You are on page 1of 25

com
LECTURE NOTES OF
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICSIII (Sub Code: MAT31)
www.allsyllabus.com
COURSE CONTENT

1) Numerical Analysis
2) Fourier Series
3) Fourier Transforms & Z-transforms
4) Partial Differential Equations
5) Linear Algebra
6) Calculus of Variations

om
Text Book:
Higher Engineering Mathematics by
Dr. B.S.Grewal (36th Edition 2002)
Khanna Publishers,New Delhi

.c
Reference Book:

s
E. Kreyszig (8th Edition 2001)
John Wiley & Sons, INC. New York
bu
FOURIER SERIES
la
Dr.A.T.Eswara
yl

Department of Mathematics
P.E.S.College of Engineering
lls

## Mandya -571 401

DEFINITIONS :
.a

A function y = f(x) is said to be even, if f(-x) = f(x). The graph of the even function is
w

A function y=f(x) is said to be odd, if f(-x) = - f(x). The graph of the odd function is always
w

For example, the function f(x) = x in [-1,1] is even as f(-x) = x x = f(x) and the
w

function f(x) = x in [-1,1] is odd as f(-x) = -x = -f(x). The graphs of these functions are
shown below :

vtu.allsyllabus.com

www.allsyllabus.com

om
Graph of f(x) = x Graph of f(x) = x

.c
Note that the graph of f(x) = x is symmetrical about the y-axis and the graph of f(x) = x is

s
1. If f(x) is even and g(x) is odd, then
bu
h(x) = f(x) x g(x) is odd
la
h(x) = f(x) x f(x) is even
h(x) = g(x) x g(x) is even
yl

For example,
1. h(x) = x2 cosx is even, since both x2 and cosx are even functions
lls

## 2. h(x) = xsinx is even, since x and sinx are odd functions

3. h(x) = x2 sinx is odd, since x2 is even and sinx is odd.
.a

a a
2. If f(x) is even, then f ( x)dx 2 f ( x)dx
a 0
w

a
3. If f(x) is odd, then f ( x)dx 0
w

a
For example,
w

a a
cos xdx 2 cos xdx, as cosx is even
a 0
a
and sin xdx 0, as sinx is odd
a

vtu.allsyllabus.com

PERIODIC FUNCTIONS :-
www.allsyllabus.com
A periodic function has a basic shape which is repeated over and over again. The
fundamental range is the time (or sometimes distance) over which the basic shape is defined.
The length of the fundamental range is called the period.

f(x+T) = f(x)

## Here f(x) is a real-valued function and T is a positive real number.

om
As a consequence, it follows that
f(x) = f(x+T) = f(x+2T) = f(x+3T) = .. = f(x+nT)

Thus,

.c
f(x) = f(x+nT), n=1,2,3,..

## The function f(x) = sinx is periodic of period 2 since

s
Sin(x+2n ) = sinx, n=1,2,3,..
bu
The graph of the function is shown below :
la
yl
lls
.a
w
w

Note that the graph of the function between 0 and 2 is the same as that between 2 and 4
and so on. It may be verified that a linear combination of periodic functions is also periodic.
w

FOURIER SERIES

A Fourier series of a periodic function consists of a sum of sine and cosine terms. Sines and
cosines are the most fundamental periodic functions.

The Fourier series is named after the French Mathematician and Physicist Jacques Fourier
(1768 1830). Fourier series has its application in problems pertaining to Heat conduction,
acoustics, etc. The subject matter may be divided into the following sub topics.
vtu.allsyllabus.com

FOURIER SERIES
www.allsyllabus.com

arbitrary period

## FORMULA FOR FOURIER SERIES

om
Consider a real-valued function f(x) which obeys the following conditions called Dirichlets
conditions :

1. f(x) is defined in an interval (a,a+2l), and f(x+2l) = f(x) so that f(x) is a periodic

.c
function of period 2l.
2. f(x) is continuous or has only a finite number of discontinuities in the interval
(a,a+2l).

s
3. f(x) has no or only a finite number of maxima or minima in the interval (a,a+2l).

Also, let
bu
a 2l
1
la
a0 f ( x)dx (1)
l a
a 2l
1 n
yl

## an f ( x) cos xdx, n 1,2,3,..... (2)

l a l
lls

a 2l
1 n
bn f ( x) sin xdx, n 1,2,3,...... (3)
l a
l
.a

## Then, the infinite series

w

a0 n n
an cos x bn sin x (4)
2 n1 l l
w

is called the Fourier series of f(x) in the interval (a,a+2l). Also, the real numbers a0, a1, a2,
.an, and b1, b2 , .bn are called the Fourier coefficients of f(x). The formulae (1), (2) and
w

## (3) are called Eulers formulae.

It can be proved that the sum of the series (4) is f(x) if f(x) is continuous at x. Thus we have
a n n
f(x) = 0 an cos x bn sin x . (5)
2 n1 l l
Suppose f(x) is discontinuous at x, then the sum of the series (4) would be
1
f (x ) f (x )
2vtu.allsyllabus.com
where f(x+) and f(x-) are the values of f(x) immediately to the right and to the left of f(x)
respectively.

Particular Cases
Case (i)
Suppose a=0. Then f(x) is defined overwww.allsyllabus.com
the interval (0,2l). Formulae (1), (2), (3) reduce to
2l
1
a0 f ( x)dx
l0
2l
1 n
an f ( x) cos xdx, n 1,2,...... (6)
l0 l
2l
1 n
bn f ( x) sin xdx,
l0 l

om
Then the right-hand side of (5) is the Fourier expansion of f(x) over the interval (0,2l).

If we set l= , then f(x) is defined over the interval (0,2 ). Formulae (6) reduce to

.c
2
1
a0 = f ( x)dx

s
0
2
1 bu
an f ( x) cos nxdx
0
, n=1,2,.. (7)

2
1
la
bn f ( x) sin nxdx n=1,2,..
0
yl

a0
lls

## f(x) = an cos nx bn sin nx (8)

2 n 1

Case (ii)
.a

Suppose a=-l. Then f(x) is defined over the interval (-l , l). Formulae (1), (2) (3) reduce to
w

1
l
n =1,2, (9)
a0 f ( x)dx l
l l
w

1 n
l
bn f ( x) sin xdx, n=1,2,
1 n l l l
an f ( x) cos xdx
w

l l l

Then the right-hand side of (5) is the Fourier expansion of f(x) over the interval (-l , l).

If we set l = , then f(x) is defined over the interval (- , ). Formulae (9) reduce to

1
a0 = f ( x)dx
vtu.allsyllabus.com

1
an f ( x) cos nxdx
,
www.allsyllabus.com n=1,2,.. (10)

1
bn f ( x) sin nxdx n=1,2,..

## Putting l = in (5), we get

a0
f(x) = an cos nx bn sin nx
2 n 1

om
PARTIAL SUMS

The Fourier series gives the exact value of the function. It uses an infinite number of terms
which is impossible to calculate. However, we can find the sum through the partial sum S N

.c
defined as follows :

s
n N
n n
S N ( x) a0 an cos bu x bn sin x where N takes positive
n 1 l l
integral values.
In particular, the partial sums for N=1,2 are
x x
la
S1 ( x) a0 a1 cos b1 sin
l l
x x 2 x 2 x
yl

## S2 ( x) a0 a1 cos b1 sin a2 cos b2 sin

l l l l
If we draw the graphs of partial sums and compare these with the graph of the original
lls

function f(x), it may be verified that SN(x) approximates f(x) for some large N.
.a

## Some useful results :

1. The following rule called Bernoullis generalized rule of integration by parts is useful in
w

## evaluating the Fourier coefficients.

uvdx uv1 u 'v2 u ''v3 .......
w

## Here u , u ,.. are the successive derivatives of u and

v1 vdx, v2 v1dx,......
w

## We illustrate the rule, through the following examples :

cos nx sin nx cos nx
x 2 sin nxdx x 2 2x 2
n n2 n3
e2 x e2 x e2 x e2 x
x 3e 2 x dx x3 3x 2 6x 6
2 4 8 16

## 2. The following integrals are also useful :

vtu.allsyllabus.com

e ax
e ax cosbxdx a cosbx b sin bx
a 2 www.allsyllabus.com
b2
e ax
e ax sin bxdx a sin bx b cosbx
a 2 b2

3. If n is integer, then
sin n = 0 , cosn = (-1)n , sin2n = 0, cos2n =1

Examples

om
1. Obtain the Fourier expansion of

1
f(x) = x in - < x <
2

.c
We have,
1 1 1
a0 f ( x)dx ( x)dx

s
2

=
2
1
x
x2
2
bu
1 1 1
la
an f ( x) cos nxdx ( x) cos nxdx
2
yl

1 sin nx cos nx
lls

an x ( 1)
2 n n2
1
0 0
.a

2
w

1 1
bn ( x) sin nxdx
2
w

1 cos nx sin nx
x ( 1)
2 n n2
w

( 1) n
n

## Using the values of a0 , an and bn in the Fourier expansion

a0
f ( x) an cos nx bn sin nx
2 n 1 n 1
we get, vtu.allsyllabus.com

n
( 1)
f ( x) sin nx
2 n 1 n www.allsyllabus.com
This is the required Fourier expansion of the given function.

2. Obtain the Fourier expansion of f(x)=e -ax in the interval (- , ). Deduce that

2 ( 1) n
cos ech 2
n 2n 1

Here,

om
ax
1 ax 1 e
a0 e dx
a
ea e a
2 sinh a

.c
a a
1 ax
an e cos nxdx

s
ax bu
1 e
an a cos nx n sin nx
a2 n2
2a ( 1) n sinh a
la
a 2 n2
yl

1 ax
bn = e sin nxdx
lls

ax
1 e
= a sin nx n cos nx
a2 n2
.a

2n ( 1) n sinh a
=
a 2 n2
w

Thus,
( 1) n n( 1) n
w

sinh a 2a sinh a 2
f(x) = 2
cos nx sinh a sin nx
a n 1 a n2 n 1a
2
n2
w

## For x=0, a=1, the series reduces to

sinh 2 sinh ( 1) n
f(0)=1 = 2
n 1 n 1

or
sinh 2 sinh 1 ( 1) n
1= vtu.allsyllabus.com
2 n 2 n2 1

2 sinh ( 1) n
or 1= 2
n 2 n www.allsyllabus.com
1
Thus,
( 1) n
cos ech 2 2
n 2n 1

## This is the desired deduction.

3. Obtain the Fourier expansion of f(x) = x2 over the interval (- , ). Deduce that
2
1 1

om
1 2 ......
6 2 32

## The function f(x) is even. Hence

1 2
a0 = f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx

.c
0

2 2 x3

s
= x 2 dx
0 3 0

or
a0
2
3
2
bu
la
1
an f ( x) cos nxdx
yl

2
= f ( x) cos nxdx, since f(x)cosnx is even
lls

2
= x 2 cos nxdx
0
.a

w

## 2 sin nx cos nx sin nx

an x2 2x 2
n n2 n3 0
w

n
4( 1)
n2
w

1
Also, bn f ( x) sin nxdx 0 since f(x)sinnx is odd.

Thus

vtu.allsyllabus.com

2
( 1) n cos nx
f ( x) 4
3 n 1 n2 www.allsyllabus.com
2
2 1
4 2
3 n 1 n
2
1
1 n2 6
2
1 1
Hence, 1 .....
6 22 32

om
4. Obtain the Fourier expansion of

x,0 x
f ( x)

.c
2 x, x 2
Deduce that
2
1 1

s
1 ......
8 32 52 bu
The graph of f(x) is shown below.
la
Here OA represents the line f(x)=x, AB represents the
line f(x)=(2 -x) and AC represents the line x= . Note
yl

## that the graph is symmetrical about the line AC, which

in turn is parallel to y-axis. Hence the function f(x) is
an even function.
lls

Here,
.a

1 2
a0 = f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx
0
w

2
xdx
w

0
since f(x)cosnx is even.
1 2
w

## an f ( x) cos nxdx f ( x) cos nxdx

0

2
x cos nxdx
= 0

vtu.allsyllabus.com

2 sin nx cos nx
x 1
= n n2
www.allsyllabus.com
0

2
2
( 1) n 1
n
Also,
1
bn f ( x) sin nxdx 0 , since f(x)sinnx is odd

## Thus the Fourier series of f(x) is

om
2 1
f ( x) 2
( 1) n 1 cos nx
2 n 1n

For x= , we get
2 1
f( ) ( 1) n 1 cos n

.c
2
2 n 1n

2 2 cos(2n 1)
or

s
2 n 1 (2n 1) 2

Thus,
2
1
bu
8 n 1 (2n 1)2
la
2
1 1
or 1 ......
8 32 52
yl

lls

## 5. Obtain the Fourier expansion of

, x 0
f(x) =
.a

x,0 x
Deduce that
2
1 1
w

1 2 ......
8 3 52
w

Here,
0
1
w

a0 dx xdx
0 2
0
1
an cos nxdx x cos nxdx
0

1
2
( 1) n 1
n

vtu.allsyllabus.com

0
1
bn sin nxdx x sin nxdx
www.allsyllabus.com
0

1
1 2( 1) n
n
Fourier series is
1 1 n 1 2( 1) n
f(x) = 2
( 1 ) 1 cos nx sin nx
4 n 1n n 1 n
Note that the point x=0 is a point of discontinuity of f(x). Here f(x+) =0, f(x-)=- at x=0.
1 1
Hence [ f ( x ) f ( x )] 0

om
2 2 2
The Fourier expansion of f(x) at x=0 becomes
1 1
2
[( 1) n 1]
2 4 n 1n

.c
2
1
or 2
[( 1) n 1]
4 n 1n

s
Simplifying we get,
2
1 1 bu
1 ......
8 32 52

6. Obtain the Fourier series of f(x) = 1-x2 over the interval (-1,1).
la
The given function is even, as f(-x) = f(x). Also period of f(x) is 1-(-1)=2
yl

Here
lls

1 1
1
a0 = f ( x)dx = 2 f ( x)dx
1 1 0
1 1
x3
.a

2
= 2 (1 x )dx 2 x
0 3 0

4
w

3
1
1
w

an f ( x) cos(n x)dx
1 1
w

1
2 f ( x) cos(n x) dx as f(x) cos(n x) is even
0
1
= 2 (1 x 2 ) cos(n x)dx
0
Integrating by parts, we get

1
2 sin n x cos n x sin n x
an 2 1 x ( 2 x)
vtu.allsyllabus.com ( 2)
n (n ) 2 ( n )3 0

4( 1) n 1
= www.allsyllabus.com
n2 2
1
1
bn f ( x) sin(n x)dx =0, since f(x)sin(n x) is odd.
1 1

2 4 ( 1) n 1
f(x) = 2
cos(n x)
3 n2

om
n 1

## 7. Obtain the Fourier expansion of

4x 3
1 in x 0

.c
3 2
f(x) = 4x 3
1 in0 x

s
3 2

Deduce that
2
bu
1 1
1 ......
8 32 52
la
3 3
The period of f(x) is 3
yl

2 2
Also f(-x) = f(x). Hence f(x) is even
lls

3/ 2 3/ 2
1 2
a0 f ( x)dx f ( x)dx
3/ 2 3/ 2
3/ 2 0
.a

3/ 2
4 4x
1 dx 0
3 0
3
w

3/ 2
1 n x
an f ( x) cos dx
3/ 2 3/ 2
w

3/ 2
3/ 2
2 2n x
f ( x) cos dx
w

3/ 2 0
3
3/ 2
2n x 2n x
sin cos
4 4x 3 4 3
1 2
3 3 2n 3 2n
3 3 0
4
= 2 2
1 ( 1)n
n vtu.allsyllabus.com
Also,

3
2
1 n x
bn f ( x) sin dx 0
3 3
3
www.allsyllabus.com
2 2

Thus
4 1 2n x
f(x) = 2 2
1 ( 1) n cos
n 1n 3
putting x=0, we get
1 4
f(0) = 2
1 ( 1) n
2
n 1n

om
8 1 1
or 1= 2 1 2 ......
3 52
2
1 1
Thus, 1 2 ......
8 3 52

s .c
NOTE
bu
Here verify the validity of Fourier expansion through partial sums by considering an
example. We recall that the Fourier expansion of f(x) = x2 over (- , ) is

2
( 1) n cos nx
la
f ( x) 4
3 n 1 n2
Let us define
yl

2
( 1) n cos nx n N
S N ( x) 4
3 n2
lls

n 1
The partial sums corresponding to N = 1,2,..6
2
S1 ( x) 4 cos x
.a

3
2
S 2 ( x) 4 cos x cos 2 x
are 3
w

2
w

4 1 4 1
S6 ( x) 4 cos x cos 2 xcos3 x cos 4 x cos5 x cos5 x
3 9 4 25 9
The graphs of S1 , S2 , S6 against the graph of f(x) = x2 are plotted individually and shown
w

below :

vtu.allsyllabus.com

www.allsyllabus.com

om
s .c
bu
On comparison, we find that the graph of f(x) = x2 coincides with that of S6 (x). This verifies
la
the validity of Fourier expansion for the function considered.
yl

Exercise
Check for the validity of Fourier expansion through partial sums along with relevant graphs
for other examples also.
lls

## HALF-RANGE FOURIER SERIES

The Fourier expansion of the periodic function f(x) of period 2l may contain both sine and
.a

cosine terms. Many a time it is required to obtain the Fourier expansion of f(x) in the interval
(0,l) which is regarded as half interval. The definition can be extended to the other half in
such a manner that the function becomes even or odd. This will result in cosine series or sine
w

series only.
Sine series :
w

Suppose f(x) = (x) is given in the interval (0,l). Then we define f(x) = - (-x) in (-l,0).
Hence f(x) becomes an odd function in (-l , l). The Fourier series then is
w

n x
f ( x) bn sin (11)
n 1 l
l
2 n x
where bn f ( x) sin dx
l 0 l
The series (11) is called half-range sine series over (0,l).

Putting l= in (11), we obtain the half-range sine series of f(x) over (0, ) given by
vtu.allsyllabus.com

f ( x) bn sin nx
n 1 www.allsyllabus.com

2
bn f ( x) sin nxdx
0
Cosine series :

Let us define

## ( x) in (0,l) ..... given

om
f ( x)
( x) in (-l,0) ..in order to make the function even.

## Then the Fourier series of f(x) is given by

.c
a0 n x
f ( x) an cos (12)
2 n1 l

s
where,

a0
2
l

l 0
f ( x)dx
bu
l
2 n x
an
f ( x) cos dx
la
l 0 l
The series (12) is called half-range cosine series over (0,l)
yl

## Putting l = in (12), we get

lls

a0
f ( x) an cos nx
2 n 1

where
.a

2
a0 f ( x)dx
w

2
an f ( x) cos nxdx n 1,2,3, ..
w

Examples :
w

1. Expand f(x) = x( -x) as half-range sine series over the interval (0, ).

We have,
2
bn f ( x) sin nxdx
0

2
( x x 2 ) sin nxdx
0 vtu.allsyllabus.com
Integrating by parts, we get

2 cos nx sin nx cos nx
bn x x2 2x ( 2)
n www.allsyllabus.com n 2 n3 0

4
3
1 ( 1) n
n
The sine series of f(x) is
4 1
f ( x) 3
1 ( 1)n sin nx
n 1 n

## 2. Obtain the cosine series of

om
x,0 x
2
f ( x) over(0, )

.c
x, x
2

s
Here

a0
2 2

0
xdx ( x)dx
2
bu
2
la
2
2
an x cos nxdx ( x) cos nxdx
0
2
yl

## Performing integration by parts and simplifying, we get

2 n
an 1 ( 1) n 2 cos
lls

2
n 2
8
, n 2,6,10,.....
n2
.a

## Thus, the Fourier cosine series is

2 cos 2 x cos6 x cos10x
f(x) = ......
w

4 12 32 52
w

## 3. Obtain the half-range cosine series of f(x) = c-x in 0<x<c

w

Here
c
2
a0 (c x)dx c
c0
c
2 n x
an (c x) cos dx
c0 c
Integrating by parts and simplifying we get,
vtu.allsyllabus.com

2c
an 2 2
1 ( 1) n
n www.allsyllabus.com
The cosine series is given by

c 2c 1 n x
f(x) = 2 2
1 ( 1) n cos
2 n 1n c

Exercices:

Obtain the Fourier series of the following functions over the specified intervals :

om
x2
1. f(x) = x over (- , )
4
2. f(x) = 2x + 3x2 over (- , )

.c
2
x
3. f(x) = over (0, 2 )
2

s
1 1
4. f(x) = x over (- , ) ; Deduce that 1 bu .......
4 3 5
2
1 1
5. f(x) = x over (- , ) ; Deduce that .......
8 12 32
la
x, x 0
6. f(x) = over (- , )
x,0 x
yl

Deduce that
2
1 1
.......
8 12 32
lls

1, x 0
7. f(x) = 0, x 0 over (- , )
.a

1,0 x
1 1
Deduce that 1 .......
w

4 3 5
8. f(x) = x sinx over 0 x 2 ; Deduce that
w

1 3
2
n 2n 1 4
w

0, 2 x 0
9. f(x) = over (-2 , 2)
a,0 x 2
10. f(x) = x(2-x) over (0,3)
11. f(x) = x2 over (-1,1)
x,0 x 1
12. f(x) =
(2 x),1 x 2

vtu.allsyllabus.com

Obtain the half-range sine series of the following functions over the specified intervals :
www.allsyllabus.com
13. f(x) = cosx over (0, )
14. f(x) = sin3x over (0, )
15. f(x) = lx-x2 over (0 , l)

Obtain the half-range cosine series of the following functions over the specified intervals :
16. f(x) = x2 over (0, )
17. f(x) = xsinx over (0, )
18. f(x) = (x-1)2 over (0,1)
l

om
kx,0 x
2
19. f(x) =
l
k (l x), x l
2

.c
HARMONIC ANALYSIS

s
The Fourier series of a known function f(x) in a given interval may be found by finding the
bu
Fourier coefficients. The method described cannot be employed when f(x) is not known
explicitly, but defined through the values of the function at some equidistant points. In such a
case, the integrals in Eulers formulae cannot be evaluated. Harmonic analysis is the process
of finding the Fourier coefficients numerically.
la
To derive the relevant formulae for Fourier coefficients in Harmonic analysis, we employ the
yl

following result :

The mean value of a continuous function f(x) over the interval (a,b) denoted by [f(x)] is
lls

b
1
defined as f ( x) f ( x)dx .
b aa
.a

The Fourier coefficients defined through Eulers formulae, (1), (2), (3) may be redefined as
a 2l
1
w

a0 2 f ( x)dx 2[ f ( x)]
2l a
w

a 2l
1 n x n x
an 2 f ( x) cos dx 2 f ( x) cos
2l a l l
w

a 2l
1 n x n x
bn 2 f ( x) sin dx 2 f ( x) sin
2l a l l

Using these in (5), we obtain the Fourier series of f(x). The term a 1cosx+b1sinx is called the
first harmonic or fundamental harmonic, the term a 2cos2x+b2sin2x is called the second
harmonic and so on. The amplitude of the first harmonic is a12 b12 and that of second
harmonic is a22 b22 and so on. vtu.allsyllabus.com

Examples
1. Find the first two harmonics of the Fourier series of f(x) given the following table :
www.allsyllabus.com

x 0 2 4 5 2
3 3 3 3
f(x) 1.0 1.4 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.2 1.0
Note that the values of y = f(x) are spread over the interval 0 x 2 and f(0) = f(2 ) = 1.0.
Hence the function is periodic and so we omit the last value f(2 ) = 0. We prepare the
following table to compute the first two harmonics.

ycos2

om
x0 y = f(x) cosx cos2x sinx sin2x ycosx ysinx ysin2x
x

0 1.0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0

.c
60 1.4 0.5 -0.5 0.866 0.866 0.7 -0.7 1.2124 1.2124

s
120 1.9 -0.5 -0.5 0.866 -0.866
bu -0.95 -0.95 1.6454 -1.6454

## 180 1.7 -1 1 0 0 -1.7 1.7 0 0

la
240 1.5 -0.5 -0.5 -0.866 0.866 -0.75 -0.75 1.299 1.299
yl

300 1.2 0.5 -0.5 -0.866 -0.866 0.6 -0.6 -1.0392 -1.0392
lls

.a

We have
w

n x
w

## an 2 f ( x) cos 2[ y cos nx]

l
as the length of interval= 2l = 2 or l=
n x
w

l

## Putting, n=1,2, we get

2 y cos x 2(1.1)
a1 2[ y cos x] 0.367
6 6
2 y cos 2 x 2( 0.3)
a2 2[ y cos 2 x] 0.1
6 6
vtu.allsyllabus.com

2 y sin x
b1 [ y sin x] 1.0392
6 www.allsyllabus.com
2 y sin 2 x
b2 [ y sin 2 x] 0.0577
6
The first two harmonics are a1cosx+b1sinx and a2cos2x+b2 sin2x. That is (-0.367cosx +
1.0392 sinx) and (-0.1cos2x 0.0577sin2x)
2. Express y as a Fourier series upto the third harmonic given the following values :

x 0 1 2 3 4 5
y 4 8 15 7 6 2

om
The values of y at x=0,1,2,3,4,5 are given and hence the interval of x should be 0 x < 6. The
length of the interval = 6-0 = 6, so that 2l = 6 or l = 3.
The Fourier series upto the third harmonic is

.c
a0 x x 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x
y a1 cos b1 sin a2 cos b2 sin a3 cos b3 sin
2 l l l l l l

s
or

y
a0
a1 cos
x
b1 sin
x
a2 cos
bu
2 x
b2 sin
2 x
a3 cos
3 x
b3 sin
3 x
2 3 3 3 3 3 3
x
la
Put , then
3
a0
y a1 cos b1 sin a2 cos 2 b2 sin 2 a3 cos3 b3 sin 3 (1)
yl

2
We prepare the following table using the given values :
lls

x
x = y ycos ycos2 ycos3 ysin ysin2 ysin3
3
.a

0 0 04 4 4 4 0 0 0
w

w

## 2 1200 15 -7.5 -7.5 15 12.99 -12.99 0

w

3 1800 07 -7 7 -7 0 0 0

## 5 3000 02 1 -1 -2 -1.732 -1.732 0

vtu.allsyllabus.com
Total 42 -8.5 -4.5 8 12.99 -2.598 0

2 y 1
a0 2[ f ( x)] 2www.allsyllabus.com
[ y] (42) 14
6 3
2
a1 2[ y cos ] ( 8.5) 2.833
6
2
b1 2[ y sin ] (12.99) 4.33
6
2
a2 2[ y cos 2 ] ( 4.5) 1.5
6
2

om
b2 2[ y sin 2 ] ( 2.598) 0.866
6
2
a3 2[ y cos3 ] (8) 2.667
6
b3 2[ y sin 3 ] 0

.c
Using these in (1), we get

s
y 7 2,833cos
3
x
(4.33) sin
3
x
1.5 cos
3
bu
2 x
0.866sin
2 x
3
2.667 cos x

## This is the required Fourier series upto the third harmonic.

la
3. The following table gives the variations of a periodic current A over a period T :
yl

lls

## A (amp) 1.98 1.30 1.05 1.30 -0.88 -0.25 1.98

.a

Show that there is a constant part of 0.75amp. in the current A and obtain the amplitude of the
first harmonic.
w

Note that the values of A at t=0 and t=T are the same. Hence A(t) is a periodic function of
2
w

## period T. Let us denote t . We have

T
w

a0 2[ A]
2
a1 2 A cos t 2[ A cos ] (1)
T
2
b1 2 A sin t 2[ A sin ]
T

## We prepare the following table: vtu.allsyllabus.com

2 t
t A cos sin Acos Asin
T www.allsyllabus.com

0 0 1.98 1 0 1.98 0

## T/3 1200 1.05 -0.5 0.866 -0.525 0.9093

om
T/2 1800 1.30 -1 0 -1.30 0

## 2T/3 2400 -0.88 -0.5 -0.866 0.44 0.7621

.c
5T/6 3000 -0.25 0.5 -0.866 -0.125 0.2165

s
Total 4.5 bu 1.12 3.0137

## Using the values of the table in (1), we get

la
2 4.5A
a0 1.5
6 3
yl

2 A cos 1.12
a1 0.3733
6 3
lls

2 A sin 3.0137
b1 1.0046
6 3
The Fourier expansion upto the first harmonic is
.a

a0 2 t 2 t
A a1 cos b1 sin
w

2 T T
2 t 2 t
0.75 0.3733cos 1.0046sin
w

T T
The expression shows that A has a constant part 0.75 in it. Also the amplitude of the first
w

## harmonic is a12 b12 = 1.0717.

vtu.allsyllabus.com

ASSIGNMENT :
1. The displacement y of a part of a mechanism is tabulated with corresponding angular
movement x0 of the crank. Express y as
www.allsyllabus.com
a Fourier series upto the third harmonic.

## x0 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330

y 1.80 1.10 0.30 0.16 1.50 1.30 2.16 1.25 1.30 1.52 1.76 2.00

om
2. Obtain the Fourier series of y upto the second harmonic using the following table :

## x0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360

.c
y 4.0 3.8 2.4 2.0 -1.5 0 2.8 3.4

s
3. Obtain the constant term and the coefficients of the first sine and cosine terms in the
bu
Fourier expansion of y as given in the following table :

x 0 1 2 3 4 5
la
y 9 18 24 28 26 20
yl
lls

4. Find the Fourier series of y upto the second harmonic from the following table :

x 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
.a

## Y 9.0 18.2 24.4 27.8 27.5 22.0 9.0

w
w

5. Obtain the first three coefficients in the Fourier cosine series for y, where y is given in the
following table :
w

x 0 1 2 3 4 5

y 4 8 15 7 6 2

0
6. The turning moment T is given for a series of values of the crank angle = 750 .
vtu.allsyllabus.com

0
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
www.allsyllabus.com

## T 0 5224 8097 7850 5499 2626 0

Obtain the first four terms in a series of sines to represent T and calculate T at = 750 .

om
s .c
bu
la
yl
lls
.a
w
w
w

vtu.allsyllabus.com