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Doppler Effect

The apparent change in the frequency of sound due to

the relative motion of the source and the listener.

v+v L vL : Velocity of the listener (L)

f L= fS

v +v S vS : Velocity of the source (S)

v: Speed of sound

fL fS f L: Frequency heard by the listener (L)

=

v +v L v+v S f S: Frequency emitted by the source (S)

Note: The sign of vL and vS depends on our positive sense of

direction

The sign of v (speed of sound) is always positive.

We will set the from listener (L) to source (S) as our

positive direction.

Examples:

A police cars siren emits a sinusoidal wave with fs = 300 [Hz] frequency. The

speed of sound is 340 [m/s] and the air is still. If a listener L is at rest and the

siren is moving away from L at 30 [m/s], what frequency does the listener hear?

fL fS fL 300[ Hz]

= =

v +v L v+v S 340[m/ s]+(0) 340[m/ s]+(+30[m/ s])

f L=276[ Hz]

The sign of v is always positive (sound wave spreads out in all direction)

Always take note of the listener to source direction.

Velocity pointing to the listener to source direction will be given a positive

sign.

Examples:

A police cars siren emits a sinusoidal wave with fs = 300 [Hz] frequency. The

speed of sound is 340 [m/s] and the air is still. If the siren is at rest and the

listener is moving away from it at 30 [m/s], what frequency does the listener hear?

fL fS fL (300[ Hz ])

= =

340[m/ s]+(30[m/ s]) 340[m/ s]+(0)

v +v L v+v S

f L=274 [ Hz]

Examples:

A police cars siren emits a sinusoidal wave with fs = 300 [Hz] frequency.

The speed of sound is 340 [m/s] and the air is still. The siren is moving

away from the listener with a speed of 45 [m/s] relative to still air, and the

listener is moving toward the siren with a speed of 15 [m/s] relative to air.

What frequency does the listener hear?

fL fS fL (300[ Hz ])

= =

v +v L v+v S 340[m/ s]+(+15[ m/ s]) 340[m/ s]+(+45[m/ s])

f L=277[ Hz]

E6. What is the frequency heard by the listener if the

police car moves toward the listener?

Examples:

A police cars siren emits a sinusoidal wave with fs = 300 [Hz] frequency.

The speed of sound is 340 [m/s] and the air is still. The police car is

moving toward a warehouse at 30 [m/s]. What frequency does the driver

hear reflected from the warehouse?

Get first the frequency of the sound that will be reflected by the warehouse.

Treat the warehouse as the source of the reflected sound.

fW fC

=

v +v W v +v C

340[m/ s]+(0)

f W= (300[ Hz ])

340[m/ s]+(30[m/ s])

f W =329[ Hz]

Examples:

A police cars siren emits a sinusoidal wave with fs = 300 [Hz] frequency.

The speed of sound is 340 [m/s] and the air is still. The police car is

moving toward a warehouse at 30 [m/s]. What frequency does the driver

hear reflected from the warehouse?

Get first the frequency of the sound that will be reflected by the warehouse.

Treat the warehouse as the source of the reflected sound.

f W =329[ Hz]

fC fW

=

v +v C v +v W

E7. Perform the proper substitution and obtain the

frequency heard by the driver.

340[m/ s]+(+30[m/ s]) f L=358[ Hz]

f L= (329[ Hz ])

340[m/ s]+(0)

Exercises:

You are on a motorcycle, traveling directly away from the

stationary car. How fast must you be traveling if you detect a

frequency of 490 [Hz]? The speed of sound in air is 344 [m/s].

f S =520 [ Hz]

f L =490 [ Hz]

fL fS

=

v +v L v+v S

v L=

( )

fL

fS

1 v v L=19.8 [m/ s]

Exercises:

frequency of the note emitted by the train whistle is 262

[Hz]. What frequency is heard by a passenger on a train

moving in the opposite direction to the first at 18.0 [m/s]

and (a) approaching the first; and (b) receding from the

first? The speed of sound in air is 340 [m/s]

Exercises:

frequency of the note emitted by the train whistle is 262

[Hz]. What frequency is heard by a passenger on a train

moving in the opposite direction to the first at 18.0 [m/s]

and (a) approaching the first; and (b) receding from the

first? The speed of sound in air is 340 [m/s]

(a) v =30.0[m/ s] v L=+18.0[m/ s] E9. Make a similar sketch

S

(L)

for part (b). Specify the

(S) positive direction.

fL fS substitution and solve for fL.

=

v +v L v+v S

f L=228[ Hz]

f L=302[ Hz ]

Doppler Effect

The apparent change in the frequency of sound due to the relative motion

of the source and the listener.

Stationary source, moving listener

vS : Velocity of source (S)

v: Speed of sound in air

f L=

Wavelength of the incoming wave fronts

f L= f L= f L= fS

(v / f S ) v

Moving (S), stationary (L) : Wavelength if the source is

vS T S stationary.

vS T S : Distance traveled by the next

wave crest after one period TS.

front : Wavelength in front of a moving

source

front

=v S T S + front

front =v S T S

v vS

front =

fS fS

vv S

front =

fS

Moving (S), stationary (L) : Wavelength if the source is

vS T S stationary.

vS T S : Distance traveled by the next

wave crest after one period TS.

behind : Wavelength behind a moving

source

behind behind = +v S T S

v vS

behind = +

fS fS

v +v S

behind =

fS

Moving (S), moving (L) : Wavelength if the source is

vS T S stationary.

vS T S : Distance traveled by the next

wave crest after one period TS.

behind : Wavelength behind a moving

source

v +v S

behind behind =

fS

Suppose the listener moves from

behind:

Speed of sound relative to the listener

f L=

Wavelength of the incoming wave fronts

v +v L v+v L v+v L

f L= f L= f L= fS

behind (v +v S )/f S v +v S

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