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PTD M SP/5510.80/M
Erlangen, 20.01.2005

Damping resistor against relaxion oscillations (ferro-resonance)

In three-phase systems, the residual voltage windings (da-dn winding) 1 of inductive voltage
transformers (VT) are connected in broken delta for the purpose of attaching a resistor for
damping relaxation oscillations.

L1
L2
L3
a a a

n n n
da da da

dn dn dn max. I
RD
110 V

typical values I : 4 / 6 / 8 A

1. Default values of resistors


The table lists customary values of damping resistors. The selection is the result which follows
the thermal limiting output (or rated long-duration current) of the da-dn winding of the voltage
transformer.

da-dn winding of the voltage transformer Damping resistor


2
Thermal limiting output Rated long duration current
75 W 4A 25 Ohm / 500 W
100 W 6A 25 Ohm / 500 W
3
150 W 8A 12,5 Ohm / 1 kW

If these default values do not match the requirements, other values can be calculated.

2. Calculation of the damping resistance


The damping resistance can be calculated with the data given by the nameplate of the voltage
transformer.
Data: Rated thermal limiting out put Ssr for 8 h
Rated voltage Usr of the da-dn winding (formerly e-n winding )
Demanded: smallest value of the damping resistance RD
Heat dissipation (thermal rating) of the damping resistor

1
Formerly also the term e-n winding was used.
2
The term rated long duration current still is commonly used, but replaced by rated thermal limiting output in the
current edition of the VT standard. Both terms describe the same issue.
3
Two resis tors 25 Ohm in parallel connection.

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The damping resistance has to match the requirement that neither the resistor nor the voltage
transformer is overloaded, also under earth fault conditions.

3. Symbols and indices


U Voltage D Damping
S Apparent power r Rated value
P Active power s secondary
R Resistance V Power dissipation

4. Normal, undisturbed service


Voltage at the terminals of a single da-dn winding: U2 = Usr (rated voltage)
100
Example: Rated secondary voltage U 2r = V
3
Voltage at the broken delta: U = 0 V, symmetrical, undisturbed service

System voltage Voltage at the da-dn winding


L2 L3 3
UL V
/3

UL1
0
10
Undisturbed service
UL
2

L1 Uda-dn = 0 V

L2 L3
)V
0/3
(10 Ue
3
L
3
Service with 1,1 Ue
L2
Ue

L 3
Ue

earth fault in L1
L2

110 V
L1 da dn

5. Service under earth fault condition


Values at the terminals of a single da-dn winding:

[F1] Voltage U se = 1,1 3 U sr = 1,9 U sr Factors:


1,1 Voltage factor
S at fault location
[F2] Current I se = 1,9 I sr = 1,9 sr
U sr 3 Earth-fault factor
4
1,9 Rated voltage factor
[F3] Apparent power S se = U se I se = 1,9 S sr
2
1,9 = 1,1 x 3

4
Rated voltage factor: multiple of the rated primary voltage at which the VT must comply with the relevant thermal
requirements for a specified time and with the relevant accuracy requirements.

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F2: with constant load resistance the 1,9-times voltage during earth fault causes a 1,9-times
current through the winding.
The rated thermal limiting output S2r relates to undisturbed, normal service. S2r is a rated value,
however, does not represent the actual load carrying capacity of the winding! In fact, the
residual voltage winding (da-dn winding) can be loaded with 3,6-times the rated thermal limiting
output over 8 hours.

Values at the terminals of the broken delta:

[F4] Voltage ( )
U = 3 1,1 3 U sr = 3,3 U sr Typical value for Usr:
100
3
V

S sr
[F5] Apparent power S = 3,3 U sr 1,9 = 6,3 S sr
U sr
[F6] Current I = I se Maximum permissible value

6. Damping resistor
The value of the resistance is calculated by [F4] and [F5]:
U 2 U sr2
[F7] Resistance RD = 3
S S sr RD and PV are the
minimum permissible

[F8] Power dissipation PV


(3,3 U sr )2 values

RD

7. Worked sample
Data give on the nameplate of the voltage transformer:
- rated secondary voltage of the residual voltage winding Usr 100 V / 3
- rated thermal limiting output Ssr 100 VA
( corresponds to the former rated long duration current 6A)
=> Damping resistance RD (according to F7) 19,2
Power dissipation PV (according to F8) 630 W |19,2

Usually, for example a 25-Ohm-resistor is used, load carrying capacity 500 W (or higher).

8. Sources
- Documents by Peter Dorsch and Dr. Kerstin Kunde
- IEC 60044-2

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