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2005 Ford Pickup 6.0L Eng F350 Super Duty


STEERING SYSTEM - GENERAL INFORMATION - F250-F550 SUPER DUTY PICKUP

SPECIFICATIONS

GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS

GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS

Item Specification

Lubricants

MERCON Multi-Purpose (ATF) MERCON


Transmission Fluid XT-2-QDX

Power Steering Gear F250/F350

Turns lock-to-lock 4.0

Meshload 0.79--1.36 Nm (7--12 lb-in)

Steering gear preload 0.34--1.36 Nm (3--12 lb-in)

Meshload + preload (maximum) 2.15 Nm (19 lb-in)

Power Steering Purge Vacuum 68--85 kPa (20--25 in/Hg)

Power Steering Pump

Flow 10.6--12.0 liters/minute (2.8--3.2 gpm)Fluid @ 74-80C (165-


175F) Engine at idle

Pressure 1,034 kPa (150 psi)Fluid @ 74-80C (165-175F) Engine at


idle

Minimum Capacity 5.3 liters/minute (1.4 gpm)Fluid @ 74-80 C (165-175F)


Engine at idlePressure 5,171 kPa (750 psi)

Relief pressure 12,066--12,755 kPa (1,750--1,850 psi)

TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS

TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS

Description Nm lb-ft lb-in

Meshload adjustment jam nut 30 23 -

Drag link retaining nut 200 148 -

Air intake duct clamp 8 - 71

DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

Steering System

The steering system consists of the following:

Power steering pump

Steering gear

Power steering lines

Fluid reservoir

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Fluid cooler

Steering linkage

Steering wheel

Steering column

Steering column shaft

Steering column switches

NOTE: The steering gear for the F450 and F550


vehicles is not repairable and must be replaced as an
assembly.

For information on the power steering pump, steering gear, power steering lines, fluid reservoir and fluid cooler,
refer to POWER STEERING .

For information on the steering linkage, refer to STEERING LINKAGE .

For information on the steering wheel and steering column, refer to STEERING COLUMN .

For information on the steering column switches, refer to STEERING COLUMN SWITCHES .

DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING

Steering System

SPECIAL TOOL(S)

Dial Thermometer 0-220F 023-R0007 or equivalent

73III Automotive Meter 105-R0057 or equivalent

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Power Steering Analyzer 211-F001 (014-00207) or


equivalent

Gauge, Spring Tension 211-034 (T74P-3504-Y)

DIS/EDIS Tach Adapter 418-F102 (007-00061) or equivalent

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Steering Arm Remover 211-003 (T64-3590F)

MATERIAL

Item Specification

MERCON Multi-Purpose ATF Transmission Fluid XT-2-QDX MERCON

Inspection And Verification

1. Verify the customer concern.

2. Visually inspect for obvious signs of mechanical damage.


VISUAL INSPECTION CHART

Mechanical

1. Fluid level

2. Tire pressure

3. Tires

4. Drive belt

5. Drive belt tensioner

6. Steering column alignment

7. Tie-rod ends

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8. Suspension components

9. Steering column shaft U-joints

10. Intermediate shaft bolts

11. Power steering reservoir baffle

12. Power steering reservoir filter

13. Power steering pressure lines, fittings or O-rings

14. Power steering return hoses and clamps

15. Steering gear

16. Power steering pump

3. NOTE: The 3 areas that should be inspected


for possible contamination are the power steering
reservoir filter, flow control and pressure relief valve
in the pump, and the check valve in the inlet port on
the power steering gear (if equipped).

Inspect the power steering fluid for the following conditions:

1. Aerated or foamy: Purge the power steering system. Refer to POWER STEERING SYSTEM
PURGING .

2. Overheating or contamination: Flush the power steering system. Refer to POWER STEERING
SYSTEM FLUSHING .

4. Check the power steering system for fluid leaks.

1. Check the power steering fluid level.

NOTE: It may be necessary to add power


steering fluid to achieve the correct level.

With the ignition switch in the OFF position:

1. Wipe off the power steering pump, power steering pressure hose, power steering return hose,
power steering fluid cooler, hose assembly and steering gear.

2. CAUTION: Do not hold the steering wheel


at the stops for an extended amount of time.
Damage to the power steering pump can
occur.

Start the engine and turn the steering wheel from stop-to-stop several times and check for
leaks.

5. Inspect the power steering pressure and return hoses, fittings and O-rings for leaks.

1. If a leak is detected at a power steering pressure or return hose, install a new hose. Refer to
POWER STEERING .

2. If a leak is detected between a fitting nut, seal the fitting nut with Teflon joint seal.

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3. If a leak is detected at a fitting, tighten to specification. If the leak is still evident, visually
inspect the fittings, O-rings and Teflon seals. Install new components as necessary. Refer to
POWER STEERING .

4. If a leak is detected at the power steering reservoir, install a new reservoir. Refer to POWER
STEERING .

5. If a leak is detected at a constant tension spring clamp, verify that the hose is fully installed on
the fitting and that the hose clamp is correctly positioned. If the leak remains, install a new
constant tension spring clamp.

6. If a leak is detected at a screw clamp joint, tighten the screw clamp. If the leak remains, inspect
the tube end and install a new hose. Refer to POWER STEERING .

7. If a leak is detected at the power steering pump, install a new power steering pump. Refer to
POWER STEERING .

6. Inspect the power steering gear for leaks. If a leak is detected at the power steering gear, install a new
power steering gear. Refer to POWER STEERING .
Fig 1: Checking External Leak - Potential Power Steering Gear Box Leak Points

Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.

7. If an obvious cause for an observed or reported concern is found, correct the cause (if possible) before

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proceeding to the next step.

8. If the cause is not visually evident, verify the symptom and GO to SYMPTOM CHART .

Steering System Symptom Definitions

Drift/Pull

Pull is described as a tugging sensation, felt by the hands on the steering wheel, that must be overcome to keep
the vehicle going straight.

Drift describes what a vehicle with this condition does with the hands off the steering wheel.

A vehicle-related drift/pull, on a flat road, can cause a consistent deviation from the straight-ahead path
and require constant steering input in the opposite direction to counteract the effect.

Drift/pull can be induced by conditions external to the vehicle such as wind or road camber.

Excessive Steering Wheel Play

Excessive steering wheel play is a condition in which there is too much steering wheel movement before the
wheels move. A small amount of steering wheel free play is considered normal.

Feedback

Feedback is a roughness felt in the steering wheel when the vehicle is driven over rough pavement.

Hard Steering Or Lack Of Assist

Hard steering or lack of assist is experienced when the steering wheel effort exceeds specifications. Hard steering
can remain constant through the full turn or occur near the end of a turn. It is important to know the difference
between hard steering/lack of assist and binding.

Hard steering or lack of assist can result from either hydraulic or mechanical conditions. It is extremely important to
know if this concern occurs during driving or during high-effort parking maneuvers.

Nibble

Sometimes confused with shimmy, nibble is a condition resulting from tire interaction with various road surfaces
and felt by the driver as small rotational oscillations of the steering wheel.

Poor Returnability/Sticky Steering

Poor returnability and sticky steering is used to describe the poor return of the steering wheel to center after a
turn, or the steering correction, is completed.

Shimmy

Shimmy, as felt by the driver, is large, consistent, rotational oscillations of the steering wheel resulting from large,
side-to-side (lateral) tire/wheel movements.

Shimmy is usually experienced near 64 km/h (40 mph), and can begin or be amplified when the tire contacts pot
holes or irregularities in the road surface.

Wander

Wander is the tendency of the vehicle to require frequent, random left and right steering wheel corrections to
maintain a straight path down a level road.

Symptom Chart

SYMPTOM CHART

Condition Possible Sources Action

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Steering system Low fluid level. GO to PINPOINT TEST A .


noise
Fluid aeration.

Steering gear.

Power steering
pump.

Loose or
damaged steering
linkage.

Loose or
damaged
suspension
component(s).

Steering column.

Steering column
boot bearing.

Intermediate shaft.

Loose dash boot


seal.

Steering is very Seized GO to PINPOINT TEST B .


difficult/very easy intermediate shaft
U-joints.

Damaged,
fractured steering
column bearing(s).

Steering gear.

Power steering
pump.

Power steering
hoses.

Binding dash boot


seal.

Excessive Steering gear. GO to PINPOINT TEST C .


steering wheel
play Steering column.

Steering column
intermediate shaft.

Steering linkage.

Ball joints.

Strut bearing plate


(if applicable).

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Steering system Unevenly loaded CORRECT the vehicle loading


drift/pull/wander vehicle. as necessary.

Tire pressure.

Wheel alignment.

Steering gear. GO to PINPOINT TEST D .

Steering column
intermediate shaft.

Frame alignment.

Feedback Loose, worn or GO to TIE-ROD


damaged tie-rod. ARTICULATION TORQUE .

Loose, worn or GO to STEERING LINKAGE .


damaged tie-rod
ends.

Loose or INSTALL new steering gear


damaged steering insulators or bolts if
gear insulators or necessary, or TIGHTEN the
bolts. bolts as needed.

Loose lower INSTALL new bolts or


steering column TIGHTEN the bolts to
shaft U-joint bolts. specification. REFER to
STEERING COLUMN .

Loose suspension INSTALL new components as


bushings, necessary. REFER to FRONT
fasteners, ball SUSPENSION - 4X2 (4x2) or
joints, or strut FRONT SUSPENSION - 4X4
bearing plate (if (4x4).
applicable).

Worn or damaged INSTALL new steering column


steering column bearing(s). REFER to
bearing(s). STEERING COLUMN .

Poor Binding lower INSTALL a new lower steering


returnability/sticky steering column column shaft. REFER to
steering shaft U-joints. STEERING COLUMN .

Loose, worn or GO to TIE-ROD


damaged front ARTICULATION TORQUE .
wheel knuckle tie-
rod.

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Loose, worn or GO to STEERING LINKAGE .


damaged tie-rod
ends.

Suspension REFER to SUSPENSION


components. SYSTEM-GENERAL
INFORMATION for the
suspension diagnosis and
testing.

Binding steering INSTALL new steering column


column bearing(s). bearing(s). REFER to
STEERING COLUMN .
Binding dash boot
seal.

Shimmy Loose, worn or GO to STEERING LINKAGE .


damaged tie-rod
end.

Loose, worn or GO to TIE-ROD


damaged tie-rod. ARTICULATION TORQUE .

Suspension REFER to SUSPENSION


components. SYSTEM-GENERAL
INFORMATION for the
suspension diagnosis and
testing.

Pinpoint Tests

PINPOINT TEST A: STEERING SYSTEM NOISE

A1 CHECK FOR MECHANICAL NOISE

Test drive the vehicle to verify the steering system noise.

Does the steering system make a clunk noise?

Yes : CHECK for loose, worn or damaged tie-rod ends. REFER to STEERING LINKAGE .

CHECK for loose or worn steering gear isolators (if applicable). INSTALL new isolators if
necessary. REFER to POWER STEERING .

If the noise is from the steering column, CHECK the steering column intermediate shaft for
grounding through the body and repair as necessary.

If the noise is from the steering column boot bearing, INSTALL a new steering column boot
bearing. REFER to STEERING COLUMN .

If the noise is from the suspension components, INSTALL new suspension components as
necessary. REFER to FRONT SUSPENSION - 4X2 (4x2) or FRONT SUSPENSION - 4X4 (4x4).

If the noise is from loose, worn or damaged intermediate shaft U-joint(s), INSTALL a new lower
steering column shaft. REFER to STEERING COLUMN .

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No : If a squeak is present in the steering column, REPAIR the steering column mountings or align
the steering column as necessary. REFER to STEERING COLUMN .

For all other concerns, GO to A2.

A2 VERIFY THE CONCERN

NOTE: Make sure the vehicle is on a flat dry


surface, the transmission is in PARK and the
windows are rolled up.

NOTE: Some power steering noise is expected.


If in doubt of the acceptability of the noise level,
evaluate another vehicle of the same model and
powertrain.

Key in START position.

Turn the steering wheel 1/2 turn off-center to the right then 1/2 turn off-center to the left.

Is the power steering noisy?

Yes : If a grunt noise is present, VERIFY the steering column boot is OK and the exhaust system
is not grounding out.

If a moan is present, VERIFY that the tie-rod ends and ball joints are OK.

GO to A3.

No : If a squeal is present, INSPECT and INSTALL a new engine drive belt or belt tensioner as
necessary. REFER to ACCESSORY DRIVE .

If the steering system noise is a hiss or whistle,

INSPECT the steering column boot at the dash panel. REPAIR or INSTALL a new boot as
necessary. REFER to STEERING COLUMN .

INSPECT the steering gear input shaft and valve for wear or damage. REFER to POWER
STEERING .

INSPECT the power steering gear, intermediate shaft and power steering lines and hoses for
grounding to the body and REPAIR as necessary.

INSPECT for openings or missing plugs in the instrument panel cowl and REPAIR as necessary.

If there are no missing plugs or openings in the cowl, grounded power steering gear, intermediate
shaft or power steering lines or hoses, GO to A6.

A3 CHECK FOR COLD START NOISE

NOTE: Some noise during an extremely cold


start (-25.5C [-14F]) is normal and should improve
as the steering system warms up, usually within 60
seconds.

Key in START position.

Verify the noise condition.

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Is the noise present only during cold start up?

Yes : CHECK for contamination in the power steering reservoir screen. FLUSH the power steering
system as necessary. REFER to POWER STEERING SYSTEM FLUSHING . TEST the system for
normal operation.

No : GO to A4.

A4 INSPECT THE POWER STEERING FLUID

Key in OFF position.

With the engine OFF, inspect the power steering fluid for aeration.

Is the power steering fluid foamy or aerated?

Yes : PURGE the power steering system. REFER to POWER STEERING SYSTEM PURGING .

If a whine or a moan is still present, INSTALL a new power steering pump. REFER to POWER
STEERING .

If a grunt is still present, INSTALL a new power steering gear. REFER to POWER STEERING .

No : GO to A5.

A5 CHECK THE POWER STEERING FLUID LEVEL WITH THE ENGINE ON AND OFF

NOTE: Record the vacuum level when the pump


noise occurs with no steering input. Vacuum level
should be greater than 15 in-Hg with the CIII pump.

Key in START position.

With the engine running, inspect the power steering fluid level.

Key in OFF position.

With the engine off, inspect the power steering fluid level.

Does the power steering fluid level change with the engine off?

Yes : PURGE the power steering system. REFER to POWER STEERING SYSTEM PURGING .
TEST the system for normal operation.

No : GO to A6.

A6 CHECK THE POWER STEERING PUMP

NOTE: Do not turn the steering wheel to either


the right or left stop. Power steering relief noise will
occur and is normal at the stop positions.

Key in START position.

With the engine running, rotate the steering wheel 90 degrees to the left then 90 degrees to
the right.

Does the frequency of the hiss change between the left and right positions?

Yes : INSTALL a new power steering gear. REFER to POWER STEERING . TEST the system for
normal operation.

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No : INSTALL a new power steering pump. REFER to POWER STEERING . TEST the system for
normal operation.

PINPOINT TEST B: STEERING IS VERY DIFFICULT/VERY EASY

B1 CHECK THE STEERING COLUMN BEARINGS AND THE INTERMEDIATE SHAFT

NOTE: Be sure to keep the clockspring


centered when disconnecting the intermediate shaft.
Refer to SUPPLEMENTAL RESTRAINT SYSTEM .

Check the steering column and intermediate shaft for grounding.

Disconnect the steering column intermediate shaft at the steering column.

Verify that the intermediate shaft U-joints do not bind and that the steering column bearing
rotates freely.

Are the steering column bearing and intermediate shaft U-joints OK?

Yes : GO to B2.

No : If the steering column or the intermediate shaft are grounding, REPAIR as necessary. TEST
the system for normal operation.

If the steering column bearings or the intermediate shaft are binding, INSTALL a new intermediate shaft
or steering column. REFER to STEERING COLUMN . TEST the system for normal operation.

B2 CHECK THE FRONT BALL JOINTS

Check that the front ball joints move freely and are not binding or sticking. Refer to
SUSPENSION SYSTEM-GENERAL INFORMATION .

Are the front ball joints OK?

Yes : GO to B3.

No : INSTALL new ball joints as necessary. REFER to FRONT SUSPENSION - 4X2 (4x2) or
FRONT SUSPENSION - 4X4 (4x4).

B3 MONITOR ENGINE RPM CHANGES

NOTE: Make sure the vehicle is on a flat, dry


surface.

Key in START position.

CAUTION: Do not hold the steering wheel


at the stops for an extended amount of time.
Damage to the power steering pump can
occur.

Turn the steering wheel once to the left stop position and then to the right stop position.

Note the engine rpm during the turns.

Does the engine rpm change when turning the steering wheel?

Yes : If no power steering assist is present and the engine rpm changes, INSTALL a new steering
gear. REFER to POWER STEERING .

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If left-to-right variation is present, INSTALL a new steering gear. REFER to POWER STEERING .

If no power steering assist is present and the engine rpm does not change, INSTALL a new power
steering pump. REFER to POWER STEERING .

If excessive effort is required in one or both directions, INSTALL a new power steering pump.
REFER to POWER STEERING . TEST the system for normal operation.

No : CARRY OUT the Pump Flow and Pressure Test. REFER to COMPONENT TESTS . TEST the
system for normal operation.

PINPOINT TEST C: EXCESSIVE STEERING WHEEL PLAY

C1 CHECK THE STEERING COLUMN FASTENERS AND BEARING

Inspect the steering column mounting fasteners and bearing for looseness.

Are the fasteners and bearing OK?

Yes : GO to C2.

No : TIGHTEN the steering column mounting fasteners or INSTALL a new steering column.
REFER to STEERING COLUMN . TEST the system for normal operation.

C2 CHECK THE STEERING LINKAGE FOR LOOSENESS

Carry out the Steering Linkage component test. Refer to STEERING LINKAGE .

Is the steering linkage OK?

Yes : REFER to SUSPENSION SYSTEM-GENERAL INFORMATION to continue diagnosis of the


suspension system.

No : INSTALL a new steering linkage as necessary. REFER to STEERING LINKAGE . TEST the
system for normal operation.

PINPOINT TEST D: STEERING SYSTEM DRIFT/PULL/WANDER

D1 CHECK FOR TIRE PULL

Rotate the front wheel and tire assemblies side-to-side. Refer to WHEELS AND TIRES .

Carry out a road test on a smooth, flat road.

Does the vehicle drift/pull?

Yes : If vehicle pulls in the opposite direction, GO to D2.

If vehicle pulls in original direction, GO to D3.

No : The concern has been corrected.

D2 ROTATE THE WHEEL AND TIRE ASSEMBLIES FRONT TO REAR

Rotate the wheel and tire assemblies front to rear. Refer to WHEELS AND TIRES .

Carry out a road test on a smooth, flat road.

Does the vehicle drift/pull?

Yes : GO to D3.

No : The concern has been corrected.

D3 CHECK THE STEERING COLUMN INTERMEDIATE SHAFT

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NOTE: Be sure to keep the clockspring


centered when disconnecting the intermediate shaft.
Refer to SUPPLEMENTAL RESTRAINT SYSTEM .

Check the steering column and intermediate shaft for grounding.

Disconnect the steering column intermediate shaft at the steering column.

Inspect the steering column intermediate shaft U-joints for looseness or wear.

Are the steering column intermediate shaft U-joints OK?

Yes : GO to D4.

No : INSTALL a new steering column intermediate shaft. REFER to STEERING COLUMN . TEST
the system for normal operation.

D4 CHECK THE STEERING GEAR

Carry out the STEERING GEAR VALVE component test.

Is the steering gear valve OK?

Yes : GO to D5.

No : REPAIR or INSTALL a new steering gear. REFER to POWER STEERING . TEST the system
for normal operation.

D5 CHECK THE SUSPENSION COMPONENTS

Check for loose or worn suspension components. Refer to FRONT SUSPENSION - 4X2 (4x2),
FRONT SUSPENSION - 4X4 (4x4) or REAR SUSPENSION .

Are the suspension components OK?

Yes : GO to D6.

No : INSTALL new suspension components as necessary. REFER to FRONT SUSPENSION - 4X2


(4x2), FRONT SUSPENSION - 4X4 (4x4) or REAR SUSPENSION . TEST the system for normal
operation.

D6 CHECK THE WHEEL ALIGNMENT

NOTE: The vehicle will tend to pull toward the


side with the least positive caster and the most
positive camber.

Using a suitable alignment system, measure the wheel alignment settings. Refer to
SUSPENSION SYSTEM-GENERAL INFORMATION .

Are the wheel alignment settings within specifications?

Yes : CHECK for correct frame alignments. REFER to FRONT END BODY PANELS .

No : ADJUST the alignment angles to specification. DO NOT exceed the specification. TEST the
system for normal operation.

Component Tests

Steering Linkage

1. NOTE: Excessive vertical motion of the studs

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relative to the sockets may indicate excessive wear.

With the vehicle on the ground and the parking brake applied, start the vehicle and carry out the
following:

1. Have an assistant rotate the steering wheel back and forth 360 degrees and watch for relative
motion of the studs in the steering linkage ball sockets.

2. Watch for loose steering gear mounting.

2. An additional check is with the key ON engine OFF (KOEO) and the front wheels raised off the ground,
grasp the wheel at the front and rear and watch for excessive play or binding in the joints while trying to
steer the wheels.

3. Install new components if necessary. Tighten any worn, damaged or loose components.

Turning Effort Test

NOTE: Make sure the front wheels are correctly


aligned and the tire pressure is correct before checking
the steering effort.

1. Park the vehicle on dry concrete and set the parking brake.

2. Insert a thermometer into the power steering oil reservoir.

3. CAUTION: Do not hold the steering wheel


against the stops for more than 3 to 5 seconds at a
time. Damage to the power steering pump can
occur.

Idle the engine for 2 to 3 minutes. Turn the steering wheel from stop-to-stop several times to warm the
fluid to 50-60C (122-140F).

4. With the engine running, attach the spring scale to the rim of the steering wheel.

5. Measure the pull required to turn the steering wheel one complete revolution in each direction. Refer to
TURNING EFFORT TEST .

Pump Flow And Pressure Test

WARNING: Do not touch the flowmeter during the


test procedure, or severe burns and serious injury can
occur. Failure to follow these instructions may result in
personal injury.

1. CAUTION: Make sure the connection point will


not interfere with any of the engine accessory drive
components or drive belts.

Install the power steering analyzer at the high pressure port of the power steering pump. Make sure the
power steering analyzer gate valve is fully open.

2. Place a dial thermometer in the power steering pump reservoir.

3. Check the power steering fluid level. If necessary, add specified power steering fluid.

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4. Install a digital tachometer.

5. CAUTION: Do not hold the steering wheel


against the stops for more than 3 to 5 seconds at a
time. Damage to the power steering pump can
occur.

Start the engine. Place the transmission in NEUTRAL. Set the parking brake. Raise the power steering
fluid temperature to 74-80C (165-175F) by rotating the steering wheel fully to the left and right several
times.

6. With the steering wheel in the straight-ahead position, set the engine speed to 2,100 rpm. Record the
flow rate and pressure readings.

1. If the flow rate is below the flow rate specification, continue with the test procedure.

2. If the pressure reading is above the maximum pressure specification, check the power steering
hoses for kinks and restrictions.

7. Partially close the gate valve to obtain 5,171 kPa (750 psi). Set the engine speed at idle. Record the flow
rate.

1. If the flow is less than the specified flow rate, install a new power steering pump.

8. CAUTION: Do not allow the gate valve to remain


closed for more than 5 seconds.

Completely close and partially open the gate valve 3 times. Record the pressure relief valve actuation
pressure reading.

1. If the pressure does not meet the relief pressure specification, then install a new power
steering pump.

9. Set engine speed to 2,100 rpm. Record the flow rate.

1. If the flow rate varies more than 3.785 liters/minute (1 gallon/minute) from the initial flow rate
reading, install a new power steering pump.

10. CAUTION: Do not hold the steering wheel


against the stops for more than 3 to 5 seconds at a
time. Damage to the power steering pump can
occur.

Set the engine speed at idle. Turn (or have an assistant turn) the steering wheel to the left and right
stops. Record flow rate and pressure readings at the stops.

1. The pressure reading at both stops should be nearly the same as the maximum pump relief
pressure.

2. The flow rate should drop below 1.9 liters/minute (0.5 gallons/minute).

3. If the pressure does not reach the maximum pump relief pressure or the flow rate does not
drop below the specified value, excessive internal leakage is occurring. Install a new steering
gear as necessary. Refer to POWER STEERING .

11. Turn (or have an assistant turn) the steering wheel slightly in both directions and release quickly while
watching the pressure gauge.

1. The pressure reading should move from the normal back pressure reading and snap back as

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the steering wheel is released.

2. If the pressure returns slowly or sticks, the rotary valve in the steering gear is sticking or the
steering column is binding. Check the steering column and linkages before repairing the
steering gear.

Tie-Rod Articulation Torque

NOTE: This check may be done with the steering


gear on or off the vehicle.

1. Disconnect the tie-rod end from the front wheel knuckle. Refer to STEERING LINKAGE .

2. Move the front wheel knuckle tie-rod back and forth 3 times.

3. Hook a spring scale over the tie-rod end, or the threaded portion of the front wheel knuckle tie-rod, and
measure the force required to move the front wheel knuckle tie-rod. Refer to GENERAL
SPECIFICATIONS , tie-rod articulation torque.

4. If the force required to move the front wheel knuckle tie-rod does not meet the specifications, install a
new front wheel knuckle tie-rod. Refer to STEERING LINKAGE .

Steering Gear Valve

1. With the vehicle in motion, place the transmission in NEUTRAL and turn the engine OFF.

1. If the vehicle does not pull with the engine OFF, repair or install a new steering gear. Refer to
POWER STEERING .

2. If the vehicle pulls with the engine OFF, switch the right side front wheel to the left side of the vehicle and
the left side front wheel to the right side of the vehicle.

3. If the vehicle pulls to the opposite side, switch the front wheels with the rear wheels keeping them on the
same side of the vehicle.

4. If the vehicle pull direction does not change, check the front suspension components, wheel alignment
and frame alignment. Refer to SUSPENSION SYSTEM-GENERAL INFORMATION or an appropriate frame
dimensions manual.

Steering Linkage Inspection

Vertical Inspection

NOTE: Checking the steering linkage components


for vertical (up and down) deflection is preferred,
however it may be necessary to check some steering
linkage components for lateral (side-to-side) deflection
due to lack of clearance for the dial indicator. Outer tie-
rod ends should always be checked for vertical
deflection . Using a vice grip style, flexible arm dial
indicator (such as Snap On stock # GA3634) is
suggested.

NOTE: The steering linkage component ball studs


are spring loaded and will normally have a small amount
of vertical deflection when the spring is compressed.
However, excessive vertical deflection of the studs
relative to the sockets may indicate excessive wear.

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1. Turn the steering wheel to the straight-ahead position and turn the ignition switch to the OFF position.

2. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a hoist. Refer to appropriate Jack and Lifting in General
Information article .

3. NOTE: To obtain the necessary clearance to


install the dial indicator, it may be necessary to
remove the wheel and tire.

If necessary, remove the wheel and tire. Refer to WHEELS & TIRES -- F250-F550 SUPER DUTY
PICKUPS article .

4. NOTE: Typical steering linkage shown.

Install the dial indicator as shown.

1. Attach the vise grip/flexible arm to the nut of the steering linkage component being tested or
the component that the steering linkage ball stud seats into.

2. Position the flexible arm so that the dial indicator is positioned on the center of the steering
linkage component cap and lock the flexible arm.
Fig 2: Inspecting Steering Linkage (Vertically)

Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.

5. Grasp the steering linkage component forging near the ball stud, push upward, pull downward, and then
release it. This will allow the steering linkage component to be in a relaxed position when measuring.

6. Zero the dial indicator.

7. NOTE: Make sure that the steering linkage


component does not roll during inspection or an
inaccurate measurement may occur.

Using a suitable prying device (approximately 457 mm [18 in] long), pry on the steering linkage
component forging while observing the deflection of the dial indicator pointer.

1. Only apply moderate force. Do not move the vehicle suspension.

8. If the vertical deflection exceeds 2.30 mm (0.09 in), install a steering linkage component. Refer to
STEERING LINKAGE -- F250-F550 SUPER DUTY PICKUPS article .

Lateral Inspection

NOTE: Checking the steering linkage components

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for vertical (up and down) deflection is preferred,


however it may be necessary to check some steering
linkage components for lateral (side-to-side) deflection
due to lack of clearance for the dial indicator. Outer tie-
rod ends should always be checked for vertical
deflection. Using a vice grip style, flexible arm dial
indicator (such as Snap On stock # GA3634) is
suggested.

1. Turn the steering wheel to the straight-ahead position and turn the ignition switch to the OFF position.

2. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a hoist. Refer to appropriate Jack and Lifting in General
Information article .

3. NOTE: Typical steering linkage shown.

Install the dial indicator.

1. Attach the vise grip/flexible arm to the nut of the steering linkage component being tested or
the component that the steering linkage ball stud seats into.

2. Position the flexible arm so that the dial indicator is positioned on the end of steering linkage
housing and lock the flexible arm.
Fig 3: Inspecting Steering Linkage (Laterally)

Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.

4. Have an assistant grasp the tire and move the steering linkage from side-to-side. Observe and record
the deflection measured with the dial indicator.

5. If the lateral deflection exceeds 1.30 mm (0.05 in), install a new steering linkage component. Refer to
STEERING LINKAGE -- F250-F550 SUPER DUTY PICKUPS article .

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Checking External Leak - Potential Power Steering Gear Box Leak Points

Inspecting Steering Linkage (Vertically)

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Inspecting Steering Linkage (Laterally)

GENERAL PROCEDURES

Power Steering System Flushing

MATERIAL

Item Specification

MERCON Multi-Purpose ATF Transmission Fluid XT-2-QDX MERCON

WARNING: Do not mix oil types. Any mixture or any


unapproved oil can lead to seal deterioration and leaks.
A leak can ultimately cause loss of fluid, which can result
in a loss of power steering assist. Failure to follow these
instructions may result in personal injury.

1. Remove the power steering fluid reservoir cap.

2. Using a suitable suction device, remove the power steering fluid from the reservoir.

3. Disconnect the power steering fluid return hose from the reservoir.

1. Remove the clamp.

4. Plug the power steering fluid reservoir inlet port.

5. Attach an extension hose to the power steering return hose.

6. NOTE: Do not reuse the power steering fluid


that has been flushed from the power steering
system.

Place the open end of the extension hose into a suitable container.

7. CAUTION: Do not overfill the reservoir.

Fill the power steering fluid reservoir with new fluid.

8. CAUTION: Do not allow the power steering


pump to run completely dry of power steering fluid.

Start the engine while simultaneously turning the steering wheel to lock and then immediately turn the
ignition switch to the OFF position.

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9. CAUTION: Avoid turning the steering wheel


without the engine running as this may cause air to
be pulled into the steering gear.

CAUTION: Do not overfill the reservoir.

Fill the power steering fluid reservoir with the approved power steering fluid.

10. Repeat Steps 8 and 9, turning the steering wheel in the opposite direction each time, until the fluid
exiting the power steering fluid return hose is clean and clear of foreign material.

11. Remove the extension hose from the power steering return hose.

12. Remove the plug from the power steering fluid reservoir inlet port.

13. Install the power steering return hose to the reservoir.

1. Install the clamp.

14. NOTE: It is necessary to properly fill the power


steering system to remove any trapped air and
completely fill the power steering system
components.If, after properly filling the power
steering system, there is power steering noise
accompanied by evidence of aerated fluid and there
are no fluid leaks, it may be necessary to purge the
power steering system. For additional information,
refer to POWER STEERING SYSTEM PURGING .

Fill the power steering system. For additional information, refer to POWER STEERING SYSTEM
FILLING .

Power Steering System Purging

SPECIAL TOOL(S)

Vacuum Pump Kit 416-D002 (D95L-7559-A) or equivalent

Evacuation Cap, Power Steering 211-265 or equivalent

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MATERIAL

Item Specification

MERCON Multi-Purpose ATF Transmission Fluid XT-2-QDX MERCON

CAUTION: If the air is not purged from the power


steering system correctly, premature power steering
pump failure can result. The condition can occur on pre-
delivery vehicles with evidence of aerated fluid or on
vehicles that have had steering component repairs.

1. NOTE: A whine heard from the power steering


pump can be caused by air in the system. The
power steering purge procedure must be carried out
prior to any component repair for which power
steering noise complaints are accompanied by
evidence of aerated fluid.

Remove the power steering pump reservoir cap. Check the fluid.

2. Raise the front wheels off the floor.

3. Tightly insert the stopper of the vacuum pump into the reservoir.

4. Start the engine.

5. Install the vacuum pump, apply vacuum, and maintain the maximum vacuum of 68--85 kPa (20--25 in-
Hg).

6. If equipped with Hydro-Boost, apply the brake pedal twice.

7. CAUTION: Do not hold the steering wheel


against the stops for more than 3 to 5 seconds at a
time. Damage to the power steering pump can
occur.

Cycle the steering wheel fully from stop-to-stop 10 times.

8. Stop the engine.

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9. Release the vacuum and remove the vacuum pump.

10. CAUTION: Do not overfill the reservoir.

Fill the reservoir.

1. Use approved transmission fluid.

11. Start the engine.

12. Install the vacuum pump. Apply and maintain the maximum vacuum of 68--85 kPa (20--25 in-Hg).

13. CAUTION: Do not hold the steering wheel


against the stops for more than 3 to 5 seconds at a
time. Damage to the power steering pump can
occur.

Cycle the steering wheel fully from stop-to-stop 10 times.

14. Stop the engine, release the vacuum and remove the vacuum pump.

15. CAUTION: Do not overfill the reservoir.

Fill the reservoir as needed and install the reservoir cap.

16. Visually inspect the power steering system for leaks.

17. CAUTION: Do not overfill the reservoir.

Fill the reservoir as needed and visually inspect the power steering system for leaks.

18. Install the reservoir cap.

Power Steering System Filling

SPECIAL TOOL(S)

Vacuum Pump Kit 416-D002 (D95L-7559-A) or equivalent

Evacuation Cap, Power Steering 211-265 or equivalent

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Fill Adapter Manifold, Power Steering 211-327 or equivalent

MATERIAL

Item Specification

MERCON Multi-Purpose ATF Transmission Fluid XT-2-QDX MERCON

1. CAUTION: If the air is not purged from the


power steering system correctly, premature power
steering pump failure can result. The condition can
occur on pre-delivery vehicles with evidence of
aerated fluid or on vehicles that have had steering
component repairs.

Remove the power steering pump reservoir cap.

2. Tightly install the evacuation cap to the power steering pump reservoir.

3. Install the hose from the fill adapter manifold tee to the evacuation cap on the power steering pump
reservoir.

4. Install the vacuum pump to the fill adapter manifold control valve.

5. Install the hose to the opposite fill adapter manifold control valve and submerge the open end of the
hose into a container of new power steering fluid.

6. NOTE: The fill adapter manifold control valves


are in the open position when the point of the
handles face the center of the fill adapter manifold.

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Close the fill adapter manifold control valve connected to the power steering fluid container.

7. Open the fill adapter manifold control valve connected to the vacuum pump.

8. Using the vacuum pump, apply 68--85 kPa (20--25 in-Hg) of vacuum to the power steering system.

9. Observe the vacuum gauge for 30 seconds.

10. If the vacuum gauge reading drops more than 3 kPa (0.88 in-Hg), correct any leaks in the power steering
system or the filling tools before proceeding.

11. NOTE: The vacuum pump gauge reading will


drop slightly during this step.

Slowly open the fill adapter manifold control valve connected to the power steering fluid container until
power steering fluid completely fills the hose.

12. Close the fill adapter manifold control valve connected to the power steering fluid container.

13. Using the vacuum pump, apply 68--85 kPa (20--25 in-Hg) of vacuum to the power steering system.

14. Close the fill adapter manifold control valve connected to the vacuum pump.

15. Slowly open the fill adapter manifold control valve connected to the power steering fluid container.

16. When the power steering fluid has drained from the hose connected to the power steering fluid
container, close the fill adapter manifold control valve connected to the power steering fluid container.

17. Remove the tools from the vehicle.

18. Install the power steering reservoir cap.

19. CAUTION: Do not hold the steering wheel


against the stops for more than 3 to 5 seconds at a
time. Damage to the power steering pump can
occur.

NOTE: There will be a slight drop in the power


steering fluid level in the power steering fluid
reservoir when the engine is started.

Start the engine and turn the steering wheel from stop-to-stop.

20. If equipped with Hydro-Boost, apply the brake pedal twice.

21. Turn the ignition switch to the OFF position.

22. CAUTION: Do not overfill the reservoir.

Remove the power steering reservoir cap and fill the reservoir.

23. Install the power steering reservoir cap.

Steering Gear Meshload Adjustment - F250/F350

SPECIAL TOOL(S)

Remover, Steering Arm 211-003 (T64P-3590-F) or

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equivalent

All vehicles

1. NOTE: The engine should not be running.

Turn the steering wheel from right lock to left lock at least once.
Fig 4: Centering Steering Wheel

Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.

2. Remove the driver air bag. For additional information, refer to DRIVER AIR BAG MODULE .

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3. Raise and support the vehicle. For additional information, refer to JACKING AND LIFTING .

4. Remove the castellated nut.

1. Remove the cotter pin.

2. Remove the castellated nut.


Fig 5: Removing Castellated Nut

Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.

5. Separate the drag link from the pitman arm.

1. Use the Pitman Arm Puller to separate the drag link.

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Fig 6: Separating Drag Link From Pitman Arm

Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.

6. NOTE: The front wheel should not touch the


ground.

Lower and support the front of the vehicle. For additional information, refer to JACKING AND LIFTING .

7. Rotate the steering wheel to the left stop and then rotate the steering wheel back approximately 45
degrees.

8. NOTE: The peak preload torque must be within


0.34-1.36Nm (3--12 lb-in) or a new steering gear
must be installed. For additional information, refer to
POWER STEERING .

Attach an inch pound torque wrench to the steering wheel bolt and slowly and evenly rotate the steering
wheel clockwise 1/2 turn (180 degrees).

1. Record the peak preload torque.

9. Rotate the steering wheel to its centered position (approximately 1-1/2 turns from either stop). Place the
torque wrench on the steering wheel bolt with the handle in the vertical position. Rotate the torque
wrench slowly and evenly 1/4 turn (90 degrees) from each side of center.

1. Record the peak on-center torque.

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10. NOTE: The on-center torque must be 0.79-


-1.36 Nm (7--12 lb-in) greater than preload torque
without exceeding a total of 2.15Nm (19 lb-in). The
on-center torque minus the preload torque is the
meshload torque.

If necessary, carry out the following steps to adjust the on-center torque.

With 6.0L Diesel

11. Remove the auxiliary battery tray. For additional information, refer to BATTERY, MOUNTING AND
CABLES .

12. Loosen the clamps and remove the air intake duct.
Fig 7: Loosening Clamps

Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.

All vehicles

13. NOTE: Rotate the meshload screw clockwise to


increase and counterclockwise to decrease.

Adjust the meshload screw to the correct rotating torque.

1. Hold the meshload screw and loosen the lock nut.

2. Adjust the meshload screw.

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Fig 8: Adjusting Meshload Screw

Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.

14. Verify that the rotating torque is to specification.

1. Readjust if necessary.

15. Tighten the lock nut.

1. Hold the meshload screw.

2. Tighten the lock nut.

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Fig 9: Tightening Lock Nut

Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.

16. Install the drag link, castellated nut and cotter pin.

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Fig 10: Installing Drag Link

Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.

17. Install the driver air bag. For additional information, refer to DRIVER AIR BAG MODULE .

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Centering Steering Wheel

Removing Castellated Nut

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Separating Drag Link From Pitman Arm

Loosening Clamps

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Adjusting
Meshload Screw

Tightening Lock Nut

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Installing
Drag Link

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