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You are on page 1of 25

com

LECTURE NOTES OF

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICSIII (Sub Code: MAT31)

www.allsyllabus.com

COURSE CONTENT

1) Numerical Analysis

2) Fourier Series

3) Fourier Transforms & Z-transforms

4) Partial Differential Equations

5) Linear Algebra

6) Calculus of Variations

om

Text Book:

Higher Engineering Mathematics by

Dr. B.S.Grewal (36th Edition 2002)

Khanna Publishers,New Delhi

.c

Reference Book:

Advanced Engineering Mathematics by

s

E. Kreyszig (8th Edition 2001)

John Wiley & Sons, INC. New York

bu

FOURIER SERIES

la

Dr.A.T.Eswara

yl

Department of Mathematics

P.E.S.College of Engineering

lls

DEFINITIONS :

.a

A function y = f(x) is said to be even, if f(-x) = f(x). The graph of the even function is

always symmetrical about the y-axis.

w

A function y=f(x) is said to be odd, if f(-x) = - f(x). The graph of the odd function is always

symmetrical about the origin.

w

For example, the function f(x) = x in [-1,1] is even as f(-x) = x x = f(x) and the

w

function f(x) = x in [-1,1] is odd as f(-x) = -x = -f(x). The graphs of these functions are

shown below :

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www.allsyllabus.com

om

Graph of f(x) = x Graph of f(x) = x

.c

Note that the graph of f(x) = x is symmetrical about the y-axis and the graph of f(x) = x is

symmetrical about the origin.

s

1. If f(x) is even and g(x) is odd, then

bu

h(x) = f(x) x g(x) is odd

la

h(x) = f(x) x f(x) is even

h(x) = g(x) x g(x) is even

yl

For example,

1. h(x) = x2 cosx is even, since both x2 and cosx are even functions

lls

3. h(x) = x2 sinx is odd, since x2 is even and sinx is odd.

.a

a a

2. If f(x) is even, then f ( x)dx 2 f ( x)dx

a 0

w

a

3. If f(x) is odd, then f ( x)dx 0

w

a

For example,

w

a a

cos xdx 2 cos xdx, as cosx is even

a 0

a

and sin xdx 0, as sinx is odd

a

vtu.allsyllabus.com

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PERIODIC FUNCTIONS :-

www.allsyllabus.com

A periodic function has a basic shape which is repeated over and over again. The

fundamental range is the time (or sometimes distance) over which the basic shape is defined.

The length of the fundamental range is called the period.

f(x+T) = f(x)

om

As a consequence, it follows that

f(x) = f(x+T) = f(x+2T) = f(x+3T) = .. = f(x+nT)

Thus,

.c

f(x) = f(x+nT), n=1,2,3,..

s

Sin(x+2n ) = sinx, n=1,2,3,..

bu

The graph of the function is shown below :

la

yl

lls

.a

w

w

Note that the graph of the function between 0 and 2 is the same as that between 2 and 4

and so on. It may be verified that a linear combination of periodic functions is also periodic.

w

FOURIER SERIES

A Fourier series of a periodic function consists of a sum of sine and cosine terms. Sines and

cosines are the most fundamental periodic functions.

The Fourier series is named after the French Mathematician and Physicist Jacques Fourier

(1768 1830). Fourier series has its application in problems pertaining to Heat conduction,

acoustics, etc. The subject matter may be divided into the following sub topics.

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FOURIER SERIES

www.allsyllabus.com

arbitrary period

om

Consider a real-valued function f(x) which obeys the following conditions called Dirichlets

conditions :

1. f(x) is defined in an interval (a,a+2l), and f(x+2l) = f(x) so that f(x) is a periodic

.c

function of period 2l.

2. f(x) is continuous or has only a finite number of discontinuities in the interval

(a,a+2l).

s

3. f(x) has no or only a finite number of maxima or minima in the interval (a,a+2l).

Also, let

bu

a 2l

1

la

a0 f ( x)dx (1)

l a

a 2l

1 n

yl

l a l

lls

a 2l

1 n

bn f ( x) sin xdx, n 1,2,3,...... (3)

l a

l

.a

w

a0 n n

an cos x bn sin x (4)

2 n1 l l

w

is called the Fourier series of f(x) in the interval (a,a+2l). Also, the real numbers a0, a1, a2,

.an, and b1, b2 , .bn are called the Fourier coefficients of f(x). The formulae (1), (2) and

w

It can be proved that the sum of the series (4) is f(x) if f(x) is continuous at x. Thus we have

a n n

f(x) = 0 an cos x bn sin x . (5)

2 n1 l l

Suppose f(x) is discontinuous at x, then the sum of the series (4) would be

1

f (x ) f (x )

2vtu.allsyllabus.com

where f(x+) and f(x-) are the values of f(x) immediately to the right and to the left of f(x)

respectively.

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Particular Cases

Case (i)

Suppose a=0. Then f(x) is defined overwww.allsyllabus.com

the interval (0,2l). Formulae (1), (2), (3) reduce to

2l

1

a0 f ( x)dx

l0

2l

1 n

an f ( x) cos xdx, n 1,2,...... (6)

l0 l

2l

1 n

bn f ( x) sin xdx,

l0 l

om

Then the right-hand side of (5) is the Fourier expansion of f(x) over the interval (0,2l).

If we set l= , then f(x) is defined over the interval (0,2 ). Formulae (6) reduce to

.c

2

1

a0 = f ( x)dx

s

0

2

1 bu

an f ( x) cos nxdx

0

, n=1,2,.. (7)

2

1

la

bn f ( x) sin nxdx n=1,2,..

0

yl

a0

lls

2 n 1

Case (ii)

.a

Suppose a=-l. Then f(x) is defined over the interval (-l , l). Formulae (1), (2) (3) reduce to

w

1

l

n =1,2, (9)

a0 f ( x)dx l

l l

w

1 n

l

bn f ( x) sin xdx, n=1,2,

1 n l l l

an f ( x) cos xdx

w

l l l

Then the right-hand side of (5) is the Fourier expansion of f(x) over the interval (-l , l).

If we set l = , then f(x) is defined over the interval (- , ). Formulae (9) reduce to

1

a0 = f ( x)dx

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1

an f ( x) cos nxdx

,

www.allsyllabus.com n=1,2,.. (10)

1

bn f ( x) sin nxdx n=1,2,..

a0

f(x) = an cos nx bn sin nx

2 n 1

om

PARTIAL SUMS

The Fourier series gives the exact value of the function. It uses an infinite number of terms

which is impossible to calculate. However, we can find the sum through the partial sum S N

.c

defined as follows :

s

n N

n n

S N ( x) a0 an cos bu x bn sin x where N takes positive

n 1 l l

integral values.

In particular, the partial sums for N=1,2 are

x x

la

S1 ( x) a0 a1 cos b1 sin

l l

x x 2 x 2 x

yl

l l l l

If we draw the graphs of partial sums and compare these with the graph of the original

lls

function f(x), it may be verified that SN(x) approximates f(x) for some large N.

.a

1. The following rule called Bernoullis generalized rule of integration by parts is useful in

w

uvdx uv1 u 'v2 u ''v3 .......

w

v1 vdx, v2 v1dx,......

w

cos nx sin nx cos nx

x 2 sin nxdx x 2 2x 2

n n2 n3

e2 x e2 x e2 x e2 x

x 3e 2 x dx x3 3x 2 6x 6

2 4 8 16

vtu.allsyllabus.com

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e ax

e ax cosbxdx a cosbx b sin bx

a 2 www.allsyllabus.com

b2

e ax

e ax sin bxdx a sin bx b cosbx

a 2 b2

3. If n is integer, then

sin n = 0 , cosn = (-1)n , sin2n = 0, cos2n =1

Examples

om

1. Obtain the Fourier expansion of

1

f(x) = x in - < x <

2

.c

We have,

1 1 1

a0 f ( x)dx ( x)dx

s

2

=

2

1

x

x2

2

bu

1 1 1

la

an f ( x) cos nxdx ( x) cos nxdx

2

yl

1 sin nx cos nx

lls

an x ( 1)

2 n n2

1

0 0

.a

2

w

1 1

bn ( x) sin nxdx

2

w

1 cos nx sin nx

x ( 1)

2 n n2

w

( 1) n

n

a0

f ( x) an cos nx bn sin nx

2 n 1 n 1

we get, vtu.allsyllabus.com

Downloaded from www.pencilji.com

n

( 1)

f ( x) sin nx

2 n 1 n www.allsyllabus.com

This is the required Fourier expansion of the given function.

2. Obtain the Fourier expansion of f(x)=e -ax in the interval (- , ). Deduce that

2 ( 1) n

cos ech 2

n 2n 1

Here,

om

ax

1 ax 1 e

a0 e dx

a

ea e a

2 sinh a

.c

a a

1 ax

an e cos nxdx

s

ax bu

1 e

an a cos nx n sin nx

a2 n2

2a ( 1) n sinh a

la

a 2 n2

yl

1 ax

bn = e sin nxdx

lls

ax

1 e

= a sin nx n cos nx

a2 n2

.a

2n ( 1) n sinh a

=

a 2 n2

w

Thus,

( 1) n n( 1) n

w

sinh a 2a sinh a 2

f(x) = 2

cos nx sinh a sin nx

a n 1 a n2 n 1a

2

n2

w

sinh 2 sinh ( 1) n

f(0)=1 = 2

n 1 n 1

or

sinh 2 sinh 1 ( 1) n

1= vtu.allsyllabus.com

2 n 2 n2 1

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2 sinh ( 1) n

or 1= 2

n 2 n www.allsyllabus.com

1

Thus,

( 1) n

cos ech 2 2

n 2n 1

3. Obtain the Fourier expansion of f(x) = x2 over the interval (- , ). Deduce that

2

1 1

om

1 2 ......

6 2 32

1 2

a0 = f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx

.c

0

2 2 x3

s

= x 2 dx

0 3 0

or

a0

2

3

2

bu

la

1

an f ( x) cos nxdx

yl

2

= f ( x) cos nxdx, since f(x)cosnx is even

lls

2

= x 2 cos nxdx

0

.a

w

an x2 2x 2

n n2 n3 0

w

n

4( 1)

n2

w

1

Also, bn f ( x) sin nxdx 0 since f(x)sinnx is odd.

Thus

vtu.allsyllabus.com

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2

( 1) n cos nx

f ( x) 4

3 n 1 n2 www.allsyllabus.com

2

2 1

4 2

3 n 1 n

2

1

1 n2 6

2

1 1

Hence, 1 .....

6 22 32

om

4. Obtain the Fourier expansion of

x,0 x

f ( x)

.c

2 x, x 2

Deduce that

2

1 1

s

1 ......

8 32 52 bu

The graph of f(x) is shown below.

la

Here OA represents the line f(x)=x, AB represents the

line f(x)=(2 -x) and AC represents the line x= . Note

yl

in turn is parallel to y-axis. Hence the function f(x) is

an even function.

lls

Here,

.a

1 2

a0 = f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx

0

w

2

xdx

w

0

since f(x)cosnx is even.

1 2

w

0

2

x cos nxdx

= 0

vtu.allsyllabus.com

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2 sin nx cos nx

x 1

= n n2

www.allsyllabus.com

0

2

2

( 1) n 1

n

Also,

1

bn f ( x) sin nxdx 0 , since f(x)sinnx is odd

om

2 1

f ( x) 2

( 1) n 1 cos nx

2 n 1n

For x= , we get

2 1

f( ) ( 1) n 1 cos n

.c

2

2 n 1n

2 2 cos(2n 1)

or

s

2 n 1 (2n 1) 2

Thus,

2

1

bu

8 n 1 (2n 1)2

la

2

1 1

or 1 ......

8 32 52

yl

lls

, x 0

f(x) =

.a

x,0 x

Deduce that

2

1 1

w

1 2 ......

8 3 52

w

Here,

0

1

w

a0 dx xdx

0 2

0

1

an cos nxdx x cos nxdx

0

1

2

( 1) n 1

n

vtu.allsyllabus.com

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0

1

bn sin nxdx x sin nxdx

www.allsyllabus.com

0

1

1 2( 1) n

n

Fourier series is

1 1 n 1 2( 1) n

f(x) = 2

( 1 ) 1 cos nx sin nx

4 n 1n n 1 n

Note that the point x=0 is a point of discontinuity of f(x). Here f(x+) =0, f(x-)=- at x=0.

1 1

Hence [ f ( x ) f ( x )] 0

om

2 2 2

The Fourier expansion of f(x) at x=0 becomes

1 1

2

[( 1) n 1]

2 4 n 1n

.c

2

1

or 2

[( 1) n 1]

4 n 1n

s

Simplifying we get,

2

1 1 bu

1 ......

8 32 52

6. Obtain the Fourier series of f(x) = 1-x2 over the interval (-1,1).

la

The given function is even, as f(-x) = f(x). Also period of f(x) is 1-(-1)=2

yl

Here

lls

1 1

1

a0 = f ( x)dx = 2 f ( x)dx

1 1 0

1 1

x3

.a

2

= 2 (1 x )dx 2 x

0 3 0

4

w

3

1

1

w

an f ( x) cos(n x)dx

1 1

w

1

2 f ( x) cos(n x) dx as f(x) cos(n x) is even

0

1

= 2 (1 x 2 ) cos(n x)dx

0

Integrating by parts, we get

1

2 sin n x cos n x sin n x

an 2 1 x ( 2 x)

vtu.allsyllabus.com ( 2)

n (n ) 2 ( n )3 0

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4( 1) n 1

= www.allsyllabus.com

n2 2

1

1

bn f ( x) sin(n x)dx =0, since f(x)sin(n x) is odd.

1 1

2 4 ( 1) n 1

f(x) = 2

cos(n x)

3 n2

om

n 1

4x 3

1 in x 0

.c

3 2

f(x) = 4x 3

1 in0 x

s

3 2

Deduce that

2

bu

1 1

1 ......

8 32 52

la

3 3

The period of f(x) is 3

yl

2 2

Also f(-x) = f(x). Hence f(x) is even

lls

3/ 2 3/ 2

1 2

a0 f ( x)dx f ( x)dx

3/ 2 3/ 2

3/ 2 0

.a

3/ 2

4 4x

1 dx 0

3 0

3

w

3/ 2

1 n x

an f ( x) cos dx

3/ 2 3/ 2

w

3/ 2

3/ 2

2 2n x

f ( x) cos dx

w

3/ 2 0

3

3/ 2

2n x 2n x

sin cos

4 4x 3 4 3

1 2

3 3 2n 3 2n

3 3 0

4

= 2 2

1 ( 1)n

n vtu.allsyllabus.com

Also,

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3

2

1 n x

bn f ( x) sin dx 0

3 3

3

www.allsyllabus.com

2 2

Thus

4 1 2n x

f(x) = 2 2

1 ( 1) n cos

n 1n 3

putting x=0, we get

1 4

f(0) = 2

1 ( 1) n

2

n 1n

om

8 1 1

or 1= 2 1 2 ......

3 52

2

1 1

Thus, 1 2 ......

8 3 52

s .c

NOTE

bu

Here verify the validity of Fourier expansion through partial sums by considering an

example. We recall that the Fourier expansion of f(x) = x2 over (- , ) is

2

( 1) n cos nx

la

f ( x) 4

3 n 1 n2

Let us define

yl

2

( 1) n cos nx n N

S N ( x) 4

3 n2

lls

n 1

The partial sums corresponding to N = 1,2,..6

2

S1 ( x) 4 cos x

.a

3

2

S 2 ( x) 4 cos x cos 2 x

are 3

w

2

w

4 1 4 1

S6 ( x) 4 cos x cos 2 xcos3 x cos 4 x cos5 x cos5 x

3 9 4 25 9

The graphs of S1 , S2 , S6 against the graph of f(x) = x2 are plotted individually and shown

w

below :

vtu.allsyllabus.com

Downloaded from www.pencilji.com

www.allsyllabus.com

om

s .c

bu

On comparison, we find that the graph of f(x) = x2 coincides with that of S6 (x). This verifies

la

the validity of Fourier expansion for the function considered.

yl

Exercise

Check for the validity of Fourier expansion through partial sums along with relevant graphs

for other examples also.

lls

The Fourier expansion of the periodic function f(x) of period 2l may contain both sine and

.a

cosine terms. Many a time it is required to obtain the Fourier expansion of f(x) in the interval

(0,l) which is regarded as half interval. The definition can be extended to the other half in

such a manner that the function becomes even or odd. This will result in cosine series or sine

w

series only.

Sine series :

w

Suppose f(x) = (x) is given in the interval (0,l). Then we define f(x) = - (-x) in (-l,0).

Hence f(x) becomes an odd function in (-l , l). The Fourier series then is

w

n x

f ( x) bn sin (11)

n 1 l

l

2 n x

where bn f ( x) sin dx

l 0 l

The series (11) is called half-range sine series over (0,l).

Putting l= in (11), we obtain the half-range sine series of f(x) over (0, ) given by

vtu.allsyllabus.com

Downloaded from www.pencilji.com

f ( x) bn sin nx

n 1 www.allsyllabus.com

2

bn f ( x) sin nxdx

0

Cosine series :

Let us define

om

f ( x)

( x) in (-l,0) ..in order to make the function even.

.c

a0 n x

f ( x) an cos (12)

2 n1 l

s

where,

a0

2

l

l 0

f ( x)dx

bu

l

2 n x

an

f ( x) cos dx

la

l 0 l

The series (12) is called half-range cosine series over (0,l)

yl

lls

a0

f ( x) an cos nx

2 n 1

where

.a

2

a0 f ( x)dx

w

2

an f ( x) cos nxdx n 1,2,3, ..

w

Examples :

w

1. Expand f(x) = x( -x) as half-range sine series over the interval (0, ).

We have,

2

bn f ( x) sin nxdx

0

2

( x x 2 ) sin nxdx

0 vtu.allsyllabus.com

Integrating by parts, we get

Downloaded from www.pencilji.com

2 cos nx sin nx cos nx

bn x x2 2x ( 2)

n www.allsyllabus.com n 2 n3 0

4

3

1 ( 1) n

n

The sine series of f(x) is

4 1

f ( x) 3

1 ( 1)n sin nx

n 1 n

om

x,0 x

2

f ( x) over(0, )

.c

x, x

2

s

Here

a0

2 2

0

xdx ( x)dx

2

bu

2

la

2

2

an x cos nxdx ( x) cos nxdx

0

2

yl

2 n

an 1 ( 1) n 2 cos

lls

2

n 2

8

, n 2,6,10,.....

n2

.a

2 cos 2 x cos6 x cos10x

f(x) = ......

w

4 12 32 52

w

w

Here

c

2

a0 (c x)dx c

c0

c

2 n x

an (c x) cos dx

c0 c

Integrating by parts and simplifying we get,

vtu.allsyllabus.com

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2c

an 2 2

1 ( 1) n

n www.allsyllabus.com

The cosine series is given by

c 2c 1 n x

f(x) = 2 2

1 ( 1) n cos

2 n 1n c

Exercices:

Obtain the Fourier series of the following functions over the specified intervals :

om

x2

1. f(x) = x over (- , )

4

2. f(x) = 2x + 3x2 over (- , )

.c

2

x

3. f(x) = over (0, 2 )

2

s

1 1

4. f(x) = x over (- , ) ; Deduce that 1 bu .......

4 3 5

2

1 1

5. f(x) = x over (- , ) ; Deduce that .......

8 12 32

la

x, x 0

6. f(x) = over (- , )

x,0 x

yl

Deduce that

2

1 1

.......

8 12 32

lls

1, x 0

7. f(x) = 0, x 0 over (- , )

.a

1,0 x

1 1

Deduce that 1 .......

w

4 3 5

8. f(x) = x sinx over 0 x 2 ; Deduce that

w

1 3

2

n 2n 1 4

w

0, 2 x 0

9. f(x) = over (-2 , 2)

a,0 x 2

10. f(x) = x(2-x) over (0,3)

11. f(x) = x2 over (-1,1)

x,0 x 1

12. f(x) =

(2 x),1 x 2

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Obtain the half-range sine series of the following functions over the specified intervals :

www.allsyllabus.com

13. f(x) = cosx over (0, )

14. f(x) = sin3x over (0, )

15. f(x) = lx-x2 over (0 , l)

Obtain the half-range cosine series of the following functions over the specified intervals :

16. f(x) = x2 over (0, )

17. f(x) = xsinx over (0, )

18. f(x) = (x-1)2 over (0,1)

l

om

kx,0 x

2

19. f(x) =

l

k (l x), x l

2

.c

HARMONIC ANALYSIS

s

The Fourier series of a known function f(x) in a given interval may be found by finding the

bu

Fourier coefficients. The method described cannot be employed when f(x) is not known

explicitly, but defined through the values of the function at some equidistant points. In such a

case, the integrals in Eulers formulae cannot be evaluated. Harmonic analysis is the process

of finding the Fourier coefficients numerically.

la

To derive the relevant formulae for Fourier coefficients in Harmonic analysis, we employ the

yl

following result :

The mean value of a continuous function f(x) over the interval (a,b) denoted by [f(x)] is

lls

b

1

defined as f ( x) f ( x)dx .

b aa

.a

The Fourier coefficients defined through Eulers formulae, (1), (2), (3) may be redefined as

a 2l

1

w

a0 2 f ( x)dx 2[ f ( x)]

2l a

w

a 2l

1 n x n x

an 2 f ( x) cos dx 2 f ( x) cos

2l a l l

w

a 2l

1 n x n x

bn 2 f ( x) sin dx 2 f ( x) sin

2l a l l

Using these in (5), we obtain the Fourier series of f(x). The term a 1cosx+b1sinx is called the

first harmonic or fundamental harmonic, the term a 2cos2x+b2sin2x is called the second

harmonic and so on. The amplitude of the first harmonic is a12 b12 and that of second

harmonic is a22 b22 and so on. vtu.allsyllabus.com

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Examples

1. Find the first two harmonics of the Fourier series of f(x) given the following table :

www.allsyllabus.com

x 0 2 4 5 2

3 3 3 3

f(x) 1.0 1.4 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.2 1.0

Note that the values of y = f(x) are spread over the interval 0 x 2 and f(0) = f(2 ) = 1.0.

Hence the function is periodic and so we omit the last value f(2 ) = 0. We prepare the

following table to compute the first two harmonics.

ycos2

om

x0 y = f(x) cosx cos2x sinx sin2x ycosx ysinx ysin2x

x

0 1.0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0

.c

60 1.4 0.5 -0.5 0.866 0.866 0.7 -0.7 1.2124 1.2124

s

120 1.9 -0.5 -0.5 0.866 -0.866

bu -0.95 -0.95 1.6454 -1.6454

la

240 1.5 -0.5 -0.5 -0.866 0.866 -0.75 -0.75 1.299 1.299

yl

300 1.2 0.5 -0.5 -0.866 -0.866 0.6 -0.6 -1.0392 -1.0392

lls

.a

We have

w

n x

w

l

as the length of interval= 2l = 2 or l=

n x

w

l

2 y cos x 2(1.1)

a1 2[ y cos x] 0.367

6 6

2 y cos 2 x 2( 0.3)

a2 2[ y cos 2 x] 0.1

6 6

vtu.allsyllabus.com

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2 y sin x

b1 [ y sin x] 1.0392

6 www.allsyllabus.com

2 y sin 2 x

b2 [ y sin 2 x] 0.0577

6

The first two harmonics are a1cosx+b1sinx and a2cos2x+b2 sin2x. That is (-0.367cosx +

1.0392 sinx) and (-0.1cos2x 0.0577sin2x)

2. Express y as a Fourier series upto the third harmonic given the following values :

x 0 1 2 3 4 5

y 4 8 15 7 6 2

om

The values of y at x=0,1,2,3,4,5 are given and hence the interval of x should be 0 x < 6. The

length of the interval = 6-0 = 6, so that 2l = 6 or l = 3.

The Fourier series upto the third harmonic is

.c

a0 x x 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x

y a1 cos b1 sin a2 cos b2 sin a3 cos b3 sin

2 l l l l l l

s

or

y

a0

a1 cos

x

b1 sin

x

a2 cos

bu

2 x

b2 sin

2 x

a3 cos

3 x

b3 sin

3 x

2 3 3 3 3 3 3

x

la

Put , then

3

a0

y a1 cos b1 sin a2 cos 2 b2 sin 2 a3 cos3 b3 sin 3 (1)

yl

2

We prepare the following table using the given values :

lls

x

x = y ycos ycos2 ycos3 ysin ysin2 ysin3

3

.a

0 0 04 4 4 4 0 0 0

w

w

w

3 1800 07 -7 7 -7 0 0 0

vtu.allsyllabus.com

Total 42 -8.5 -4.5 8 12.99 -2.598 0

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2 y 1

a0 2[ f ( x)] 2www.allsyllabus.com

[ y] (42) 14

6 3

2

a1 2[ y cos ] ( 8.5) 2.833

6

2

b1 2[ y sin ] (12.99) 4.33

6

2

a2 2[ y cos 2 ] ( 4.5) 1.5

6

2

om

b2 2[ y sin 2 ] ( 2.598) 0.866

6

2

a3 2[ y cos3 ] (8) 2.667

6

b3 2[ y sin 3 ] 0

.c

Using these in (1), we get

s

y 7 2,833cos

3

x

(4.33) sin

3

x

1.5 cos

3

bu

2 x

0.866sin

2 x

3

2.667 cos x

la

3. The following table gives the variations of a periodic current A over a period T :

yl

lls

.a

Show that there is a constant part of 0.75amp. in the current A and obtain the amplitude of the

first harmonic.

w

Note that the values of A at t=0 and t=T are the same. Hence A(t) is a periodic function of

2

w

T

w

a0 2[ A]

2

a1 2 A cos t 2[ A cos ] (1)

T

2

b1 2 A sin t 2[ A sin ]

T

Downloaded from www.pencilji.com

2 t

t A cos sin Acos Asin

T www.allsyllabus.com

0 0 1.98 1 0 1.98 0

om

T/2 1800 1.30 -1 0 -1.30 0

.c

5T/6 3000 -0.25 0.5 -0.866 -0.125 0.2165

s

Total 4.5 bu 1.12 3.0137

la

2 4.5A

a0 1.5

6 3

yl

2 A cos 1.12

a1 0.3733

6 3

lls

2 A sin 3.0137

b1 1.0046

6 3

The Fourier expansion upto the first harmonic is

.a

a0 2 t 2 t

A a1 cos b1 sin

w

2 T T

2 t 2 t

0.75 0.3733cos 1.0046sin

w

T T

The expression shows that A has a constant part 0.75 in it. Also the amplitude of the first

w

vtu.allsyllabus.com

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ASSIGNMENT :

1. The displacement y of a part of a mechanism is tabulated with corresponding angular

movement x0 of the crank. Express y as

www.allsyllabus.com

a Fourier series upto the third harmonic.

y 1.80 1.10 0.30 0.16 1.50 1.30 2.16 1.25 1.30 1.52 1.76 2.00

om

2. Obtain the Fourier series of y upto the second harmonic using the following table :

.c

y 4.0 3.8 2.4 2.0 -1.5 0 2.8 3.4

s

3. Obtain the constant term and the coefficients of the first sine and cosine terms in the

bu

Fourier expansion of y as given in the following table :

x 0 1 2 3 4 5

la

y 9 18 24 28 26 20

yl

lls

4. Find the Fourier series of y upto the second harmonic from the following table :

x 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

.a

w

w

5. Obtain the first three coefficients in the Fourier cosine series for y, where y is given in the

following table :

w

x 0 1 2 3 4 5

y 4 8 15 7 6 2

0

6. The turning moment T is given for a series of values of the crank angle = 750 .

vtu.allsyllabus.com

Downloaded from www.pencilji.com

0

0 30 60 90 120 150 180

www.allsyllabus.com

Obtain the first four terms in a series of sines to represent T and calculate T at = 750 .

om

s .c

bu

la

yl

lls

.a

w

w

w

vtu.allsyllabus.com

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