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- Complex Numbers
- standard lesson plan
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Imaginary Number any number that can be written in the form + , where

and are real numbers and 0.

Complex Number any number that can be written in the form + , where

and are real numbers. (Note: and both can be 0.) The union of the set of

all imaginary numbers and the set of all real numbers is the set of complex

numbers.

Addition / Subtraction - Combine like terms (i.e. the real parts with real

parts and the imaginary parts with imaginary parts).

Example - 2 3 4 6 = 2 3 4 + 6

= 2 + 3

begin by expressing them in terms of .

Example - 4 8 = 1 4 1 8

= 2 22

= 42

= 1 42

= 42

erroneously if the radicands were simply multiplied as

4 8 48 32

Multiplication (Contd) When multiplying two complex numbers, begin by

F O I L ing them together and then simplify.

Example - 2 + 3 8 7 = 16 14 + 24 21

= 16 + 10 21

= 16 + 10 21 1

= 16 + 10 + 21

= 37 + 10

bottom by the complex conjugate of the denominator. Then F O I L the top

and the bottom and simplify. The answer should be written in standard

form + .)

Example - = (Multiply by complex conjugate)

= =

= =

!

= = +

" "

Example -

=

(Multiply by complex conjugate)

" "

= =

"

= = 14

Powers of Given a number, # , the number can be simplified by using the

following chart.

$ Is Equivalent Because

to

1 %&'() ) *(+ ,- ,( 0 /-0() * 1

%&'() ) *(+ ,- ,( 1 /-0() * , , * '( %&'()

1 = 1 (definition of i)

= = 1 =

= " = 1 =

of four terms can be used to simplify # .

Example - Simplify

Step 1 - Divide 25 (the power) by 4.

= quotient of 6 with a remainder of 1

"

Step 2 - Note the quotient (i.e. 6) and the remainder (i.e. 1).

Step 3 - Rewrite the problem.

= " 12345#4 6578#956 = " !

Step 4 - Simplify by recalling that " = 1

" ! = 1! = 1 =

Note: Because the powers of cycle through 1, , 1, %+ , these types of

problems can always be simplified by noting what the remainder is in step 2

above. In fact, the problem can be re-written as

# = 6578#956 (Divide n by 4 and determine the remainder).

The remainder will always be either 0, 1, 2, or 3.

Example - Simplify :

:

: = (because has a remainder of 3.)

"

So, : = =

Imaginary and Complex Numbers Practice

Simplify:

4) (3 2i)(5 + 4i)

2

5) (3 4i)

2

6) (3 2i)(5 + 4i) (3 4i)

3 + 7i

7) Write in standard form

5 3i

925

8) Simplify i

460

9) Simplify i

1 4i

10) Write in standard form

5 + 2i

11) 16

12) 8

13) 6 6

14) 4 + 25

6 8

15)

2

Answers:

(1) 1 3i (2) -8 + 2i (3) -13 3i (4) 23 + 2i

3 22

(5) -7 24i (6) 30 + 26i (7) + i (8) i

17 17

2 22

(9) 1 (10) i (11) 4i (12) 2 2 i

29 29

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