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International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 02 76

Numerical Solution of The Korteweg de Vries Equation

Jamrud Aminuddin, Lecturer, Physics UNSOED, and Sehah, Lecturer, Physics UNSOED

Abstract The dynamics of solitary waves is modeled by Sehah is with Program Study of Physics, Faculty of Science and
Engineering, University of Jenderal Soedirman, Jl. dr. Suparno 61 Karangwangkal,
the Korteweg de Vries (KdV) equation. In this work, we seek Purwokerto 53123, INDONESIA. E-mail: sehah@telkom.net/ sehah@unsoed.ac.id
the solution of the KdV equation no perturbation term. We
start by discreetizing the KdV equation using the finite
1
difference method. The discreet form of the KdV equation is 3 sech 2 0 (2)
put into a matrix form. The solution the of matrix is 2
determined using the Gauss-Jordan method. The plot of the set
of the numerical solution shows a wave envelope, which Where and is the speed, which is propotional to
represents the dynamics of the solitary wave. As the wave amplitude. Equation (2) is an exact solution of the KdV equation
envelope (, ) moves away, its amplitude () is found to be representation a non dispersive travelling wave packet , , .
distorted after a certain period of time ( ). This distortion Using some random numbers as input values of speed (), initial
indicates that such a wave packet is not stable. wave packet( , and wave length, computation in MATLAB 7.0
results in some graphical plots (Fig.1 to Fig.6). It can be seen from
Index Terms Solitary waves, Korteweg de Vries, Finite the figures that the height of the packet increases with speed. To
difference, Gauss-Jordan. determine whether it is in fact a soliton requires further evaluation
of the KdV equation that includes time as a parameter. It has
I. INTRODUCTION
been achieved by numerical calculation.
The dynamical model of solitary waves can be represented by
the Korteweg de Vries (KdV) equation , , . Its
characteristic is determined by modifying the perturbaration term
of the KdV equation .
The numerical method which can be used to determined the
solution of the KdV equation is the finite difference method. This
method can minimize the truncation error in the Taylor series. Its
evaluation is done iteratively to make computer programming
convenient. The compulation is accomplished using MATLAB
7.0 due to its simplicity in data computing. It also enable 3-
dimensional data visualization conveniently done,.

The KdV equation is a nonlinear, dispersive, non dissipative

equation which has soliton solutions. The mathematical form of Fig.1. wave packet with parameter: 1, 0 200, and 400.
the equation is third order nonlinier partial deifferential equation
, , .

t x xxx (1)

The solution of the equation (1) are obtained by assuming an

ansatz , . This ansatz is representation of wave packet (())
as a function of range () in secant hyperbolic from which treats
time( ) as constant (APPENDIX A).

J. Aminuddin is with Program Study of Physics, Faculty of Science and

Engineering, University of Jenderal Soedirman, Jl. dr. Suparno 61 Karangwangkal,
Purwokerto 53123, INDONESIA. E-mail: jamrud_uh96@yahoo.com /
jamrud.aminuddin@unsoed.ac.id

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International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 02 77

Fig. 6 Wave packet with parameter: 1, 0 400, and 800.

Fig. 3. Wave packet with parameter: 2, 0 200, and 400.
t

n 1 m, n 1

n
m 1, n m, n m 1, n m 2, n
t

n 1
m, n 1

x
m 1 m m 1
x
Fig. 4 Wave packet with parameter: 2, 0 400, and 800. Fig. 7 Implicit scheme of the finite difference methods

The numerical solution of the KdV equation is determined by

using the implicit scheme Of the finite difference method, the
grid of which is shown in fig. 7, , . The first step in
disceetizing the KdV is by constructing the equation into a
simple difference form.

3 (3)
0,
x 3
x t

m 2,n 3m1,n 3m,n m1,n m1,n m,n m,n m,n 1 (4)

0.
3, 0 200, and 400. x t
3
Fig. 5 Wave packet with parameter: x

m 2,n 3m1,n 3m,n m1,n

(5)
x3
x 2 m1,n m,n m,n m,n1 0.
t

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To make equation (5) appears simple in the next step and are IV. THE NUMERICAL SOLUTION IN GRAPHICAL
defined respectively as , and . Hence, REPRESENTATIONS

The numerical solution of the KdV equation is found by

m 2,n 3 m1,n 3m ,n m 1,n 2m 1,n
(6) determining the values of in equation (8) as some wave

2 m 1,n m ,n m ,n 1 0 packets. In the matrix, there are two elements which pair up with

one another, i.e. and , where the former
Equation (6) is solved iteratively in ascending order from index depends on the later as the numerical solution of the KdV
to . equation. In this calculation, the -index as a number of column
of both elements increases with time . Thus, these wave packets

0,n 3 2 1,n 3 2 2,n 3, n 1, n 1 are calculated with time parameter t varying.

To determine their values the Gauss-Jordan methods are used by
1,n 3 2 2,n 3 2 3, n 4,n 2,n 1
assuming equation (20) as the ansatz function for the initial

2,n 3 2 3,n 3 2 4, n 5,n 3, n 1
(7) condition, except for , which is chosen to be 0, (APPENDIX

B).

3,n 3 2 4, n 3 2 5,n 6, n 4, n 1
The constant parameters used in this calculation are
and . By inserting some random numbers in
4,n 3 2 5,n 3 6,n 7,n 5, n 1
2

the variables of speed , initial wave packet , wavelength

, and time in MATLAB 7.0, some graphical
M 1,n 3 2 M , n 3 2 M 1, n M 2,n M ,n 1
representations are produced (Fig.8 Fig.13). The surface
graphics in the figures depict that the significant changes of wave
These equations constitutes a system of equations, called packet occurs due to time parameter. The series of
iteration formulas, of the KdV equation formulated from its non
graphics shows that the amplitude of envelope wave distorts
linear differential equation from ,,,. These iteration
after a long period of time. These solutions have the same
formulas in equation (7) were expressed in matrix for
charecteristics as those in references , , and .

3 2 3
2
1 0 0

1 3 2 2 3 1

0 1 3 2 2 3 0

1

0 0 1 3 2 2 3

1, n
1, n 1 0,n

2, n 2, n 1

Fig. 8. Wave packet with parameter: 1, 0 200, 400, and t 2.

3,n 3,n 1 (8)

M , n 1
M ,n

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Fig. 9. Wave packet with parameter: 1, 400, 800, and t 2.

Fig. 12. Wave packet with parameter: 2, 0 200, 400, and t 4.
0

Fig. 13. Wave packet with parameter: 2, 0 200, 400, and t 2.

Fig. 10. Wave packet with parameter: 2, 200, 400, and
0
t 3.
APPENDIX A:
ANSATZ FUNCTION

The first step to determine the ansatz function is by writing

parameter of the KdV equation.

t x xxx (9)

In the form

x, t x t (10)

Where is speed parameter. Based on the ansatz in equation

(10), equation (9) can be written in the form

' ' " ' 0 (11)

Fig. 11. Wave packet with parameter: 2, 400, 800, and
0
t 3.
Equation (11) is integrated to yield
V. CONCLUSION
1 (12)
2 " A
According to this modeling, the wave envelope ( , t) 2
is found to propagates with its amplitude () distorted. This Where A is an undetermined constant. By expressing
distortion gives evidence that, after a certain period of time (t),
the wave packet is unstable. The distortion is notably small for 1 d ' 2 d d 1 (13)
' ' " "
wider range of time. 2 d d d '
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Equation (13) can be represented in the form 1,1 1, 2 1,3 1,n

2,n
1 d ' 2 1 2,1 2, 2 2,3
2 A (14) 3,1 3, 2 3,3 3, n B
2 d 2

Parameter in equation (14) is integrated to result in m,1 m, 2 m,3 m,n

1 2 1 1
' 2 3 A B (15)
1,1 1, 2 1,3 1,n

2 2 6

(21)
2,1

2,3

2,n
Where B is a new undetermined constant. By using some 2, 2
C
boundary conditions, i.e: , ' ," 0 to , A 0 in 3,1 3, 2 3, 3 3, n

equation (12), B 0 in equation (13) and

m,2

m ,3

m ,n
m ,1
1
'2 2 (16)
3
The Gauss-Jordan algorithm to find the solution matrix can
Also, by including be done by determining the diagonal elements of matrix A as the
pivot, and then divide all of the rows parallel to the pivot. This
d d (17)
3 procedure makes the diagonal has elements with the value of 1.
3
Subsequently, all of the columns within the pivot are used as an
eliminator by multiplying all elements parallel to the eliminator
Then by using the ansatz
by all elements parallel with to pivot that has the value 1. The
3 sec h 2 (18) results are used to subtract all elements parallel to the pivot.
Their past result are put on the eliminator row. This procedure
And the algebraic principle will make the element in the pivot row has the value of 0. When
this procedure is continued to the next row within the pivot
2 2 (19)

0 d column, it will make all columns within the pivot have 0 values.

These calculation are proceeded for all elements in the A matrix
It is obtained that such that all columns have 0 values except for the pivot, which
has the value of 0. As a results, the A matrix will become an
1 (20) identity matrix. Correspondingly, Bs elements will change.
3 sec h 2 3 0
2 Based on the rule of matrix multiplication, it will be found that A
= B. Thus, matrix B is the solution of the system of linear
APPENDIX B: GAUSS-JORDAN METHODS
The Gauss-Jordan method is an algorithm to solve a system equations.
of linear equations in its matrix representation such that the
solution in found when the matrix becomes an identity matrix. 1 0 0 0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,n
0 1 2,2 2,3 2,n
From equation (8), a matrix can be arranged with assumptions 2,1
0,n 0 and M m . The index n runs from n 1 to n N for 0 0 3,1 3,2 3,3 3,n

the left matrix and from n 0 to n n for the right one. Then, 1 0

0 0 0 1 m ,1 m,2 m,3 m,n (22)
equation (8) can be written in the form:
1,1
*
1,2
*
1,3
*
1,* n
*
3 3 1 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,* n
2 2
0 0
* *

1 3,1
*
3,2
*
3,3
*
3,* n
0 0
A
1
* m* ,2 m* ,3 m* ,n
2 3 m,1

0 0 1 3 2

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT . Kataoka T and M. Tsutahara, 2004, Tranverse Instability of

surface Solitary Wave, J. fluid. Mech. 512, 211-221,
We thank the Directorate General of Higher Education, Ministry Cambridge University, USA.
of National Education Republic of Indonesia for its support in
our research by its grant, namely HIBAH PEKERTI. . Li Y and F. Raichlen, 2002, Non-Breaking and Breaking
Solitary Wave Run-Up, J. fluid. Mech., 456, 295-318,
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Hasanuddin University (UNHAS) Makassar, INDONESIA. He
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York, USA.

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