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Porto, Portugal, July 19-21, 2006

IDENTIFICATION OF A THERMAL PROCESS

Laboratoire dAutomatique et dInformatique Industrielle

Ecole Superieure dIngenieurs de Poitiers

40, Ave du Recteur Pineau 86 022 Poitiers Cedex, France

Thierry.Poinot@esip.univ-poitiers.fr

modelled with the help of fractional systems. The simulation of these particular

systems is based on a fractional integrator where the non integer behaviour acts

only on a limited spectral band. A first model, based on the use of one fractional

integrator, has been already defined and tested on a thermal pilot. Starting from

frequency considerations derived from the analysis of a diffusion problem, a more

general approximation of the fractional system is proposed in this communication.

The new model is based on the use of two fractional integrator operators. It makes

it possible to define a state-space model for simulation of transients, and to carry

out an output-error technique in order to estimate the parameters of the model.

Experimental results obtained on a thermal process illustrate the improvements

obtained with the proposed model.

Modelling, Estimation, Output-error Identification, Heat transfer, Diffusive

interfaces.

model able to reproduce the system dynamics,

The model of a diffusive interface is character- but, it is necessary to have a high number of

ized by a fractional behaviour. Concretely, such parameters in order to obtain a good fit, and to

phenomenon appears, in the case of an induction make a priori choices. On the other hand, these

machine, with Foucault currents inside rotor bars models give black-box models, without direct links

(Benchellal et al., 2004; Canat and Faucher, 2004; with physics.

Khaorapapong, 2001; Riu and Retiere, 2004). It The solution proposed in this paper is based on

appears also in the case of heat transfer between the definition of an integrator operator (Lin et

the flux and the temperature at the interface of al., 2000; Lin, 2001). A first solution consists to

the process (Battaglia, 2002; Cois, 2002). Many use a fractional model like (Lin, 2001; Trigeassou

solutions have already been developed to model et al., 1999):

this type of phenomenon. A solution has been b0

proposed by Cois (Cois, 2002); another solution Hn (s) = (1)

a0 + sn

consists to use the theory of diffusive systems

(Montseny, 1998). For these two solutions, param- This model is based on the use of a non integer

eters are estimated using a Least Squares tech- integrator s1n truncated in the frequency domain.

nique. The fractional order n is fitted by identification,

using time responses; so, the frequential approx- dB

imation of the diffusion interface is indirectly

performed. This approximation is accurate in a

frequency domain corresponding to the spectrum

of the input. Concretely, n is estimated in such h

log

b

a way that the frequency response is correctly

fitted in low and medium frequencies. On the b h

other hand, this model can not give satisfaction log

for when estimated n is different of n 90

the value 0.5. Nevertheless, the interest of this

model (Lin et al., 2000; Lin, 2001) is its ability to 90

approximate the dynamical behaviour of diffusion

interfaces using a restricted number of estimated

Fig. 1. Bode diagrams of the fractional integrator

parameters. However, this model does not give the

N s

best approximation of the system dynamics, since Gn Y 1 + i

n 90 then . In (s) = s (3)

s i=1 1 + i

In order to improve the fractional behaviour of

this model, and particularly its high frequency This operator is completely defined by:

behaviour (quick transients), a second approach is

proposed in this paper; it consists to use a model log

with two fractional integrators: i = i , i+1

= i , n = 1

log

b0 + b1 sn1 where and are recursive parameters linked to

Hn1 ,n2 (s) = (2) the fractional order n.

a0 + a1 sn1 + sn1 +n2

Using (3), the corresponding state-space represen-

In imposing n2 = 0.5, and then adjusting the tation is:

order n1 and the parameters b0 , b1 , a0 , and a1 ,

one can get a higher approximation ability, with xI = AI xI + B I u (4)

respect of the physics (order n1 + n2 n1 = 0.5

at short times) and able to fit to the system where AI = MI1 AI , B I = MI1 B I , and

geometry thanks to n1 . After the presentation of

1 0 0 Gn

the fractional integrator and its application to the ..

1 0

simulation and the identification of non integer .

MI = . . .

B I = ..

order model, the modelling of the improved model .. . . . . 0 .

is presented. The two models are then compared 0

0 1

in simulation and on an experimental thermal

0 0 0 x1

process. ..

1 1 x2

. xI =

AI = . . ..

.. . . . .

. . 0

2. MODELLING USING A FRACTIONAL 0 N N xN +1

INTEGRATOR

Let us consider the Bode diagrams of an integrator The model (1) corresponds to a differential equa-

truncated in low and high frequencies (figure 1) tion, with 0 < n < 1:

(Lin et al., 2000; Lin, 2001; Trigeassou et al.,

dn y (t)

1999). + a0 y (t) = b0 u (t) (5)

dtn

It is composed of three parts. The intermediary

part corresponds to non-integer action, character- Let us define x (t) such as

ized by the order n. In the two other parts, the 1

integrator has a conventional action, characterized X (s) = U (s) (6)

sn + a0

by its order 1.

In this way, the operator In (s) is defined as Thus, we obtain a macro state-space represen-

a conventional integrator, except in a limited tation of this system.

band [b , h ] where it acts like s1n . The operator ( n

d x (t)

In (s) is defined using a fractional phase-lead filter = a0 x (t) + u (t) (7)

dtn

(Oustaloup, 1995) and an integrator 1s : y (t) = b0 x (t)

or equivalently using In (s)

b1

x1 = Gn (a0 xN +1 + u)

(8) u I n 2 s y

y = b0 xN +1 I n1 s b0

model is:

a0

x = A x + Bu

(9)

y = CT x

Fig. 2. Simulation scheme of Hn1 ,n2 (s).

with

A = AI a0 B I C TI P

K

B = B I J = 2 k k, : gradient,

T k=1

i

C = b0 C TI

P

K

J 2 k,i Tk, : hessian,

i

k=1

: monitoring parameter,

2.3 Output-Error identification of the fractional

k, = yk : output sensitivity function.

system Hn (s) i i

The model Hn (s) is in continuous time repre- algorithm (Marquardt, 1963) insures robust con-

sentation, thus it is preferable to use an Output- b nev-

vergence, even with a bad initialization of ,

Error technique (OE) to estimate its parameters ertheless in the vicinity of the global optimum.

(Ljung, 1987; Richalet et al., 1971). The state-

space model of the non integer system is: Fundamentally, this technique is based on the

calculation of gradient and hessian, themselves

x = A () x + B () u dependent on the numerical integration of the

(10)

y = C T () x sensitivity functions k,i (Richalet et al., 1971),

which are equivalent to the regressors in the linear

where T = a0 b0 case (Ljung, 1987).

, , b , h and the number N of cells. In practice, INTERFACES WITH AN IMPROVED MODEL

b , h and N are imposed; then, it is sufficient to

estimate in order to estimate n. 3.1 Principle

Let us suppose that we have K data pairs {uk , yk }

where t = k Te (Te : sampling period) ; yk : noised The objective is to improve the approximation

measurement of the exact output yk . of the diffusion interfaces using fractional models

based on the fractional integrator. The model (1)

The state-space model is simulated using a numer-

gives a good approximation only at low frequen-

ical integration technique; thus one gets ybk u, cies. This model has an asymptotic behaviour

where b is an estimation of exact parameters . of s1n type while the theoretical modelling of a

Then, one can construct the residuals: diffusive system shows an asymptotic behaviour

1

of s0.5 type.

k = yk ybk u, b (11) Therefore, a second approach using two fractional

integrators is proposed (model (2)). The model

b that is to say , is ob-

The optimal value of , is simulated using the scheme given on figure 2.

opt

tained by minimization of the quadratic criterion: Because n2 = 0.5, this model permits to obtain

n 0.5 then .

K

X

J= 2k (12)

k=1

3.2 State-space model of Hn1 ,n2 (s)

Because ybk is non linear in parameters, a non

The macro state-space representation of Hn1 ,n2 (s)

linear programming algorithm is used in order to

b is given by:

estimate iteratively : n1

n o d x1 (t)

1

= x2 (t)

i+1 = i [J

+ I] J (13) dtn1

= i dn2 x2 (t) (14)

n2

= u (t) a0 x1 (t) a1 x2 (t)

dt

with (Ljung, 1987) : y (t) = b0 x1 (t) + b1 x2 (t)

Using the same way that for the model (1), we Let us define:

obtain the state-space representation:

L = rmax rmin (16)

AI1 B I1 C TI2

x = x

T T rmax : maximum radius corresponding to i =

B a C

I2 0 I1 I2A B a C

I2 1 I2 I

0 (15) rmin : minimal radius corresponding to i = 0

+ u

BI2

Each elementary block (sphere with thickness )

y = b0 C TI1 b1 C TI2 x is composed by:

1

a thermal resistance Ri = 4

where AI1 , BI1

et AI2 , BI2 are the matrices a thermal capacity Ci = 4c3

defining the two integrators

In1 (s) and In2 (s) Dimensions used for the sphere simulation are

with C TI1 = C TI2 = 0 0 1 rmin = 1 cm and rmax = 6 cm. One obtains a

states model with (dim x = I) and I0 = r

min

.

(0, t) (I0 + I)2 T (L, t)

u

T

= 0

I2 I0 Ri Ci (I0 + I 1)2 + 1

1

Ci ( 20 + + 24 )

12

Identification is performed using the Output Error 4

vector is defined

by T = a0 a1 b0 b1 1

The obtained model is used in order to simulate

Because order n2 is imposed equal to 0.5, it is the heat transfer in the sphere. The temperature

only necessary to estimate n1 , i.e. the parameter at i = I is constant, while input is the heat flux

1 . The identification technique is the previously and output is the temperature at the interface

defined, adapted to the model (2). when i = 0.

The time response of the system is plotted on

figure 4. The input is a Pseudo-Random Binary

4. SIMULATION EXAMPLE Signal. I = 2000 blocks are used in order to per-

form the simulation. Subsequently, the simulated

Let us consider the heat transfer problem in a output will be considered as the real output of the

sphere. A numerical simulation of the heat diffu- system H (s).

sion equation is performed using finite differences.

Then, models with one and two fractional integra-

Input

tors are identified using time responses provided 1

by simulation. In order to get realistic simulations, 0.5

Output

0.05

= 111 W/m o C : thermal conductivity 0

0.05

0.1

0 50 100 150 200

4.1 Numerical simulation using finite differences Time(s)

Let us consider a sphere with a radius rmax Fig. 4. Input and output of the model with I =

(figure 3). Divide the sphere in I blocks of same 2000

thickness . Then L = I and the ith block

where abscissa i is defined by i = i (i =

ri rmin ).

ri + 4.2 Fractional models identification

elementary

rmax ri

block Using data provided by the previous heat transfer

simulator, OE identification of models Hn (s) and

Hn1 ,n2 (s) are performed. Results are given in

Fig. 3. The sphere problem table 1.

Table 1. Identification results

Copper ball Enclosure with

Parameters Hn (s) Hn1 ,n2 (s) fixed temperature

a0 0.5072 0.0689

a1 - 0.7724

b0 0.0336 0.0041

b1 - 0.0447

n1 (n) 0.6237 0.8020

Heat

According to figure 5, the frequency responses of flux

these two models are compared with the frequency

response of H (s). The approximation obtained

with the model Hn1 ,n2 (s) is better than the

one obtained with the model Hn (s). The model

Hn1 ,n2 (s) is more able to explain the frequency Sensor

behaviour of the simulator H (s) (in its validity

domain) than the model Hn (s). According to

Power transistor : source of heat flux

figure 6, the improved model is also better to

approximate the time response particularly with

a low frequency input. Fig. 7. Experiment

From: In(1)

20

Input

40

H(s) 5

60 Hn (s) 4

To: Out(1)

80 3

100 2

1

120 Hn1 ,n2 (s)

0

140

0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

Hn (s) Output

0.04

Hn1 ,n2 (s)

To: Out(1)

45 0.03

H(s)

0.02

0.01

90

4 2 0 2 4 6

10 10 10 10 10 10 0

0.01

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

Fig. 5. Bode plots of models H (s), Hn (s) and Time (s)

Fig. 8. Thermal pilot input and output

0.08

yn(s)

0.06 at the center of the ball in order to generate a heat

0.04

y(s)

flux. A sensor is fixed on the interface of the heat

0.02 source. The ball is situated in an enclosure where

0 the ambient temperature is fixed and constant.

0.02 The input of the system is the control voltage of

yn1,n2 (s)

0.04 the transistor. The output is the voltage delivered

0.06

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

by the sensor.

The values of input and output data have been

Fig. 6. Time responses of models H (s), Hn (s) and

measured by a data acquisition system whose

Hn1 ,n2 (s)

sampling period is Te = 1 s. Figure 8 represents

measured data.

5. APPLICATION TO A THERMAL PILOT Parameters a0 , a1 , b0 , b1 and n1 are estimated

using the Output-Error technique (with N = 30

After the validation in simulation of the model (2), cells, b = 105 rd/s and h = 105 rd/s in order

we want to show that it permits to improve the to simulate fractional integrators). Table 2 gives

time approximation of an experimental diffusive the obtained results using models (1) and (2).

interface.

The noise level is relatively important, which gives

the illusion that the two models give satisfactory

5.1 Description results. Nevertheless, we can verify that the model

(2) gives a better time approximation on all the

The system is a copper ball with 3 centimeters time area (figure 9). The used input was relatively

radius (see figure 7). A power transistor is placed poor: it is obvious that with a more exciting input,

Table 2. estimation of the thermal pilot REFERENCES

Parameters Hn (s) Hn1 ,n2 (s) Battaglia, J.L. (2002). Methodes didentification

a0 0.2058 0.0171 de modeles a derivees dordres non entiers

a1 - 0.3509 et de reduction modale. Application a la

b0 0.0013 1.08 104

b1 - 0.022

resolution de problemes thermiques inverses

n1 (n) 0.7736 0.7719 dans des systemes industriel. Habilitation a

Diriger des Recherches. Universite de Bor-

deaux I.

0.04 Benchellal, A., S. Bachir, T. Poinot and J.C.

0.035

y n 1 ,n 2 (t) Trigeassou (2004). Identification of a non-

y (t)

integer model of induction machines. In: Proc.

0.03

FDA04. Bordeaux, France. pp. 400407.

0.025

y n (t) Canat, S. and J. Faucher (2004). Modeling and

0.02 simulation of induction machine with frac-

0.015 tional derivative. In: Proc. FDA04. Bor-

0.01

deaux, France. pp. 393399.

Cois, O. (2002). Systemes lineaires non entiers et

0.005

identification par modele non entier : applica-

0

tion en thermique. These de Doctorat. Uni-

0.005

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 versite de Bordeaux I.

Time (s)

Khaorapapong, T. (2001). Modelisation dordre

non entier des effets de frequence dans les

Fig. 9. Measured and estimated output barres rotoriques dune machine asynchrone.

These de Doctorat. INP de Toulouse.

it will be possible to show the approximation Lin, J. (2001). Modelisation et identification

ability of this model with two integrators in the de systemes dordre non entier. These de

case of quick transients. Doctorat. Universite de Poitiers.

Lin, J., T. Poinot, J.C. Trigeassou and R. Ou-

vrard (2000). Parameter estimation of frac-

tional systems: application to the modeling

of a lead-acid battery. In: SYSID 2000. Santa

Barbara, USA.

6. CONCLUSION

Ljung, L. (1987). System identification - Theory

for the user. T. Kailath ed.. Prentice Hall.

In this paper, a contribution to the modelling Marquardt, D. W. (1963). An algorithm for least-

and the identification of diffusive interfaces by squares estimation of non-linear parameters.

fractional models has been presented. The objec- J. Soc. Industr. Appl. Math. 11(2), 431441.

tive was to improve the frequency approximation Montseny, G. (1998). Diffusive representation

of the model. In preceding work (Benchellal et of pseudo-differential time-operators. In:

al., 2004; Lin et al., 2000; Lin, 2001), the mod- Proc. Fractional Differential Systems: Mod-

elling of diffusive systems using non integer model, els, Methods and Applications. Vol. 5. Paris,

with the help of a fractional integrator operator, France. pp. 159175.

has shown its efficiency. Oustaloup, A. (1995). La derivation non entiere:

A theoretical approach showed that fractional theorie, synthese et applications. Hermes ed..

modelling should be able to reproduce the es- Paris.

sential characteristic of the diffusive phenomenon, Richalet, J., A. Rault and R. Pouliquen (1971).

i.e. that n = 0.5 then while taking into Identification des processus par la methode du

account of the phenomenon geometry. The major modele. Gordon and Breach ed.

problem is the frequency response of the diffusive Riu, D. and N. Retiere (2004). Implicit half-

interface and particularly its phase. The proposed order systems utilisation for diffusion phe-

solution in this paper consists to improve our pre- nomenon modelling. In: Proc. FDA04. Bor-

ceding work thanks to a model with two fractional deaux, France. pp. 387392.

integrators, with one integrator constrained to the Trigeassou, J.C., T. Poinot, J. Lin, A.Oustaloup

value 0.5. and F. Levron (1999). Modeling and identifi-

cation of a non integer order system. In: Proc.

A numerical simulation and an experiment on a ECC99, European Control Conference. Karl-

thermal pilot have permitted to validate the hy- sruhe, Germany.

pothesis linked to the model with two integrators.

New experiments will have to validate this first

results.

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