Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13

Population size has a great effect on the survival of lambs on St.

Kilda
- In years with high populations of sheep
- More deaths in total
- More lambs died than survived
- Quotes

Suggest an explanation for this effect


- Increased competition for shelter and food
- As a result there is a shortage of food
- So lambs do not store enough fat
- So cannot survive the winter as unable to insulate

Soay sheep are adapted to the extreme conditions. Explain how natural selection could account
for the adaptive features of Soay sheep.
- There is variation among the species.
- Some are better adapted than others
- They survive and breed
- Passing on their alleles
- Over time, the better adapted features become more common

Describe the structure of a DNA molecule


- Double helix
- Strands contain bases A, T, C, G
- A joins with T and C joins with G
- Strands join by crosslinks

State the function of a gene


- Codes for a protein

State the function of mitochondria


- Carries out aerobic respiration
- To release energy

State two features of all prokaryotes


- Have cytoplasm
- Have cell membrane
- Unicellular

Suggest why using DNA sequences is a useful method for identifying species of bacteria
- More accurate compared to traditional classification system
- Easier

Explain how RNA is involved in protein synthesis


- The gene coding for the protein remains in the nucleus
- mRNA molecules carry a copy of the gene to the cytoplasm
- mRNA passes through ribosome
- the ribosome assembles amino acids into protein molecules
- Base sequence of mRNA determines the sequence of amino acids in proteins

Explain why Aspergllus nidulans is the most distantly related species from all the other five
species
- Longest distance from the branching point
- Branched the longest time ago
- Only one ancestor

Describe the type of evidence that scientists used for classifying organisms before they were able
to sequence DNA.
- Study of similarities and differences in morphology
- For example, looking for the presence of wings or tail

State why the palisade mesophyll is a tissue


- It is a group of similar cells that work together to carry out a shared function

The larger air spaces are an adaptation for water lily leaves. Suggest why.
- Air spaces are in the leaf for buoyancy
- So that leaves are closer to the light
- To absorb more light for photosynthesis

State the name used for plants that are adapted to dry habitats
- Xeropytes

Explain what is meant by the term adaptive feature


- Inherited feature
- Feature that helps an organism survive and reproduce
- In its habitat

Define the term population


- Group of organisms
- Living in the same area

Suggest what causes the variation in body length in a population of fish


- Genetics
- Environmental factors, including nutrition and pollution
- Natural selection

Name the type of graph that should be used to show discontinuous variation
- Bar chart
Name the technique of inserting genes from one organism into another
- Genetic engineering

A gene for producing a vaccine has been inserted into banana plants. Give examples in which
crops have been changed by inserting genes and advantage.
1. Herbicide resistance
- Increased yield
2. Resistant to drought and cold
- Increased yield
- Extended range where crops can be grown

Explain why coat colour is an example of discontinuous variation


- Are distinct phenotypes, and are catagoric
- No continuous range of colour
- It is controlled by genes and not affected by the environment

Describe how growers selectively breed plants


- Cross breed plants with desired features
- Choose offspring for desired features
- Cross offspring plants showing features with original variety
- crossing and selecting for many generations

Explain the disadvantages of using sexual reproduction to breed red carnations


- two parents are required
- there would be variation in offspring
- it is time consuming

Define the term meiosis


- reduction division
- chromosome number is halved to form haploid
- results in genetically different gametes

Define the term gene


- a length of DNA that codes for a protein

Define gene mutation


- a change in base sequence of DNA

Describe how DNA can be used to classify organisms


- the base sequence of DNA is used
- The base sequences that are more similar indicates that organisms are more closely
related
Define the term genetic engineering
- Taking a gene from one species
- And inserting it into another organism

Describe how bacteria reproduce asexually


- DNA replicates
- Cell membrane develops in the middle of the cell
- Binary fission
- Bacteria divides into two

When bacteria colonies were placed into a plate with antibiotics, some were left. Explain.
- Some bacteria were resistant to antibiotic
- Fewer were resistant to antibiotic T

Explain why in the next step, many bacterial colonies were found on the plate
- Bacteria that are resistant
- Have reproduced
- All genetically identical, so all resistant

Explain how strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria are formed and then spread
- Are formed by mutation
- Change in base sequence of DNA
- Which produces new protein
- Are spread by susceptible bacteria dying
- So less competition and fewer limiting factors
- Resistant bacteria reproduce and pass on their genes

State two disadvantages of asexual reproduction


- Identical offspring, so reduced genetic diversity
- Negative traits passed on

State two disadvantages of sexual reproduction


- Offspring may not be as well adapted to environment
- Slower process

Explain the significance of meiosis to the survival of endangered species of lizards


- For adaption to new environment
- Causes variation
- Best suited to reproduce and compete for survival
- Allows natural selection and evolution

Explain the term codominance


- Both alleles are expressed
- Neither allele is dominant or recessive to the other
- The phenotype of the heterozygote is intermediate

Describe how the farmer could improve the yield of the cows using artificial selection
- Cows with best milk yield is chosen
- (Bull linked to cows with high milk yield are chosen)
- These are matched and artificial insemination is used
- Offspring checked for improved milk yield
- These cows are then used to breed the next generation

Another feature which a farmer might wish to develop in the cows


- Resistance to disease

Explain why there are concerns about using BST to increase milk yield
- Possible side effects on human health
- Bad for the health of cattle
- Lack of consumer choice

Explain the problems that may occur as these sickle cells circulate in the blood system
- Red blood cell get stuck in capillaries
- Reduce supply of oxygen
- Reduce removal of carbon dioxide
- Less respiration in tissues
- Cause pain and death of tissues

Describe the harmful effects on the body of having red blood cells which become sickle shaped
- Fewer red blood cells
- Less elastic
- Less haemoglobin, and haemoglobin less efficient at transporting oxygen
- Less respiration
- Less energy provided
- Capillaries blocked
- Cause pain and death of tissues

State the advantage of having sickle cell trait


- Resistance to malaria

Explain why the distribution of sickle cell anaemia and malaria are similar
- Malaria is severe disease that may be fatal
- Natural selection occurs
- People with sickle cell anaemia are resistant to malaria
- HbnHbn are susceptible to malaria
- They are more likely to die of malaria before they have children
- Sickle cell carriers do not die, have children and pass on Hbs allele

Suggest why sickle cell anaemia is very rare among people who live in Indonesia and northern
Australia
- Malaria is not very serious
- People have other genetic protection from malaria

Discuss whether sickle cell trait is an example of codominance


- Both alleles HbA and HbS are expressed
- Both alleles make two different forms of haemoglobin
- If dominant or recessive, then only one form of haemoglobin in heterozygous people

Explain how the results of the crosses show that these alleles for flower colour are not dominant
or recessive
- Phenotype Ac Ay is different fro either parent
- The phenotype was intermediate
- Both alleles are expressed
- The alleles are codominant

Suggest the advantages of having mass spawning occurring only at certain times of the year
- Many sperm and eggs are released at the same time
- Increases chances of gametes fusing
- More genetic variation

Describe how meiosis differs from mitosis and explain why meiosis is important for the
production of gametes
- Halves chromosome number
- Forms haploid
- Gametes have different alleles, which gives variation in offspring
- Chromosome number remains the same in next generation

Downs syndrome is an example of a characteristic that shows discontinuous variation. State the
cause of Downs syndrome
- Mutation

Explain how discontinuous variation differs from continuous variation, in its expression and
cause
- Discontinuous variation is influenced by genes alone,
- And is not effected by the environment
- And it is discrete and has limited number of phenotypes

Explain dominant allele


- The allele that is expressed if it is present

If he wants to produce tulip plants without flecks,


- ff, ff
- both parents must have a recessive allele

Explain the importance of meiosis in sexual reproduction


- chromosome number is halved and forms haploid, so it remains constant in next
generation
- gives genetic variation

Explain why flowering time is an example of continuous variation


- influenced by genes and environment
- range of phenotypes
- flowering time is measureable

Explain how natural selection could lead to the evolution of a new species of lily.
- Different environments have different selection pressures
- Variation occurs
- By mutation
- Best adapted organisms are most likely to survive
- And pass on their alleles
- Over generations the changes are enhanced, and evolution occurs

Suggest why there is very little genetic variation in the offspring of the adult nematode
- Gametes are from the same individual
- The only new source of variation is mutation
Explain why meiosis and mitosis occurs
Meiosis
- Reduction division to form haploid cells
- Prevents doubling of chromosome number with each generation
Mitosis
- Growth is taking place
- Producing identical cells

State where DNA is located in a cell


- In chromosomes
- In the nucleus

Crabs produce many offspring, but their population remain constant every year. Explain why.
- Population remains the same because birth rate equals the death rate
- Death rate is high
- Many crabs do not survive to adulthood
- Because they are eaten by predators or lack of food

Chitosan helps blood clot quickly and has antibacterial properties. Explain benefits of using it.
- Stops blood loss
- Reduce infection
- And prevents entry of pathogens
- Promotes healing

Examples 3 and 4 show two ways in which twins are formed. Twins in example 3 are identical.
Explain why.
- Only one fertilization occurred
- The zygote has split into two
- by mitosis
- Into two groups of genetically identical cells
State what is meant by the term development
- Increase in complexity
- For specialization of different types of cells

Explain how boys can have haemophilia when the condition has not previously existed in their
family
- Mutation
- In the gene, for blood clotting protein

Explain what is meant by variation in their phenotype


- There are different forms of one feature
- For example fur and colours

Explain why it is important to carry out a test similar to that in fig 2.1 before gibing an antibiotic
to a person infected with a bacterial disease
- Person may be infected to bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics
- To find the most effective antibiotic

1. Gene for human insulin found to be on chromosome 11


2. Gene from human cell removed from chromosome
3. Gene for human insulin inserted into a plasmid vector
4. Plasmid vector enters bacterium
5. Bacterium divides by binary fission
6. Bacterium produces human insulin

Suggest the advantages of providing human insulin to people with diabetes rather than insulin
obtained from animals
- Easier to supply the demand
- Cost effective
- Human insulin is more effective than animal insulin
- No rejections or side effects

State two ways in which the structure of bacteria differs from the structure of an animal cell
- Cell wall
- Plasmid
- Flagella

Suggest and explain how white crabs evolved at great depths in the sea
- At the bottom of the sea the predators are unable to see
- So no camouflage needed
- So no need to make pigment
- Mutation in DNA
- White crabs survive and reproduce, passing on their alleles
Describe the effect of radiation on the plants in both variaties
- Plants from irradiated seeds had more nodules
- And had nodules with more mass
- Data quote

Suggest and explain what happens to the seeds when they are exposed to ionising radiation
- Mutation
- Change in DNA

Suggest how selective breeding is carried out with the plants


- Choose plants with desired features
- Cross breed plants
- Grow seeds and check plants for features
- Cross plants showing features with original variety
- Keep crossing and selecting

Genetic engineering
Introducing a gene from a different species
Results come out after one generation

Compare the survival of the two species of flour beetle in different temperatures and humidity
- T. castaneum, survive in wet conditions
- In wet conditions, decreasing survival with decreasing temperature
- T. confusum, survive in dry conditions
- In wet conditions, increasing survival with decreasing temperatures
- Data quote

Suggest why only one species survived in each container


- Competition
- For food and space
- The better adapted species survive

The eyes of Tribolium species are usually black. A small number of flour beetles have white
eyes. Explain how this happens and why they are so rare.
- Happens because of mutation
- Mutation is a rare event

Discuss the long term effects of self pollination on the evolution of these plants
- Limited variation
- Variation is due to mutation
- Low chance that mutations will be expressed
- Offspring will be well adapted to conditions if the environment does not change
- Limited opportunity for evolution

A species of bee is very similar to another species which gives a painful sting. Explain how this
is an advantage
- Predators mistake it for it
- So in fear of painful sting, they do not eat it

The species of bees evolved from an insect that did not have any stripes. Suggest how these
insects became striped.
- Mutation
- Gave stripes
- Ones with stripes were not eaten by predators
- And survived
- And breed, passing on their alleles
- Ones with no stripes died out
- Natural selection occurred

Suggest the advantage of different cichlid fish being able to detect blue and red light (
blue and red)
- Retina adapted for detecting different colours
- Fish are adapted to live in different depths
- Blue red retinal detector mates with relevant species

The lake water became cloudier due to pollution. Suggest and explain the likely long term effects
on the cichlid fish
- Reduces ability of blue fish to find mates
- Reduces reproduction in blue fish
- So number of blue fish decrease
- Water has less effect on red fish
- Number of red fish increase
- As less competition

Explain the advantages of sexual reproduction to a species of flowering plant


- Meiosis occurs
- Mutation occur in meiosis
- Gives variation
- Allows adaptation to new conditions
- Allows natural selection and evolution

Suggest why antibiotics should not be used too often


- Resistant bacteria survive
- And eventually all become resistant

Explain the possible effect of the X-rays on the bacteria


- X-rays causes mutations
- Causes change in DNA
- Mutation may cause antibiotic resistance

Many bacterial diseases can no longer be treated with antibiotics. Outline how antibiotic resistant
strains of bacteria can develop
- mutation
- stronger wall
- antibiotic kills bacteria except those that are resistant
- resistant bacteria reproduce
- increased numbers of population have resistance

Explain what is meant by codominance


- two alleles
- both are expressed
- in heterozygous individual
- AB, IAIB as an example

Explain the advantages of using insulin produced by genetically engineered bacteria rather than
insulin from dead animal tissues
- Used to treat diabetes
- Insulin is the same as humans
- Not rejected
- No risk of infection

Explain the advantages of asexual reproduction for insulin production by genetic engineering
- Offspring genetically identical
- Rapid
- No gametes required
- Large quantity of insulin produced

What is plasmid made of?


- DNA

What is added to break the gene from the plasmid?


- Restriction enzyme

In a light background, less black moths were present than before. Suggest and explain one
reason.
- More black moths eaten
- Because black moths are not camouflaged

Why is pale wing colour dominant?


- Expressed in heterozygous
State the type of genetic variation shown by these moths and explain how this variation is
inherited
- Discontinuous variation
- Wing colour determined by a gene
- Black is recessive, pale is dominant
- Black inherited when parents are homozygous recessive, pale inherited when only one
parent has dominant allele