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Structural Analysis - III

Direct Stiffness Method

Dr. Rajesh K. N. Asst. Professor in Civil Engineering Govt. College of Engineering, Kannur

11

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Module III

Direct stiffness method

• Introduction – element stiffness matrix – rotation transformation matrix – transformation of displacement and load vectors and stiffness matrix – equivalent nodal forces and load vectors – assembly of stiffness matrix and load vector – determination of nodal displacement and element forces – analysis of plane truss beam and plane frame (with numerical examples) – analysis of grid – space frame (without numerical examples)

22

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Introduction

The formalised stiffness method involves evaluating the displacement transformation matrix C MJ correctly

Generation of matrix C MJ is not suitable for computer programming

Hence the evolution of direct stiffness method

3

3

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Direct stiffness method

• We need to simplify the assembling process of S J , the assembled structure stiffness matrix

• The key to this is to use member stiffness matrices for actions and displacements at BOTH ends of each member

• If member displacements are expressed with reference to global co- ordinates, the process of assembling S J can be made simple

44

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Member oriented axes (local coordinates)

and structure oriented axes (global coordinates)

y

L

δ L

Local axes

oriented axes (global coordinates) y L δ L Local axes x x δ L sin θ

x

x

oriented axes (global coordinates) y L δ L Local axes x x δ L sin θ

δ L sinθ

Y

Y

Y

Y

δ L
δ
L
y θ
y
θ
y L δ L Local axes x x δ L sin θ Y Y Y Y

X

X

X

X

δ L cosθ

Global axes

Global axes

Global axes

x x δ L sin θ Y Y Y Y δ L y θ X X

Global and local axes

5

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Plane truss member Stiffness coefficients in local coordinates

y 0 0 1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ ⎡ EA EA ⎤ 0 − 0 ⎢
y
0
0
1
EA
EA
0
0
L
L
0000
[
S
]
=
M
EA
EA
0
0
L
L
0000
⎢ ⎣
⎦ ⎥

EA

L

Unit displacement

corr. to DOF 1

1

Degrees of freedom

EA
EA

L

⎛ Unit displacement ⎜ ⎝ corr. to DOF 1 1 Degrees of freedom EA L x

x

Member stiffness matrix in local coordinates

3

6

2 4

2

4

4
2 4

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Transformation of displacement vector θ U = D cosθ 22 2 D U = −D
Transformation of displacement vector θ U = D cosθ 22 2 D U = −D
Transformation of displacement vector
θ
U
= D cosθ
22
2
D
U
= −D sinθ
θ
2
12
2
Displacements in global
coordinates: U 1 and U 2
Y
D
U
= D sinθ
21
1
UU
=+=
U
D
cos
θ
D
sin
θ
U
= D cosθ
1
11
12
1
2
11
1
UU
=+=
U
D
sin
θ
+
D
cos
2
21
22
1
2
⎧⎫ ⎡
D
cos
θ
sin
θ
⎤⎧⎫ U
1
1
X
D
=
⎣ ⎢
− sin
θ
cos
θ
U
⎦⎩
2
2
{D}=[R]{U}
7

θ

⎨⎬

⎨⎬

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

⎧ D ⎡ cos θ sin θ 0 0 1 ⎫ ⎤⎧⎫ U 1 ⎪
⎧ D
cos
θ
sin
θ
0
0
1 ⎫
⎤⎧⎫ U
1
⎥⎪⎪
D
⎪ ⎪
− sin
θ
cos
θ
0
0
⎪⎪ U
2
=
2
⎨⎬
D
0
0
cos
θ
sin
θ
3 ⎪
⎪⎪ U
3
D
0
0
sin
θ
cos
θ
⎪⎪ U ⎭
4 ⎭ ⎪
⎦⎩
4
{
}
= RD
[
]{
}
D LOCAL
T
GLOBAL
[] R
[
O
]
[
R
T ]
Rotation matrix
= ⎢
[] O
[]
R
8

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Transformation of load vector Actions in global coordinates: θ F 1 and F 2 FF
Transformation of load vector
Actions in global
coordinates:
θ
F 1 and F 2
FF
= +=
F
A
cos
θ
A
sin
θ
1
11
12
1
2
= A cosθ
FF
=+=
F
A
sin
θ
+
A
cos
θ
F 22
2
2
21
22
1
2
A
= − A sinθ
θ
2
F 12
2
A 1 ⎫
cos
θ
sin
θ
⎤⎧⎫ F
1
=
⎨⎬
A
− sin
θ
cos
θ
⎣ ⎢
⎦⎩ F ⎭
2
2
Y
A
F
= A sinθ
1
21
1
{A}=[R]{F}
F
= A cosθ
11
1
⎧ A
cos
θ
sin
θ
0
0
⎤⎧⎫ F
1
1
⎥⎪⎪
A
⎪ ⎪
= ⎢
− sin
θ
cos
θ
0
0
⎪⎪ F
2
2
⎨⎬
A
0
0
cos
θ
sin
θ
3
⎪⎪ F
3
A
0
0
sin
θ
cos
θ
⎪⎪
F
X
⎭ ⎪
⎦⎩ ⎭
4
4
i.e.,
{ A
}
=
[
R
]{
A
}
LOCAL
T
GLOBAL
9

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Transformation of stiffness matrix { } = SD [ ]{ } A LOCAL M LOCAL
Transformation of stiffness matrix
{
}
= SD
[
]{
}
A LOCAL
M
LOCAL
[
RA
]{
} =
[
S
][ ]{
RD
}
T
GLOBAL
M
T
GLOBAL
1
− 1
T
{
}
=
[ ][
R
S
][ ]{
RD
}
[
R
]
= [
R
]
A GLOBAL
T
M
T
GLOBAL
T
T
{
}
= SD
[
]{
}
T
where,
[
S
]
=
[ ][
R
SR
][
]
A GLOBAL
MS
GLOBAL
MS
T
MT
Member stiffness matrix in
global coordinates
T
[
S
]
= [
R
][
SR
][
]
MS
T
M
T
T
2
2
cs
0
0
1
0
− 10
c cs
− c
cs
⎤⎡
cs
0
0
⎥⎢
2
2
sc
00
EA
0000
sc
00
EA
cs s
− cs
s
⎥⎢
2
2
− cs
c
c
cs
2
2
00
sc
000000 ⎦⎣ ⎥⎢
sc
− s
cs
cs
s
10
For a plane truss member

=

0

0

cs

L ⎢−

10

1

0

⎥⎢

0

0

cs

=

L

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Plane frame member Stiffness coefficients in local coordinates 2 5 4 1 3 6 Degrees
Plane frame member
Stiffness coefficients in local coordinates
2
5
4
1
3
6
Degrees of freedom
EA
EA
L
L
12
EI
6
EI
12
EI
6
EI
0
0
3
2
32
L
L
LL
6 EI
4
EI
62 EI
EI
[
S
Mi ]
= ⎢
EA
EA
Member stiffness matrix
in local coordinates
12
EI
6
EI
12
EI
6
EI
11

00

00


0

2

L

L

0

2

LL


L

00

L

00

0

−−

32

L

L

⎢ 0 −− 32 L L 0 − 3 LL 2 ⎥
⎢ 0 −− 32 L L 0 − 3 LL 2 ⎥

0

3

LL

⎢ 0 −− 32 L L 0 − 3 LL 2 ⎥
⎢ 0 −− 32 L L 0 − 3 LL 2 ⎥

2


0

6 EI

 

L

2

2

EI

L

0

64 EI

EI

2

LL

⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 0 6 EI   L 2 2 EI L 0 − 64 EI
⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 0 6 EI   L 2 2 EI L 0 − 64 EI

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Transformation of displacement vector ⎧⎫ ⎡ D cos θ sin θ 0 0 0 0
Transformation of displacement vector
⎧⎫ ⎡
D
cos
θ
sin
θ
0
0
0
0
⎤⎧⎫ U
1
1
⎪⎪ ⎢
⎥⎪⎪
D
− sin
θ
cos
θ
0
0
0
0
⎪⎪ ⎢
2
⎥⎪⎪ U
2
⎪⎪ ⎢
D
0
01
0
00
⎥⎪⎪ U
3
3
⎨⎬ ⎢
=
⎥⎨⎬
D
0
0
0
cos
θ
sin
θ
0
⎪⎪ ⎢
4
⎥⎪⎪ U
4
⎪⎪ ⎢
D
0
0
0
sin
θ
cos
θ
0
⎥⎪⎪ U
5
5
⎪⎪ ⎢
⎥⎪⎪
D
0
00
0
01
⎩⎭ ⎣
⎦⎩⎭ U
6
6
{
}
= RD
[
]{
}
D LOCAL
T
GLOBAL
[] R
[
O
]
[
R
T ]
⎦ ⎥ Rotation matrix
= ⎢
[] O
[]
R
12

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Transformation of load vector { } = RA [ ]{ } A LOCAL T GLOBAL
Transformation of load vector
{
}
= RA
[
]{
}
A LOCAL
T
GLOBAL
cos
θ
sin
θ
0
0
0
0
− sin
θ
cos
θ
0
0
0
0
0 01
0
00
[
R
T ]
= ⎢
0 0
0
cos
θ
sin
θ
0
0
0
0
− sin
θ
cos
θ
0 ⎥
0 00
0
01
13

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Transformation of stiffness matrix { } = SD [ ]{ } A GLOBAL MS GLOBAL
Transformation of stiffness matrix
{
}
= SD
[
]{
}
A GLOBAL
MS
GLOBAL
T
[
]
=
[
R
][
SR
][
]
S MS
T
MT
Member stiffness matrix in
global coordinates
L
L
c
s
0
0
− s
c
0
0
6 EI
4
EI
62 EI
EI
0
01
0
00
0
0
, [
R
T ]
= ⎢
2
2
L
L
LL
Where,
0
00
c
s
0
[
S
M ]
= ⎢
EA
EA
00
00
0
00
− s
c
0 ⎥
L
L
0
00
0
01
12
EI
6
EI
12
EI
6
EI
0
−−
0
32
3
2
LL
L
L
6 EI
2
EI
64 EI
EI
0
0
14

EA

00

EA

00


0

00

12

EI

3

L

12 EI 3 L 6 EI 2 L 0 − 12 EI 6 EI 32 LL

6

EI

2

L

12 EI 3 L 6 EI 2 L 0 − 12 EI 6 EI 32 LL

0

12

EI

6

EI

32

LL


00

⎣ ⎢

2

L

L

2

LL

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Assembling global stiffness matrix Plane truss

2
2
Assembling global stiffness matrix Plane truss 2 1 Force 2 1 2 1 3 3 4

1

Force 2 1 2 1 3 3
Force
2
1
2
1
3
3
4 3
4
3

Action/displacement components in local coordinates of members

15

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

4 4 3 3 6 2 6 1 2 5 1 5 4 3 Action/displacement
4
4
3
3
6
2
6
1
2
5
1
5
4
3
Action/displacement components in
global coordinates of the structure
6
2
1
5
16

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Global DOF 1234 2 2 cs ⎤ 11 12 13 14 ⎡ c cs −
Global DOF
1234
2
2
cs ⎤
11 12
13
14
⎡ c
cs
− c
ssss
1
MMMM 1111
2
2
EA
cs
s
− cs
s
21 22
23
24
ssss
2
MMMM 1111
2
2
L ⎢− c
− cs
c
cs
31 32
33
34
ssss
3
MMMM 1111
2
2
cs
s
cs
s
41 42
43
44
⎢ ⎣
ssss
⎥ ⎦
4
MMMM 1111
123456
⎡××××
⎤ 1
××××
2
⎢××××
⎥ 3
[
Contribution of
Member 1 to global
stiffness matrix
S
J ]
= ⎢
××××
4
⎥ 5
6
17

[

S M 1

]

=

=

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

3456

 

11 12

13

14


ssss

MMMM 2222

 

21 22

23

24

ssss

MM

2222

M

M

⎥ ⎦

41 42

43

44

ssss

MMMM 2222

[

S

 

2 ]

MMMM

2

2

2

=

 

M

31 32

 

33

34

2

ssss

3

4

5

6

=   M 31 32   33 34 2 ssss 3 4 5 6 Global DOF

Global DOF

M 31 32   33 34 2 ssss 3 4 5 6 Global DOF [ S

[

S

J ]

=




123456

×

×

×

×

⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ×××⎥ 3 ⎥ ⎥

×××

4

2

1

×××⎥ 5 ⎥ ⎦

6

×××

Contribution of Member 2 to global stiffness matrix

18

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Global DOF

 

1256

1

⎤ ⎥ 1
 

11

12

13

14

 

ssss

3333

MMMM

 

21

22

23

24

2

 

[

S

]

=

ssss

MMMM

3

3

3

3

 

M 3

 

31

32

33

34

⎥ ⎦

5

6

 

ssss

MM

3333

M

M

41

42

43

44

ssss

 

3333

MMMM

 

123456

 

⎡×

×

××⎤

1

×

×

××

2

Contribution of

3

Member 3 to global stiffness matrix

 

[

S

]

=

 

J

⎢×

×

××⎥

4

5

 

×

×

××

6

 

19

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Assembled global stiffness matrix 12 34 56 11 11 12 12 13 14 13 14
Assembled global stiffness matrix
12
34
56
11
11 12
12
13
14
13
14
s
+
ss
s
+
s
s
ss
1
MM
11
MM
33
MM 11
M
3
M
3
21
21 22
22
23
24
23
24
ss
+
ss
+
ss
ss
2
MM
11
M
33
M
MM 11
M
3
M
3
31
32
3 3
11
34
12
13
14
s
1 ss
+
s
s
+
s
s
s
3
S
]
M
MM 11
M
2
M
1
MM 22
M
2
= ⎢
J
41
42
43
21
44
22
23
24
s
s
+
s
s
+
ss
s
4
1 s
M
MM
1
1
M
2
M
1
MM 22
M
2
31
3 2
31
32
33
33
34
34
s
s
+ s
s
2 + s
5
s M
s M
s M
M
33 M
2
2
2
M
3
M
M 3
41
42
41
42
43
43
44
44
ss
s
ss
+
ss
s
+
6
MM 3
3
M
2
MM 2
2
M
3
M
2
M
3
20

[

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Imposing boundary conditions Plane truss example 2 1 2 Boundary conditions are: DDDD= ===0 1
Imposing boundary conditions
Plane truss example
2
1 2
Boundary conditions are: DDDD= ===0
1
1256
3
3
12
12
13
14
13
14
A 1 ⎫
ss
+ s
ss
ss
⎤⎧ ⎫
D
MMM
11
33
M
MM 11
M
3
M
3
1
⎥⎪
22
22
23
24
23
24
A
ss
+
s
ss
s
s
D
2
MM
11
MM
33
MM 11
M
3
M 3
⎥⎪
2
32
33
11 34
12
13
14
A
ss
+
s
s
+
s
s
s
⎥⎪
D
3
MM 11
M
2
M
1
MM 22
M
2
3
= ⎢
⎥⎨
42
43
21
44
22
23
24
A
ss
+
s
s
+
ss
s
D
4
MM
11
M
2
M
1
MM 2 2
M 2
⎥⎪
4
32
31
33
34
34
A
32
33
⎥⎪
s
s
ss
+ s
s
+ s
D
5
MM
33
M
2
MM 22
M
3
M
2
M
3
5
⎥⎪
42
41 42
43
43
44
44
A
s
s
s
s
+ s
+
s
D
3 s
⎦⎩ ⎭
6
MM
3
M
2
M
22
M
M
M
2
M 3
6
21

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Reduced equation system (after imposing boundary conditions) 11 34 12 ⎧⎫ ⎡ s A 33
Reduced equation system
(after imposing boundary conditions)
11 34
12
⎧⎫ ⎡ s
A
33 + s
s
+ ⎤⎧⎫
s
D
3
M
1
M
2
M
1
M
2
3
⎨⎬
=
⎣ ⎢
⎨⎬
21 44
22
A
s
43 + s
s
+
s
D
⎦⎩ ⎭
4
M
1
M
2
M
1
M
2
4
•This reduced equation system can be solved to get the unknown
displacement components
D,D
3
4
•From
{
}
= RD
[
]{
}
D LOCAL
T
GLOBAL
{
}
can be found out.
D LOCAL
{
}
=
{
D
}
•For each member,
D LOCAL
Mi
22

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Member end actions { } = { A } + SD [ ]{ } A
Member end actions
{
}
=
{
A
}
+ SD
[
]{
}
A Mi
MLi
Mi
Mi
Where,
{
A
Fixed end actions on the member, in local coords
MLi }
[
S
Member stiffness matrix (obviously, in local coords)
Mi ]
[
D
Displacement components of the member, in local coords
Mi ]
As we know,
{
D
}
=
{
D
}
= RD
[
]{
}
Mi
LOCAL
T
GLOBAL
2323

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Direct Stiffness Method: Procedure

STEP 1: Get member stiffness matrices for all members

STEP 2: Get rotation matrices for all members

[

R Ti

]

[

S

Mi ]

STEP 3: Transform member stiffness matrices from local coordinates into global coordinates to get

[

S

MSi

]

STEP 4: Assemble global stiffness matrix

[

S

J ]

STEP 5: Impose boundary conditions to get the reduced stiffness matrix [

S FF

]

STEP 6: Find equivalent joint loads from applied loads on each member (loads other than those applied at joints directly)

STEP 7: Transform member actions from local coordinates into global coordinates to get the transformed load vector

2424

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

STEP 8: Find combined load vector [ A ] by adding the above transformed C
STEP 8: Find combined load vector
[
A
]
by adding the above transformed
C
load vector and the loads applied directly at joints
STEP 9: Find the reduced load vector
[
]
by removing members in the load
A FC
vector corresponding to boundary conditions in the case of supports
STEP 10: Get displacement components of the structure in global coordinates
1
{
D
}
= [
S
]{ }
A
F
FF
FC
STEP 11: Get displacement components of each member in local coordinates
{
}
= RD
[
]{
}
D LOCAL
T
GLOBAL
{
}
=
{
}
[
]{
}
STEP 12: Get member end actions from
A
+ SD
A Mi
MLi
Mi
Mi
STEP 13: Get reactions from
{
A
}
=− A
{
}
+ SD
[
][
]
R
RC
RF
F
{
}
A RC
represents combined joint loads (actual and equivalent)
applied directly to the supports.
2525

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

•Problem 1: 2 6 3 1 5 4 ⎡ EA EA ⎤ ⎢ 0000 ⎢
•Problem 1:
2
6
3
1
5
4
EA
EA
0000
1
0000
2 ⎢−
10
1
0
L
L
0000 ⎦
0000 ⎦
1
0
− 10 ⎤
1
0
− 10 ⎤
1
0000 ⎥
0000 ⎥
0000 ⎦
0000 ⎦
2626

L

0

L

0

 

1

0

10

[

S

M

1

]

=

=

[

][ ][

===

SSS

234

MMM

]


EA

0

EA

0

[

S M 5

]

=

1

[

S M 6

]

=

2.83 ⎢−

10

1

0

2.83 ⎢−

10

1

0

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Rotation matrices ⎡ cos θ sin θ 0 0 ⎤⎡ 0 1 0 0 ⎤
Rotation matrices
cos
θ
sin
θ
0
0
⎤⎡
0
1
0
0
⎥⎢
sin
θ
cos
θ
0
0
1
0
0
0
[
R
]
⎥⎢ =
0
0
cos
θ
sin
θ
θ = 90
⎥⎢
0
0
sin
θ
cos
θ
0
0
1
0
⎦⎣
1000
⎡ 0
− 10
0 ⎤
10
0
0
[
R
]
⎡−
0100
1000 ⎥
10
0
[ T 3 ]
R
=
[
]
⎢ 0
T 2
R T 4
= ⎢
0010
⎢ 000
−⎥ 1
= ⎢
0
0
10
θ=
0
θ =− 90
θ=
180
0001
0010 ⎦
000
− 1
⎡ 1
− 10
0 ⎤
1100 ⎤
1100 ⎥
[
]
= 0.707
R T 5
[ T 6 ]
θ =− 45
R
⎢ 001
−⎥ 1
0011 ⎥
θ=
45
0011 ⎦
0
0
− 11
27

T 1

=

⎥⎢

0

0

0

1

11

0

0

= 0.707

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

T [ ] = [ R ][ SR ][ ] S MS 1 T 1
T
[
]
=
[
R
][
SR
][
]
S MS
1
T
1
M
11
T
0 1
0
0
T ⎡
1
0
− 10
⎤⎡
0
1
0
0
⎥⎢
10
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
10
0
0
[
]
⎥⎢
S MS 1
0
0
0
1
⎥⎢
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
⎦⎣
0
− 10
0
⎤⎡
0
1
0
− 1 ⎤
0000 ⎤
⎥⎢
1
10000000
010
− 1
[
S
]
⎥⎢
1 ⎢
2 ⎢
0000 ⎥
⎥⎢
00100000
0
− 10
1
⎦⎣
1
0
− 10 ⎤
1
[
S
]
0000 ⎥
0000 ⎦
28

=

0

0

0

1

2 ⎢−

10

1

0

⎥⎢

MS 1

=

2 0

0

0

10 ⎥⎢

10

1

=

MS 2

=

2 ⎢−

10

1

0

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

⎡ 0 − 10 0 ⎤ T ⎡ 1 0 −−⎤⎡ 10 0 10 ⎢
⎡ 0
− 10
0
T ⎡
1
0
−−⎤⎡
10
0
10
⎥⎢
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
[
]
01 ⎥⎢
S MS 3
= ⎢
0
0
0
−−⎥ 1 ⎢
2
10
1
0
⎥⎢
0
0
0
⎥⎢
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
00 ⎦⎣
0 ⎤
− 1 ⎥
0000 ⎤
0 1
0
0
⎤⎡
0
10
1
− 1
1 ⎢
[
S
]
MS 3
2 ⎢
0000 ⎥
⎥⎢
0
− 10
1
0 0
− 10
0
0
0
0
⎦⎣
1
0
− 10 ⎤
1
0000
0000 ⎦
29

1

= 2

10

0 0

0

0

⎥⎢

⎥⎢

10 ⎥⎢

0

0

1 = 2 ⎢ − 10 0 0 0 0 ⎥⎢ ⎥⎢ 10 ⎥⎢ 0 0

0

1

0

0

⎥ ⎥ − 1

0

=

010

[

S

MS 4

]

= 2 ⎢−

10

1

0

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

⎡ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 ⎤ T ⎡ 1 0 − 10 ⎤⎡ 1
1 1
0
0
T ⎡
1
0
− 10
⎤⎡
1
1
0
0
⎥⎢
= 0.707
0
0
1
1
2.83 ⎢−
10
1
0
⎥⎢
0
0
1
1
⎥⎢
0
0
11
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
⎦⎣
⎡ 1
− 10
0
⎤⎡
1
1
1
1 ⎤
11
− 11 −⎤
⎥⎢
1100
0
0
0
0
11
− 11 −
[
]
= 0.1766
⎥⎢
= 0.1766
S MS 5
⎢ 001
−−−⎥⎢
1
1
11
1
⎢− 1
− 11
1
⎥⎢
0011
0
0
0
0
1
11
1
⎦⎣
⎡ 1
− 10
0
T ⎡
1
0
−−⎤⎡
10
1
10
0 ⎤
⎥⎢
1100
1 ⎢
0000
1100
[
⎥⎢ 0.707
⎥⎢
⎥⎢
0011 ⎦
0000
0011
⎦⎣
1100
⎤⎡
1
1
11
1
− 1
11
⎥⎢
− 11
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
1
1
[
]
= 0.177
⎥⎢
− 1 ⎥
= 0.177
S MS 6
0011 ⎥⎢−
11
1
⎢− 11
1
−⎥ 1
⎥⎢
0
0
− 11
0
0
0
0
1
− 1
11
⎦⎣
30

[

S MS 5

]

11

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

⎥⎢ 0.707

11

0

0

S MS 6

]

= 0.707

⎢ ⎢ 0

0

1

−⎥ 1

2.83 ⎢−

10

1

0

0

0

1

−⎥ 1

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

[

S

J

]

Assembled global stiffness matrix

0

 

1

0.1766

0

++ 0

0.1766

 

0

0

0.1766

 

0.1766

 

1

 

0

0

+

+

2

++ 0

0.1766

1

2

++ 0

0.1766

0

1

2

0.1766

 

0.1766

 

0

2

0

0

0

0

+

1

+

0.1766

0

+− 0

0.1766

 

1

0

0.1766

 

0.1766

   

2

2

 

= ⎢

 

0

1

0

+− 0

0.1766

1

++ 0

0.1766

 

0

0

0.1766

 

0.1766

 

2

 

1

2

1

   

0.1766

 

0.1766

 

0

++ 0

0.1766

0

++ 0

0. 1766

0

 

0

0.1766

1

0.1766

2

0

0

2

0

++ 0

0.1766

0

+

1

2

+

0.1766

1

0

1

2

0

 

0.1766

0.1766

0

0

0

+

+

0.1766

0

+− 0

0.1766

 

2

 

2

 

 

0

0

 

0.1766

0.1766

0

1

0

+− 0

0.1766

1

++ 0

0.1766

     

2

2

Boundary conditions are:

 

DDD=

=

= 0

 

128

 

0.677

-0.177

-0.177

0.677

 

-0.500

0.000

 

0.000

0.000

-0.177

0.177

 

Reduced stiffness matrix

[

S

]

=

-0.500

0.000

0.677

0.177

0.000

 

FF

0.000

-0.177

0.000

0.177

0.177

0.000

0.677

0.000

0.000

0.677

⎥ ⎦

31

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

⎧⎫ 5 ⎪⎪ 0 In this problem, the reduced load vector (in global coords) can
⎧⎫
5
⎪⎪
0
In this problem, the reduced load vector
(in global coords) can be directly written as
⎪⎪ ⎪⎪
{
}
= ⎨⎬
0
A FC
⎪⎪
0
⎪⎪
0
⎪⎪ ⎩⎭
4.829
1.000
3.829
-1.000
1.000
⎤⎧⎫ ⎧
5
24.144 ⎫
⎥⎪⎪ ⎪
1.000
1.793
0.793
-0.207
-0.207
0
5.000 ⎪
⎥⎪⎪ ⎪⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎪ ⎪
1
{
DS
}
=
[ ]{
A
} = ⎢
3.829
0.793
4.622
-1.207
0.793
⎨⎬ ⎨
0
=
19.144
F
FF
FC
⎪⎪ 0
-1.000
-0.207
-1 .207
1.793
-0.207
-5. 000
⎪⎪
1.000
-0.207
0.793
-0.207
1.793
0
⎢ ⎣
⎦ ⎩⎭
⎥ ⎪⎪
5.000
⎪ ⎩
⎪ ⎭
32

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

•Problem 2: ⎡ EA 0 ⎤ 1 ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ [ ] = S
•Problem 2:
EA
0 ⎤
1
1
0
[
]
=
S M
1
L
=
1.155
0
0
⎣ ⎢
⎦ ⎥
0
0
1 ⎡
1
0
1
0
[
]
=
[
]
S M
S M 3
2
= ⎢
2
0
0
0
0
⎢ ⎣
⎦ ⎥
⎥ ⎦
cos
θ
sin
θ
⎤⎡
0.5
− 0.866 ⎤
[
]
=
R T 1
− sin
θ
cos
θ
0.866
0.5
θ =− 60
⎣ ⎢
⎥⎢ ⎦⎣ =
⎡ 0
−⎤
1
⎡− 0.866
− 0.5
[
]
R T 3
= ⎢
1
0
0.5
− 0.866
⎥ ⎦
θ =− 150
⎦ ⎥
33

[ T 2 ] θ =− 90

R

=

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

T [ ] = [ R ][ SR ][ ] S MS 1 T 1
T
[
]
=
[
R
][
SR
][
]
S MS
1
T
1
M
11
T
T
0.5
0.866
1 ⎡
1
0
⎤⎡
0.5
0.866 ⎤
0.866
0.5
0.216
− 0.375 ⎤
1 ⎡ 0.25
− 0.433 ⎤
1
0.5
[
]
=
− 0.375
0.649
1.155
− 0.433
0.75
= ⎢ ⎣
S MS 1
1.155
− 0.866
0.5
0
0
⎣ ⎢
⎢ ⎣
⎥⎢ ⎦⎣
⎥ ⎦
0
10 ⎤⎡
00
⎡ 0
− 1 ⎤
T ⎡
100 ⎤⎡
1 ⎤
[
]
=
S MS 2
= ⎢
− 10
0
1
0
001 ⎦⎣ ⎥⎢
0
⎣ ⎢
=
0
01
⎦⎣ ⎥⎢
− 1 ⎤
⎥ ⎦
⎣ ⎢
⎦ ⎥
⎥ ⎦
⎢ ⎣
⎥ ⎦
⎡−−
⎤⎡−− ⎤
0.375
0.217
1 ⎡
0.75
0.433
1 ⎡−
0.866
0.5
⎤⎡−− ⎤
0.866
0.5
=
⎢ ⎣
⎥ ⎦
34

[

S MS 1

]

= ⎢ ⎣

⎦ ⎥

1.155

⎢ ⎣

0

0

⎥⎢ ⎦⎣

0.866

0.5

0.866

⎤⎡

0.5

0.866

=

0.866

0.5

T

1

1

0

0.866

0.5

[

S MS 3

]

= ⎢ ⎣

0.5

0.866

⎦ ⎥

2

⎣ ⎢

0

0

⎥⎢ ⎦⎣

0.5

0.866

⎦ ⎥

[

S MS 3

]

=

2

⎣ ⎢

0.5

0.866

⎥⎢ ⎦⎣

0

0

⎥ ⎦

2

0.433

0.25

= ⎢ ⎣

0.217

0.125

⎥ ⎦

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

⎡ 0.591 − 0.158 ⎤ ⎡ 0.216 ++ 0 0.375 − 0.375 ++ 0 0.217
⎡ 0.591
− 0.158 ⎤
⎡ 0.216
++ 0
0.375
0.375
++ 0
0.217 ⎤
[
]
S FF
= ⎢
= ⎢
− 0.375
+ 0 +
0.217
0.649
++ 1
0.125
− 0.158
1.774
-0.772
1
{
DS
}
=
[
]{ }
A
=
F
FF
FC
-2.89
35

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

•Problem 3 :
•Problem 3 :
Global DOF
Global DOF

3636

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

⎡ EA ⎤ X 0 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ L ⎥ ⎡ 1000 0 0
EA
X
0
0
L
1000
0
0
12
EI
[
]
=
0
Z
Z
S M 1
3
2
L
L
120
6000
5
0
6000
4
×
10
6
EI
4
EI
0
Z
Z
2
L
L
EA
X
0
0
L
800
0
0
12
EI
6
EI
[
]
=
Z
Z
0
0
61.44
3840
S M 2
3
2
= ⎢
L
L
0
3840
3.2
×
10
6
EI
4
EI
5
0
Z
Z
2
L
L
3737

−= 6 EI

0

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

Rotation matrices ⎡ 0.8 − 0.6 0 ⎤ ⎡ 100 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
Rotation matrices
⎡ 0.8
− 0.6
0 ⎤
100
[
[
R
0.6
0.8
R
1 ]
010
2 ]
0
= ⎢
= ⎢
0
01
001
⎣ ⎢
⎥ ⎦
⎣ ⎢
⎦ ⎥
Member 2
Member 1
T
[
]
=
[
R
][
SR
][
]
S MS
1
T
1
M
11
T
T
1 0
0
1000
0
0
⎤⎡
1
0
0
⎥⎢
[
]
=
0 1
0
0
120
6000
0
1
0
S MS 1
⎥⎢
0 0
1
0
6000
4
×
10
⎥ ⎦
⎢ ⎣
5
⎥⎢ ⎦⎣
0
0
1
⎣ ⎢
⎥ ⎦
1000
0
0
[
]
=
0
120
6000
S MS 1
0
6000
4
×
10
⎣ ⎢
5
3838

RajeshKN

Dept. of CE, GCEK

T ⎡ 0.8 − 0.6 0 ⎤ ⎡ 800 0 0 ⎤⎡ 0.8 − 0.6
T
⎡ 0.8
− 0.6
0
800
0
0
⎤⎡
0.8
− 0.6
0 ⎤
⎥⎢
[
S
]
0.6
0.8
0
0
61.44
3840
0.6
0.8
0
MS 2
= ⎢
⎥⎢
0
0
1
0
3840
3.2
× 10
5
⎥⎢ ⎦⎣
0
0
1
⎦ ⎥
⎣ ⎢
⎥ ⎦
0.8
0.6
0
⎤⎡
640
480
0
⎡ 534.12
− 354.51