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Kursinhalt / Content of course:

Technology
Understanding TCP/IP Networks

Ueberarbeitungsdatum / Last changed: 2010-10-19

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Inhalt der Register / Contents of sub-sections:

(1) Communication in IP-based Networks


1 Review of the OSI model 3
1.1 Why a model? 4
1.2 Communication between layers 6
1.3 The concept of encapsulation 8
1.4 The OSI reference model 10
1.5 OSI model and other Items 12
2 LAN definitions 15
2.1 Local area networks 17
2.2 Unicast - multicast - broadcast - unknown unicast 18
2.3 LAN Devices 20
2.4 How does Switches learn MAC addresses 22
3 Router 25
4 Glossary 28
5 Exercises 31
6 Solutions 35

(2) LAN Technologies


1 The lower layers of the OSI model 3
1.1 Ethernet 5
1.2 MAC sub layer 8
1.3 Ethernet frame 12
1.4 Logical Link Control (LLC) 14
1.5 Two Ethernet variants: IEEE and DIX 18
1.6 Ethernet Interfaces 21
1.7 Virtual LAN (VLAN) 22
1.8 What is a VLAN? 24
1.9 IEEE 802.1Q 26
2 Glossary 29
3 Exercise 33
4 Solution 37

(3) IP addressing
1 Internet Protocol (IP) 3
1.1 Basic features 4
1.2 IP properties 6
1.3 IP header fields 8
2 IP addressing 11
2.1 Addressing on the network layer 12
2.2 Class based IP addressing 16
2.3 Reserved IP addresses 18
2.4 Private IP addresses 20
2.5 Publicly used IP addresses 22
2.6 Allocation of IP addresses 24
2.7 Classless IP addressing 27
2.8 Subnet and subnet mask 28
2.9 IP Host address versus IP Subnet address 36
2.10 Binary to Decimal conversation table 39
2.11 Case study No. 1( classroom) 41
2.12 Case study No.2 ( classroom) 43
2.13 Subnetmasks 50
2.14 Subnetmasks for Class A (2 Byte) 50
2.15 Subnetmasks for Class B (3Byte 51
2.16 Subnetmasks for Class C (4Byte) 53
2.17 Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM) 54
2.18 Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) 56
2.19 Route aggregation 58
2.20 CIDR Address Blocks 60
3 IP Fragmentation 63
4 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) 69
4.1 ICMP characteristics 71
4.2 ICMP messages 72
4.3 ICMP queries 74
4.4 ICMP error reports 76
4.5 ICMP applications 78
4.6 Requests for Comments 82
4.7 Glossary 85
5 Exercise 87
6 Solution 93

(4) IP routing
1 The ARP protocol family 3
1.1 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 4
1.2 Gratuitous ARP 6
1.3 Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) 6
1.4 Proxy-ARP 8
2 IP Routing 11
2.1 Routing principles 12
2.2 Routing tables 14
3 Routing protocols 19
3.1 Static and dynamic routing 20
3.2 Static Routing 20
3.3 Dynamic Routing 22
3.4 Distance Vector Routing (DVR) 24
3.5 Routing Information Protocol (RIP) 28
3.6 RIPv2 32
3.7 Link-State Routing 34
3.8 Open Shortest Path First - OSPF 36
3.9 Route Calculation Process 38
3.10 Border Gateway Protocol Version 4 (BGPv4) 46
3.11 Routing Protocol Summary 49
3.12 Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) 50
4 Appendix 53
4.1 Requests for Comments 53
4.2 Glossary 56

(5) The Transport Layer & Appendix


1 Transport layer protocols 3
1.1 Introduction to the transport layer protocols 4
1.2 Ports and sockets 6
1.3 Client-server model 11
2 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 15
2.1 TCP properties 16
2.2 TCP header and segment format 20
2.3 TCP connections 24
2.4 Three-way handshake 28
2.5 Exchanging Data 32
2.6 The Window Principle Applied to TCP 36
2.7 Closing a virtual circuit 42
2.8 TCP options 46
3 User Datagram Protocol (UDP) 48
3.1 UDP properties 48
3.2 UDP header and datagram format 56
4 Exercises 59
5 Solutions 71
1 Appendix 83
1.1 Abbreviations 83

(6) Additional Lessons to TCP/IP


1 Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) 3
1.1 IETF Definitions 4
1.2 Logical Architecture of SCTP environment 8
1.3 SCTP Multi-Homing Feature 10
1.4 SCTP data transmission 12
1.5 SCTP internal functions 16
1.6 Association start up procedure 18
1.7 SCTP Trace Examples 20
1.8 Example: SS7 over SIGTRAN 25
1.9 RFCs, Drafts and Standards 28
1.10 Comparison between transport layers 29
2 Network Address Translation 31
2.1 How does it work? 32
3 Network Address Translation 35
3.2 Network Address Port Translation 38
3.3 Translation Table 42
3.4 Application Layer Gateways - ALG 50
3.5 Summary 56
3.6 RFCs 58
4 IP version 6 overview 59
4.1 What is wrong with IP version 4? 60
4.2 What is IPv6? 60
4.3 Features of IP version 6 (IPv6) 62
4.4 IPv6 transition mechanisms 70
4.5 Further Reading 72
5 Wireless LAN (WLAN) 73
5.1 Basic terms 74
5.2 WLAN Architecture 76
5.3 Security 80
5.4 The IEEE 802.11 WLAN standard 90
5.5 IEEE 802.11 Frame Format 92
6 Glossary 94
7 Exercise 97
8 Solution 103