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The 26 dimensions of string theory

Why string theory?


What is string theory?
Why 26 dimensions?
A theory of everything
Quantum Gravity ?

General relativity

Statistical mechanics
Special relativity

No
Newtonian mechanics
n
Particle lin
ea
physics rd
yn
Solid state am
physics ics
Biology
Quantum mechanics
Quantization
Classical particle:
2
p
H V ( x) p(t), x(t)
2m

Quantum particle
2
P
H V (X ) <P(t)>, <X(t)>
2m
Quantization of fields
P2
H V (X ) <P(t)>, <X(t)>
2m

Maxwell equations:
2
X )
V ( )
q4( X <(X,t)>
q
For a point source at origin ( X )
|X|

For a constant electric field ( X ) E0 X
<>
Quantum Electro Dynamics
4
2
<(X,t)>

The self energy problem.


2 2
1 e

3
E = m0c 2
+ d r
8 |r | a
r 2

a 2
e- e
= m0c 2
+
2a

= mrc2
Quantum gravity


G=T <G>

G <T>

Self energy problem


Free particles

mX F
t0
1 2
L m X V ( X , t)
t 2

X (t )
Symmetries
Galilean group

1 2
L mX
2
Rotations: Boosts:
X Cos)X + Sin(Y X X - Vt

R1,R2,R3 [Ri,Rj]=ijkRk K1,K2,K3 [Ki,Kj]=

Translations:
XX+a
P1,P2,P3 [Pi,Pj]=0
Relativistic particle

X
2

m F
2


L mc X X V ( X )

x X()

y
t
Symmetries
Poincare group
+Diffeomorphism


L mc X X
Rotations: Boosts:
X Cos)X + Sin(Y X X Vt)

R1,R2,R3 [Ri,Rj]=ijkRk K1,K2,K3 [Ki,Kj]= ijkKk

Translations: Diffeomorphism:
XX+a f()
P1,P2,P3 [Pi,Pj]=0
Free string
Free particle: Free string:
1
L mc X X L Det (h)
2 '
1
S mc XX (

X,)
(, )) S
d
, Det (h) dd
2 '
S dl S dA
t

2 X 1 2 X
2 2
y
X X v X X
2

x h



X X X X
Symmetries
Poincare group
+Diffeomorphism
+Weyl

Rotations
Translations
1
Boosts L Det (h)
Diffeomorphism 2 '
Weyl
Quantum String
(light cone gauge)


X (,)
<X (,)>

a sin( k n ( v ) n ) n sin k n ( v ) n

n a

E <E>

J <J>


X
2
1 X2
2
2
v 2
String theory

Tachyon Tachyon

Photon
Graviton

Massive particle
a112|0>
b|0> |0> or a1a1|0>

M222 a
M a112|0>
b|0> =
== 0
= -1
|0>
|0> 01
S b 1|0>
2
S2 a |0> ==0 2
1
Quantum String
(light cone gauge)

[Pi,Pj]=0 [Ji,H]=0
D2
[Pi,H]=0 [Ki,Kj]=ifijkJk C 1
24
[Ji,Jj]=ifijkJk [Ki,Pj]=-iHij

[Ji,Pj]=ifijkPk [Ji,Kj]=ifijkKk

[H,H]=0 [Ki,H]=-iPi
Gauge symmetries
Maxwell equations Gauge symmetries

E 4
A A
B 0 Gauge fixing
1 B A 0
E 0 (Lorentz gauge)
c t
4 A 0 (Coulomb gauge)
B J
c
String equations Gauge fixing

X
2
1 X 2
2 X0+X1= (Light cone gauge)
2
v 2
Anomalies
Feynmans approach:

SS = S
~ t=tf

x x f
i tf
x f , tt=tf 0


xi , ti Exp L( x(t ), t )dt
x x0
t 0
Dx(t )

?
Dx(t)Dx(t) = Dx(t)
String theory

String theory is a consistent theory of


gravitons.

The dimension of space time is fixed by a


quantum anomaly.
D=26
Possibilities
String theory is incorrect.

26 (10) dimensions

???
Fin