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Reluctance Motors Used in Electric Vehicles

Propulsion

A.-C. Pop1,2 , V. Petrus1,2 , C. S. Martis1 , V. Iancu1 J. Gyselinck2

1 2

Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Universite Libre de Bruxelles

Dpt. of Electrical Machines and Drives BEAMS Dpt., Energy Group

28, Memorandumului st., 400114 Cluj-Napoca, Romania 50, F. Roosevelt Av., B-1050 Brussels, Belgium

Email: adrian.pop@mae.utcluj.ro Email: johan.gyselick@ulb.ac.be

AbstractIn this paper the authors present a comparison the so-called, torque sharing functions (TSFs) [3], [4].

between optimised versions of three torque sharing functions, One of the advantages of EVs as compared to the ICE

with different number of degrees of freedom, used for improving based vehicles is the high torque capability at low speed

the efficiency in Switched Reluctance Motors. Starting from

the basic rectangular variation, the ascending and descending [9]. Moreover, for EV applications, it is important to reduce,

flanks of the function are modeled using a cosine, exponential or completely eliminate the torque ripple at low speed, as

and a more general approach (further referred to as piecewise they generate low-order frequencies which along with the

cubic sharing function). The degrees of freedom varying between eigenfrequencies of the drivetrain can lead to mechanical

two and an arbitrary number (for the general approach) are resonance. Therefore, producing high torque for low ripple

determined so as to minimize losses, when operating in smooth

torque conditions. Based upon an optimisation procedure with content is one of the main requirements of an electric motor

both linear and nonlinear constraints, the total (copper and used in EV propulsion [10].

iron) losses are minimized considering a limited available DC The total torque can be produced by maximum two neigh-

bus voltage. Moreover, a smooth model is presented so as to bour phases in SRMs with four-phases or less. At each rotor

be able to separate the two main causes for the torque ripple angular position, the share of each phase can be determined

and it is shown that, neglecting the chopping ripple, a ripple-free

torque can be obtained. Extensive studies have been conducted for using an appropriate function for modelling the ascending and

determining the optimal number of degrees of freedom (DoFs) descending flanks of the basic rectangular variation. One of the

for the piecewise cubic function. The proposed methods were first application of such a function is reported in [5] where an

successfully implemented on a 8/6, 30kW peak power, SRM both exponential variation is considered, followed by the authors

numerically and experimentally-wise. in [6] where a cosine function is introduced. From the same

category of nonlinear sharing functions, authors in [7] use a

I. I NTRODUCTION

cubic variation. Although the ripple content is significantly

Due to their undeniable advantages, SRMs represent a reduced there is no attention paid to other quantities such as

serious competitor for AC permanent magnet synchronous and iron or copper losses. In [8] the functions presented in [5]

induction machines used in hybrid and full electric vehicles, to [7] are optimised for two objective functions: the rate of

(HEVs/EVs), propulsion. Their main drawbacks are exten- change of flux linkage and the copper losses.

sively mentioned in the literature [1] - namely, noise vibration In this paper the optimised versions of the functions pro-

and harshness problems (NVH), low efficiency and high torque vided in [5], [6] are compared with generalized version of the

ripple. This paper deals with the latter two problems. cubic function (with an arbitrary number of DOFs), further

Besides the improvements that can be done at the machine referred to as piecewise cubic. Furthermore, the latter men-

design level, the control technique that is used plays a fun- tioned sharing function is tested by adding the iron losses in

damental role in overcoming the two mentioned drawbacks. the optimisation. Thus, in this paper as performance indicators,

Moreover, for EV applications, wide speed range, highly- copper and iron losses are used along with the extension of

dynamic, controllers are required, which in regular basis the torque-speed region from the torque-speed plane in which

combine two torque control techniques embedded in a speed smooth torque can be produced.

control loop [2]. One example would be an optimal firing- It is shown that the proposed piecewise cubic method allows

angle based control scheme, where at low speed the ripple of for the production of smooth torque for a wider torque-

the torque is minimized by means of current profiling using speed range than other presented methods, as well as an

improvements, in terms of efficiency.

III comprises descriptions of the implemented torque sharing

provided in Section V and validated by measurements in

Section VI. Finally, conclusions are drawn in the last section

along with suggestions for future work.

II. SRM S MOOTH M ODEL

A. Mathematical model Fig. 1. Maximum-torque-per-current ratio

In an SR drive the switching of the transistors and the

transition from one active phase to the next phase are the root

cause of the torque ripple. In order to quantify the share of two neighbor phases (ftsf < 1). If ftsf = 1, then the peak-to-

each one, the two causes are separated. Hereafter a smooth peak torque ripple, Tpp , can be approximated with (4) whereas

model (1) is proposed which allows for the switching ripple if ftsf < 1, then solely the maximum value of the Tpp can be

to be neglected. By using this model, instead of the discrete deduced (5).

voltage (Vdc or 0) an average value (Vav ) is applied to the

Tpp = 2Ih RTi (4)

phases. An additional advantage of using a smooth model is

a significant reduction of the computation time.

Tppmax = 2(I(h)ph1 R(Ti)ph1 + I(h)ph R(Ti)ph ) (5)

Vav,k = (+Vdc ) (Vdc )

the current phase, respectively.

%

|I k I ref,k | > 0,

k = (Vav,k Rph Ik ) dt

dk copper losses.

&

Vav,k = Rph Ik + ,

dt

Ik = Iref,k B. Optimisation problem formulation

(1)

The objective of the optimization is to minimize the losses

with k = 1 , 2 , ..mph , Ik , Vav,k , k , Rph the phase current,

(copper losses, PCu , iron losses PFe , or the total losses) for

voltage, flux linkage and resistance, respectively, Iref,k , Vdc

a ripple-free torque (in the smooth model) and considering a

the reference current and DC bus voltage.

limited available voltage, Vdc . As stated before three different

Copper losses, which are further used in the composition of

TSFs are employed, each with a different number of degrees of

the objective function, are expressed as follows

freedom (DoFs). Each DoF represents a fraction of the stroke

Nph

Ts ' angle.

1

%

PCu = Rph Ik2 (2) Let [x] be the vector with the DoFs, of length nd , f (x)

Ts 0 k=1 the function to be minimized and s , the stroke angle. The

with Ts = Tc /4 the stroke period, where Tc is the fundamental nonlinear optimisation problem with linear and boundary

period calculated as follows constraints can be formulated as follows, regardless of the

number of DoFs

60

Tc = (3)

NR

[A][x]T

(

s

with the speed (in rpm) and NR the number of rotor poles. min{f (x), such that (6)

[l] [x] [u]

To make the model as general as possible, it is transformed in

a spatial-dependent model in which the sharing functions are where f (x) is straightforwardly computed based on the model

represented in terms of number of strokes (Fig. 9 to Fig. 5). given by (1). For the considered number DoFs, [A] =

Eventually, the performance of the chopping model (addi- [1 1 1 . . .] has the same length as [x]. The validity of the first

tional torque ripple) is estimated by means of current hys- inequality will ensure that minimization function will discard

teresis band (4-5). If Ih is denoted as half of the current the [x] values whose sum will exceed the stroke length. Vectors

hysteresis band width, RTi as the ratio between maximum [l], [u] represent the lower and upper boundaries associated

torque and the phase current (Fig. 1) and ftsf as the value of with the DoFs given by [x]. However in this paper a different

the sharing function, then there are two possibilities: either the approach is considered. The model is simplified by means of

required torque is produced by one phase (ftsf = 1), either by considering only the second part of the model given by (1)

357

Fig. 2. Cosine TSF and the associated DoFs Fig. 3. Exponential TSFs and the associated DoFs

while the optimization problem becomes more complex as a B. Exponential sharing functions

nonlinear constraint is added in the formulation Starting from [5] a 3-DoFs TSF is obtained

C(x) = 0 (7)

0, (0, i )

with

(f , 2s )

1, (mi , mf )

Nph % Ts

1

mf 2

' ) *

C(x) = max(|Vav,k | Vdc , 0)dt (8) fexp () =

Ts 0 kexp

k=1

exp f ) mf [mf , f ]

*2

III. T ORQUE SHARING FUNCTIONS

i

kexp

1 exp mi mf

A. Cosine sharing functions [i , mi ]

(11)

Starting from [6] a 2-DoFs TSF is obtained, which is

As in the previous case, i , mi , mf and f are the angles

characterized by the equations given in the following

shown in the Fig. 11 whereas 1 , 2 and 3 are fractions of the

stroke. Yet, as compared to the previous situation an additional

0, (0, i ) DoF is introduced (kexp ) which affects the sharing functions

(f , 2s )

in the manner shown in Fig. 4.

fcos () = 1, (mi , mf )

0.5 0.5 cos(k( i ))

[i , mi ] C. Picewise cubic sharing functions

0.5 + 0.5 cos(k( mf ))

[mf , f ] In this subsection a generalized TSF with an arbitrary

(9) number of DoFs is developed, which yields minimum losses

where i , mi , mf , f are defined in Fig. 9 as well as the and enhance the ripple-free torque production capability, con-

considered DoFs (1 and 3 ) and k = (mi i )/5. sidering a limited voltage. By applying this method, one stroke

Applying a particular form (considering only the equality) is divided into nd fractions. The value of the function will

of the linear constraint defined in (6), 2 will become increase with 1/(nd 1) over one fraction. An example of

such a variation is shown in Fig. 5, for nd = 6. If the fractions

2 = s 1 3 (10) of the stroke are denoted as k then the following condition

must be fulfilled nd

Finally i and mi are obtained in terms of 1 and 2 '

(i = s 2 3 , mi = s 3 ) and they will fully k 1 (12)

define the sharing function that models the descending profile k=1

of the phase torque. The function for the ascending profile, where a supplementary fraction k+1 appears when (12) is a

delimited by mf and f is straightforwardly obtained, as strict inequality (7 in Fig. 5).

the two functions are complementary (mf = s + 1 and The linear variation between two consecutive points is

f = 2s 3 ). interpolated using a cubic spline method (shown with red line

358

IV. I NCORPORATION OF IRON LOSSES

Core losses computation is a challenging task for SRMs

due to the highly distorted character of magnetic flux density

waveform as well as the fact that different segments in

the machine are subject to different frequencies [11], [12].

Eddy-currents (14) and hysteresis (13) components [13] are

density for each segment. Such values can be obtained from

the phase flux using the matrices-based procedure presented in

[12]. Using the loss separation approach the total iron losses

are calculated by the summation of the two terms.

(+Bm )

Ph = fph kh Bm (13)

Tc *2

d2

)

1

%

dB

Pecl = dt (14)

12 m Tc 0 dt

Fig. 4. Exponential TSFs and the DoFs with fph the fundamental frequency (in Hz), kh , and ,

material-dependant parameters (obtained by fitting), Bm the

magnitude of major loop of magnetic flux density (in T), d the

lamination thickness (in m), m the density of the material

(in kg/m3 ) and the electrical resistivity (in m).

The B waveforms in the stator poles have the same funda-

mental frequency, fph = 1/Tc and equal with that given by the

cycle duration. For a SRM in long flux paths configuration of

the winding, there is always a stator yoke segment only with

of the DC supply (mph fph ). The other segments of the stator

back iron have the same frequency given by fph . However

the number of minor loops on each of them is different and

is given by ks (ks = 1 , 2 , ..mph 1 ). Each segment of the

rotor back iron and rotor pole has the same frequency given

by fph /NR .

The material coefficients are fitted on the basis of a prede-

fined nonlinear least-squares data fitting function, which uses

of type (6) is applied where s = 15 (for a 8/6 SRM) or

of strokes on the x-axis. For keeping the voltage V Vdc a

Increasing the number of DoFs can be beneficial as there is

a superior precision in modeling the exact shape of the TSF

required for minimizing an objective function. On the other

increasing the number of DoFs can determine the local search

algorithms (based on derivatives or simplexes) to fail or to get

stuck in a local minimum. In such situations a stochastic op-

timisation routine may offer a considerably improved solution Fig. 6. Cross-section of a 8/6 SRM and the associated iron segments

at the expense of an increase in computational complexity.

359

Fig. 8. Required and available average dc voltage and their effect on the

instantaneous torque at 90Nm and 1500rpm

(c) Stator yoke SY4 (d) Rotor poles

(e) Rotor yoke

Fig. 7. Typical magnetic flux density waveforms in different segments of

the machine

an optimized version of the Levenberg-Marquardt method for

minimization. Considering the specific losses dependence on

the frequency and magnetic flux density, Ps (f , B ), for the Fig. 9. Comparison between current and torque obtained with smooth and

chopping model for two conducting phases using the optimised shape of the

M800-60A electrical steel-sheet, the next values are obtained piecewise cubic TSF

for the coefficients, = 1.777, = 0.192, kh = 0.0541. The

material has the following properties: d = 0.5mm, m = 7800

kg/m3 , = 25 108 m.

V. S IMULATION RESULTS

By combining the two logics given in (1) it can be seen

that the entire torque-speed range can be covered. However it

must be stated that when |Vav | |Vdc | a dip in torque will

occur, its severity being proportional with the speed (Fig. 8).

This is not discussed in detail, as the purpose of this paper

is to perform a study on the highest torque and speed that

can be reached for a ripple-free torque (in the smooth model

- Fig. 10) and minimum losses. Yet, in Fig. 10 there is still

an error (0.03%) which is the result of the inverting the FE

obtained table, T = f (, i), so as to obtain, i = f (, T ).

The validity of the (4-5) can be checked based upon Fig. 9

and Fig. 1 taking into consideration that the simulation was

conducted for a switching frequency, fsw = 15kHz which Fig. 10. Torque produced for peak current at 300rpm, when the TSF is

corresponded to a value for the current hysteresis band width, optimised using 5-DoF

360

Ih = 3.6A.

Simulations have been carried out in order to determine the

performance of each of the three TSFs. The next performance

indicators are used

copper losses

the peak of the torque-speed region in the torque-speed

plane with smooth torque production capability

of the objective functions, unless otherwise stated.

A. Piecewise cubic TSF parameters

The first step in the analysis is to determine the optimal

number of DoFs for the piecewise cubic TSF. Computations

have been conducted at different speeds and reference torque

values. For most of the studied operating points it was found

that for a good convergence, a minimum number of 3-DoFs is

required. In choosing the maximum number of DoFs it must

be taken into account the ability of the minimization routine to Fig. 12. Optimal 5DoF piecewise cubic TSF variation with reference torque

converge to the global minimum without the necessity of cre-

ating a special routine for determining the initial conditions. In

Fig. 11 the TSF is shown when nd = 4, 5, 6, 7. Henceforward,

a number of DoFs, nd = 5 is chosen.

Next, considering 5 DoFs for the piecewise cubic TSF, its

variation with both the speed (Fig. 13) and reference torque

(Fig. 12) is studied.

Simulations have been carried out at 2rpm varying the ref-

erence torque between 5Nm and the value which corresponds

to the peak current (175Nm). Regardless of the TSF (cosine,

exponential of piecewise cubic) used the peak torque could

be reached for a given Vdc . In terms of copper losses, there

is a slight gain if the piecewise cubic TSF is used, especially

Fig. 13. Optimal 5DoF piecewise cubic TSF variation with speed

Simulations have been executed at 100rpm and 300rpm.

The same tendency is reported at 100rpm as at 2rpm, with

a slightly lower value for copper losses when the piecewise

cubic TSF is used as compared to the cosine function and with

a more significant gain when comparing with the exponential

variation (8% at rated torque and 12.2 % at peak torque).

As for the 300rpm, another important issue is reported -

the maximum value of the torque cannot be reached in the

limit of the available voltage when cosine and exponential

TSFs are used. Therefore for the cosine, as well as for the

exponential function, the maximum ripple-free torque that can

be produced is 150Nm and 165Nm, respectively, whereas for

Fig. 11. Torque sharing function and copper losses variation with the number the piecewise cubic TSF, still, the maximum torque of 175Nm

of DoF considered in optimisation can be delivered (see Fig. 10). The copper losses dependence

361

with reference torque, is shown in Fig. 15.

Iron losses are very often neglected when considering an

objective function for improving the efficiency. In this paper,

for the proposed piecewise TSF, tests are conducted varying

the speed between 1 to 900rpm and the effect of including the

the total losses at 900rpm it can be seen that they decrease by

more than 12% when fobj = Pcu + Pfe is used as objective

function instead of fobj = Pcu . This is explained by the

fact that, when iron losses are included in optimisation they

decrease with more than 120W at the expense of an increase

in copper losses with maximum 50W.

Measurements have been conducted on a four-phase, 30kW

peak power, SRM supplied via an asymmetric H bridge con-

Fig. 14. Copper losses dependence with reference torque for the three

considered TSFs at 2rpm

verter (Fig. 17). The performance of the proposed piecewise

cubic TSFs was analysed in the low speed operation (up to

1000rpm) for a reference torque of maximum 30Nm (imposed

by the rated values of the 7.5kW DC machine used as a load).

The optimised TSFs are stored in a 3D matrix in terms of

reference torque and speed as well as position, f (, Tref , ),

and the entire control scheme is implemented on a dSPACE

platform. Storing such a big amount of data in a dSPACE

be set. It is well known that for accurately implementing an

instantaneous torque control technique a very high switching

frequency is required. Thus, the main disadvantage of the TSF-

based techniques.

The necessity of using the current profiling, at low speed,

is evidenced in Fig. 18 where the measured instantaneous

torque at 250rpm and for a reference of 30Nm is shown in

two cases. In the first case the torque waveform is shown

for optimal firing angle control scheme, where a weighted

objective function which takes in account both copper losses

Fig. 15. Copper losses dependence with reference torque for the three and torque ripple is used [4], whereas in the second case

considered TSFs at 300rpm

Fig. 16. Influence of the objective functions on the total losses Fig. 17. Overview of the test-rig components

362

Fig. 18. Comparison between measured torque using the classical optimal

firing angle approach and current profiling

Fig. 20. Measured and reference current at 250rpm and 30Nm reference

torque using piecewise cubic TSF

Fig. 19. Measured instantaneous torque and phase currents at 250rpm and

30Nm reference torque

the torque obtained with piecewise cubic TSF approach is torque

represented.

In Fig. 19 the measured instantaneous torque, along with the

phase currents is shown at 250rpm and for a reference torque

of 30Nm, whereas in Fig. 20 the measured current is shown

along with its reference. It can be seen the switching ripple and results obtained using piecewise cubic and the rest of the

taking into consideration the discussion provided in Section TSFs, becomes more visible. Consequently, if at 250rpm the

II it can be readily stated that the phase transition ripple is values of the losses are: 180W, 187W and 183W for cosine,

eliminated, remaining only the ripple which are caused by the exponential and piecewise cubic, respectively, at 650rpm they

switching of the transistors. However, this is not the case at become: 300W, 228W and 200W for cosine, exponential and

higher speeds as is evidenced in Fig. 21 and Fig. 22 where a piecewise cubic, respectively. Therefore a gain of 50% is

sag can be seen when the transition between the phases occurs. observed in comparison with cosine variation.

As for the copper losses, at low speed the difference Moreover, it can be seen in Fig. 23 a considerable augmenta-

between the values obtained for the three TSFs is negligible tion of the torque-speed region with smooth torque production,

while, as the speed increases, the difference between the is obtained by using the piecewise cubic TSF.

363

performance of the chopping model was estimated based on

the smooth model. It was found that the generalized version of

the cubic variation provides the lowest copper losses as well

as an extension of the torque-speed region in which smooth

torque can be produced.

Despite their remarkable performances at very low speed,

for the cosine and exponential TSFs, the difference in copper

simulations and measurements) as well as maximum ripple-

free torque that can be produced (based on simulations).

Improvements up to 50% are observed. Furthermore, a con-

siderable augmentation (more than 30%) of the peak torque-

speed region is obtained by using the piecewise cubic TSFs.

considered in the objective function, the efficiency is improved

(up to 10%).

As future work can be considered the implementation of a

more robust minimization routine which offers more stability

Fig. 22. Measured instantaneous torque at 650rpm and 30Nm reference when the calculations are conducted in the proximity of the

torque

DC voltage limit. In this way, more DoFs can be considered,

without the risk that the minimization routine will get stuck in

a local minimum, allowing in the same time for an additional

extension of the torque-speed region with smooth torque

production.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This research was financially supported in the frame of

the project Doctoral studies in engineering sciences with

viation from Romanian), Contract POSDRU/88/1.5/S/60078.

The authors equally acknowledged the WBI funding through

the program Wallonie-Bruxelles International, bursaries for

excellence.

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[1] T. J. E. Miller, Electronic Control of Switched Reluctance Machines,

Newnes, August 2001.

[2] R. B. Inderka, M. Menne, Rik W. A. A. De Doncker, Control of

Switched Reluctance Drives for Electric Vehicle Applications, Trans.

Ind. Electron., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 4853, February 2002.

[3] H. Hannoun, M. Hilairet, C. Marchand, Design of an SRM Speed

Fig. 23. Comparison of peak torque-speed region from the torque-spped Control Strategy for a Wide Range of Operating Speeds, IEEE Trans.

plane with smooth torque production capability, for the considered TSFs Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 29112921, September 2010.

[4] A. C. Pop, V. Petrus, C. S. Martis, V. Iancu, J. Gyselinck Wide-

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C ONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK Istanbul, Turkey.

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365

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