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Structural Analysis - III

Direct Stiffness Method

Dr. Rajesh K. N. Asst. Professor in Civil Engineering Govt. College of Engineering, Kannur

11

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Module III

Direct stiffness method

• Introduction – element stiffness matrix – rotation transformation matrix – transformation of displacement and load vectors and stiffness matrix – equivalent nodal forces and load vectors – assembly of stiffness matrix and load vector – determination of nodal displacement and element forces – analysis of plane truss beam and plane frame (with numerical examples) – analysis of grid – space frame (without numerical examples)

22

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Introduction

The formalised stiffness method involves evaluating the displacement transformation matrix C MJ correctly

Generation of matrix C MJ is not suitable for computer programming

Hence the evolution of direct stiffness method

3

3

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Direct stiffness method

• We need to simplify the assembling process of S J , the assembled structure stiffness matrix

• The key to this is to use member stiffness matrices for actions and displacements at BOTH ends of each member

• If member displacements are expressed with reference to global co- ordinates, the process of assembling S J can be made simple

44

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Member oriented axes (local coordinates)

and structure oriented axes (global coordinates)

y

L

δ L

Local axes

x

x

δ L sinθ

Y

Y

Y

Y

δ
L
y
θ

X

X

X

X

δ L cosθ

Global axes

Global axes

Global axes

Global and local axes

5

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Plane truss member Stiffness coefficients in local coordinates

y
0
0
1
EA
EA
0
0
L
L
0000
[
S
]
=
M
EA
EA
0
0
L
L
0000
⎢ ⎣
⎦ ⎥

EA

L

Unit displacement

corr. to DOF 1

1

Degrees of freedom

EA

L

x

Member stiffness matrix in local coordinates

3

6

2

4

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Transformation of displacement vector
θ
U
= D cosθ
22
2
D
U
= −D sinθ
θ
2
12
2
Displacements in global
coordinates: U 1 and U 2
Y
D
U
= D sinθ
21
1
UU
=+=
U
D
cos
θ
D
sin
θ
U
= D cosθ
1
11
12
1
2
11
1
UU
=+=
U
D
sin
θ
+
D
cos
2
21
22
1
2
⎧⎫ ⎡
D
cos
θ
sin
θ
⎤⎧⎫ U
1
1
X
D
=
⎣ ⎢
− sin
θ
cos
θ
U
⎦⎩
2
2
{D}=[R]{U}
7

θ

⎨⎬

⎨⎬

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

⎧ D
cos
θ
sin
θ
0
0
1 ⎫
⎤⎧⎫ U
1
⎥⎪⎪
D
⎪ ⎪
− sin
θ
cos
θ
0
0
⎪⎪ U
2
=
2
⎨⎬
D
0
0
cos
θ
sin
θ
3 ⎪
⎪⎪ U
3
D
0
0
sin
θ
cos
θ
⎪⎪ U ⎭
4 ⎭ ⎪
⎦⎩
4
{
}
= RD
[
]{
}
D LOCAL
T
GLOBAL
[] R
[
O
]
[
R
T ]
Rotation matrix
= ⎢
[] O
[]
R
8

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Actions in global
coordinates:
θ
F 1 and F 2
FF
= +=
F
A
cos
θ
A
sin
θ
1
11
12
1
2
= A cosθ
FF
=+=
F
A
sin
θ
+
A
cos
θ
F 22
2
2
21
22
1
2
A
= − A sinθ
θ
2
F 12
2
A 1 ⎫
cos
θ
sin
θ
⎤⎧⎫ F
1
=
⎨⎬
A
− sin
θ
cos
θ
⎣ ⎢
⎦⎩ F ⎭
2
2
Y
A
F
= A sinθ
1
21
1
{A}=[R]{F}
F
= A cosθ
11
1
⎧ A
cos
θ
sin
θ
0
0
⎤⎧⎫ F
1
1
⎥⎪⎪
A
⎪ ⎪
= ⎢
− sin
θ
cos
θ
0
0
⎪⎪ F
2
2
⎨⎬
A
0
0
cos
θ
sin
θ
3
⎪⎪ F
3
A
0
0
sin
θ
cos
θ
⎪⎪
F
X
⎭ ⎪
⎦⎩ ⎭
4
4
i.e.,
{ A
}
=
[
R
]{
A
}
LOCAL
T
GLOBAL
9

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Transformation of stiffness matrix
{
}
= SD
[
]{
}
A LOCAL
M
LOCAL
[
RA
]{
} =
[
S
][ ]{
RD
}
T
GLOBAL
M
T
GLOBAL
1
− 1
T
{
}
=
[ ][
R
S
][ ]{
RD
}
[
R
]
= [
R
]
A GLOBAL
T
M
T
GLOBAL
T
T
{
}
= SD
[
]{
}
T
where,
[
S
]
=
[ ][
R
SR
][
]
A GLOBAL
MS
GLOBAL
MS
T
MT
Member stiffness matrix in
global coordinates
T
[
S
]
= [
R
][
SR
][
]
MS
T
M
T
T
2
2
cs
0
0
1
0
− 10
c cs
− c
cs
⎤⎡
cs
0
0
⎥⎢
2
2
sc
00
EA
0000
sc
00
EA
cs s
− cs
s
⎥⎢
2
2
− cs
c
c
cs
2
2
00
sc
000000 ⎦⎣ ⎥⎢
sc
− s
cs
cs
s
10
For a plane truss member

=

0

0

cs

L ⎢−

10

1

0

⎥⎢

0

0

cs

=

L

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Plane frame member
Stiffness coefficients in local coordinates
2
5
4
1
3
6
Degrees of freedom
EA
EA
L
L
12
EI
6
EI
12
EI
6
EI
0
0
3
2
32
L
L
LL
6 EI
4
EI
62 EI
EI
[
S
Mi ]
= ⎢
EA
EA
Member stiffness matrix
in local coordinates
12
EI
6
EI
12
EI
6
EI
11

00

00

0

2

L

L

0

2

LL

L

00

L

00

0

−−

32

L

L

0

3

LL

2

0

 6 EI

L

2

2

EI

L

0

64 EI

EI

2

LL

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Transformation of displacement vector
⎧⎫ ⎡
D
cos
θ
sin
θ
0
0
0
0
⎤⎧⎫ U
1
1
⎪⎪ ⎢
⎥⎪⎪
D
− sin
θ
cos
θ
0
0
0
0
⎪⎪ ⎢
2
⎥⎪⎪ U
2
⎪⎪ ⎢
D
0
01
0
00
⎥⎪⎪ U
3
3
⎨⎬ ⎢
=
⎥⎨⎬
D
0
0
0
cos
θ
sin
θ
0
⎪⎪ ⎢
4
⎥⎪⎪ U
4
⎪⎪ ⎢
D
0
0
0
sin
θ
cos
θ
0
⎥⎪⎪ U
5
5
⎪⎪ ⎢
⎥⎪⎪
D
0
00
0
01
⎩⎭ ⎣
⎦⎩⎭ U
6
6
{
}
= RD
[
]{
}
D LOCAL
T
GLOBAL
[] R
[
O
]
[
R
T ]
⎦ ⎥ Rotation matrix
= ⎢
[] O
[]
R
12

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

{
}
= RA
[
]{
}
A LOCAL
T
GLOBAL
cos
θ
sin
θ
0
0
0
0
− sin
θ
cos
θ
0
0
0
0
0 01
0
00
[
R
T ]
= ⎢
0 0
0
cos
θ
sin
θ
0
0
0
0
− sin
θ
cos
θ
0 ⎥
0 00
0
01
13

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Transformation of stiffness matrix
{
}
= SD
[
]{
}
A GLOBAL
MS
GLOBAL
T
[
]
=
[
R
][
SR
][
]
S MS
T
MT
Member stiffness matrix in
global coordinates
L
L
c
s
0
0
− s
c
0
0
6 EI
4
EI
62 EI
EI
0
01
0
00
0
0
, [
R
T ]
= ⎢
2
2
L
L
LL
Where,
0
00
c
s
0
[
S
M ]
= ⎢
EA
EA
00
00
0
00
− s
c
0 ⎥
L
L
0
00
0
01
12
EI
6
EI
12
EI
6
EI
0
−−
0
32
3
2
LL
L
L
6 EI
2
EI
64 EI
EI
0
0
14

EA

00

EA

00

0

00

12

EI

3

L

6

EI

2

L

0

12

EI

6

EI

32

LL

00

⎣ ⎢

2

L

L

2

LL

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Assembling global stiffness matrix Plane truss

2

1

Force
2
1
2
1
3
3
4
3

Action/displacement components in local coordinates of members

15

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

4
4
3
3
6
2
6
1
2
5
1
5
4
3
Action/displacement components in
global coordinates of the structure
6
2
1
5
16

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Global DOF
1234
2
2
cs ⎤
11 12
13
14
⎡ c
cs
− c
ssss
1
MMMM 1111
2
2
EA
cs
s
− cs
s
21 22
23
24
ssss
2
MMMM 1111
2
2
L ⎢− c
− cs
c
cs
31 32
33
34
ssss
3
MMMM 1111
2
2
cs
s
cs
s
41 42
43
44
⎢ ⎣
ssss
⎥ ⎦
4
MMMM 1111
123456
⎡××××
⎤ 1
××××
2
⎢××××
⎥ 3
[
Contribution of
Member 1 to global
stiffness matrix
S
J ]
= ⎢
××××
4
⎥ 5
6
17

[

S M 1

]

=

=

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

3456

 11 12 13 14 ⎡ ⎢ ssss MMMM 2222 ⎤ ⎥ 21 22 23 24

ssss

 ⎢ ⎣ MM 2222 M M ⎥ ⎦ 41 42 43 44 ssss MMMM 2222
 [ S 2 ] MMMM 2 2 2 = M 31 32 33 34

2

ssss

3

4

5

6

Global DOF

[

S

J ]

=

123456

×

×

×

×

⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ×××⎥ 3 ⎥ ⎥

×××

4

2

1

×××⎥ 5 ⎥ ⎦

6

×××

Contribution of Member 2 to global stiffness matrix

18

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Global DOF

 1256 ⎤ ⎥ 1 11 12 13 14 ⎡ ⎢ ssss 3333 MMMM 21 22 23 24 ⎥ 2 [ S ] = ⎢ ssss MMMM 3 3 3 3 M 3 31 32 33 34 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 5 6 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ssss MM 3333 M M 41 42 43 44 ssss 3333 MMMM 123456 ⎡× × ××⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎢ × × ×× ⎥ ⎥ 2 Contribution of ⎢ ⎥ 3 Member 3 to global stiffness matrix [ S ] = ⎢ ⎥ J ⎢ ⎢× ⎢ × ⎥ ××⎥ ⎥ 4 5 ⎣ × × ×× ⎦ 6 19

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Assembled global stiffness matrix
12
34
56
11
11 12
12
13
14
13
14
s
+
ss
s
+
s
s
ss
1
MM
11
MM
33
MM 11
M
3
M
3
21
21 22
22
23
24
23
24
ss
+
ss
+
ss
ss
2
MM
11
M
33
M
MM 11
M
3
M
3
31
32
3 3
11
34
12
13
14
s
1 ss
+
s
s
+
s
s
s
3
S
]
M
MM 11
M
2
M
1
MM 22
M
2
= ⎢
J
41
42
43
21
44
22
23
24
s
s
+
s
s
+
ss
s
4
1 s
M
MM
1
1
M
2
M
1
MM 22
M
2
31
3 2
31
32
33
33
34
34
s
s
+ s
s
2 + s
5
s M
s M
s M
M
33 M
2
2
2
M
3
M
M 3
41
42
41
42
43
43
44
44
ss
s
ss
+
ss
s
+
6
MM 3
3
M
2
MM 2
2
M
3
M
2
M
3
20

[

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Imposing boundary conditions
Plane truss example
2
1 2
Boundary conditions are: DDDD= ===0
1
1256
3
3
12
12
13
14
13
14
A 1 ⎫
ss
+ s
ss
ss
⎤⎧ ⎫
D
MMM
11
33
M
MM 11
M
3
M
3
1
⎥⎪
22
22
23
24
23
24
A
ss
+
s
ss
s
s
D
2
MM
11
MM
33
MM 11
M
3
M 3
⎥⎪
2
32
33
11 34
12
13
14
A
ss
+
s
s
+
s
s
s
⎥⎪
D
3
MM 11
M
2
M
1
MM 22
M
2
3
= ⎢
⎥⎨
42
43
21
44
22
23
24
A
ss
+
s
s
+
ss
s
D
4
MM
11
M
2
M
1
MM 2 2
M 2
⎥⎪
4
32
31
33
34
34
A
32
33
⎥⎪
s
s
ss
+ s
s
+ s
D
5
MM
33
M
2
MM 22
M
3
M
2
M
3
5
⎥⎪
42
41 42
43
43
44
44
A
s
s
s
s
+ s
+
s
D
3 s
⎦⎩ ⎭
6
MM
3
M
2
M
22
M
M
M
2
M 3
6
21

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Reduced equation system
(after imposing boundary conditions)
11 34
12
⎧⎫ ⎡ s
A
33 + s
s
+ ⎤⎧⎫
s
D
3
M
1
M
2
M
1
M
2
3
⎨⎬
=
⎣ ⎢
⎨⎬
21 44
22
A
s
43 + s
s
+
s
D
⎦⎩ ⎭
4
M
1
M
2
M
1
M
2
4
•This reduced equation system can be solved to get the unknown
displacement components
D,D
3
4
•From
{
}
= RD
[
]{
}
D LOCAL
T
GLOBAL
{
}
can be found out.
D LOCAL
{
}
=
{
D
}
•For each member,
D LOCAL
Mi
22

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Member end actions
{
}
=
{
A
}
+ SD
[
]{
}
A Mi
MLi
Mi
Mi
Where,
{
A
Fixed end actions on the member, in local coords
MLi }
[
S
Member stiffness matrix (obviously, in local coords)
Mi ]
[
D
Displacement components of the member, in local coords
Mi ]
As we know,
{
D
}
=
{
D
}
= RD
[
]{
}
Mi
LOCAL
T
GLOBAL
2323

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Direct Stiffness Method: Procedure

STEP 1: Get member stiffness matrices for all members

STEP 2: Get rotation matrices for all members

[

R Ti

]

[

S

Mi ]

STEP 3: Transform member stiffness matrices from local coordinates into global coordinates to get

[

S

MSi

]

STEP 4: Assemble global stiffness matrix

[

S

J ]

STEP 5: Impose boundary conditions to get the reduced stiffness matrix [

S FF

]

STEP 6: Find equivalent joint loads from applied loads on each member (loads other than those applied at joints directly)

STEP 7: Transform member actions from local coordinates into global coordinates to get the transformed load vector

2424

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

STEP 8: Find combined load vector
[
A
]
C
STEP 9: Find the reduced load vector
[
]
by removing members in the load
A FC
vector corresponding to boundary conditions in the case of supports
STEP 10: Get displacement components of the structure in global coordinates
1
{
D
}
= [
S
]{ }
A
F
FF
FC
STEP 11: Get displacement components of each member in local coordinates
{
}
= RD
[
]{
}
D LOCAL
T
GLOBAL
{
}
=
{
}
[
]{
}
STEP 12: Get member end actions from
A
+ SD
A Mi
MLi
Mi
Mi
STEP 13: Get reactions from
{
A
}
=− A
{
}
+ SD
[
][
]
R
RC
RF
F
{
}
A RC
represents combined joint loads (actual and equivalent)
applied directly to the supports.
2525

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

•Problem 1:
2
6
3
1
5
4
EA
EA
0000
1
0000
2 ⎢−
10
1
0
L
L
0000 ⎦
0000 ⎦
1
0
− 10 ⎤
1
0
− 10 ⎤
1
0000 ⎥
0000 ⎥
0000 ⎦
0000 ⎦
2626

L

0

L

 0 ⎥

1

0

10

[

S

M

1

]

=

=

[

][ ][

===

SSS

234

MMM

]

EA

0

EA

0

[

S M 5

]

=

1

[

S M 6

]

=

2.83 ⎢−

10

1

0

2.83 ⎢−

10

1

0

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Rotation matrices
cos
θ
sin
θ
0
0
⎤⎡
0
1
0
0
⎥⎢
sin
θ
cos
θ
0
0
1
0
0
0
[
R
]
⎥⎢ =
0
0
cos
θ
sin
θ
θ = 90
⎥⎢
0
0
sin
θ
cos
θ
0
0
1
0
⎦⎣
1000
⎡ 0
− 10
0 ⎤
10
0
0
[
R
]
⎡−
0100
1000 ⎥
10
0
[ T 3 ]
R
=
[
]
⎢ 0
T 2
R T 4
= ⎢
0010
⎢ 000
−⎥ 1
= ⎢
0
0
10
θ=
0
θ =− 90
θ=
180
0001
0010 ⎦
000
− 1
⎡ 1
− 10
0 ⎤
1100 ⎤
1100 ⎥
[
]
= 0.707
R T 5
[ T 6 ]
θ =− 45
R
⎢ 001
−⎥ 1
0011 ⎥
θ=
45
0011 ⎦
0
0
− 11
27

T 1

=

⎥⎢

0

0

0

1

11

0

0

= 0.707

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

T
[
]
=
[
R
][
SR
][
]
S MS
1
T
1
M
11
T
0 1
0
0
T ⎡
1
0
− 10
⎤⎡
0
1
0
0
⎥⎢
10
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
10
0
0
[
]
⎥⎢
S MS 1
0
0
0
1
⎥⎢
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
⎦⎣
0
− 10
0
⎤⎡
0
1
0
− 1 ⎤
0000 ⎤
⎥⎢
1
10000000
010
− 1
[
S
]
⎥⎢
1 ⎢
2 ⎢
0000 ⎥
⎥⎢
00100000
0
− 10
1
⎦⎣
1
0
− 10 ⎤
1
[
S
]
0000 ⎥
0000 ⎦
28

=

0

0

0

1

2 ⎢−

10

1

0

⎥⎢

MS 1

=

2 0

0

0

10 ⎥⎢

10

1

=

MS 2

=

2 ⎢−

10

1

0

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

⎡ 0
− 10
0
T ⎡
1
0
−−⎤⎡
10
0
10
⎥⎢
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
[
]
01 ⎥⎢
S MS 3
= ⎢
0
0
0
−−⎥ 1 ⎢
2
10
1
0
⎥⎢
0
0
0
⎥⎢
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
00 ⎦⎣
0 ⎤
− 1 ⎥
0000 ⎤
0 1
0
0
⎤⎡
0
10
1
− 1
1 ⎢
[
S
]
MS 3
2 ⎢
0000 ⎥
⎥⎢
0
− 10
1
0 0
− 10
0
0
0
0
⎦⎣
1
0
− 10 ⎤
1
0000
0000 ⎦
29

1

= 2

10

0 0

0

0

⎥⎢

⎥⎢

10 ⎥⎢

0

0

0

1

0

0

⎥ ⎥ − 1

0

=

010

[

S

MS 4

]

= 2 ⎢−

10

1

0

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

1 1
0
0
T ⎡
1
0
− 10
⎤⎡
1
1
0
0
⎥⎢
= 0.707
0
0
1
1
2.83 ⎢−
10
1
0
⎥⎢
0
0
1
1
⎥⎢
0
0
11
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
⎦⎣
⎡ 1
− 10
0
⎤⎡
1
1
1
1 ⎤
11
− 11 −⎤
⎥⎢
1100
0
0
0
0
11
− 11 −
[
]
= 0.1766
⎥⎢
= 0.1766
S MS 5
⎢ 001
−−−⎥⎢
1
1
11
1
⎢− 1
− 11
1
⎥⎢
0011
0
0
0
0
1
11
1
⎦⎣
⎡ 1
− 10
0
T ⎡
1
0
−−⎤⎡
10
1
10
0 ⎤
⎥⎢
1100
1 ⎢
0000
1100
[
⎥⎢ 0.707
⎥⎢
⎥⎢
0011 ⎦
0000
0011
⎦⎣
1100
⎤⎡
1
1
11
1
− 1
11
⎥⎢
− 11
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
1
1
[
]
= 0.177
⎥⎢
− 1 ⎥
= 0.177
S MS 6
0011 ⎥⎢−
11
1
⎢− 11
1
−⎥ 1
⎥⎢
0
0
− 11
0
0
0
0
1
− 1
11
⎦⎣
30

[

S MS 5

]

11

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

⎥⎢ 0.707

11

0

0

S MS 6

]

= 0.707

⎢ ⎢ 0

0

1

−⎥ 1

2.83 ⎢−

10

1

0

0

0

1

−⎥ 1

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

[

S

J

]

Assembled global stiffness matrix

 ⎡ 0 1 0.1766 0 ++ 0 0.1766 0 0 0.1766 0.1766 1 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 + + 2 ++ 0 0.1766 1 2 ++ 0 0.1766 0 − 1 2 − − 0.1766 − − 0.1766 − 0 2 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 + 1 + 0.1766 0 +− 0 0.1766 − 1 0 − 0.1766 0.1766 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 +− 0 0.1766 1 ++ 0 0.1766 0 0 0.1766 − 0.1766 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 2 1 2 1 − 0.1766 − 0.1766 − 0 ++ 0 0.1766 0 ++ 0 0. 1766 0 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ − 0.1766 1 − 0.1766 2 0 0 2 0 ++ 0 0.1766 0 + 1 2 + 0.1766 1 0 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ − 0 − 0.1766 0.1766 0 0 0 + + 0.1766 0 +− 0 0.1766 ⎥ ⎢ 2 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 0.1766 − 0.1766 0 − 1 0 +− 0 0.1766 1 ++ 0 0.1766 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 2 2 Boundary conditions are: DDD= = = 0 128 ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ 0.677 -0.177 -0.177 0.677 -0.500 0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.177 0.177 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ Reduced stiffness matrix [ S ] = ⎢ -0.500 0.000 0.677 0.177 0.000 ⎥ FF ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 0.000 -0.177 0.000 0.177 0.177 0.000 0.677 0.000 0.000 0.677 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 31

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

⎧⎫
5
⎪⎪
0
In this problem, the reduced load vector
(in global coords) can be directly written as
⎪⎪ ⎪⎪
{
}
= ⎨⎬
0
A FC
⎪⎪
0
⎪⎪
0
⎪⎪ ⎩⎭
4.829
1.000
3.829
-1.000
1.000
⎤⎧⎫ ⎧
5
24.144 ⎫
⎥⎪⎪ ⎪
1.000
1.793
0.793
-0.207
-0.207
0
5.000 ⎪
⎥⎪⎪ ⎪⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎪ ⎪
1
{
DS
}
=
[ ]{
A
} = ⎢
3.829
0.793
4.622
-1.207
0.793
⎨⎬ ⎨
0
=
19.144
F
FF
FC
⎪⎪ 0
-1.000
-0.207
-1 .207
1.793
-0.207
-5. 000
⎪⎪
1.000
-0.207
0.793
-0.207
1.793
0
⎢ ⎣
⎦ ⎩⎭
⎥ ⎪⎪
5.000
⎪ ⎩
⎪ ⎭
32

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

•Problem 2:
EA
0 ⎤
1
1
0
[
]
=
S M
1
L
=
1.155
0
0
⎣ ⎢
⎦ ⎥
0
0
1 ⎡
1
0
1
0
[
]
=
[
]
S M
S M 3
2
= ⎢
2
0
0
0
0
⎢ ⎣
⎦ ⎥
⎥ ⎦
cos
θ
sin
θ
⎤⎡
0.5
− 0.866 ⎤
[
]
=
R T 1
− sin
θ
cos
θ
0.866
0.5
θ =− 60
⎣ ⎢
⎥⎢ ⎦⎣ =
⎡ 0
−⎤
1
⎡− 0.866
− 0.5
[
]
R T 3
= ⎢
1
0
0.5
− 0.866
⎥ ⎦
θ =− 150
⎦ ⎥
33

[ T 2 ] θ =− 90

R

=

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

T
[
]
=
[
R
][
SR
][
]
S MS
1
T
1
M
11
T
T
0.5
0.866
1 ⎡
1
0
⎤⎡
0.5
0.866 ⎤
0.866
0.5
0.216
− 0.375 ⎤
1 ⎡ 0.25
− 0.433 ⎤
1
0.5
[
]
=
− 0.375
0.649
1.155
− 0.433
0.75
= ⎢ ⎣
S MS 1
1.155
− 0.866
0.5
0
0
⎣ ⎢
⎢ ⎣
⎥⎢ ⎦⎣
⎥ ⎦
0
10 ⎤⎡
00
⎡ 0
− 1 ⎤
T ⎡
100 ⎤⎡
1 ⎤
[
]
=
S MS 2
= ⎢
− 10
0
1
0
001 ⎦⎣ ⎥⎢
0
⎣ ⎢
=
0
01
⎦⎣ ⎥⎢
− 1 ⎤
⎥ ⎦
⎣ ⎢
⎦ ⎥
⎥ ⎦
⎢ ⎣
⎥ ⎦
⎡−−
⎤⎡−− ⎤
0.375
0.217
1 ⎡
0.75
0.433
1 ⎡−
0.866
0.5
⎤⎡−− ⎤
0.866
0.5
=
⎢ ⎣
⎥ ⎦
34

[

S MS 1

]

= ⎢ ⎣

⎦ ⎥

1.155

⎢ ⎣

0

0

⎥⎢ ⎦⎣

0.866

0.5

0.866

⎤⎡

0.5

0.866

=

0.866

0.5

T

1

1

0

0.866

0.5

[

S MS 3

]

= ⎢ ⎣

0.5

0.866

⎦ ⎥

2

⎣ ⎢

0

0

⎥⎢ ⎦⎣

0.5

0.866

⎦ ⎥

[

S MS 3

]

=

2

⎣ ⎢

0.5

0.866

⎥⎢ ⎦⎣

0

0

⎥ ⎦

2

0.433

0.25

= ⎢ ⎣

0.217

0.125

⎥ ⎦

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

⎡ 0.591
− 0.158 ⎤
⎡ 0.216
++ 0
0.375
0.375
++ 0
0.217 ⎤
[
]
S FF
= ⎢
= ⎢
− 0.375
+ 0 +
0.217
0.649
++ 1
0.125
− 0.158
1.774
-0.772
1
{
DS
}
=
[
]{ }
A
=
F
FF
FC
-2.89
35

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

•Problem 3 :
Global DOF

3636

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

EA
X
0
0
L
1000
0
0
12
EI
[
]
=
0
Z
Z
S M 1
3
2
L
L
120
6000
5
0
6000
4
×
10
6
EI
4
EI
0
Z
Z
2
L
L
EA
X
0
0
L
800
0
0
12
EI
6
EI
[
]
=
Z
Z
0
0
61.44
3840
S M 2
3
2
= ⎢
L
L
0
3840
3.2
×
10
6
EI
4
EI
5
0
Z
Z
2
L
L
3737

−= 6 EI

0

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Rotation matrices
⎡ 0.8
− 0.6
0 ⎤
100
[
[
R
0.6
0.8
R
1 ]
010
2 ]
0
= ⎢
= ⎢
0
01
001
⎣ ⎢
⎥ ⎦
⎣ ⎢
⎦ ⎥
Member 2
Member 1
T
[
]
=
[
R
][
SR
][
]
S MS
1
T
1
M
11
T
T
1 0
0
1000
0
0
⎤⎡
1
0
0
⎥⎢
[
]
=
0 1
0
0
120
6000
0
1
0
S MS 1
⎥⎢
0 0
1
0
6000
4
×
10
⎥ ⎦
⎢ ⎣
5
⎥⎢ ⎦⎣
0
0
1
⎣ ⎢
⎥ ⎦
1000
0
0
[
]
=
0
120
6000
S MS 1
0
6000
4
×
10
⎣ ⎢
5
3838

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

T
⎡ 0.8
− 0.6
0
800
0
0
⎤⎡
0.8
− 0.6
0 ⎤
⎥⎢
[
S
]
0.6
0.8
0
0
61.44
3840
0.6
0.8
0
MS 2
= ⎢
⎥⎢
0
0
1
0
3840
3.2
× 10
5
⎥⎢ ⎦⎣
0
0
1
⎦ ⎥
⎣ ⎢
⎥ ⎦
0.8
0.6
0
⎤⎡
640
480
0
⎡ 534.12
− 354.51