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Structural

My Notes
Engineers Design of Concrete Structure
I. RELATED DEFINITION

Aggregate
A granular material, such as sand, gravel, crushed stone and iron-blast furnace slag, and
when used with a cementing medium forms a hydraulic cement concrete or mortar.

Balanced Design
A design so proportioned that the maximum stresses in concrete (with strain of 0.003) and
steel (with strain of fy/Es) are reached simultaneously once the ultimate load is reached,
causing them to fail simultaneously.

Cementitious materials
Materials with cementing value when used in concrete either by themselves, such as
Portland cement, blended hydraulic cement, or such materials in combination with fly ash,
raw or other calcined natural pozzolans, silica fume, or ground granulated blast-furnace slag.

Concrete
Mixture of water, cement, sand, gravel, crushed rock, or other aggregates.

Dead Load
Loads of constant magnitude that remains in one position.

Design
The determination of general shape and all specific dimensions of a particular structure so
that it will perform the function for which it is created and will safely withstand the influences
that will act on it throughout its useful life.

Design Load Combinations


Combination of factored loads and forces.

Design Strength
The nominal strength multiplied by a strength-reduction factor, .

Effective Depth of Section, d


The distance measured from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement.

Extreme Tension Steel


The reinforcement (prestressed or nonprestressed) that is the farthest from the extreme
compression fiber.

Live Load
Loads that may change in magnitude and position.

Modulus of Elasticity
The ratio of normal stress to corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses below
proportional limit of material.

Nominal Strength
The strength of a member or cross section calculated in accordance with provisions and
assumptions of the strength design method before application of any strength-reduction
factors.

Over Reinforced Design


A design in which the steel reinforcement is more than what is required for balanced design.

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Structural
My Notes
Engineers Design of Concrete Structure
Plain concrete
Structural concrete with no reinforcement or with less reinforcement than the minimum
amount specified for reinforced concrete.

Reinforced concrete
Concrete in which reinforcing bars or other types of reinforcement have been integrated to
improve one or more properties of concrete.

Required Strength
The strength of a member or cross section required to resist factored loads or related internal
moments and forces.

Stress
The intensity of force per unit area.

Specified Compressive Strength of Concrete, fc


The compressive strength of concrete used in design of reinforced concrete members in
MPa.

Under Reinforced Design


A design in which the steel reinforcement is lesser than what is required for balanced design.

Water
Used in mixing concrete that should be clean and free from injurious amounts of oils, acids,
alkalis, salts, organic materials, or other substances that may be deleterious to concrete or
reinforcement.

Concrete Proportion (NSCP Section 405.3)

Proportions of materials for concrete shall be established by:


1. Workability and consistency to permit concrete to be worked readily into form and around
reinforcement under conditions of placement to be employed without segregation or excessive
bleeding.
2. Resistance to special exposures.
3. Conformance with strength test requirement.

Basic Components of Concrete


The basic components of concrete are cement, water and aggregates (sand and gravel). Cement and
water form a paste that fills the space between the aggregates and binds them together. Chapter 3 of
the ACI Code and Section 403 of Nationals Structural Code of the Philippines (2010) contains the
minimum requirements for these components and other materials that are commonly used in
concrete.

Cementitious Materials

Cement shall conform to one of the following specifications:

Specifications for Portland Cement (ASTM C150-05)


Specifications for Blended Hydraulic Cements (ASTM C595-07)
Specifications for Expansive Hydraulic Cements (ASTM C845-04)
Specifications for Hydraulic Cements (ASTM C1157-03)

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Structural
My Notes
Engineers Design of Concrete Structure
Fly ash and natural pozzolans (ASTM C618-05)
Groundgranulated blast-furnace slag (ASTM C989-06)
Silica fume (ASTM C1240-05)
The eight different types of Portland cement referenced in ASTM C150 and their typical applications
are summarized below.

Cement Type Application


Type I normal General purpose cement commonly used in all types of structures
Type IA normal, air-entraining Used in the same structures as Type I where air entrainment is desired
Type II moderate sulfate resistance General purpose cement used in structures where protection against moderate
sulfate attack is important or where moderate heat of hydration is desired.
Type IIA moderate sulfate Used in the same structures as Type II where air entrainment is desired
resistance, air-entraining
Type III high early strength Used in structures where high early strength of the concrete is desired or where
structures must be put into service quickly
Type IIIA high early strength, air- Used in the same structures as Type III where air entrainment is desired
entraining
Type IV low heat of hydration Used in structures where a low heat of hydration is required, such as massive
concrete structures like dams
Type V high sulfate resistance Used in structures where high sulfate resistance is required, such as elements in
direct contact with soils or ground waters that have high sulfate content

Aggregates
Concrete aggregates shall conform to one of the following specifications:

Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates (ASTM C33-03) Normal-weight


Standard Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for Structural Concrete (ASTM C330-05)

The nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate shall not be larger than:
1. One fifth (1/5) the narrowest dimension between sides of forms; or
2. One third (1/3) the depth of slab; or
3. Three fourths (3/4) the minimum clear spacing between individual reinforcing bars or wires,
bundles of bars, or prestressing tendons or ducts.

Water
In general, water that is drinkable can usually be used for making concrete. Acceptance criteria for
water used as mixing water in concrete can be found in ASTM C94/C94M-06, Standard Specification
for Ready-mixed Concrete and ASTM C1602/C1602M-06, Standard Specification for Mixing Water
Used in Production of Hydraulic Cement Concrete.
NSCP C101-10 states that water used in mixing concrete shall be clean and free from injurious
amount of oils, acids, alkalis, salts, organic materials or other substances deleterious to concrete or
reinforcement.

Admixtures
Admixtures are ingredients other than cement, aggregates, and water that are added to concrete mix
immediately before or during mixing. Reducing the cost of concrete construction, economically

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Structural
My Notes
Engineers Design of Concrete Structure
achieving desired properties in concrete, and maintaining the quality of concrete during mixing,
transporting, placing, and curing are a few reasons why admixtures are used in concrete.
The following are brief descriptions of some common admixtures:
Air-entraining admixtures. These admixtures purposely introduce microscopic air bubbles in
concrete to improve its durability when exposed to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. They also
increase resistance to scaling due to exposure to deicing chemicals and improve the
workability of fresh concrete.
Superplasticizers. These high-range water reducers that can greatly reduce water demand
and cement content without sacrificing workability. Using a water reducer can also lead to
accelerated strength development of the concrete; this permits formworks to be reduced
earlier and, thus, reduced overall construction time.
Corrosion inhibitors. These are usually in parking structures, marine structures, and other
structures exposed to chlorides, which can cause corrosion of steel reinforcement in
concrete.

Concrete Testing
Slump Test standard method in determining the relative consistency of concrete.
Procedure in conducting Slump Test:
1. A standard slump cone is filled in three layers, rodding each layer 25 times.
2. The concrete is smoothed off at the top of the cone.
3. The cone is then lifted vertically, permitting the concrete to slump downward.
4. Measure the distance between the original and final surface of the concrete (slump).

Recommended Slump for Various Types of Construction


Slump, in (mm)
Type of Construction Max Min
Reinforced foundation, walls and footings 5 (127) 2 (51)
Plain footing and caissons 4 (102) 1 (25)
Slabs, beams and reinforced walls 6 (152) 3 (76)
Building columns 6 (152) 3 (76)
Pavements 3 (76) 2 (51)
Heavy mass construction 3 (76) 1 (25)

Mechanical Properties of Concrete


Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete
Concrete has no definite modulus of elasticity
For concrete whose weight is between 1500 and 2500 kg/m 3

Ec = wc1.50.043

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Structural
My Notes
Engineers Design of Concrete Structure
For normal weight concrete

Ec = 4700
Values of Modulus of Elasticity for Normal Weight of Concrete:
fc (MPa) Ec (MPa)
20.7 21 760
24.1 23 503
27.6 25 130
31.0 26 650
34.5 28 030

Compressive Strength
S28 = S7 + 2.5(S7)0.5

Where:
S28 28 day compressive, MPa
S7 7 day compressive strength, MPa

Required Average Strength (Sect 405.4.2)


Required average compressive strength fcr used as basis for selection of concrete proportions shall
be the larger of equations
fc 35 MPa
fcr = fc + 1.34Ss
fcr = fc + 2.33Ss 3.5

fc > 35 MPa
fcr = fc + 1.34Ss
fcr = 0.90fc + 2.33Ss

Modification factor for standard deviation when less than 30 tests are available
Number of Test Modification Factor for Standard Deviation
Less than 15 Use Table 405-2
15 1.16
20 1.08
25 1.03
30 1.0

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Structural
My Notes
Engineers Design of Concrete Structure
Table 405-2 Required Average Compressive Strength When Data are Not Available to Establish a
Standard Deviation
Required Average Compressive Strength,
fcr (MPa)
Specified Compressive Strength, fc (MPa)
Less than 21 MPa fc + 7.0
21 fc 35 fc + 8.3
Over 35 1.1fc + 5.0

Evaluation and Acceptance of Concrete (Sect 405.7) for laboratory-cured Specimen


Sect 405.7.3.3 Strength level of an individual class of concrete shall be considered satisfactory if both
the following requirements are met:
1. Every arithmetic average of any three consecutive strength test equals or exceeds fc
2. No individual strength test (average of two cylinders) falls below fc by more than 3.5 MPa,
when fc is 35 MPa or less; or by more than 0.10fc when fc is more than 35 MPa.

Strength Test the average strength of two cylinders made from the same sample of concrete and
tested at 28 days or at test age designated for determination of fc.

Steel Reinforcement
Reinforcement shall be deformed reinforcement, except that plain reinforcement shall be permitted for
spirals or prestressing steels.

Test on rebars is guided by Philippine National Standard (PNS) PNS 49:1991 Steel Bars for
Concrete Reinforcement Specification by the Bureau of Product Standard covering the following
grades of steel rebars

Grade 230 For both weldable and non-weldable


275
415 Hot rolled steel rebars

Sect 421.3.5 Reinforcement in Special Moment Frames and Special Structural Walls

Deformed reinforcement resisting earthquake induced flexural and axial forces in frame members,
structural walls, and coupling beams, shall comply with ASTM A706M, ASTM A615M Grades 280 and
420 reinforcement shall be permitted in these members if:

1. The actual yield strength based on mill tests does not exceeds the specified yield strength by
more than 125 MPa; and

2. The ratio of the actual ultimate tensile strength to the actual tensile yield strength is not less
than 1.25.

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Structural
My Notes
Engineers Design of Concrete Structure
Nominal Dimensions and Unit Mass (PNS 49:2001)
Nominal Cross-
Nominal Diameter Nominal Perimeter Sectional Area Unit Mass
(mm) (mm) (mm2) (kg/m)
10 (9.5) 31.7 78.54 (79) 0.617 (0.618)
12 (12.7) 37.7 113.10 (113) 0.888 (0.890)
16 (15.9) 50.3 201.06 (201) 1.578 (1.580)
20 (19.1) 62.8 314.16 (314) 2.466 (2.465)
25 (25.4) 78.6 490.88 (491) 3.853 (3.851)
28 (28.7) 88.6 615.75 (616) 4.834 (4.831)
32 (32.3) 100.5 804.25 (804) 6.313 (6.310)
36 (35.8) 113.1 1017.88 (1019) 7.990 (7.986)
40 125.7 1256.64 9.865
50 157.1 1963.50 15.413

Concrete Protection for Reinforcement (Concrete Cover)


Cast in Place Concrete Minimum Cover (mm)
1. Concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth 75
2. Concrete exposed to earth or weather
20 36 mm 50
16 and smaller 40
3. Concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground
a. Slab, walls, joist
42 and 58 mm bars 40
36 mm bar and smaller 20
b. Beams and Columns
Primary reinforcement, ties, stirrups, spirals 40
c. Shells, folded plate members
20 mm bar and larger 20
16 mm bar and smaller 12

Loads

Forces or other actions that result from the weight of all building materials, occupants and their
possession, environmental effects, differential movements, and restrained dimensional changes.
Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over time are rare or of small magnitude. All
other loads are variable loads.

Dead Loads consists of the weight of all materials and fixed equipment incorporated into the
building or other structure.

Live Loads are those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structure
and do not include dead loads, construction load, or environmental load such as wind load,
earthquake and fluid load.

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Structural
My Notes
Engineers Design of Concrete Structure
Required Strength (Load Combinations)

U = 1.4(D + F)
U = 1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or R)
U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or R) + (1.0L + 0.80W)
U = 1.2D + 1.6W + 1.0L + 0.5(Lr or R)
U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L
U = 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.0L
U = 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H

Where:
D Dead loads
F load due to weight and pressures of fluids
T cumulative effects of temperature, creep, shrinkage, differential settlement and
shrinkage compensating concrete
L live load
H weight and pressure of soil
Lr roof live loads
W wind load
E earthquake load
= Eh + Ev

Strength Reduction Factors (Sect 409.4.2)



Strength Condition Strength Reduction Factor
Tension-controlled section 0.90
Compression-controlled section
Members with spiral reinforcement 0.70
Other reinforced members 0.65
Shear and torsion 0.75
Bearing on concrete 0.65
Post-tensioned anchorage zones 0.85
Strut-and-tie models 0.75

Fundamental Assumptions for Reinforced Concrete Behavior:

Design the determination of general shape and all specific dimensions of a particular structure so
that it will perform the function for which it is created and will safely withstand the influences
that will act on it throughout its useful life.

1. The internal forces, such as bending moments, shear forces, and normal and shear stresses, at
any section of a member are in equilibrium with the effects of the external loads at that section.
2. The strain in an embedded reinforcing bar is the same as that of surrounding concrete.
3. Cross sections that were plane prior to loading continue to be plane in the member under load.
4. Concrete is assumed not capable of resisting any tension stress.
5. The theory is based on the actual-stress-strain relationship and strength properties of the two
constituent materials

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Structural
My Notes
Engineers Design of Concrete Structure
Assumptions in Strength Design in Flexure:
1. Strain in reinforcement and concrete shall be assumed directly proportional to the distance from
the neutral axis.
2. Maximum usable strain at extreme concrete compression fiber, c shall be assumed equal to
0.003.
3. For fs below fy, fs shall be taken as Es x s. For fs > fy, fs = fy.
4. Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in axial and flexural calculations.
5. Relationship between compressive stress distribution and concrete strain may be assumed
rectangular, trapezoidal, parabolic, or any other form that results in prediction of strength in
substantial agreement with results of compressive tests.
6. For rectangular distribution of stress;
a. Concrete stress of 0.85fc shall be assumed uniformly distributed over an equivalent
compression zone bounded by an edges of the cross-section and a straight line located
parallel to the neutral axis at a distance of a = 1c from the fiber of maximum compressive
strain.
b. Distance c from the fiber of maximum strain to the neutral axis shall be measured in the
direction perpendicular to neutral axis (N.A.).
c. Factor 1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths fc for 17 MPa up to 28 MPa. For
strength above 28 MPa, 1 shall be reduced linearly at a rate of 0.05 for each 7 MPa of
strength in excess of 28 MPa, but 1 shall not be less than 0.65
1 = 0.85 for fc = 17 to 28 MPa
1 = 0.85 0.05(fc-28)/7 for fc > 28 MPa
= 0.85 0.007(fc 28)
But not less than 0.65.

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Structural
My Notes
Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

RECTANGULAR BEAM REINFORCED FOR TENSION ONLY


(Singly-Reinforced Beams)

Figure 1
a = 1c
where:
1 = 0.85 for fc 28 MPa (Sect 410.3.7.3)
( 28)
= 0.85 0.05 for fc > 28 MPa
7

FH = 0
From Stress Diagram
C =T
0.85fc ab = Asfy
Solving for a:


a= Eq. 1
0.85

Multiplying Eq. 1 by d/d


a= =
0.85 0.85
Let

= (ratio of steel reinforcement) Eq.2

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Structural
My Notes
Engineers Design of Concrete Structure


a= Eq.3
0.85

Let =

Eq.3 becomes

a= Eq.4
0.85

From the stress diagram in Figure 1, the nominal moment capacity, Mn is



Mn = C(d ) = 0.85fcab(d )
2 2
Substituting Eq. 4 in the above equation

1
Mn = 0.85fc b(d )
0.85 2 0.85
Mn = fcbd2(1 0.59) Eq.5

The ultimate moment capacity, Mu is given by


Mu = Mn (where = 0.90 for tension controlled section)

Mu = fcbd2(1 0.59) Eq. 6

Let the Coefficient of Resistance, R


R = fc(1 0.59) Eq. 7
Thus,
Mu = Rbd2 Eq. 8

Solving in Eq. 7 and replacing it with fy/fc, yields the following formula for steel ratio

0.85 2
= [1 1 0.85 ] Eq. 9

Balanced Steel Ratio


In balanced condition, the concrete and steel yields simultaneously. The strain in concrete reached its
maximum usable value of 0.003 while the strain in steel is fy/Es, where Es = 200,000MPa.

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Structural
My Notes
Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

Figure 2
n
By ratio and proportion in the triangle shown above, the balance can be derive as

0.85 1 600
b = Eq. 10
600+

MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM STEEL RATIO


Section 410.4.5 For nonprestressed flexural members and nonprestressed members with factored
axial compressive load less than 0.10fcAg, at nominal strength shall not be less than 0.004.

Sectio 410.6.1 At every section of a flexural member where tensile reinforcement is required, As
provided shall not be less than


Asmin = b wd
4
and not less than 1.4bw d/fy.

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Structural
My Notes
Engineers Design of Concrete Structure
Solved Problems
Problem 1
Select a rectangular beam size and required reinforcement As to carry the following service load
moment:
Dead Load 85 kN-m
Live Load 52 kN-m
Seismic 25 kN-m
Reliability/Redundancy factor 1.2
Near Source Factor Na 1.0
Importance Factor 1.0
Seismic Coefficient Ca 0.4Na

Use d/b = 2.0, fc = 27.6 MPa and fy = 414 MPa.


Given
Loading:
Dead load moment, D 85 kN-m
Live load moment, L 52 kN-M
Seismic Moment, Eh 25 kN-m
Reliability/Redundancy factor, 1.2
Near Source Factor, Na 1.0
Importance Factor, I 1.0
Seismic Coefficient, Ca 0.4Na

Material Strength:
Compressive strength of concrete, fc 27.6 MPa
Yield strength of steel, fy 414 MPa

Beam Section:
d/b 2

Required
Beam size and reinforcement

Solution

Load combinations:
U = 1.2D + 1.6L (LC1)
U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L (LC2)

For LC2, E = Eh + Ev

Where: Ev = 0.5CaID
Ev = 0.5(0.4x1.0) (1.0) D = 0.2D

E = 1.2Eh + 0.2D

Substituting to LC2, the modified combination is


U = 1.2D + 1.0(1.2Eh + 0.2D) + 1.0L

U = 1.4D + 1.2Eh + 1.0L (LC2a)

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Structural
My Notes
Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

Solving for design moments from available load combinations

LC1 Mu = 1.2(85) + 1.6(52) = 185.2 kN-m


LC2a Mu = 1.4(85) + 1.2(25) + 1.0(52) = 201 kN-m

Use Mu = 201 kN-m

Required size of beam:


Solve for Coefficient of Resistance, R
R = fc(1-0.59)

Where = assume = 0.5b

0.85f c1 600
= 0.5
fy(600+fy)

Since fc = 27.6 MPa < 28 MPa, 1 = 0.85


0.85(27.6)(0.85)(600)
= 0.5 = 0.0143
414(600+414)

0.0143(414)
= = 0.2145
27.6

R = 27.6(0.2145)[1 0.59(0.2145)] = 5.17 MPa

From
Mu = bd2R and b=d/2

Solving for d;

3 2 3 2(201106 )
d= = 0.9(5.17)
= 442.1 mm

442.1
b = = 221.1 mm say 250 mm
2

Solving for total depth H; assuming stirrup diameter = 10mm, bar dia = 25 mm
H = d + cover + dbs + db/2
H = 442.1 + 40 + 10 + 25/2
H = 504.6 mm say 550 mm

Try 250 x 550 beam

Effective depth, d = 550 40 10 25/2 = 487.5 mm

Required beam reinforcement

Solve for As;

As = bd = 0.0143(221.1) (442.1) = 1398.0 mm 2

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Structural
My Notes
Engineers Design of Concrete Structure
Number of 25 bars, N; area of 25 bar, Ab = 491 mm2

1398
N= = = 2.85 pcs say 3 pcs
491

Check required beam width of 3 25 bars:

b = 2Cover + 2 dbs + 2S + 3db


S = max(25, db) = 25 mm
b = 2(40) + 2(10) + 2(25) + 3(25) = 225 mm < 250 mm

Therefore, 3 25 can be arranged in 1-layer.

Verify beam capacity

Location of neutral axis, c: assume steel yields (fs = fy)


a=
0.85

3(491)(414)
0.85c = ; c = 122.3 mm and a = 104 mm
0.85(27.6)(250)

Check for steel stress, fs:

487.5122.3
fs = 600 = 600 = 1792 MPa > 1000 MPa ( = 0.9)
c 122.3
Steel yields. Assumption is correct.

Mu = Cc(d a/2) = 0.9(0.85)(27.6)(104)(250)(487.5 104/2)


Mu = 239.1 kN-m
Or
Mu = T(d a/2) = 0.9(3)(491)(414) )(487.5 104/2) = 239.0 kN-m > 201 kN-m Safe!

Design Sketch

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Structural
My Notes
Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

Problem 2
A rectangular concrete beam has a width 300 mm and an effective depth of 500 mm, As = 4-32mm.
Assume fc = 34.5 MPa and fy = 414 MPa. Calculate the ultimate moment capacity of the beam.
Given

Material Strength:
Compressive strength of concrete, fc 34.5 MPa
Yield strength of steel, fy 414 MPa

Beam Section:
Beam width, b 300 mm
Beam effective depth, d 500 mm

Steel Reinforcement: 332

Required
Ultimate moment capacity, Mu

Solution
Ab = 804 mm2 (for 32mm diameter bars)
As = 4(804) = 3216 mm 2
Assuming steel yields (fs = fy):

a=
0.85

(3216)(414)
1c =
0.85(34.5)(300)

Since fc > 28 MPa, 1 = 0.85 0.007(fc 28) but not less than 0.65

1 = 0.85 0.007(34.5 28) = 0.805 > 0.65

Use 1 = 0.805 and substitute in above equation

c = 188 mm and a = 151.3 mm

Check for steel stress, fs:

500188
fs = 600 = 600 = 995.7 MPa 1000 MPa ( = 0.9)
c 188
Steel yields. Assumption is correct.

Mu = Cc(d a/2) = 0.9(0.85)(34.5)(151.3)(300)(500 151.3/2)


Mu = 508.4 kN-m
Or
Mu = T(d a/2) = 0.9(3216)(414) )(500 151.3/2) = 508.5 kN-m

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Structural
My Notes
Engineers Design of Concrete Structure
Problem 3
Determine the ultimate moment capacity of the beam shown in KN-m if fc = 27.6 MPa and fy =
414 MPa

Given

Material Strength:
Compressive strength of concrete, fc 27.6 MPa
Yield strength of steel, fy 414 MPa

Beam Section:
Beam width, b 350 mm
Beam effective depth, d 520 mm

Steel Reinforcement 425/332

Required
Ultimate moment capacity, Mu

Solution

As1 = 4(804) = 3216 mm 2 (for 32mm diameter bars)


As2 = 4(491) = 1964 mm 2 (for 25mm diameter bars)
Total steel area, As = 3216 + 1964 = 5180 mm 2
Assuming steel (As1 & As2) yields (fs = fy):

a=
0.85

(5180)(414)
a= = 261.2 mm c = 307.3 mm
0.85(27.6)(350)

Check for steel stresses, fs1 and fs2:


520307.3
fs1 = 600 = 600 = 415.3 MPa > 414 MPa steel yields
c 307.3

60 52060307.3
fs2 = 600 = 600 = 298.1 MPa < 414 MPa steel does not yield
c 307.3
Revise assumption. As1 yields, As2 does not yield
52060
0.85(27.6)(0.85c)(350) = 3216(414) + 1964(600)
c
c = 289.9 mm a = 246.4 mm

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Structural
My Notes
Engineers Design of Concrete Structure

Check for steel stresses, fs1 and fs2:


520289.9
fs1 = 600 = 600 = 476.2 MPa > 414 MPa steel yields
c 289.9

60 52060289.9
fs2 = 600 = 600 = 269.3 MPa < 414 MPa steel does not yield
c 289.9
Assumption is correct.

For fs1 = 476.2 MPa, = 0.0024


250
Reduction factor, = 0.65 + ( 0.002) = 0.683
3
Mu = [Cc(d a/2) T2(db)]=
Mu = 0.683[(0.85)(27.6)(246.4)(350)(520 246.4/2) 1964(269.3)(60)]
Mu = 526.6 kN-m

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