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LECTURE #06

METALS
Definition
A substance with high electrical conductivity, luster, and malleability, which
readily loses electrons to form positive ions (cations)
Malleability means capable of being shaped
Ductility is the property by which metals can be pulled into wires.
Classification of Metals
All metals for engineering purposes are classified into two categories
1) Ferrous metals
2) Nonferrous metals
Both ferrous and non-ferrous metals are divided into pure metals and alloys.
A pure metal is an element - eg iron, copper, gold - unalloyed (not mixed) with
another substance.
An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements (e.g. iron and carbon) to make
another metal with particular properties (e.g. steel).
1) Ferrous metals
These are metals which contain iron. They may have small amounts of other metals
or other elements added, to give the required properties.
Common ferrous metals in use include cast iron, wrought iron and different forms
of steel.
Composition, properties and uses of some common ferrous metals

Name Composition Properties And Principal Uses


Characteristics
Cast iron Alloy of iron and It is brittle, cannot Used for castings, rain
2-5% carbon, 1- withstand shocks water pipes, gutters. Used
3% and impacts, for manufacturing of
silicon and traces cannot be welded, wrought iron and mild
of magnesium, becomes soft in steel.
sulphur saline water,
and phosphorus. It is strong in
compression but
weak in tension.
Wrought iron It is ductile and used for roof sheets, wires
Nearly all the malleable. and metal ornaments etc.
carbon and other It is tough and can
elements in pig withstand shocks
iron oxidizes and and impacts better
may left with than cast iron.
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LECTURE #06

0.25% carbon to It rusts easily.


obtain wrought It Cannot be
iron.it is the purest hardened nor
form of iron tempered.
it can be forged
and welded.
Mild steel It is an alloy of It is Tough, ductile It is used in RCC, in the
iron and 0.15 - and malleable. manufacture of various
0.3% carbon It is equally strong tools and equipment.
in tension,
compression and
shear.
it withstands
shocks and
impacts well.
It is difficult to
harden and temper.
Medium carbon steel Alloy of iron and Strong, hard and Springs; any application
0.35-0.7% carbon tough, with a high where resistance to
tensile strength, wear is needed
but less ductile
than mild steel.
High carbon steel Alloy of iron and more tough and Used for making cutting
carbon: 0.55 - elastic than mild tools such as drills, files,
1.5% steel ,Easier to chisels.
Carbon harden and temper,
more difficult to
forge and to weld

HIGH TENTION It is a low carbon withstands Extensively used in


STEELS steel and the atmospheric reinforcing prestressed
percentage of corrosion better. concrete structures.
carbon is kept less More brittle and Because of extreme tensile
than 0.15%. less ductile than strength, lesser weight of it
mild steel, It is is used as compared to mild
tougher and is steel
more elastic,
Stainless steel Alloy of iron and Hard and tough, Cutlery, kitchen
carbon with 16- resists wear and Equipment, used for

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LECTURE #06

26% corrosion jewelry and watches.


chromium, 8-22%
nickel and 8%
magnesium
High speed steel Alloy of iron and Very hard, high Cutting tools for
0.35 - 0.7% carbon abrasion- and heat Machines
(medium carbon resistance
steel) with
tungsten,
chromium,
vanadium, and
sometimes
cobalt

2) Non ferrous metals


These are metals which do not contain iron. They are not magnetic and are usually
more resistant to corrosion than ferrous metals.
Some common nonferrous metals include Aluminum, Copper, Lead. Zinc and Tin,
Brass (copper + zinc), Bronze (copper + tin).

Composition, properties and uses of some common non-ferrous metals:

Name Composition Properties and Principal uses


characteristics
Aluminium Pure Aluminium Good strength-to-weight Kitchen
(an ratio, light, soft, ductile, equipment,
element) good conductor of heat window frames,
and electricity general cast
components
Copper Pure copper (an Malleable and ductile, Water pipes,
element) good conductor of heat electrical wire,
and decorative goods
electricity, resistant to
corrosion
Zinc Pure zinc (an Weak metal, extremely Usually used for
element) resistant to corrosion coating steel to
make galvanized
items

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LECTURE #06

Brass Alloy of 67% Resistant to corrosion, Cast items such


copper and fairly hard, good as water taps,
33% zinc conductor ornaments
of heat and electricity
Bronze Alloy of Fairly strong, malleable Decorative
80%copper and and ductile when soft goods,
20% tin architectural
fittings
tin Pure tin (an Soft, weak, malleable, Usually used for
element) ductile and resistant to coating steel to
Corrosion form tinplate

By Engr. Asghar Hussain Shah Page 4