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- Concrete Mix Design
- Lafarge The Production of extended cements & the impact on concrete Durability
- 20150340-water-tank-design.pdf
- Cement Industry
- Construction Materials in civil engineering
- Potential Use of Binary and Composite Limestone Cements in Concrete
- Building Construction (SKAT)
- ACI 506.2-13 - Specification for Shotcrete.pdf
- IJIRSE140909
- 120620_TS_DR
- ACI 523.3R-14 Guide for Cellular Concretes Above 50 Lbft3 80
- Capital Budgeting
- NIST Technical Note 1783 - Measurement Science Needs for the Expanded Use of Green Concrete, 2013
- Sulfate Data
- Concrete Construction
- Concrete Repair
- Physical and Chemical Properties of Rice Husk Ash and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag- A Review
- 83-r19
- Introduction Concrete
- Division 3 Specs Writting

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My Notes

Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

I. RELATED DEFINITION

Aggregate

A granular material, such as sand, gravel, crushed stone and iron-blast furnace slag, and

when used with a cementing medium forms a hydraulic cement concrete or mortar.

Balanced Design

A design so proportioned that the maximum stresses in concrete (with strain of 0.003) and

steel (with strain of fy/Es) are reached simultaneously once the ultimate load is reached,

causing them to fail simultaneously.

Cementitious materials

Materials with cementing value when used in concrete either by themselves, such as

Portland cement, blended hydraulic cement, or such materials in combination with fly ash,

raw or other calcined natural pozzolans, silica fume, or ground granulated blast-furnace slag.

Concrete

Mixture of water, cement, sand, gravel, crushed rock, or other aggregates.

Dead Load

Loads of constant magnitude that remains in one position.

Design

The determination of general shape and all specific dimensions of a particular structure so

that it will perform the function for which it is created and will safely withstand the influences

that will act on it throughout its useful life.

Combination of factored loads and forces.

Design Strength

The nominal strength multiplied by a strength-reduction factor, .

The distance measured from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement.

The reinforcement (prestressed or nonprestressed) that is the farthest from the extreme

compression fiber.

Live Load

Loads that may change in magnitude and position.

Modulus of Elasticity

The ratio of normal stress to corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses below

proportional limit of material.

Nominal Strength

The strength of a member or cross section calculated in accordance with provisions and

assumptions of the strength design method before application of any strength-reduction

factors.

A design in which the steel reinforcement is more than what is required for balanced design.

1

Structural

My Notes

Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

Plain concrete

Structural concrete with no reinforcement or with less reinforcement than the minimum

amount specified for reinforced concrete.

Reinforced concrete

Concrete in which reinforcing bars or other types of reinforcement have been integrated to

improve one or more properties of concrete.

Required Strength

The strength of a member or cross section required to resist factored loads or related internal

moments and forces.

Stress

The intensity of force per unit area.

The compressive strength of concrete used in design of reinforced concrete members in

MPa.

A design in which the steel reinforcement is lesser than what is required for balanced design.

Water

Used in mixing concrete that should be clean and free from injurious amounts of oils, acids,

alkalis, salts, organic materials, or other substances that may be deleterious to concrete or

reinforcement.

1. Workability and consistency to permit concrete to be worked readily into form and around

reinforcement under conditions of placement to be employed without segregation or excessive

bleeding.

2. Resistance to special exposures.

3. Conformance with strength test requirement.

The basic components of concrete are cement, water and aggregates (sand and gravel). Cement and

water form a paste that fills the space between the aggregates and binds them together. Chapter 3 of

the ACI Code and Section 403 of Nationals Structural Code of the Philippines (2010) contains the

minimum requirements for these components and other materials that are commonly used in

concrete.

Cementitious Materials

Specifications for Blended Hydraulic Cements (ASTM C595-07)

Specifications for Expansive Hydraulic Cements (ASTM C845-04)

Specifications for Hydraulic Cements (ASTM C1157-03)

2

Structural

My Notes

Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

Fly ash and natural pozzolans (ASTM C618-05)

Groundgranulated blast-furnace slag (ASTM C989-06)

Silica fume (ASTM C1240-05)

The eight different types of Portland cement referenced in ASTM C150 and their typical applications

are summarized below.

Type I normal General purpose cement commonly used in all types of structures

Type IA normal, air-entraining Used in the same structures as Type I where air entrainment is desired

Type II moderate sulfate resistance General purpose cement used in structures where protection against moderate

sulfate attack is important or where moderate heat of hydration is desired.

Type IIA moderate sulfate Used in the same structures as Type II where air entrainment is desired

resistance, air-entraining

Type III high early strength Used in structures where high early strength of the concrete is desired or where

structures must be put into service quickly

Type IIIA high early strength, air- Used in the same structures as Type III where air entrainment is desired

entraining

Type IV low heat of hydration Used in structures where a low heat of hydration is required, such as massive

concrete structures like dams

Type V high sulfate resistance Used in structures where high sulfate resistance is required, such as elements in

direct contact with soils or ground waters that have high sulfate content

Aggregates

Concrete aggregates shall conform to one of the following specifications:

Standard Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for Structural Concrete (ASTM C330-05)

The nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate shall not be larger than:

1. One fifth (1/5) the narrowest dimension between sides of forms; or

2. One third (1/3) the depth of slab; or

3. Three fourths (3/4) the minimum clear spacing between individual reinforcing bars or wires,

bundles of bars, or prestressing tendons or ducts.

Water

In general, water that is drinkable can usually be used for making concrete. Acceptance criteria for

water used as mixing water in concrete can be found in ASTM C94/C94M-06, Standard Specification

for Ready-mixed Concrete and ASTM C1602/C1602M-06, Standard Specification for Mixing Water

Used in Production of Hydraulic Cement Concrete.

NSCP C101-10 states that water used in mixing concrete shall be clean and free from injurious

amount of oils, acids, alkalis, salts, organic materials or other substances deleterious to concrete or

reinforcement.

Admixtures

Admixtures are ingredients other than cement, aggregates, and water that are added to concrete mix

immediately before or during mixing. Reducing the cost of concrete construction, economically

3

Structural

My Notes

Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

achieving desired properties in concrete, and maintaining the quality of concrete during mixing,

transporting, placing, and curing are a few reasons why admixtures are used in concrete.

The following are brief descriptions of some common admixtures:

Air-entraining admixtures. These admixtures purposely introduce microscopic air bubbles in

concrete to improve its durability when exposed to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. They also

increase resistance to scaling due to exposure to deicing chemicals and improve the

workability of fresh concrete.

Superplasticizers. These high-range water reducers that can greatly reduce water demand

and cement content without sacrificing workability. Using a water reducer can also lead to

accelerated strength development of the concrete; this permits formworks to be reduced

earlier and, thus, reduced overall construction time.

Corrosion inhibitors. These are usually in parking structures, marine structures, and other

structures exposed to chlorides, which can cause corrosion of steel reinforcement in

concrete.

Concrete Testing

Slump Test standard method in determining the relative consistency of concrete.

Procedure in conducting Slump Test:

1. A standard slump cone is filled in three layers, rodding each layer 25 times.

2. The concrete is smoothed off at the top of the cone.

3. The cone is then lifted vertically, permitting the concrete to slump downward.

4. Measure the distance between the original and final surface of the concrete (slump).

Slump, in (mm)

Type of Construction Max Min

Reinforced foundation, walls and footings 5 (127) 2 (51)

Plain footing and caissons 4 (102) 1 (25)

Slabs, beams and reinforced walls 6 (152) 3 (76)

Building columns 6 (152) 3 (76)

Pavements 3 (76) 2 (51)

Heavy mass construction 3 (76) 1 (25)

Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete

Concrete has no definite modulus of elasticity

For concrete whose weight is between 1500 and 2500 kg/m 3

Ec = wc1.50.043

4

Structural

My Notes

Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

For normal weight concrete

Ec = 4700

Values of Modulus of Elasticity for Normal Weight of Concrete:

fc (MPa) Ec (MPa)

20.7 21 760

24.1 23 503

27.6 25 130

31.0 26 650

34.5 28 030

Compressive Strength

S28 = S7 + 2.5(S7)0.5

Where:

S28 28 day compressive, MPa

S7 7 day compressive strength, MPa

Required average compressive strength fcr used as basis for selection of concrete proportions shall

be the larger of equations

fc 35 MPa

fcr = fc + 1.34Ss

fcr = fc + 2.33Ss 3.5

fc > 35 MPa

fcr = fc + 1.34Ss

fcr = 0.90fc + 2.33Ss

Modification factor for standard deviation when less than 30 tests are available

Number of Test Modification Factor for Standard Deviation

Less than 15 Use Table 405-2

15 1.16

20 1.08

25 1.03

30 1.0

5

Structural

My Notes

Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

Table 405-2 Required Average Compressive Strength When Data are Not Available to Establish a

Standard Deviation

Required Average Compressive Strength,

fcr (MPa)

Specified Compressive Strength, fc (MPa)

Less than 21 MPa fc + 7.0

21 fc 35 fc + 8.3

Over 35 1.1fc + 5.0

Sect 405.7.3.3 Strength level of an individual class of concrete shall be considered satisfactory if both

the following requirements are met:

1. Every arithmetic average of any three consecutive strength test equals or exceeds fc

2. No individual strength test (average of two cylinders) falls below fc by more than 3.5 MPa,

when fc is 35 MPa or less; or by more than 0.10fc when fc is more than 35 MPa.

Strength Test the average strength of two cylinders made from the same sample of concrete and

tested at 28 days or at test age designated for determination of fc.

Steel Reinforcement

Reinforcement shall be deformed reinforcement, except that plain reinforcement shall be permitted for

spirals or prestressing steels.

Test on rebars is guided by Philippine National Standard (PNS) PNS 49:1991 Steel Bars for

Concrete Reinforcement Specification by the Bureau of Product Standard covering the following

grades of steel rebars

275

415 Hot rolled steel rebars

Sect 421.3.5 Reinforcement in Special Moment Frames and Special Structural Walls

Deformed reinforcement resisting earthquake induced flexural and axial forces in frame members,

structural walls, and coupling beams, shall comply with ASTM A706M, ASTM A615M Grades 280 and

420 reinforcement shall be permitted in these members if:

1. The actual yield strength based on mill tests does not exceeds the specified yield strength by

more than 125 MPa; and

2. The ratio of the actual ultimate tensile strength to the actual tensile yield strength is not less

than 1.25.

6

Structural

My Notes

Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

Nominal Dimensions and Unit Mass (PNS 49:2001)

Nominal Cross-

Nominal Diameter Nominal Perimeter Sectional Area Unit Mass

(mm) (mm) (mm2) (kg/m)

10 (9.5) 31.7 78.54 (79) 0.617 (0.618)

12 (12.7) 37.7 113.10 (113) 0.888 (0.890)

16 (15.9) 50.3 201.06 (201) 1.578 (1.580)

20 (19.1) 62.8 314.16 (314) 2.466 (2.465)

25 (25.4) 78.6 490.88 (491) 3.853 (3.851)

28 (28.7) 88.6 615.75 (616) 4.834 (4.831)

32 (32.3) 100.5 804.25 (804) 6.313 (6.310)

36 (35.8) 113.1 1017.88 (1019) 7.990 (7.986)

40 125.7 1256.64 9.865

50 157.1 1963.50 15.413

Cast in Place Concrete Minimum Cover (mm)

1. Concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth 75

2. Concrete exposed to earth or weather

20 36 mm 50

16 and smaller 40

3. Concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground

a. Slab, walls, joist

42 and 58 mm bars 40

36 mm bar and smaller 20

b. Beams and Columns

Primary reinforcement, ties, stirrups, spirals 40

c. Shells, folded plate members

20 mm bar and larger 20

16 mm bar and smaller 12

Loads

Forces or other actions that result from the weight of all building materials, occupants and their

possession, environmental effects, differential movements, and restrained dimensional changes.

Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over time are rare or of small magnitude. All

other loads are variable loads.

Dead Loads consists of the weight of all materials and fixed equipment incorporated into the

building or other structure.

Live Loads are those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structure

and do not include dead loads, construction load, or environmental load such as wind load,

earthquake and fluid load.

7

Structural

My Notes

Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

Required Strength (Load Combinations)

U = 1.4(D + F)

U = 1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or R)

U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or R) + (1.0L + 0.80W)

U = 1.2D + 1.6W + 1.0L + 0.5(Lr or R)

U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L

U = 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.0L

U = 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H

Where:

D Dead loads

F load due to weight and pressures of fluids

T cumulative effects of temperature, creep, shrinkage, differential settlement and

shrinkage compensating concrete

L live load

H weight and pressure of soil

Lr roof live loads

W wind load

E earthquake load

= Eh + Ev

Strength Condition Strength Reduction Factor

Tension-controlled section 0.90

Compression-controlled section

Members with spiral reinforcement 0.70

Other reinforced members 0.65

Shear and torsion 0.75

Bearing on concrete 0.65

Post-tensioned anchorage zones 0.85

Strut-and-tie models 0.75

Design the determination of general shape and all specific dimensions of a particular structure so

that it will perform the function for which it is created and will safely withstand the influences

that will act on it throughout its useful life.

1. The internal forces, such as bending moments, shear forces, and normal and shear stresses, at

any section of a member are in equilibrium with the effects of the external loads at that section.

2. The strain in an embedded reinforcing bar is the same as that of surrounding concrete.

3. Cross sections that were plane prior to loading continue to be plane in the member under load.

4. Concrete is assumed not capable of resisting any tension stress.

5. The theory is based on the actual-stress-strain relationship and strength properties of the two

constituent materials

8

Structural

My Notes

Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

Assumptions in Strength Design in Flexure:

1. Strain in reinforcement and concrete shall be assumed directly proportional to the distance from

the neutral axis.

2. Maximum usable strain at extreme concrete compression fiber, c shall be assumed equal to

0.003.

3. For fs below fy, fs shall be taken as Es x s. For fs > fy, fs = fy.

4. Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in axial and flexural calculations.

5. Relationship between compressive stress distribution and concrete strain may be assumed

rectangular, trapezoidal, parabolic, or any other form that results in prediction of strength in

substantial agreement with results of compressive tests.

6. For rectangular distribution of stress;

a. Concrete stress of 0.85fc shall be assumed uniformly distributed over an equivalent

compression zone bounded by an edges of the cross-section and a straight line located

parallel to the neutral axis at a distance of a = 1c from the fiber of maximum compressive

strain.

b. Distance c from the fiber of maximum strain to the neutral axis shall be measured in the

direction perpendicular to neutral axis (N.A.).

c. Factor 1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths fc for 17 MPa up to 28 MPa. For

strength above 28 MPa, 1 shall be reduced linearly at a rate of 0.05 for each 7 MPa of

strength in excess of 28 MPa, but 1 shall not be less than 0.65

1 = 0.85 for fc = 17 to 28 MPa

1 = 0.85 0.05(fc-28)/7 for fc > 28 MPa

= 0.85 0.007(fc 28)

But not less than 0.65.

9

Structural

My Notes

Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

(Singly-Reinforced Beams)

Figure 1

a = 1c

where:

1 = 0.85 for fc 28 MPa (Sect 410.3.7.3)

( 28)

= 0.85 0.05 for fc > 28 MPa

7

FH = 0

From Stress Diagram

C =T

0.85fc ab = Asfy

Solving for a:

a= Eq. 1

0.85

a= =

0.85 0.85

Let

= (ratio of steel reinforcement) Eq.2

10

Structural

My Notes

Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

a= Eq.3

0.85

Let =

Eq.3 becomes

a= Eq.4

0.85

Mn = C(d ) = 0.85fcab(d )

2 2

Substituting Eq. 4 in the above equation

1

Mn = 0.85fc b(d )

0.85 2 0.85

Mn = fcbd2(1 0.59) Eq.5

Mu = Mn (where = 0.90 for tension controlled section)

R = fc(1 0.59) Eq. 7

Thus,

Mu = Rbd2 Eq. 8

Solving in Eq. 7 and replacing it with fy/fc, yields the following formula for steel ratio

0.85 2

= [1 1 0.85 ] Eq. 9

In balanced condition, the concrete and steel yields simultaneously. The strain in concrete reached its

maximum usable value of 0.003 while the strain in steel is fy/Es, where Es = 200,000MPa.

11

Structural

My Notes

Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

Figure 2

n

By ratio and proportion in the triangle shown above, the balance can be derive as

0.85 1 600

b = Eq. 10

600+

Section 410.4.5 For nonprestressed flexural members and nonprestressed members with factored

axial compressive load less than 0.10fcAg, at nominal strength shall not be less than 0.004.

Sectio 410.6.1 At every section of a flexural member where tensile reinforcement is required, As

provided shall not be less than

Asmin = b wd

4

and not less than 1.4bw d/fy.

12

Structural

My Notes

Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

Solved Problems

Problem 1

Select a rectangular beam size and required reinforcement As to carry the following service load

moment:

Dead Load 85 kN-m

Live Load 52 kN-m

Seismic 25 kN-m

Reliability/Redundancy factor 1.2

Near Source Factor Na 1.0

Importance Factor 1.0

Seismic Coefficient Ca 0.4Na

Given

Loading:

Dead load moment, D 85 kN-m

Live load moment, L 52 kN-M

Seismic Moment, Eh 25 kN-m

Reliability/Redundancy factor, 1.2

Near Source Factor, Na 1.0

Importance Factor, I 1.0

Seismic Coefficient, Ca 0.4Na

Material Strength:

Compressive strength of concrete, fc 27.6 MPa

Yield strength of steel, fy 414 MPa

Beam Section:

d/b 2

Required

Beam size and reinforcement

Solution

Load combinations:

U = 1.2D + 1.6L (LC1)

U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L (LC2)

For LC2, E = Eh + Ev

Where: Ev = 0.5CaID

Ev = 0.5(0.4x1.0) (1.0) D = 0.2D

E = 1.2Eh + 0.2D

U = 1.2D + 1.0(1.2Eh + 0.2D) + 1.0L

13

Structural

My Notes

Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

LC2a Mu = 1.4(85) + 1.2(25) + 1.0(52) = 201 kN-m

Solve for Coefficient of Resistance, R

R = fc(1-0.59)

Where = assume = 0.5b

0.85f c1 600

= 0.5

fy(600+fy)

0.85(27.6)(0.85)(600)

= 0.5 = 0.0143

414(600+414)

0.0143(414)

= = 0.2145

27.6

From

Mu = bd2R and b=d/2

Solving for d;

3 2 3 2(201106 )

d= = 0.9(5.17)

= 442.1 mm

442.1

b = = 221.1 mm say 250 mm

2

Solving for total depth H; assuming stirrup diameter = 10mm, bar dia = 25 mm

H = d + cover + dbs + db/2

H = 442.1 + 40 + 10 + 25/2

H = 504.6 mm say 550 mm

14

Structural

My Notes

Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

Number of 25 bars, N; area of 25 bar, Ab = 491 mm2

1398

N= = = 2.85 pcs say 3 pcs

491

S = max(25, db) = 25 mm

b = 2(40) + 2(10) + 2(25) + 3(25) = 225 mm < 250 mm

a=

0.85

3(491)(414)

0.85c = ; c = 122.3 mm and a = 104 mm

0.85(27.6)(250)

487.5122.3

fs = 600 = 600 = 1792 MPa > 1000 MPa ( = 0.9)

c 122.3

Steel yields. Assumption is correct.

Mu = 239.1 kN-m

Or

Mu = T(d a/2) = 0.9(3)(491)(414) )(487.5 104/2) = 239.0 kN-m > 201 kN-m Safe!

Design Sketch

15

Structural

My Notes

Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

Problem 2

A rectangular concrete beam has a width 300 mm and an effective depth of 500 mm, As = 4-32mm.

Assume fc = 34.5 MPa and fy = 414 MPa. Calculate the ultimate moment capacity of the beam.

Given

Material Strength:

Compressive strength of concrete, fc 34.5 MPa

Yield strength of steel, fy 414 MPa

Beam Section:

Beam width, b 300 mm

Beam effective depth, d 500 mm

Required

Ultimate moment capacity, Mu

Solution

Ab = 804 mm2 (for 32mm diameter bars)

As = 4(804) = 3216 mm 2

Assuming steel yields (fs = fy):

a=

0.85

(3216)(414)

1c =

0.85(34.5)(300)

Since fc > 28 MPa, 1 = 0.85 0.007(fc 28) but not less than 0.65

500188

fs = 600 = 600 = 995.7 MPa 1000 MPa ( = 0.9)

c 188

Steel yields. Assumption is correct.

Mu = 508.4 kN-m

Or

Mu = T(d a/2) = 0.9(3216)(414) )(500 151.3/2) = 508.5 kN-m

16

Structural

My Notes

Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

Problem 3

Determine the ultimate moment capacity of the beam shown in KN-m if fc = 27.6 MPa and fy =

414 MPa

Given

Material Strength:

Compressive strength of concrete, fc 27.6 MPa

Yield strength of steel, fy 414 MPa

Beam Section:

Beam width, b 350 mm

Beam effective depth, d 520 mm

Required

Ultimate moment capacity, Mu

Solution

As2 = 4(491) = 1964 mm 2 (for 25mm diameter bars)

Total steel area, As = 3216 + 1964 = 5180 mm 2

Assuming steel (As1 & As2) yields (fs = fy):

a=

0.85

(5180)(414)

a= = 261.2 mm c = 307.3 mm

0.85(27.6)(350)

520307.3

fs1 = 600 = 600 = 415.3 MPa > 414 MPa steel yields

c 307.3

60 52060307.3

fs2 = 600 = 600 = 298.1 MPa < 414 MPa steel does not yield

c 307.3

Revise assumption. As1 yields, As2 does not yield

52060

0.85(27.6)(0.85c)(350) = 3216(414) + 1964(600)

c

c = 289.9 mm a = 246.4 mm

17

Structural

My Notes

Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

520289.9

fs1 = 600 = 600 = 476.2 MPa > 414 MPa steel yields

c 289.9

60 52060289.9

fs2 = 600 = 600 = 269.3 MPa < 414 MPa steel does not yield

c 289.9

Assumption is correct.

250

Reduction factor, = 0.65 + ( 0.002) = 0.683

3

Mu = [Cc(d a/2) T2(db)]=

Mu = 0.683[(0.85)(27.6)(246.4)(350)(520 246.4/2) 1964(269.3)(60)]

Mu = 526.6 kN-m

18

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