticalrepressionandrewritingofthepast.

WhetherornotwesituatePearlwithinRichardII'scourtwiththeprecisionthatBowersandBennettsuggest,thepoemcertainly

expressesmanyoftheintellectualinterestsandaestheticdemandsofanaristocraticmilieuinthelatefourteenthcentury­andan

aristocraticmilieu,itcouldbeargued,thatisatworktoreconcilethepressuresofthemarketplacewithbothcourtlyandtheological

values.Ifthepoem'svisiblesurfaceisconstructedofpreciousobjects,fromthepearltothegem­encrustedandgildedNewJerusalem,

thosesurfacesarealsorepeatedlysubjectedtospeculationabouttheirvalueandoperateinthepoemwithinacomplexcommentary

onmeasure,merit,quantificationandvaluation.Inarecentstudyofmarketeconomicsandscholastictheologyinthefourteenth

century,JoelKayearguesthata"passiontomeasure,"whichcametopervadeeveryareaofscholasticthinkinginthefourteenth

century,wasdirectlyinfluencedbythenewmonetizationoftheEuropeanmarketplace.Ratherthanemergingsolelyfromwithin

intellectualdebateswithinuniversities,the"measuringmania"ofscholasticphilosophywasdirectlyinfluencedbyinteractions

betweengownandtown;geometricaltheoremsofaneweconomicsrespondeddirectlytodailytransactionsinthemarketsquaresina

dynamicinteractionthat,Kayeargues,wascrucialtothedevelopmentofscientificmethodologies.Someofthemostdramatic

developmentsinneweconomicthinkinginthefourteenthcentury,andparticularlyingeometry,concernedtheoriesofequalization

andcommensurability,formoney,likegeometry,"commensuratedthemostseeminglyin­commensurablegoodsandservices." 39

InPearl,withitsintricatenumerologicalstructure,verbalconcatenation,andcomplexrhyme,wecertainlyfindevidenceofa "measuringmania,"andindeedthepoemcouldbedescribedasastudyinissuesofrelation­withlanguage,initsrichmetaphoricity andpunnologies,itselfamediumofexchange.Theimageofthepearlmayitselfsituatethepoemwithinadialogueamonglate fourteenth­centurypoetsonpoeticcomposition,andparticularlyontheinstabilityoflanguageinacommensuratesetofrelationships. Anotherwordforpearlis"margery,"fromtheFrenchmarguerite,atermthatisusedtodesignatethepearlfourtimesinthepoem. Margueritewasapopularfemalename,givenprominence,nodoubt,bythetremendousvogueofSt.MargaretinthelateMiddleAges,

andinFrenchmargueritewasalsothewordforthedaisyorheliotrope.In1364GuillaumedeMachaut,thepopularFrenchcomposer

andpoet,wrotethefirstofseveral"marguerite"poems,withthemargueriteanallegoricaldaisydesignatinganactualwoman,

MargueriteofFlanders. 40 FollowingMachaut,margueritepoems,severalofwhichtakeanallegoricaldaisyasanelaborateconceitto designatehistoricalwomen,werealsowritteninFrenchbyMachaut'scontemporaries,JeanFroissartandEustacheDeschamps,and inEnglishbyChaucer.ItseemsquitepossiblethatthepoetofPearl,whichalsoringsasetofchangesbetweena"margerypearl"anda younggirloryoungwoman,wasfamiliarwithatleastsomeofthesepoems.Inanessayonmetaphorandthemargueritepoems,Peter Travishasrecentlyarguedthatthemargueritepoemsconstituteaninternationaldialogueofsortsamongpoets.Inthemarguerite poems,theirpractitionerswereengagedinanexploration,throughametaphor,oftheinstabilityoflanguage,orindeed,ofthevery

workingsofpoetry. 41

ThetheologyofPearl,playedoutinimagesandinthedebatebetweenthenarratorandthemaiden,alsocirclesrepeatedlyaroundthe

problematicsofrelation.Thepoem'scentralhomily,themaiden'slongstoryoftheparableofthevineyardandthepenny,takesasits

centralproblemtheissueofrelationorofequivalence,andspecificallythecommensurabilitybetweentherewardsofthemarketplace

andtherewardsofheaven:howisitthataninfant,thenarratorasks,canmeritthesamerewardinheavenasthosewhohaveliveda

longanddevoutlife,oreventhosewhohavegiventheirlivesovertothechurchinthemostdirectedwaysasnunsorclerics? 42 Inthe parablethemaidentellstoanswerthisquestion,thecourt­inthiscasetheheavenlycourt­isorderedbyautopiclaborsystem,one thatresolvesbyedictthecentraltensionsaboutfairnessthatgovernmarketlaborandexchange.Theparable,akindofhomilyor sermonrightinthemiddleofthevision,seemssurprisinglylongandalmostdigressive,butasanexplanationoftheeconomicsofa heavenlymarketplace,itisstrategicallysituatedimmediatelybeforethevisionoftheNewJerusalemthatwillputtheoryintopractice.

Theparableoffersatextualdefinitionof"paye"orreward.

ThevisionoftheNewJerusalemthatfollowstheparable,themostelaboratelydetailedofthepoem'ssequenceoflocations,isitself

introducedasaprobleminrelation,voicedinthenarrator'sdemandtothePearl­maidentoknowwhereshelives,andtheninhis

incredulitythatshe,atwo­year­oldchild,couldbeelevatedtothestatusofaqueeninsuchaplace.InchoosingtheNewJerusalemas

theclimacticmomentinwhichthetwo­year­oldchildisperceivedfullytransposedasafullparticipantintheheavenlycourt,abride

oftheLamb,thepoetmakesabrilliantstrategicmovetoaccommodate,inKaye'sterms,quantitiesthatareincommensurable.Asthe

finallocationinPearl'ssequenceoftransformingplaces,theNewJerusalemisarichandmulti­layeredsymbol,understoodin

medievaltheologyandallegorytorepresentthesoul,heaven,andbothidealcityandidealchurch.Frequentlypaintedorsculptedon

thewestwallofthechurch,eitherinsideorout,imagesoftheLambandthethroneofGodandimagesoftheLastJudgmentmarked

centralpointsofentrance­and,indeed,thesavedfromthedamned.St.Peter'sinRome,animportantpilgrimagesite,hadonits

façadeamosaicoftheadorationoftheLambbythetwenty­fourelders,thesameimagethatistheculminatingmomentinPearl. 43 In adramaticfinalmovethattiesmysticaltransporttodailycollectiveritual,theNewJerusaleminPearlalsotakesthenarrativeintoa church,asifthetextualcitywereitselfaninvitationoveratriumphalarch,atheophanicmovethatisfurtheredaswellbyEucharistic echoes.SomereadershavesuggestedthatthepoemunfoldsinimitationoftheMass,andthatthepearlsignifiesthehost;theround

pearlenclosedingolddenotesaroundandwhiteEucharisticwafer,displayedinamonstrance 44 ­anequivalencethatIwouldargueis justoneofmanyinthepoem'srichmetaphoricdisplay.TheimageoftheLamb,bothsymbolandenactmentoftheEucharist,places thenarrator,andreaderaswell,beforetheEucharist,ormoreexactlywithintheperformanceoftheMass.Inafinalaccommodation theNewJerusalemoffersahousingnotonlyforthemaiden,butalsoforthosewhoparticipateinthesacraments.

TheNewJerusalemasdepictedinPearlisaboveallapowerimage,carefullykeyedtothetastesandintellectualinterestsofan

aristocraticaudienceinthelateMiddleAges.ThemaintextualsourceistheBookofRevelation,butthepoetwasevidentlyfamiliar

withvisualschemaforrepresentingthecityinApocalypsecycles,manyexamplesofwhichsurviveindeluxemanuscripts. 45 Apocalypsecyclesdecoratednotonlythetriumphalarchesofchurchesandcathedrals,butalsoroyalchapelsandchapterhouses.An elaborateApocalypsecyclethatstilldecoratesthewallsofChapeloftheHolyCrossatKarlsteinCastleinBohemiaoffersanexample

oftheclosetiesbetweenroyalinterestsanddevotionaleconomicsofsalvation.Builtin1348­57atacountryresidenceforCharlesIV

thatwasalsoatreasuryforthecrownjewels,thechapelincludesamongthescenespaintedonthewallsbetweenthearchesthe

adorationoftheLambbytheelderswithmusicalinstruments,asinPearl.InthisexquisitegothicchapeltheApocalypsecycleseems

designedtoprovideahousingnotonlyfortheimperialjewelsbutalsoforimperialsouls.Thewomanclothedwiththesunis

symbolicallyequatedwithAnneofSchweidnitz,thirdwifeofCharlesIV. 46 WhileachapelinaBohemiancastlemayseemremote fromthecompositionalcontextofPearl,sharedculturalinterestsinthelateMiddleAgesandtheinternationalmovementofartists

createdarichcosmopolitanexchangeinpatterns,subjects,andstyles.IfPearlwereproducedinthecircleofRichardIIinthe1380s

or1390s,thechoicetousetheNewJerusalemasthepoem'svisionarydestinationcouldevenbeimaginedasadeliberateone.In1381

RichardmarriedAnneofBohemia,daughterofCharlesIV.DoubtlessAnnewouldhaveknownofherfather'schapelatKarlsteinand

havebeenfamiliarwithitsvisualstoryoftheApocalypse.BennettandBowersevensuggestthatPearlmayhavebeencomposedasan

elegyforAnne,whodiedin1394. 47 Ifthatisso,theNewJerusalemwouldbeanentirelyfittinghousingforherimperialsoul.A favoriteimageforaristocraticpatrons,Pearl'sNewJerusalem,onemightspeculate,wasstrategicallychosentolinknotonlythis worldwitheternity,butalsoEnglandwithBohemiaandaroyalinternationallineage.

IntheculminatingvisionoftheNewJerusalem,thepoetoverlayssharplycontrastingwaysofknowingandseeing.Ontheonehand, thenarratormovesexpansivelyfromanenclosedgardentothemysticalcity;ontheother,thedreamerpassesthroughthedelightfully openmeadowsoftheotherworldtoendthevisionwithinawallededificeinmanywaysevocativeofthechurch.Thisoverlayor juxtapositioninspatialresolutiongivesusthepoem'smostskillfulactofcommensuration,linkingtheunmeasurablewiththe measurable:wecanbebothhereandthere."Here"and"there"areextravagantinlatitude.Ofthemanydesiresexpressedinthis poem,acontrollingdriveisapassionforequalizing,thestructuringofequivalencesaccordingtolinguistic,musical,andmathematical modelsthatcanmakeitpossibleforalostchildtobearesidentoftheheavenlykingdomor,forthatmatter,forordinaryand aristocraticfolksaliketoattainsalvation:theparochialmovesengagedwiththeimageryoftheNewJerusalemsuggestthatlike rewardsareavailableifwewillbedocilesubjects,faithfulparishionersandobserversofthesacraments.Crucialtothenarrator's spiritualprogress,Iwouldargue,ishisunderstandingofaccommodation,the"calculatedcategorymistake"thatmakesitpossiblefor thepearl,orlostchild,tobebothlostandfound.Onanindividuallevel,Pearldescribesthedifficultiesoftheindividualwhowemight sayis"workingthrough"griefwiththeaidofdevotionalpsychology.Onthecollectivelevel,Pearloffersthepromisethatthe

particularaccommodationrepresentedinthevision,themaidenoneof144,000bridesofChrist,canbeavailabletoall.Andifthe

NewJerusalemsuggestsafigurativemovementintoclericalspacerepletewithEucharisticechoes,thattranspositionisevengivenan

explicitlyhomelydimensioninthepoem'sfinalstanza­group,whenthenarratorawakensroughlyfromthedreamtoacknowledgethe

consolationtobefoundinthedailyritualoftheMass,thesubjectionoftheselftothesocialandritualorder.

AquestionthatlingerswithPearl,andperhapsthataccountsformuchofitsappeal,lieswiththebodyofthenarrator:doesthepoem

resolveinanaristocratizedandutopicvision,oristherearemnant,thenarratorhimself,nottotallyencapsulatedwithinaformal

sacramentalorcourtlysystem?Thenarratorskulksthebanksofthestream:hecannotcross,andwhenhetriesheawakens,andnot

veryhappily.Doeshebecome,asheasserts,adocilesubject(takingthesacrament),ordoesheremainasingleconsciousness,

separatefromthevisionofmetaphoricaccumulationthathewitnesses? 48 Excludedfromparadise,ishethe"spot"orblot,theone hundredandfirststanza,sotospeak?Amongreaderstherehasbeenlittleconsensusonthispoint.Longingandwhatwemightcall "reality"seemtobeacrossthestream,andperhapshowwereadtheresolutionwilldependonhowcompellingwefindthepoem's visionoftheophany.Howevercommunalthevisionofheaven,thatsocialorder,asonereaderhasputit,isofafully"aristocratized

theology." 49 Juxtaposedtotheindividualizedventureworksapublic,hierar­chic,andaboveallcourtlyperformance.

NotesonThisEdition

Pearl'sfirstprinterandmoderneditorwasRichardMorris,whoeditedPearlfortheEarlyEnglishTextSocietyin1864.BeforeMorris'

edition,Pearlhadremainedinmanuscriptform.ThefirstmentionofthepoemappearsinacatalogueofbooksbelongingtoHenry

SavileofYorkshire,acollectorofmanuscriptsfromthenorthernmonasteries(1568­1617).By1621themanuscripthadbeenacquired

bytheantiquarianSirRobertCotton,whereitremaineduntil1700,whentheCottoncollectionwasgiventotheBritishnation,and

finallytotheBritishMuseumin1753.

EarlyprintededitionsofPearltendedtotheviewthatthecopyist,orscribe,hadproducedatextsubstantivelydifferentfromthe

poet'sintent.IsraelGollancz,whoeditedPearlin1891andthenagainin1921,includedinhislateredition124emendations,or

corrections,tothemanuscript.ManyofGollancz'semendationswereaimedatrestoringmetricalregularitytoapoemheunderstood

tobeinaformofiambictetrameter,withfourregularstressestoaline. 50 Latereditors,however,increasinglyretainedthescribe's transcription.Atendencytoadheretothescribe'sversionofthepoemwasbasedinpartonE.V.Gordon'sinfluentialcharacterization ofthepoem'shighlyproblematicmeterasaformineffectcorruptedbytheinfluenceofthealliterativelongline.Undertheinfluence ofwritingalliterativeverse,thepoetwrotePearlinahybridformthatispartmetricalverse,partalliterativeline:"thechiefeffectof thiscloserelationshipisthatthelineisnotmeasured,hasnotafixednumberofsyllables,likethelinesofFrenchverse,norisit

systematicallyiambicoranapaestic,asthemodernreadertendstomakeit." 51 Areluctancetocorrectpotentialerrorsinthe manuscriptalsoreflectspracticesintextualeditingingeneral,whichhavetendedagainstemendingtextsincaseswherethereisonly

asinglecopy.AndrewandWaldron,intheirimportanteditionof1979,revisedin1996,haveninety­oneemendations,andgenerally

followtheleadofGordon,thepoem'smostimportantmoderneditor(1953),inemendingforlexicalsenseratherthanformeter.The

mostrecentedition,WilliamVantuono'sfrom1984,aimingtoretainmanuscriptreadings"whereverpossible,"hasonlytwelve

emendations. 52

Initsuseofemendationtorestoretheregularityofthemeter,thiseditionhasmoreincommonwithGollanczthanwithVantuono.

ThepoetwhowrotePearlhadanexpertearforsound,language,andmusic,anditishardtoaccountforthepoem'smany

rhythmicallyclashingstressesandmismeteredlinesunlessweattributethemtothepoem'scopyists.Recentstudiesonalliterative

meterandalsoonPearlhavemountedconvincingargumentsthatthePearlpoetwasacarefulmetricalstylist,andthatdeviations

frommetricalregularityrepresentscribaleditingratherthanauthorialintent.HoytDugganhasrecentlyarguedthatthepoetwrote

notinahybridandirregularlymetricalform,asGordonsupposed,butinaregulariambictetrameter,asdescribednearlyninetyyears

agoinearlystudiesonthepoem'smeterandmorerecentlybyMarieBorroff. 53 Thepoemusesalliteration,butinwaysmarkedly

differentfromthepatterningsofunrhymedalliterativepoetry. 54 Forthepurposesofreading,Pearlshouldbethoughtof,asBorroff

describes,as"iambictetrametervariedbyanoccasionalanapest"(p.32),aformthatshealsocomparestoGerardManlyHopkins'

sprungrhythm.Therearefourstressestoaline,butanirregularnumberofdipsinbetweenstresses.Final­eisnotnormallysounded, butoccasionallyitisrequiredtoavoidclashingstress­required,thatis,toprovideadipbetweentwowords,oftenmonosyllabic,that

arestressed,asinline17,"myhertethrange."Manyofthelineshaveanaturalpause,orcaesura,inmid­line.InthiseditionIhave

addedfinaletoremoveclashingstressinthemiddleoftheline,followingtheleadofGollanczandDuggan.

Intranscriptionofthemanuscript,IhavefollowedMETSguidelines.Thornsandedhsarewrittenasth,andyoghshavebeen

transcribedasg,gh,y,s,accordingtotheletterinmodernspellingthatthesoundrepresentedbytheyoghhascometorepresent.T

plusyoghiswrittenass.Manuscriptabbreviationshavebeensilentlyexpanded.Mychoicesforworddivision,oftenambiguousinthe

manuscript,areindicatedinthenotesonlywherethechoiceofwheretodivideawordposesasignificantinterpretiveproblem.The

manuscript,likemanymedievalEnglishtexts,isunpunctuated.Ihavepunctuatedminimallyforsense.Linesareonlyrarely

enjambed.InPearl,thelineisparamountastheunitofthought.Inthenotes,Ihaveindicatedmanuscriptformsaswellas

emendationsadoptedamongagroupofsixcomparisoneditions.

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tradeofpearlsinMiddleAges.]

Donner,Morton."WordPlayandWordForminPearl."ChaucerReview24(1989),166­82.[Variationinmorphologicalformoflink

wordsasimportantcomponentofpoem'slexicalplay.]

Duggan,HoytN."LibertineScribesandMaidenlyEditors:MeditationsonTextualCriticismandMetrics."InEnglishHistorical

Metrics.Ed.C.B.McCullyandJ.J.Anderson.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1996.Pp.219­37.[Contendsscribe(s)

consistentlyremovedoraddedsyllables,mismeteringthepoet'sregularlyiambictetrameterline;seehissimilarargumentinBrewer

andGibson,pp.221­42.]

Earl,JamesW."SaintMargaretandthePearlMaiden."ModernPhilology70(1972),1­8.[VirginmartyrSt.Margaretassourceforthe

Pearl­maiden.]

Fein,SusannahGreer."Twelve­LineStanzaFormsinMiddleEnglishandtheDateofPearl."Speculum72(1997),367­97.[Contends

Pearlusesastanzaintermediatebetweenoctet/quatrainformandtheballadeandthatthestanzaformdatesthepoembetween1375

and1385.]

Field,Rosalind."TheHeavenlyJerusaleminPearl."ModernLanguageReview81(1986),7­17.[Poem'susesofanddivergencefrom

biblicalApocalypsetext;imageofwoundedlambinApocalypseMSS.]

Finlayson,John."Pearl:LandscapeandVision."StudiesinPhilology71(1974),314­43.[Descriptionoflandscapeasobjective

correlativetonarrator'sspiritualunderstanding.]

Fleming,John."TheCentupleStructureofthePearl."InTheAlliterativeTraditionintheFourteenthCentury.Ed.BernardS.Levy

andPaulE.Szarmach.Kent,OH:KentStateUniversityPress,1981.Pp.81­98.[101,thenumberofstanzasinpoem,asnumberof

spiritualconsolation].

Gatta,John."TransformationSymbolismandtheLiturgyoftheMassinPearl."ModernPhilology71(1974),243­56.[Readingof

ritualisticallusions,withfocusonsacramentalinterests.]

Ginsberg,Warren."PlaceandDialecticinPearlandDante'sParadiso."ELH55(1988),731­53.[Pearl,likeDante'sParadiso,located

inaspatialaswellasdiscursivedialectic.]

Gross,Charlotte."CourtlyLanguageinPearl."InBlanch,Miller,andWasserman.Pp.79­91.[FranciscanandFrenchsourcesfor

courtlylanguageandtensionsbetweeneroticismandspirituality.]

Hamilton,MarieP."TheMeaningoftheMiddleEnglishPearl."PMLA70(1955),805­25.[PoemasChristianallegory;symbolismof

garden,etc.]

Harwood,BrittonJ."PearlasDiptych."InBlanch,Miller,andWasserman.Pp.61­78.[Studyofchiasticstructure;influenceofGothic

diptych.]

Hoffman,StantondeVoren."ThePearl:NotesforanInterpretation."ModernPhilology58(1960),73­80.Rpt.inConley.Pp.86­102.

[Pearlaselegy.]

Horgan,A.D."JusticeinthePearl."ReviewofEnglishStudies32(1981),173­80.[ContrastsbetweensocialandChristianideasof

justice.]

Johnson,WendellStacey."TheImageryandDictionofthePearl:TowardanInterpretation."ELH20(1953),161­80.Rpt.inConley.

Pp.27­49.[Centralconflictbetweenworldandeternitymirroredinimagesofnatureandofart.]

Kean,PatriciaM.ThePearl:AnInterpretation.NewYork:BarnesandNoble,1967.[Readingofimages,withfocusoncontrast

betweenearthlylimitationandspiritualperfection.]

Lightbown,R.W.MedievalEuropeanJewellery:WithaCatalogueoftheCollectionintheVictoria&AlbertMuseum.London:

Victoria&AlbertMuseum,1992.

Luttrell,A.C."Pearl:SymbolisminaGardenSetting."Neophilologus49(1965),160­76.Rpt.inBlanch.Pp.60­85.Rpt.inConley.Pp.

297­324.[Meaningsof"erber"and"huyle";conventionsofmedievalgardens.]

Lynch,Kathryn.TheHighMedievalDreamVision:Poetry,Philosophy,andLiteraryForm.Stanford:StanfordUniversityPress,

1988.[LocatesdreamvisioninPearlwithinlatedevelopmentsofgenre.]

Macrae­Gibson,O.D."Pearl:TheLink­WordsandtheThematicStructure."Neophilologus52(1968),54­64.Rpt.inConley.Pp.203­

19.[Readingoflink­terms.]

Mann,Jill."SatisfactionandPaymentinMiddleEnglishLiterature."StudiesintheAgeofChaucer5(1983),17­48.["Innoghe"in

Pearlas"endlesslysufficientabundance"(p.29).]

Marti,Kevin.Body,Heart,andTextinthePearl­Poet.Queenston,Ontario:MellenPress,1991.[PearlasreplayofaEucharistic

drama,withspatialrelationsfiguredasbothhumanbodyandGothiccathedral.]

Muscatine,Charles."ThePearlPoet:StyleasDefense."InPoetryandCrisisintheAgeofChaucer.NotreDame:UniversityofNotre

DamePress,1972.Pp.37­69.[Discussionofpoet'sdetachmentfromcontemporaryhistoryandpoem'sfusionofcourtlyandreligious

values.]

Nicholls,Jonathan.TheMatterofCourtesy:MedievalCourtesyBooksandtheGawain­Poet.Woodbridge,Suffolk:D.S.Brewer,

1985.[CourtesybooksintheMiddleAges;shortanalysisofconflictingcodesofcourteousconductinPearl.]

Nolan,Barbara.TheGothicVisionaryPerspective.Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress,1977.[Pearlasvisionaryquest;visionand

"visionaryperspective"ascentralGothictropes.]

Olmert,Michael."Game­Playing,MoralPurpose,andtheStructureofPearl."ChaucerReview21(1987),383­403.[Pearland

languageofgames;influenceofmedievalboardgames.]

Osberg,Richard."TheProsodyofMiddleEnglishPearlandtheAlliterativeLyricTradition."InEnglishHistoricalMetrics.Ed.C.B.

McCullyandJ.J.Anderson.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1996.Pp.150­74.[Derivationofpoemfromalliterativelongline

orfromFrenchmeteredpoetry;arguesthathalf­linecompositionofPearlsimilartoalliterativeHarleylyrics.]

Patch,HowardR.TheOtherWorld,AccordingtoDescriptionsinMedievalLiterature.Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversityPress,

1950.[Generalstudyoftoposofotherworld.]

Peck,RussellA.,"NumberasCosmicLanguage."InEssaysintheNumericalCriticismofMedievalLiterature.Ed.CarolynD.

Eckhardt.Lewisburg,PA:BucknellUniversityPress,1980.Pp.15­64.[BoethianandAugustiniannumbersymbolism,withapplication

toPearl(pp.44­51,58­64).]

Phillips,Heather."TheEucharisticAllusionsofPearl."MedievalStudies47(1985),474­86.[Liturgicalreferences;unfoldingofpoem

imitatesprocessofthemass,withpearlasEucharisticwafer.]

Prior,SandraPierson.TheFayreFormezofthePearlPoet.EastLansing:MichiganStateUniversityPress,1996.[Biblicalsourcesof

imagery;PearlchapteraddresseslambandenthronedGod.]

Putter,Ad.IntroductiontotheGawain­Poet.London:Longman,1996.[Pearl'snarrativeevasiveness;poem'scontinentalanalogues.]

Reichardt,PaulF."'SeveralIlluminations,CoarselyExecuted':TheIllustrationsofthePearlManuscript."StudiesinIconography18

(1997),119­142.[Revisescriticaldeprecationofmanuscriptillustrationstoarguethatsequencepossessessignificantcoherenceof

contentanddesign.]

Rhodes,James."TheDreamerRedeemed:ExileandtheKingdomintheMiddleEnglishPoemPearl."StudiesintheAgeofChaucer

16(1994),119­42.[ReadingofdebatesectionintermsofBakhtiniandialogics,locatingdreamer'svoiceincontextoflatemedieval

viewsonjustificationandsalvation.]

Riddy,Felicity."JewelsinPearl."InBrewerandGibson.Pp.143­55.[Discussionofpearls,gems,jewelers;alsopatronageforart

works.]

Robertson,D.W.,Jr."The'Heresy'ofThePearl."ModernLanguageNotes65(1950),152­55.Rpt.inConley.Pp.291­96.[Exegetical

explicationofparableofvineyardanddefenseofitsorthodoxy.]

­­­."ThePearlasaSymbol."ModernLanguageNotes65(1950),144­61.Rpt.inConley.Pp.18­26.[Symbolismofpearlandreading

accordingtofour­foldallegoricalmethod.]

Røstvig,Maren­Sofie."NumericalCompositioninPearl:ATheory."EnglishStudies48(1967),326­32.[Studyofnumberandnumber

symbolism.]

Russell,StephenJ.TheEnglishDreamVision:AnatomyofaForm.Columbus:OhioStateUniversityPress,1988.Pp.159­74.

[Contextualizingofpoemwithindream­visionform;Pearlandinstabilityoflanguage.]

Shoaf,R.A."PurgatorioandPearl:TransgressionandTranscendence."TexasStudiesinLiteratureandLanguage32(1990),152­68.

[ComparesendingsofPurgatorioandPearl,especiallyfordingofLetheanddreamer'sattempttocrossthestream.]

Silar,TheodoreI."AnAnalysisoftheLegalSenseoftheWordfyn(finalisconcordia)inPiersPlowman,SirGawainandtheGreen

Knight,Pearl,Chaucer'sWorks,andEspeciallytheEndingofTroilusandCriseyde."ChaucerReview32(1998),282­309.[Poem's

legalpuns;reviewofscholarshiponpoem'suseoflegallanguage.]

Sklute,LarryM."ExpectationandFulfillmentinPearl."PhilologicalQuarterly52(1973),663­79.[Narrativetrajectoryinformedby

reader'sidentificationandfrustrationwithnarrator.]

Spearing,A.C."SymbolicandDramaticDevelopmentinPearl."ModernPhilology60(1962),1­12.Rpt.inBlanch.Pp.98­119.

[Dramaticratherthanallegoricalreadingofpearl,arguingthatpearltransformsasnarratorchanges.]

­­­.TheGawain­Poet:ACriticalStudy.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1970.[Importantgeneralstudy;Pearlchapter

exploresuseofvisualarts;dramaticprogressofnarrator;sourcesoftopoi.]

Staley,Lynn.TheVoiceoftheGawain­Poet.Madison:UniversityofWisconsinPress,1984.[Exegeticallyinformedstudyofthefour

poemsofCottonNeroA.x.]

­­­."PearlandtheContingenciesofLoveandPiety."InMedievalLiteratureandHistoricalInquiry.Ed.DavidAers.Woodbridge,

Suffolk:D.S.Brewer,2000.Pp.83­114.[BuildscaseforidentifyingnarratorasThomasofWoodstockandthePearl­maidenasIsabel,

hisdaughter,andforreadingpoemascommemorativeelegyonherentranceintohouseofMinoressesinLondon.Examinationof

culturalpatronage.]

Stanbury,Sarah.SeeingtheGawain­Poet:DescriptionandtheActofPerception.Philadelphia:UniversityofPennsylvaniaPress,

1991.[TechniquesoffocalizedgazeinpoemsofCottonNeroA.x.]

­­­."FeministMasterplots:TheGazeontheBodyofPearl'sDeadGirl."InFeministApproachestotheBodyinMedievalLiterature.

Ed.LindaLomperisandSarahStanbury.Philadelphia:UniversityofPennsylvaniaPress,1993.Pp.96­115.[Genderednarrativegaze

ofpoeminrelationtofeministfilmtheory.]

­­­."TheBodyandtheCityinPearl."Representations47(1994),271­85.[Psychoanalytic,exegetical,andphenomenological

frameworksformourningasgenderednarrative,centeredaroundtropesofJerusalemasmother.]

Stern,MiltonR."AnApproachtoThePearl."JEGP54(1955),684­92.Rpt.inConley.Pp.73­85.[Four­foldallegoricalmethod;

symbolismofgemsandflowers.]

Thorpe,Douglas.ANewEarth:TheLaborofLanguageinPearl,Herbert'sTemple,andBlake'sJerusalem.Washington:Catholic

UniversityofAmericaPress,1991.Pp.27­72.[NewTestamentparablesassourceforpoem'smetaphoricallanguageand"sacramental

poetics."]

Tomasch,Sylvia."APearlPunnology."JEGP88(1989),1­20.[Arguesthatgrammarandlanguageunderwriteideaof

interconnectedness;in­depthanalysisof"spot."]

Turville­Petre,Thorlac."ThePearl­PoetinHis'FayreRegioun.'"InEssaysonRicardianLiteratureinHonourofJ.A.Burrow.Ed.

AlastairJ.Minnis,CharlotteC.Morse,andThorlacTurville­Petre.Oxford:ClarendonPress,1997.Pp.276­94.[Debateoverregional

versusnationalpoetryinlatefourteenthcentury;Pearlnon­metropolitan(non­London),butlessregionalthanotherCottonNeroA.x.

poems.]

Vance,Eugene."Pearl:LoveandthePoeticsofParticipation."InPoetics:TheoryandPracticeinMedievalEnglishLiterature.Ed.

PieroBoitaniandAnnaTorti.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress.Pp.131­49.[TheologyofparticipationinPearlaswellasin

Grosseteste,Augustine,Pseudo­Dionysius,andPlotinus.]

Vantuono,William."Patience,Cleanness,Pearl,andGawain:TheCaseforCommonAuthorship."AnnualeMediaevale12(1971),37­

69.[Evidencebasedonlanguage,imagery,andstructure.]

­­­."JohndeMascyofSaleandthePearlPoems."Manuscripta25(1981),77­88.[Controversyaboutauthorship;evidenceforJohnde

Mascy'scandidacy.]

Watkins,John."'SengeleyinSynglere':PearlandLateMedievalIndividualism."ChaucerYearbook2(1995),117­36.[Textandlate

Ricardiansocialconcerns;ParableofVineyardandStatuteofLaborers.]

Watson,Nicholas."TheGawain­PoetasVernacularTheologian."InBrewerandGibson.Pp.293­313.[Pearlandcontemporary

vernacularreligiousinstruction;poem'seconomyofsalvationas"aristocratizedtheology"privileginglaygentryovercareerreligious.]

Watts,AnnChalmers."Pearl,Inexpressibility,andPoemsofHumanLoss."PMLA99(1984),26­40.[Poem'sreiteratedmotifof

inexpressiblelossasenduringliterarytopos.]

Whitaker,Muriel."PearlandsomeIllustratedApocalypseManuscripts."Viator12(1981),183­201.[Well­illustratedexaminationof

illuminatedapocalypsemanuscriptsthatmayhaveservedassourcesforpoem.]

Wilson,Edward."WordPlayandtheInterpretationofPearl."MediumAevum40(1971),116­34.[Poem'slanguageandverbalechoes

asliteralratherthanallegoricalexperience.]

Wimsatt,JamesI.AllegoryandMirror:TraditionandStructureinMiddleEnglishLiterature.NewYork:Pegasus,1970.[Pearland

DivineComedy;literaryanaloguesofPearl­maideninmargueritepoems;Pearlandmedievalallegory.]

FOOTNOTES

PEARL,INTRODUCTION:FOOTNOTES

1PaulRicoeur,TheRuleofMetaphor:Multi­disciplinaryStudiesoftheCreationofMeaninginLanguage,trans.RobertCzerny,with

KathleenMcLaughlinandJohnCostello,S.J.(London:RoutledgeandKeganPaul,1978),p.197;Ricoeurtakestheideaofthe

"categorymistake"fromGilbertRyle,TheConceptsofMind(London:Hutchinson,1949),p.10.

2Foranimportantdiscussionofmedievaltheoriesofmetaphor,seePeterW.Travis,"Chaucer'sHeliotropesandthePoeticsof

Metaphor,"Speculum72(1997),399­427.

3Forlegaljudgment,seeSilar.

4ItakethistermfromTomasch.

5ForFranciscantextsbasedon101,seeFleming;fordiscussionoftheusesofnumberinPearl,seeBishop,PearlinItsSetting,pp.

27­32;Peck,pp.44­51,58­64;andRøstvig.

6Fein,pp.368,382;Gordon,ed.,Pearl,pp.86­87;DavidLawton,"MiddleEnglishAlliterativePoetry:AnIntroduction,"inMiddle

EnglishAlliterativePoetryandItsLiteraryBackground:SevenEssays,ed.DavidLawton(Woodbridge,Suffolk:D.S.Brewer,1982),

pp.8­9.

7MarieBorroff,Pearl:AVerseTranslation(NewYork:W.W.Norton,1977),p.35.

8DarrelMansell,"MetaphorasMatter,"LanguageandLiterature17(1992),117.

9PeterSacks,TheEnglishElegy:StudiesintheGenrefromSpensertoYeats(Baltimore:JohnsHopkinsUniversityPress,1985),pp.

1­37.

10Stanbury,"TheBodyandtheCityinPearl";forthegenderingofthepoem'sembodiedlanguage,seeCox.

11Muscatine,pp.37,40;seealsoPutter,whospeaksofthepoet's"techniquesofdefamiliarization"(p.156).

12AngusMcIntosh,"ANewApproachtoMiddleEnglishDialectology,"EnglishStudies44(1963),1­11;H.N.Duggan,"Meter,Stanza,

Vocabulary,Dialect,"inBrewerandGibson,pp.240­42.

13ForadiscussionofthisquestionandofregionalversusurbanproductioninRicardianpoetry,seeTurville­Petre,pp.276­94.

14Duggan,"Meter,"pp.238­39,citesNormanHinton,"TheLanguageoftheGawain­Poems,"ArthurianInterpretations2(1987),

83­94,andanunpublishedpaperbyHinton.

15W.G.Cooke,"SirGawainandtheGreenKnight:ARestoredDating,"MediumAevum58(1989),34­48.

16Fein,p.393.

17C.E.Wright,EnglishVernacularHandsfromtheTwelfthtotheFifteenthCenturies(Oxford:ClarendonPress,1960),p.15.

18Forareviewofthediscussion,seeAndrew,"TheoriesofAuthorship,"inBrewerandGibson,pp.26­28.

19A.S.G.Edwards,"TheManuscript:BritishLibraryMSCottonNeroA.x,"inBrewerandGibson,pp.197,210.Forareconsideration

oftheillustrationsandargumentthattheywerecomposedwithattentiontothenumerologicalandthematicissuesofthepoems,see

Reichardt.

20Forastudyofthethematicsimilaritiesamongthefourpoems,seeSpearing,TheGawain­Poet.

21OscarCargillandMargaretSchlauch,"ThePearlandItsJeweler,"PMLA43(1928),105­23.

22ForessaysadvancingtheMascyhypothesis,seeOrmerodGreenwood,trans.,SirGawainandtheGreenKnight(London:Lionand

UnicornPress,1956),pp.6­12;BarbaraNolanandDavidFarley­Hills,"TheAuthorshipofPearl:TwoNotes,"ReviewofEnglish

Studiesn.s.22(1971),295­302;WilliamVantuono,"ANameintheCottonMS.NeroA.xArticle3,"MedievalStudies34(1975),537­

42,and"JohndeMascy";KatherineAdam,TheAnomalousStanzaofPearl:DoesitDiscloseaSix­HundredYearOldSecret?

(Fayetteville:MonographPublishers,1976);EricKooper,"TheCaseoftheEncodedAuthor:JohnMasseyinSirGawainandthe

GreenKnight,"NeuphilologischeMitteilungen83(1982),158­68.ForcounterargumentsseeThorlacTurville­PetreandEdward

Wilson,"Hoccleve,'MaisterMassy',andthePearl­Poet:TwoNotes,"ReviewofEnglishStudiesn.s.26(1975),129­43;Clifford

PetersonandEdwardWilson,"Hoccleve,theOldHallManuscript,CottonNeroA.xandthePearl­Poet,"ReviewofEnglishStudies

n.s.28(1977),49­56.TheseargumentsaresummarizedindetailbyAndrew,inBrewerandGibson,pp.28­31;seealsoWilliam

Vantuono,ed.,ThePearlPoems,pp.xxii­xxiv.

23JamesWimsatt,TheMargueritePoetryofGuillaumedeMachaut(ChapelHill:UniversityofNorthCarolinaPress,1970),pp.40­

41;seealsoTravis,"Chaucer'sHeliotropes,"pp.404­05.

24Forsymbolismofpearls,seeDonkin,pp.250­75;andforstudieswithapplicationtoPearl,seeBishop,PearlinItsSetting,pp.51­

98;Kean,pp.143­47;Bogdanos;andthebriefbutcogentdiscussioninGordon,ed.,pp.xxvii­xxix.Forreadingsofthepoemas

developmentalspiritualallegory,seeBlenkner;Wimsatt,pp.122­33;Hamilton;Finlayson;andClopper.

25Gollancz,inhis1921edition,providesanimaginarybiographyforthepoetinwhichaformativeepisodeishisdaughter'sdeath,pp.

xl­xlvi.AmorerecentautobiographicalnarrativehasbeenconstructedbyBowers,"ThePoliticsofPearl,"pp.432­41.

26Gollancz,pp.258­85,appendsaneditionandtranslationofOlympiatohisedition.

27Seenote21.

28MichaelJ.Bennett,"TheHistoricalBackground,"inBrewerandGibson,p.84;theargumentisdetailedatlengthinJohnBowers,

ThePoliticsofPearl:CourtPoetry.

29Bishop,PearlinItsSetting,pp.113­21;Staley,"PearlandtheContingenciesofLoveandPiety."

30SeeRiddy,inBrewerandGibson;Bowers,"PearlinItsRoyalSetting,"p.139;andespeciallyBarr.

31SeeDavidAers,"ChristianityforCourtlySubjects,"inBrewerandGibson,p.94.

32Bennett,"TheCourtofRichardII,"pp.11­16;andBennett,"TheHistoricalBackground,"p.78.

33Bennett,"TheHistoricalBackground,"p.81.

34Bowers,"PearlinItsRoyalSetting,"pp.419­41.

35GervaseMathew,TheCourtofRichardII(London:Murray,1968),pp.38­39.

36Bowers,"PearlinItsRoyalSetting,"pp.145­51.

37Bennett,"TheCourtofRichardII,"pp.14­16;andBowers,"PearlinItsRoyalSetting,"pp.151­55.

38J.P.Oakden,AlliterativePoetryinMiddleEnglish(Manchester:ManchesterUniversityPress,1930),pp.261­63;citedinFein,p.

369n.

39JoelKaye,EconomyandNatureintheFourteenthCentury:Money,MarketExchange,andtheEmergenceofScientificThought

(NewYork:CambridgeUniversityPress,1998),pp.3,219.

40JamesWimsatt,ChaucerandhisFrenchContemporaries:NaturalMusicintheFourteenthCentury(Toronto:Universityof

TorontoPress,1993),p.96.

41Travis,"Chaucer'sHeliotropes,"pp.403­05.

42Pearl'stheologyofrewardhasbeenrecentlyaddressedbyWatson,"TheGawain­PoetasaVernacularTheologian,"inBrewerand

Gibson,pp.293­313.Therelationshipbetweentheparableofthevineyardandconcernswithlaborandeconomicsinlatefourteenth­

centuryEnglandisaddressedbyBowers,"ThePoliticsofPearl,"pp.419­41;andbyWatkins.

43SeeJonathanAlexander,withMichaelMichaelandMartinKauffmann,"TheLastThings:RepresentingtheUnrepresentable,"in

TheApocalypseandtheShapeofThingstoCome,ed.FrancesCarey(London:BritishMuseumPress,1999),pp.49,44.

44SeePhillips;Marti,pp.44,84­88;andGatta.

45SeeWhitaker;Field;Nolan,pp.54­83;andStanbury,SeeingtheGawain­Poet,pp.21­35.

46VlastaDvoraková,J.Krása,A.Merhautová,andK.Stejskal,GothicMuralPaintinginBohemiaandMoravia1300­1378,trans.R.

Finlayson­SamsourandI.Urwin(London:OxfordUniversityPress,1964),p.97;AlfredThomas,Anne'sBohemia:CzechLiterature

andSociety1310­1420(Minneapolis:UniversityofMinnesotaPress,1998),p.101.

47Thomas,p.19,alsoproposesAnneasacandidate.

48Forthetext'srepresentationofindividualself­consciousness,seeAers;andWatkins.

49Watson,inBrewerandGibson,p.312.

50Gollancz,pp.xxiii­ivn.Gollancz'sunderstandingofthepoemasiambictetrameterwasbasedonanessaybyC.S.Northup,"A

StudyoftheMetricalStructureoftheMiddleEnglishPoemThePearl,"PMLA12(1897),326­40.

51Gordon,p.89.

52Vantuono,ThePearlPoems,pp.liv­lv.

53Duggan,"LibertineScribes,"pp.219­37;andDuggan,"Meter,Stanza,Vocabulary,Dialect,"inBrewerandGibson,pp.221­42.

PearlwasfirstcharacterizedasiambictetrameterbyNorthrup;forasuccinctdescriptionoftheforminPearlseeBorroff,Pearl,pp.

32­35.

54Duggan'sargumentthatthepoetwroteametricallyregularlinethatthescribe,orscribes,transformedisbasedinpartonrecent

studiesdefiningthemetricalcharacteristicsofthealliterativelongline;seeDuggan,"Final­EandtheRhythmicStructureoftheB­

VerseinMiddleEnglishAlliterativePoetry,"ModernPhilology86(1988),119­45;MarieBorroff,SirGawainandtheGreenKnight:A

StylisticandMetricalStudy(NewHaven:YaleUniversityPress,1962);andThorlacTurville­Petre,TheAlliterativeRevival

(Cambridge:D.S.Brewer,1977).InSirGawainandtheGreenKnight,Cleanness,andPatience,thethreealliterativepoemsofthe

manuscript,thescribeconsistentlymakeslinesunmetricalbytheusesofdissyllabicforms,writingotherforor.IncopyingPearl,the scribemakessimilarchanges,usingdissyllabicformstotransformmetricallyregularlinestounmetricalones;Duggan,"Libertine

Scribes,"pp.224­25.

http://d.lib.rochester.edu/teams/text/stanbury­pearl­introduction