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Solaris boot process

SPARC: The Boot PROM

Each SPARC based system has a PROM (programmable read-only memory) chip with a program
called the monitor. The monitor controls the operation of the system before the Solaris kernel is
available. When a system is turned on, the monitor runs a quick self-test procedure to checks the
hardware and memory on the system. If no errors are found, the system begins the automatic
boot process.

SPARC: The Boot Process

The following table describes the boot process on SPARC based systems.

Boot Phase Description

Boot PROM 1. The PROM displays system identification information and then runs self-
test diagnostics to verify the system's hardware and memory.

2. Then, the PROM loads the primary boot program, bootblk, whose purpose
is to load the secondary boot program (that is located in the ufs file system)
from the default boot device.

Boot Programs 3. The bootblk program finds and executes the secondary boot program,
ufsboot, and loads it into memory.

4. After the ufsboot program is loaded, the ufsboot program loads the
kernel.
Kernel 5. The kernel initializes itself and begins loading modules by using ufsboot to
Initialization read the files. When the kernel has loaded enough modules to mount the root
(/) file system, the kernel unmaps the ufsboot program and continues, using
its own resources.

6. The kernel creates a user process and starts the /sbin/init process, which
starts other processes by reading the /etc/inittab file.

init 7. The /sbin/init process starts the run control (rc) scripts, which execute a
series of other scripts. These scripts (/sbin/rc*) check and mount file
systems, start various processes, and perform system maintenance tasks.

The "/etc/inittab" file tells init which runlevel to start the system at and describes the processes to be run at each runlevel.

How to Shut Down a System by Using


the shutdown Command
1. Become the root role.

2. For a multiuser server shutdown, find out if any users are logged in to the system.

#who

Note - This step is conditional and only required if the system is a multiuser timesharing
system and not typically used when shutting down newer Oracle Solaris servers and
processors.

3. Shut down the system.

#shutdowniinitstateggraceperiody

iinitstate
Brings the system to an init state that is different from the default of S. The choices are
0, 1, 2, 5, and 6.

Run levels 0 and 5 are states reserved for shutting the system down. Run level 6 reboots
the system. Run level 2 is available as a multiuser operating state.

ggraceperiod
Indicates a time (in seconds) before the system is shut down. The default is 60 seconds.

y
Continues to shut down the system without intervention. Otherwise, you are prompted to
continue the shutdown process after 60 seconds.

For more information, see the shutdown(1M) man page.

1. If you are asked for confirmation, type y.

Doyouwanttocontinue?(yorn):y

If you used the shutdowny command, you will not be prompted to continue.

2. Type the root password, if prompted.

3. TypeCtrldtoproceedwithnormalstartup,
(orgiverootpasswordforsystemmaintenance):xxxxxx

4. After you have finished performing any system administration tasks, press
Control-D to return to the default system run level.

5. Use the following table to verify that the system is at the run level that you specified
in the shutdown command.

Specified Run Level SPARC Based System Prompt


S (single-user state) #
0 (power-down state) ok or >
Run level 3 (multiuser state with remote resources shared) hostname consolelogin:
Example 3-1 Bringing a Multiuser Server to a Single-User State (Run Level S) by Using the
shutdown Command

In the following example, the shutdown command is used to bring a SPARC based system to run
level S (the single-user state) in three minutes.

#who
rootconsoleJun1415:49(:0)

#shutdowng180y

Shutdownstarted.MonJun1415:46:16...

BroadcastMessagefromroot(pts/4)onvenusMonJun1415:46:16...
Thesystemvenuswillbeshutdownin3minutes.
.
.
BroadcastMessagefromroot(pts/4)onvenusMonJun1415:46:16...
Thesystemvenuswillbeshutdownin30seconds.
.
.
INIT:Newrunlevel:S
Thesystemiscomingdownforadministration.Pleasewait.
Unmountingremotefilesystems:/volnfsdone.
.
.
.
Jun1415:49:00venussyslogd:goingdownonsignal15
Killinguserprocesses:done.
RequestingSystemMaintenanceMode
SINGLEUSERMODE

Rootpasswordforsystemmaintenance(controldtobypass):xxxxxx
singleuserprivilegeassignedto/dev/console.
EnteringSystemMaintenanceMode
.
.
.

Example 3-2 Bringing a System to a Shutdown State (Run Level 0) by Using the shutdown
Command

In the following example, the shutdown command is used to bring a SPARC based system to run
level 0 in five minutes without requiring additional confirmation.

#shutdown
Shutdownstarted.ThuJun1712:40:25...

BroadcastMessagefromroot(console)onpretendThuJun1712:40:25...
Thesystempretendwillbeshutdownin5minutes
.
.
.
Changingtoinitstate0pleasewait
#
INIT:Newrunlevel:0
Thesystemiscomingdown.Pleasewait.
Systemservicesarenowbeingstopped.
.
.
.
Thesystemisdown.
syncingfilesystems...done
Programterminated
Typehelpformoreinformation
ok

See Also

Regardless of why you shut down a system, you will probably want to return to run level 3,
where all file resources are available, and users can log in. For instructions on bringing a system
back to a multiuser state, see Booting a SPARC Based System to a Multiuser State (Run Level
3).

How to Shut Down a System by Using the init Command


Use this procedure when you need to shut down a stand-alone system.

1. Become the root role.

2. Shut down the system.

#init5

For more information, see the init(1M) man page.

Example 3-3 Bringing a System to a Shutdown State (Run Level 0) by Using the init
Command
In this example, the init command is used to bring a system to the run level where it is safe to
turn off power.

#init0
#
INIT:Newrunlevel:0
Thesystemiscomingdown.Pleasewait.
.
.
.
Thesystemisdown.
syncingfilesystems...[11][10][3]done
Pressanykeytoreboot

See Also

Regardless of why you shut down the system, you will probably want to return to run level 3,
where all file resources are available, and users can log in. For instructions on bringing a system
back to a multiuser state, see Booting a SPARC Based System to a Multiuser State (Run Level
3).

Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Legal Notices

Rebooting a SPARC Based System


You can reboot a system by using either the init command or the reboot command.

How to Reboot a System by Using the init Command

The init command is an executable shell script that terminates all active processes on a system
and then synchronizes the disks before changing run levels.

1. Become the root role.

2. Reboot the system.

o To reboot the system to the state that is defined by the initdefault entry in
the /etc/inittab file, type the following command:

#init6
o To reboot the system to a multiuser state, type the following command:

#init2

Example 4-1 Bringing a System to a Single-User State (Run Level S) by Using the init
Command

In this example, the init command is used to bring a system to a single-user state (run level S).

#inits
#
INIT:Newrunlevel:S
Thesystemiscomingdownforadministration.Pleasewait.
Unmountingremotefilesystems:/volnfsdone.
Printservicesstopped.
syslogd:goingdownonsignal15
Killinguserprocesses:done.

SINGLEUSERMODE

Rootpasswordforsystemmaintenance(controldtobypass):xxxxxx
singleuserprivilegeassignedto/dev/console.
EnteringSystemMaintenanceMode
#

How to Reboot a System by Using the reboot Command

1. Become the root role.

2. Reboot the system.

#reboot

Shutdown
You have more than one command option that you can use. The best command is this,
executed as root:

shutdown -y -i5 -g0

This will immediately shut the system down. You can also use the older command that
still works:
sync;sync;init 5

You can even use:

poweroff

Reboot
If you are trying to reboot the system as opposed to turning it off, you could use:

shutdown -y -i6 -g0

Or:

sync;sync;init 6

Or even:

reboot