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Jamrud Aminuddin, Lecturer, Physics UNSOED, and Sehah, Lecturer, Physics UNSOED

Abstract The dynamics of solitary waves is modeled by Sehah is with Program Study of Physics, Faculty of Science and

Engineering, University of Jenderal Soedirman, Jl. dr. Suparno 61 Karangwangkal,

the Korteweg de Vries (KdV) equation. In this work, we seek Purwokerto 53123, INDONESIA. E-mail: sehah@telkom.net/ sehah@unsoed.ac.id

the solution of the KdV equation no perturbation term. We

start by discreetizing the KdV equation using the finite

1

difference method. The discreet form of the KdV equation is 3 sech 2 0 (2)

put into a matrix form. The solution the of matrix is 2

determined using the Gauss-Jordan method. The plot of the set

of the numerical solution shows a wave envelope, which Where and is the speed, which is propotional to

represents the dynamics of the solitary wave. As the wave amplitude. Equation (2) is an exact solution of the KdV equation

envelope (, ) moves away, its amplitude () is found to be representation a non dispersive travelling wave packet [3], [8], [9].

distorted after a certain period of time ( ). This distortion Using some random numbers as input values of speed (), initial

indicates that such a wave packet is not stable. wave packet( , and wave length, computation in MATLAB 7.0

results in some graphical plots (Fig.1 to Fig.6). It can be seen from

Index Terms Solitary waves, Korteweg de Vries, Finite the figures that the height of the packet increases with speed. To

difference, Gauss-Jordan. determine whether it is in fact a soliton requires further evaluation

of the KdV equation that includes time as a parameter. It has

I. INTRODUCTION

been achieved by numerical calculation.

The dynamical model of solitary waves can be represented by

the Korteweg de Vries (KdV) equation [1], [2], [3]. Its

characteristic is determined by modifying the perturbaration term

of the KdV equation [4].

The numerical method which can be used to determined the

solution of the KdV equation is the finite difference method. This

method can minimize the truncation error in the Taylor series. Its

evaluation is done iteratively to make computer programming

convenient[5]. The compulation is accomplished using MATLAB

7.0 due to its simplicity in data computing. It also enable 3-

dimensional data visualization conveniently done[6],[7].

equation which has soliton solutions. The mathematical form of Fig.1. wave packet with parameter: 1, 0 200, and 400.

the equation is third order nonlinier partial deifferential equation

[1], [4], [8].

t x xxx (1)

ansatz [9], [10]. This ansatz is representation of wave packet (())

as a function of range () in secant hyperbolic from which treats

time( ) as constant (APPENDIX A).

Engineering, University of Jenderal Soedirman, Jl. dr. Suparno 61 Karangwangkal,

Purwokerto 53123, INDONESIA. E-mail: jamrud_uh96@yahoo.com /

jamrud.aminuddin@unsoed.ac.id

IJENS

International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 02 77

Fig. 3. Wave packet with parameter: 2, 0 200, and 400.

t

n 1 m, n 1

n

m 1, n m, n m 1, n m 2, n

t

n 1

m, n 1

x

m 1 m m 1

x

Fig. 4 Wave packet with parameter: 2, 0 400, and 800. Fig. 7 Implicit scheme of the finite difference methods

using the implicit scheme Of the finite difference method, the

grid of which is shown in fig. 7[5], [8], [11]. The first step in

disceetizing the KdV is by constructing the equation into a

simple difference form.

3 (3)

0,

x 3

x t

0.

3, 0 200, and 400. x t

3

Fig. 5 Wave packet with parameter: x

(5)

x3

x 2 m1,n m,n m,n m,n1 0.

t

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International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 02 78

To make equation (5) appears simple in the next step and are IV. THE NUMERICAL SOLUTION IN GRAPHICAL

defined respectively as , and . Hence, REPRESENTATIONS

m 2,n 3 m1,n 3m ,n m 1,n 2m 1,n

(6) determining the values of in equation (8) as some wave

2 m 1,n m ,n m ,n 1 0 packets. In the matrix, there are two elements which pair up with

one another, i.e. and , where the former

Equation (6) is solved iteratively in ascending order from index depends on the later as the numerical solution of the KdV

to . equation. In this calculation, the -index as a number of column

of both elements increases with time . Thus, these wave packets

0,n 3 2 1,n 3 2 2,n 3, n 1, n 1 are calculated with time parameter t varying.

To determine their values the Gauss-Jordan methods are used by

1,n 3 2 2,n 3 2 3, n 4,n 2,n 1

assuming equation (20) as the ansatz function for the initial

2,n 3 2 3,n 3 2 4, n 5,n 3, n 1

(7) condition, except for , which is chosen to be 0, (APPENDIX

B).

3,n 3 2 4, n 3 2 5,n 6, n 4, n 1

The constant parameters used in this calculation are

and . By inserting some random numbers in

4,n 3 2 5,n 3 6,n 7,n 5, n 1

2

the variables of speed , initial wave packet , wavelength

, and time in MATLAB 7.0, some graphical

M 1,n 3 2 M , n 3 2 M 1, n M 2,n M ,n 1

representations are produced (Fig.8 Fig.13). The surface

graphics in the figures depict that the significant changes of wave

These equations constitutes a system of equations, called packet occurs due to time parameter. The series of

iteration formulas, of the KdV equation formulated from its non

graphics shows that the amplitude of envelope wave distorts

linear differential equation from [5],[6],[7],[10]. These iteration

after a long period of time. These solutions have the same

formulas in equation (7) were expressed in matrix for

charecteristics as those in references [2], [5], and [10].

3 2 3

2

1 0 0

1 3 2 2 3 1

0 1 3 2 2 3 0

1

0 0 1 3 2 2 3

1, n

1, n 1 0,n

2, n 2, n 1

Fig. 8. Wave packet with parameter: 1, 0 200, 400, and t 2.

3,n 3,n 1 (8)

M , n 1

M ,n

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International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 02 79

Fig. 12. Wave packet with parameter: 2, 0 200, 400, and t 4.

0

Fig. 10. Wave packet with parameter: 2, 200, 400, and

0

t 3.

APPENDIX A:

ANSATZ FUNCTION

parameter of the KdV equation.

t x xxx (9)

In the form

x, t x t (10)

(10), equation (9) can be written in the form

Fig. 11. Wave packet with parameter: 2, 400, 800, and

0

t 3.

Equation (11) is integrated to yield

V. CONCLUSION

1 (12)

2 " A

According to this modeling, the wave envelope ( , t) 2

is found to propagates with its amplitude () distorted. This Where A is an undetermined constant. By expressing

distortion gives evidence that, after a certain period of time (t),

the wave packet is unstable. The distortion is notably small for 1 d ' 2 d d 1 (13)

' ' " "

wider range of time. 2 d d d '

114502-9292 IJBAS-IJENS April 2011 IJENS

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International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 02 80

2,n

1 d ' 2 1 2,1 2, 2 2,3

2 A (14) 3,1 3, 2 3,3 3, n B

2 d 2

Parameter in equation (14) is integrated to result in m,1 m, 2 m,3 m,n

1 2 1 1

' 2 3 A B (15)

1,1 1, 2 1,3 1,n

2 2 6

(21)

2,1

2,3

2,n

Where B is a new undetermined constant. By using some 2, 2

C

boundary conditions, i.e: , ' ," 0 to , A 0 in 3,1 3, 2 3, 3 3, n

equation (12), B 0 in equation (13) and

m,2

m ,3

m ,n

m ,1

1

'2 2 (16)

3

The Gauss-Jordan algorithm to find the solution matrix can

Also, by including be done by determining the diagonal elements of matrix A as the

pivot, and then divide all of the rows parallel to the pivot. This

d d (17)

3 procedure makes the diagonal has elements with the value of 1.

3

Subsequently, all of the columns within the pivot are used as an

eliminator by multiplying all elements parallel to the eliminator

Then by using the ansatz

by all elements parallel with to pivot that has the value 1. The

3 sec h 2 (18) results are used to subtract all elements parallel to the pivot.

Their past result are put on the eliminator row. This procedure

And the algebraic principle will make the element in the pivot row has the value of 0. When

this procedure is continued to the next row within the pivot

2 2 (19)

0 d column, it will make all columns within the pivot have 0 values.

These calculation are proceeded for all elements in the A matrix

It is obtained that such that all columns have 0 values except for the pivot, which

has the value of 0. As a results, the A matrix will become an

1 (20) identity matrix. Correspondingly, Bs elements will change.

3 sec h 2 3 0

2 Based on the rule of matrix multiplication, it will be found that A

= B. Thus, matrix B is the solution of the system of linear

APPENDIX B: GAUSS-JORDAN METHODS

The Gauss-Jordan method is an algorithm to solve a system equations.

of linear equations in its matrix representation such that the

solution in found when the matrix becomes an identity matrix. 1 0 0 0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,n

0 1 2,2 2,3 2,n

From equation (8), a matrix can be arranged with assumptions 2,1

0,n 0 and M m . The index n runs from n 1 to n N for 0 0 3,1 3,2 3,3 3,n

the left matrix and from n 0 to n n for the right one. Then, 1 0

0 0 0 1 m ,1 m,2 m,3 m,n (22)

equation (8) can be written in the form:

1,1

*

1,2

*

1,3

*

1,* n

*

3 3 1 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,* n

2 2

0 0

* *

1 3,1

*

3,2

*

3,3

*

3,* n

0 0

A

1

* m* ,2 m* ,3 m* ,n

2 3 m,1

0 0 1 3 2

IJENS

International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 02 81

surface Solitary Wave, J. fluid. Mech. 512, 211-221,

We thank the Directorate General of Higher Education, Ministry Cambridge University, USA.

of National Education Republic of Indonesia for its support in

our research by its grant, namely HIBAH PEKERTI. [10]. Li Y and F. Raichlen, 2002, Non-Breaking and Breaking

Solitary Wave Run-Up, J. fluid. Mech., 456, 295-318,

REFERENCES Cambridge University, USA.

[1]. Lamb JGL, 1980, Elements on soliton theory, John Wiley & [11]. Aminuddin J. and FP. Zen, 2006, Application of Finite

Sons, Inc, New York, USA. Difference Methods for Solving Nonlinear Schrdinger

Equation, Workshop on Theoretical Physics and 70th

[2]. Malfiet W, 1992, Solitary wave Solutions of Nonlinear Wave

Birthday of Prof.Muslim, UGM, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Equation, Am. J. Phys. 60, 650. USA.

Jamrud Aminuddin was born in Kasambang, West Sulawesi,

[3]. Johnson RS, 1994, Solitary wave, solution and shelf

INDONESIA on June 11, 1977. He graduated from Department

evolution over variable depth, J. fluid. Mech. 276, 125-138,

of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science,

Cambridge University, USA.

Hasanuddin University (UNHAS) Makassar, INDONESIA. He

[4]. Soewono E, Andonowati, SR. Pudjaprasetya, HJ. Wospakrik. has studied in advance to get his master degree at Department of

dan FP. Zen., 2000, Soliton and Other Solution Related to the Physics faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Institute

Korteweg de Vries Equation, Proc. ITB Vol. 32, No. 2, Technology of Bandung (ITB), INDONESIA. Now, his position

Bandung, Indonesia. as a lecturer in Physics Study Program, Faculty of Science and

Engineering, Jenderal Soedirman University (UNSOED),

[5]. PirozzoliS, 2007, Performance Analysis and Optimization of Purwokerto, INDONESIA.

Finite Difference Scheme for Wave Propagation Problem, J.

Comp. Phys, Vol. 222, 809-831. Sehah was born in Rembang, Jawa Tengah, INDONESIA on

August 6, 1971. He graduated from Department of Faculty

[6]. Martha LA and PB. James, 1992, Mathematica by Example, Mathematics and Natural Science, Diponegoro University

Academic Press. Inc, San Diego, USA. (UNDIP) Semarang, INDONESIA. He has studied in advance to

get his a master degree at Department of Physics faculty of

[7]. Lindfield G. and J. Penny, 1995, Numerical Methods Using Mathematics and Natural Science, Gadjah Mada University

MATLAB, Ellis Horwood Limited, New York, USA. (UGM), Yogyakarta, INDONESIA. Now, his position as a

lecturer in Physics Study Program, Faculty of Science and

[8]. Jose VG and JS. Eugene, 2002, Clasical Dynamics: a

Engineering, Jenderal Soedirman University (UNSOED),

contemporary approach, Cambridge University Press, New

Purwokerto, INDONESIA.

York, USA.

IJENS

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