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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA

ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

GRAMMAR

PRESENT OF VERB TO BE

FORMA AFIRMATIVA FORMA NEGATIVA FORMA INTERROGATIVA


I AM yo soy I AM NOT yo no soy AM I ? soy yo?
YOU ARE tu eres YOU ARE NOT tu no eres ARE YOU ? eres tu?
HE/SHE/ IT ... IS el es HE/SHE/IT ... IS el no es IS/SHE/IT ... IT es el?
WE ARE nosotros somos WE ARE NOT nosotros no somos ARE WE ? somos nosotros ?
YOU ARE vosotros sois YOU ARE NOT vosotros no sois ARE YOU ? sois vosotros ?
THEY ARE ellos son THEY ARE NOT ellos no son ARE THEY ? son ellos ?

FORMA AFIRMATIVA CONTRAIDA FORMA NEGATIVA CONTRAIDA

I M yo soy IM NOT yo no soy


YOURE tu eres YOU ARENT tu no eres
HES/SHES/ITS el es HE/ SHE/ IT ... ISNT el no es
WERE nosotros somos WE ARENT nosotros no somos
YOURE vosotros sois YOU ARENT vosotros no sois
THEYRE ellos son THEY ARENT ellos no son
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

APOSTROPHE

POSESIVOS PLURALES
MY PARENTS HOUSE

NOMBRES PROPIOS QUE TERMINAN EN S


CHARLES
ST.JAMES PARK
ALICES DOG

A LAS PROFESIONES SE LES PONE A /AN DEPENDIENDO


SI EMPIEZAN POR VOCAL
HES AN ENGINEER
HES A HAIRDRESSER

PLURALES DE LOS NOMBRES


A LA MAYORIA DE LOS NOMBRES SE LES AADE S
BOOK..........BOOKS
STUDENT.......STUDENTS

SI LOS NOMBRES TERMINAN EN S SH CH ,


SE LES AADE ES (IZ)
BUS................BUSES
CHURH ........CHURCHES
BUSH............BUSHES
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

SI EL NOMBRE TERMINA EN CONSONANTE + Y SE


CAMBIA LA Y GRIEGA PORIES
COUNTRY.........COUNTRIES
PARTY.............. PARTIES

SI EL NOMBRE TERMINA EN VOCAL + Y NO CAMBIA

BOY.........BOYS
KEY.........KEYS

ALGUNOS NOMBRES SON IRREGULARES:

CHILD..........CHILDREN
PERSON ......PEOPLE
WOMAN .....WOMEN

TAMBIEN HAY ALGUNOS NOMBRES QUE AUNQUE SE


ESCRIBAN EN SINGULAR, TIENEN
SIGNIFICADO PLURAL.

POLICE.......POLICIA
ARMY.........EJERCITO

LA R SILENCIOSA

R + VOCAL = /R/................ CHILDREN


R + CONSONANTE = /R/.... SURNAME
R + NADA = /R/ .................. MOTHER
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

GO (IR A) PLAY(JUGAR)
DEPORTES O ACTIVIDADES DEPORTES CON PERSONAS Y/O PELOTA

DANCING FOOTBALL
SKIING (TERMINACION EN ING) BASKET
DRIVING TENNISS

TERCERA PERSONA DEL SINGULAR


HAVE..............HAS
TEACH............TEACHES
GO....................GOES

ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS
MY ............................ MI MIS
YOUR......................... TU,SU (DE USTED O DE USTEDES) VUESTRO A OS AS
HIS............................ SU,SUS,(DE EL)
HER.......................... SU, SUS (DE ELLA)
ITS........................... SU SUS (DE ELLO)
OUR ......................... (NUESTRO,A,OS,AS
THEIR.................... THEIR SU,SUS (DE ELLOS O DE ELLAS)

ADJETIVOS DEMOSTRATIVOS
THIS........................ ESTE,A,O
THAT..................... ESE,A,O, AQUEL,LLA,LLO
THESE.................. ESTOS,AS
THOSE................. ESOS,AS, AQUELLOS,AS

ADJETIVOS INTERROGATIVOS
WHAT.?..................... QUE?
WHICH.?................... QUE (CUAL)?
WHOSE ?................. DE QUIEN?
HOW MUCH.?.............CUANTO?
HOW MANY?..............CUANTOS?
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

EL AUXILIAR DOES"

ESTE AUXILIAR SOLO SE USA EN PREGUNTAS,NEGACIONES O RESPUESTAS CORTAS

* HE ? YES SHE DOES = SI


DOES * SHE ? WHAT SHE DOES ? = QUE HACE ?
* IT ? NO SHE DOESNT = NO

ESTRUCTURA:

AUXILIAR + SUJETO +INFINITIVO VERBO PPAL.


DOES + SHE + PLAY ?

ANTES DEL AUXILIAR O DESPUES DEL VERBO PRINCIPAL SE PUEDE PONER PARA
FORMAR LA ORACION LO QUE SE QUIERA ,PERO EL NUCLEO,NUNCA DEBE DE
CAMBIAR

WHERE DOES MARK LIVE ? =WHERE DOES HE LIVE =DONDE VIVE MARK?
WHAT DOES HE DO ? = QUE HACE (EN QUE TRABAJA?)

SIN EMBARGO LA RESPUESTA SERA NORMAL ,PUES SERA AFIRMATIVA(SIEMPRE QUE


NO SEA RESPUESTA CORTA QUE PODRIA LLEVAR EL AUXILIAR DOES.

MARK LIVES IN BROADWAY.


HES A JOURNALIST

QUE HACE EL EN SU TIEMPO LIBRE ? = WHAT DOES HE DO IN HIS FREE TIME ?

JUEGA AL TENIS =MARK PLAYS TENNIS

CUANTOS COCHES TIENE TU PADRE ? = HOW MANY CARS DOES YOUR FATHER HAVE
MY FATHER HAVE (S ? ) TWO CARS

LE GUSTA A ELLA TRABAJAR ? = DOES SHE LIKE WORKING ?


NO =NO SHE DOESNT (DASSENT)
TE GUSTA COMER SPAGHETTIS = DOES YOU EATING SPAGHETTIS LIKE

SIEMPRE: AUX + SUJETO + VERBO PPAL.


ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

GRAMMAR SUMMARY

Questions with questions words answers


WHAT IS HER SURNAME? JANE
WHAT IS HIS JOB? SHES A POLICEMAN
WHAT IS HER ADDRESS? 34,CHURCH STREET

WHERE IS SHE FROM? PORTUGAL


WHERE ARE YOU FROM? FRANCE
WHERE ARE THEY FROM? SPAIN

WHO IS JENNIFER? SHES JOHNS DAUGHTER


WHO IS SHE? SHES JOHNS DAUGHTER
HOW OLD IS SHE? TWENTY-TWO
HOW OLD ARE YOU? TWENTY-TWO
HOW MUCH IS A COKE? SIXTY PENCE

Yes /No questions Short Answers


IS HE HOT? YES,HE IS
IS SHE HOT? NO,SHE ISNT
IS IT HOT? YES IT IS
ARE YOU MARRIED? NO IM NOT /NO,WE ARENT
ARE THEY MARRIED? YES,THEY ARE

Negative
I AM NOT FROM PARIS IM NOT FROM PARIS
HE IS NOT FROM PARIS HE ISNT FROM PARIS
SHE IS NOT FROM PARIS SHE ISNT FROM PARIS
IT IS NOT FROM PARIS IT ISNT FROM PARIS
WE ARE NOT FROM PARIS WE ARENT FROM PARIS
YOU ARE NOT FROM PARIS YOU ARENT FROM PARIS
THEY ARE NOT FROM PARIS THEY ARENT FROM PARIS

Possessive S
MY HUSBANDS NAME IS MARTIN
THATS ANDREAS, DICTIONARY
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

GRAMMAR SUMMARY
PRESENT SIMPLE (1)

Present simple he,she,it


HE LIVES IN THE MOUNTAINS
SHE LIVES IN THE MOUNTAINS
IT LIVES IN THE MOUNTAINS

HAVE IS IRREGULAR

SHE HAS A DOG NOT SHE HAVES

Negative
HE DOES NOT LIVE IN FRANCE = HE DOENST LIVE IN FRANCE
SHE DOES NOT LIVE IN FRANCE = SHE DOESNT LIVE IN FRANCE
IT DOES NOT LIVE IN FRANCE = IT DOESNT LIVE IN FRANCE

Questions
WHERE DOES HE LIVE ?
WHERE DOES SHE LIVE ?
WHERE DOES IT LIVE ?

Yes /no questions Shorts answers

DOES HE LIVE IN FRANCE ? YES. HE DOES


DOES SHE LIVE IN FRANCE ? NO, SHE DOESNT.
DOES IT LIVE IN THE MOUNTAINS? YES, IT DOES
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

GRAMMAR SUMMARY

Present simple
ATENCION : EN EL PRESENTE SIMPLE POSITIVO
POSITIVE AADIMOS S AL VERBO CON HE,SHE, IT;
PERO NO CON I, YOU, WE Y THEY.
I START AT 6.30
YOU START AT 6.30
WE START AT 6.30
THEY START AT 6.30
HE STARTS AT 6.30
SHE STARTS AT 6.30
IT STARTS AT 6.30

Negative
ATENCION: CON I,YOU,WE,Y THEY EL NEGATIVO
I DONT START AT 6.30 ES DONT + INFINITIVO.
YOU DONT START AT 6.30 CON HE,SHE,IT EL NEGATIVO
WE DONT START AT 6.30 ES DOESNT + INFINITIVO
THEY DONT START AT 6.30

HE DOESNT START AT 6.30


SHE DOESNT START AT 6.30
IT DOESNT START AT 6.30

Questions ATENCION: EL VERBO AUXILIAR EN PREGUNTAS


CON I,YOU,WE,Y THEY ES DO;
WHEN DO I START ? CON HE,SHE,IT ES DOESNT
WHEN DO YOU START ?
WHEN DO WE START ?
WHEN DO THEY START ?

WHEN DOES HE START ?


WHEN DOES SHE START ?
WHEN DOES IT START ?

Yes /no questions Short answers


DO YOU HAVE A CAMERA ? NO,I DONT/ NO,WE DONT
DO THEY HAVE A CAMERA ? YES ,THEY DO
DOES HE LIKE CHINESE FOOD ? YES, HE DOES
DOES SHE LIKE CHINESE FOOD ? NO, SHE DOESNT
DOES IT LIKE CHINESE FOOD ? YES,IT DOES
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

GRAMMAR SUMMARY

ARTICLES

INDETERMINADO
A/AN=UN/ UNA(SINGULAR)

SE USA PARA MENCIONAR UNA COSA POR PRIMERA VEZ

SHE HAS A FLAT IN LONDON


CAN I HAVE A HAM SANDWICH ?
SHES A NURSE (TRABAJOS)

DETERMINADO
THE= EL,LA,LOS,LAS, (PLURAL,SING.MAS.FEM.)

SE USA CUANDO NOS REFERIMOS A UNA COSA YA MENCIONADA


ANTERIORMENTE

THE FLAT (=HER FLAT) IS VERY NICE


THE HAM SANDWICH IS HORRIBLE
THE TIMES (PERIODICOS)
THE THAMES,THE SENA (RIOS)

NO ARTICLES

COSAS EN GENERAL

I HAVE... TEA AND TOAST FOR BREAKFAST


... BOOKS ARE EXPENSIVE
I LIKE TALKING ... PHOTOGRAPHS
DO YOU LIKE ... CHINESE FOOD ?

COMIDAS , SITIOS , TRANSPORTES

I HAVE... BREAKFAST /LUNCH/DINNER


I GO/COME ... HOME
I GO/COME TO ... SCHOOL/UNIVERSITY /WORK/BED
IM AT ... WORK/ ON...HOLIDAY
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

GRAMMAR SUMMARY

ADVERBS OF FRECUENCY

0% 50% 100%
NEVER SOMETIMES OFTEN USUALLY ALWAYS

SOMETIMES &USUALLY

SE PUEDEN COLOCAR EN CUALQUIER SITIO DE LA FRASE ,AL PRINCIPIO,AL FINAL , O COMO


LOS DEMAS,DELANTE DEL VERBO PRINCIPAL (NO DEL AUXILIAR) .

OFTEN,NEVER & ALWAYS

SIEMPRE SE COLOCAN DELANTE DEL VERBO PRINCIPAL ( NO DEL AUXILIAR)

I NEVER GO TO CINEMA

THEY DONT (OFTEN/ALWAYS) EAT IN RESTAURANTS

CON NEVER,NUNCA SE PONE DONT,PUESTO QUE NO SE PUEDEN PONER DOS NEGACIONES


JUNTAS

THEY NEVER EAT IN RESTAURANTS

EVERY MORNING/EVENING.................. TODOS LOS DIAS /TODAS LAS NOCHES


EVERY DAY................................................ CADA DIA
EVERY FRIDAY.......................................... CADA VIERNES
(ONCE) A WEEK........................................ UNA VEZ A LA SEMANA
(TWICE) A MONTH.................................... DOS VECES AL MES
(THREE,FOUR,FIVE...) TIMES A YEAR...TRES,CUATRO,CINCO VECES AL AO
ABOUT ONCE A WEEK.............................. ALREDEDOR DE UNA VEZ A LA SEMANA

PREPOSITIONS

IN, ON, AT, TO, BY, NEAR, WITH


AT =PARA SITIOS PEQUEOS (ARRIVE AT PLACE/A HOTEL/A CINEMA/A STATION
IN = PARA SITIOS GRANDES ( ARRIVE IN A TOWN/IN A COUNTRY)

THE = SEGUIDO DE PALABRA QUE COMIENZA CON VOCAL SE PRONUNCIA DI


THE = SEGUIDO DE PALABRA QUE COMIENZA CON CONSONANTE SE PRONUNCIA DE
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

REWRITING A TEXT
Keiko Wilson is japanese.But Keiko lives in New York because Keiko is married to an
American.Keiko is a interpreter.Keiko likes New York because New York is
interesting,but Keiko husband,Walter,doesnt like New York.Walter wants to leave and
live in the country.

Keiko and Walter have two children.Walter the two children and the two childrens dog
out of the city in Walters free time.Walter and the children go walking in summer and
skiing in winter,but Keiko doesnt go with Walter and the children because Keiko doesnt
have any free time.

Keiko Wilson is japanese.But she lives in New York because she is married to an
American.She is an interpreter.She Likes New York because it is interesting.but her
husband,Walter doesnt like it .he wants to leave and live in the country.

They have two children.He takes them and their dog out of the city in his free time.
They go walking in summer and skiing in winter.But she doesnt go whith them .because
she doesnt have any free time

PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND POSSESSIVES ADJECTIVES

PETER DRIVES A CAR

EL SUJETO VA DELANTE DEL VERBO EL VERBO EL OBJETO DE DETRS DEL VERBO

PRONOMBRES SUJETO PRONOMBRES OBJETOS ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS

I YO ME MI MY MIO
YOU TU YOU TU YOUR TUYO
HE EL HIM SU DE EL HIS SUYO
SHE ELLA HER SU DE ELLA HER SUYA
IT ESTO IT ESTO ITS ESTOS
WE NOSOTROS US NOSOTROS OUR NUESTROS
THEY ELLOS THEM ELLOS THEIR SUYOS
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

GRAMMAR SUMMARY
UNITS 1 TO 4 , RESUME(I)
TO BE

AFIRMATIVO CONTRAIDO INTERROGATIVO

I AM IM AM I?
YOU ARE YOURE ARE YOU?
HE/SHE/IT/...IS HES/SHES/ITS IS...HE/SHE/IT?
WE ARE WERE ARE WE?
YOU ARE YOURE ARE YOU?
THEY ARE THEYRE ARE THEY?

NEGATIVO NEG.CONTRAIDO

I AM NOT IM NOT
YOU ARE NOT YOURENT
HE/SHE/ IT HE/SHE/IT...ISNT
WERE ARE NOT WE ARENT
YOU ARE NOT YOU ARENT
THEY ARE NOT THEY ARENT

IS HE HOT? YES HE IS
IS SHE HOT? NO SHE ISNT
IS IT HOT? NO IT ISNT

EL AUXILIAR DOES
SOLO SE USA EN PREGUNTAS,NEGACIONES O RESPUESTAS CORTAS

AUXILIAR + SUJETO + VERBO PRINCIPAL

WHERE DOES MARK LIVE? MARK LIVES IN BROADWAY


WHAT DOES HE DO? HES A JOURNALIST

PREGUNTAS NEGACIONES RESPUESTAS CORTAS

DOES HE? NO HE DOESNT YES HE DO


DOES SHE? NO SHE DOESNT YES SHE DO
DOES IT? NO IT DOESNT YES IT DO

ADJETIVOS
ADJ.POSESIVOS ADJ.DEMOSTRATIVOS ADJ.INTERROGATIVOS

MY MIO THIS ESTE WHAT? QUE?


YOUR TUYO VUESTRO THAT ESO WICH? CUAL?
HIS SU (MASC.) THESE ESTOS WHOSE? DE QUIEN?
HER SU (FEM.) THOSE ESOS HOW MUCH? CUANTO?
ITS SU (NEUTRO) HOW MANY? CUANTOS?
OUR NUESTRO
THEIR SUYOS (MASC. Y FEM)
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

GRAMMAR SUMMARY
UNITS 1 TO 4 , RESUME (II)
PLURALES DE LOS NOMBRES

A LA MAYORIA SE LES AADE S


SI LOS NOMBRES TERMINAN EN S,SH,CH.SE LES AADE ES
SI EL NOMBRE TERMINA EN CONSONANTE + Y;SE CAMBIA Y POR IES
SI EL NOMBRE TERMINA EN VOCAL + Y;NO CAMBIA Y SE LE AADE S

LA R SILENCIOSA

R + VOCAL = SE PRONUNCIA
R + CONSONANTE = NO SE PRONUNCIA
R + NADA (FINAL) = NO SE PRONUNCIA

ARTICULOS

INDETERMINADO: A/AN UN/UNA SINGULAR


SE USA PARA MENCIONAR UNA COSA POR PRIMERA VEZ

DETERMINADO:THE EL,LA,LOS,LAS (PLURAL,SINGULAR,MASC. Y FEMENINO)


SE USA CUANDO NOS REFERIMOS A UNA COSA YA MENCIONADA.TAMBIEN LLEVAN
THE, LOS PERIODICOS Y LOS RIOS.

NO ARTICULOS

NO LLEVAN ARTICULO
LAS COSAS EN GENERALLAS COMIDAS ,LOS LUGARES Y LOS TRANSPORTES

I HAVE...TEA
...BOOKS ARE EXPENSIVE
I LIKE TAKING ...PHOTOGRAPHS
DO YOU LIKE...CHINESE FOOD?

I HAVE ...BREAKFAST/DINNER/LUNCH
I GO/COME...HOME
I GO/COME...SCHOOL/UNIVERSITY/WORK/BED
I GO/COME BY...TRAIN/CAR/BUS/TAXI
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

THERE IS HAY UN/UNA


THERE ES EL SUJETO
THERE ARE HAY VARIOS

FORMA POSITIVA
THERES A SOFA (THERE IS) SINGULAR
THERE ARE TWO BOOKS PLURAL

FORMA NEGATIVA
THERE ISNT AN ARMCHAIR SINGULAR
THERE ARENT ANY FLOWERS PLURAL

FORMA INTERROGATIVA
IS THERE A TABLE ? SINGULAR
ARE THERE ANY PHOTOS? PLURAL

( ANY SE PONE CON PLURAL )

SHORT ANSWERS
POSITIVO SINGULAR................YES,THERE IS
POSITIVO PLURAL ................... YES,THERE ARE

NEGATIVO SINGULAR............. NO,THERE ISNT


NEGATIVO PLURAL................. NO THERE ARENT
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

SOME / ANY

ORACIONES AFIRMAT. PLURALES


SOME
NUMEROS INDEFINIDOS ORACIONES NEGATIV. PLURALES
ANY
PREGUNTAS PLURALES

ARE THERE ANY ?


ARE ANY ?

DIRECTIONS
EXCUSE ME ,IS THERE A BOOKSHOP .... NEAR HERE ,PLEASE ?
WHERE IS THE BOOKSHOP ?

RESPUESTAS
WITH PREPOSITIONS

GO STRAIGHT ON.................SIGA RECTO


ON THE LEFT......................... A LA IZQUIERDA
ON THE RIGHT...................... A LA DERECHA
TAKE THE FIRS/SECOND... STREET ON...........TOME LA 1,2.....CALLE A
TURN LEFT..............................TUERCE A LA IZQUIERDA
TURN RIGHT.......................... TUERCE A LA DERERCHA
GO PAST.................................. PASAR DE LARGO
TO CROSS............................... CRUZAR
CROSSROADS....................... CRUCE DE CAMINOS
ICE RINK................................ PABELLON DE PATINAJE
ROUND ABOUT.................... ROTONDA
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

PRONOMBRES Y ADJETIVOS DEMOSTRATIVOS


(MASCULINO,FEMENINO Y NEUTRO)

THIS /THAT/ THESE/ THOSE/

THIS (ESTO/A)SINGULAR..............CERCA DE NOSOTROS


THAT( ESE/A,ESO/A,AQUEL,AQUELLO/A)SINGULAR...LEJOS DE NOSOTROS

THESE (ESTOS/ESTAS)PLURAL ...CERCA DE NOSOTROS


THOSE (ESOS/AS,AQUELOS /AS)PLURAL...LEJOS DE NOSOTROS

CAN/COULD WAS /WERE

VB PODER Y SABER VB SER Y ESTAR (PRESENTE SIMPLE )

CAN...PRESENTE WAS......PASADO
COULD... PASADO WERE .......PASADO

CAN ES UN VERBO MODAL, NO LLEVA INFINITIVO (TO)

ABILITY= SABER HACER ALGO


CAN
PERMISSION=PERMISO PARA HACER ALGO
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

CAN

FORMA AFIRMATIVA:
SUJETO + CAN + VERBO PRINCIPAL
I CAN DANCE

FORMA NEGATIVA:
CANNOT (+FORMAL)
I,YOU,WE...+ CAN + CAN NOT + VERBO EN INFINITIVO
CANT (+INFORMAL)

SUJETO + CANT + VERBO PRINCIPAL


I CANT DANCE

FORMA INTERROGATIVA:

CAN + SUJETO + VERBO PRINCIPAL ?


CAN YOU PLAY THE PIANO?

AFIRMATIVA: YES, I CAN


RESPUESTAS CORTAS
NEGATIVA : NO,I CANT
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

PRESENT TO BE IN THE PAST

PAST SIMPLE TENSE

POSITIVO
(ERA)

I WAS YO FUI YO ESTUVE


HE WAS EL FUE EL ESTUVO
SHE WAS ELLA FUE ELLA ESTUVO
IT WAS ESTO FUE ESTO ESTUVO
WE WERE NOSOTROS FUIMOS NOSOTROS ESTUVIMOS
YOU WERE TU FUISTE TU ESTUVISTE
VOSOTROS FUISTEIS VOSOTROS ESTUVISTEIS
THEY WERE ELLOS FUERON ELLOS ESTUVIERON

NEGATIVO
(ERA)

I WASNT YO NO FUI YO NO ESTUVE


HE WASNT EL NO FUE EL NO ESTUVO
SHE WASNT ELLA NO FUE ELLA NO ESTUVO
IT WASNT ESTO NO FUE ESTO NO ESTUVO
WE WERENT NOSOTROS NO FUIMOS NOSOTROS NO ESTUVIMOS
YOU WERENT TU NO FUISTE TU NO ESTUVISTES
VOSOTROS NO FUISTEIS VOSOTROS NO ESTUVISTEIS
THEY WERENT ELLOS NO FUERON ELLOS NO ESTUVIERON

INTERROGATIVO
WAS I AT CINEMA? FUI YO AL CINE ?
WAS HE AT CINEMA? FUE EL AL CINE?
WAS SHE AT CINEMA FUE ELLA AL CINE?
WERE WE AT CINEMA? FUIMOS NOSOTROS AL CINE?
WERE YOU AT CINEMA FUISTEIS TU/VOSOTROS AL CINE?
WERE THEY AT CINEMA FUERON ELLOS AL CINE?

SHORT ANSWERS
YES,SHE WAS
NO, SHE WASNT
YES,THEY WERE
NO, THEY WERENT
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

CAN PAST SIMPLE TENSE = COULD

POSITIVO EN PASADO
I COULD YO PUDE
YOU COULD TU/VOSOTROS PUDISTEIS
HE/SHE /IT COULD EL/ELLA/ESTO/ PUDO
WE COULD NOSOTROS PUDIMOS
THEY COULD ELLOS PUDIERON

NEGATIVO EN PASADO
I COULDNT YO NO PUDE
YOU COULDNT TU/VOSOTROS NO PUDISTEIS
HE/SHE/IT COULDNT EL/ELLA/ESTO NO PUDO
WE COULDNT NOSOTROS NO PUDIMOS
THEY COULDNT ELLOS NO PUDIERON

INTERROGATIVO EN PASADO
COULD I? YO PUDE?
COULD YOU? TU/VOSOTROS PUDISTEIS?
COULD HE/SHE/IT? EL/ELLA/ESTO PUDO?
COULD WE? NOSOTROS PUDIMOS?
COULD THEY? ELLOS PUDIERON?

+ INFINITIVO SIN TO
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

PAST SIMPLE

REGULAR AND IRREGULARS VERBS

DEPENDIENDO DE CMO SE FORMA EL PASADO ,SE SABE SI LOS VERBOS


SON REGULARES O IRREGULARES;ASI PUES LA NORMA GENERAL ES:

SI EL PASADO ES EL INFINITIVO + ED, SON VERBOS REGULARES

EJ. EARN EARNED


START STARTED

LA TERMINACION ED ES IGUAL PARA TODAS LAS PERSONAS

EXCEPCION:CUANDO EL INFINITIVO TERMINA EN E SOLO SE LE AADE


LA D EJ. DIE DIED

LA PRONUNCIACION ES CASI IGUAL,SOLO QUE SE HACE UN ESPECIAL


ENFASIS SOBRE LA D FINAL.

EN LOS VERBOS IRREGULARES,NO HA Y NORMAS.ESTAN CONSTRUIDOS


TAL Y COMO ESTAN Y HAY QUE APRENDERSELOS DE MEMORIA:
EJ.COME =CAME BUY BOUGHT

EL PASADO DE LOS IRREGULARES,TAL Y COMO PASABA CON LOS


REGULARES ,ES IGUAL PARA TODAS LAS PERSONAS.
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

QUESTIONS AND NEGATIVES

DID

ES EL PASADO DE DO Y DOES

DID YOU GO TO CINEMA YESTERDAY?


YES ,I DID
NO,I DIDNT

CUANDO ESTUDIABAMOS EL AUXILIAR DO/ DOES,VEIAMOS QUE


CUANDO ESTE LLEVABA S (DOES ), EL VERBO PRINCIPAL NO LA
LLEVABA;

ASI PUES CON EL PASADO DE DO/DOES=DID,PASA IGUAL: AL LLEVAR


DID LA D,EL VERBO PRINCIPAL NO LA LLEVA

DID YOU LIVED IN ENGLAND?


SONIDOS DEL PASADO:

/T/ /D/ /ID/

LOOKED DIED VISITED


LIKED LOVED STARTED
FINISHED MOVED NEEDED

EL PRIMERO ES SORDO,EL SEGUNDO ES SONORO ,Y APENAS HAY


DIFERENCIA;

PERO EL TERCERO /ID) SI QUE HAY QUE HACERLO NOTAR


ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

EJEMPLOS:
DID YOU KNOW THAT VINCENT VAN GOGH SOLD ONLY TWO OF HIS
PAINTINGS WHILE HE WAS ALIVE?
HE DIDNT SELL...

DID YOU KNOW THAT THE ACTRESS SHIRLEY TEMPLE WAS A


MILLIONAIRE BEFORE SHE WAS TEN?
SHE WANST MILLIONAIRE...

DID YOU KNOW SHAKESPEARE SPELLED HIS NAME IN ELEVEN


DIFFERENT WAYS
I DIDNT KNOW THAT SHAKESPEARE...

DID YOU KNOW IN 1979 IT SNOWED IN THE SAHARA DESERT?


IT DIDNT KNOW THAT SNOWED ....

DID YOU KNOW THAT KING LOUIS XIV OF FRANCE HAD A BATH ONLY
THREE TIMES IN HIS LIFE?
HE DIDNT HAVE MORE THAN THREE BATHS ...

DID YOU KNOW THAT THE AMERICAN PRESIDENT GEORGE


WHASHINGTON GREW MARIJUANA IN HIS GARDEN?

I DIDNT KNOW THAT....


ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

TIME EXPRESSIONS
MONTHS
YEAR
IN PART OF THE DAY
SEASONS
CENTURIES

DAYS
ON DATES
WEEKENDS

TIME
AT WEEKENDS
NIGHT

NMEROS ORDINALES:

THE FIRST
THE SECOND
THE THIRD
THE FOURTH
THE FIFTH
THE SIXTH
THE SEVENTH
THE EIGHTH
THE NINTH

THE ELEVENTH
THE TWELFT
THE THIRTEENTH
THE TWENTIETH
THE FOURTIEH

WERE WHEN YOU BORN?


EL 03.04.1992
THE THIRD OF APRIL NINETEEN NINETY TWO
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

LIKE AND WOULD LIKE SOME AND ANY

I WOULD=Id

I WOULD LIKE (M E GUSTARA)

Id LIKE A DRINK
YOUd LIKE A DRINK
HEd LIKE A DRINK
SHEd LIKE A DRINK
ITd LIKE A DRINK
WEd LIKE A DRINK
THEYd LIKE A DRINK

SIN S FINAL
NOMBRES INCONTABLES SIN ARTICULO
MASA Y LIQUIDOS

CON S AL FINAL
NOMBRES CONTABLES CON ARTICULO
PUEDEN LLEVAR NMERO

EN FRASES AFIRMATIVAS
SOME CAN I HAVE? (PETICIONES INTERROGATIVAS)
WOULD YOU LIKE? (OFRECIMIENTOS INTERROG.)

EN PREGUNTAS Y FRASES NEGATIVAS


ANY EN FRASES NEGATIVAS (EXC.PETICIONES E
INTERROGACIONES QUE VAN CON SOME)
Y NOMBRES EN PLURAL

HOW MUCH? CON NOMBRES INCONTABLES (CUANTO/CUANTA)


HOW MANY? CON NOMBRES CONTABLES (CUANTOS CUANTAS)
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

CAN I? PUEDO YO?


CAN YOU? PUEDES TU?
COULD I? PODRA YO?
COULD YOU? PODRAS TU?
I LIKE ME GUSTA
I WOULD(ID) LIKE ME GUSTARA

PREGUNTAR EN PASADO O NEGACIONES:

DID+SUBJET+INFINITIVO SIN TO

COMPARATIVES ADJECTIVES

FAST SLOW
SMALL BIG
CLEAN DIRTY
SAFE DANGEROUS
QUIET NOISY
OLD MODERN/YOUNG
HALTHY UNHEALTHY
FRIENDLY UNFRIENDLY
INTERESTING BORING
EXPENSIVE CHEAP
GOOD BAD

1. THE CITY IS MORE EXPENSIVE THAN THE COUNTRY


2. THE COUNTRY IS CHEAPER THAN THE CITY
3. THE CITY IS NOISIER THAN THE COUNTRY
4. THE COUNTRY IS SAFER THAN THE CITY
5. THE CITY IS MORE INTERESTING THAN THE COUNTRY
6. THE COUNTRY IS HEALTHIER THAN THE CITY
7. THE CITY IS BETTER THAN THE CITY

SOLO EN CASOS EXCEPCIONALES Y MUY COLOQUIALES,SE


EMPLEA EL MORE + EL SUPERLATIVO ER (MORE BETTER) .
NORMALMENTE SE USA UNO U OTRO.
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

FORMACION DEL COMPARATIVO Y DEL SUPERLATIVO


EXISTEN DOS MANERAS DE FORMAR EL COMPARATIVO Y EL
SUPERLATIVO:

AADIENDO AL POSITIVO ER PARA EL COMPARATIVO Y EST


PARA EL SUPERLATIVO

1. TODOS LOS MONOSILABOS:


TALL TALLER THE TALLEST
LONG LONGER THE LONGEST
SHORT SHORTER THE SHORTEST
OLD OLDER THE OLDEST
SAFE SAFER THE SAFEST

2. LOS BISILABOS TERMINADOS EN Y,-ER,-LE,-OW:


HAPPY HAPPIER THE HAPPIEST
NOISY NOISIER THE NOISIEST
DIRTY DIRTIER THE DIRTIEST

MODIFICACIONES:

LOS TERMINADOS EN E SOLO SE LES AADE R Y ST PARA EL COMPARATIVO Y EL


SUPERLATIVO:NICE NICER THE NICEST

LOS TERMINADOS EN Y PRECEDIDA DE CONSONANTE TRANSFORMAN LA Y GRIEGA EN


I LATINA:DRY DRIER THE DRIEST.

LOS TERMINADOS EN CONSONANTE SIMPLE PRECEDIDA DE UNA SOLA VOCAL DE


SONIDO BREVE,DUPLICAN LA CONSONANTE:

BIG BIGGER THE BIGGEST


HOT HOTTER THE HOTTEST
THIN THINNER THE THINNEST

ANTEPONIENDO AL POSITIVO LA PALABRA MORE (MS) PARA EL COMPARATIVO Y THE


MOST(EL QUE MS) PARA EL SUPERLATIVO.
(PARA ADJETIVOS CON DOS O MAS SILABAS)

BORING MORE BORING THE MOST BORING


BEAUTIFUL MORE BEAUTIFUL THE MOST BEAUTIFUL
INTELLIGENT MORE INTELLIGENT THE MOST BEAUTIFUL

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

GOOD BETTER THE BEST


BAD WORSE THE WORST
FAR FARTHER THE FARTHEST
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

HAVE GOT
(GOT INDICA POSESION)

POSITIVE POSITIVE

I HAVE A CAT I HAVE GOT A CAT (IVE)


YOU HAVE A CAT YOU HAVE GOT A CAT (YOUVE)
WE HAVE A CAT WE HAVE GOT A CAT (WEVE)
THEY HAVE A CAT THEY HAVE GOT A CAT (THEYVE)
HE HAS A GARDEN HE HAS GOT A GARDEN (HES)
SHE HAS A GARDEN SHE HAS GOT A GARDEN (SHES)
IT HAS A A GARDEN IT HAS GOT A GARDEN(ITS)

NEGATIVE NEGATIVE

I DONT HAVE A DOG I HAVENT GOT A DOG


YOU DONT HAVE A DOG YOU HAVENT GOT A DOG
WE DONT HAVE A DOG WE HAVENT GOT A DOG
THEY DONT HAVR A DOG THEY HAVENT GOT A DOG
HE DOESNT HAVE A GARAGE HE HASNT GOT A GARAGE
SHE DOENST HAVE A GARAGE SHE HASNT GOT A GARAGE
IT DOESNT HAVE A GARAGE IT HASNT GOT A GARAGE

QUESTIONS QUESTIONS
DO I HAVE ANY MONEY? HAVE I GOT ANY MONEY?
DO YOU HAVE ANY MONEY? HAVE YOU GOT ANY MONEY?
DO WE HAVE ANY MONEY? HAVE WE GOT ANY MONEY?
DO THEY HAVE ANY MONEY? HAVE THEY GOT ANY MONEY?
DOES HE HAVE A SISTER? HAS HE GOT A SISTER?
DOES SHE HAVE A SISTER? HAS SHE GOT A SISTER?
DOES HIT HAVE A SISTER? HAS IT GOT A SISTER?

SHORT ANWSER

NO,I HAVENT YES, I HAVE NO,SHE HASNT YES,SHE HAS

EN PASADO NO HAY GOT!!


HAVE=HAVE GOT / I HAVE = IVE / I DONT HAVE = I HAVENT GOT
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

HAY UNA FORMA DE COMPARATIVO DE IGUALDAD MUY COMUN:

AS...AS
(TAN/TANTO... COMO)

ORACIONES AFIRMATIVAS ...BODY


SOME Y ...THING
PREGUNTAS ... WHERE

ORACIONES NEGATIVAS
ANY OFRECIMIENTOS Y FAVORES (EN INTERROGATIVO)
ORACIONES CON EL VERBO EN NEGATIVO
EJ.THERE ISNT ANYBODY

NO CON EL VERBO EN POSITIVO


EJ. THERE IS NOBODY HERE

ESTE NOINDICA NEGACION,ENTONCES DEBE IR EN VERBO EN FORMA

AFIRMATIVA!!

EVERYBODY

EVERY ORACIONES AFIRMATIVAS EVERYTHING

EVERYWHERE

CUANDO EL VERBO FUNCIONA COMO SUJETO,ESTE (EL VERBO),VA EN

SINGULAR Y EN TERCERA PERSONA


ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

EVERYONE TODO EL MUNDO

EVERYBODY TODO EL MUNDO

NOBODY NADIE

NOWHERE NINGUN SITIO

EVERYWHERE EN TODAS PARTES

EVERYDAY TODOS LOS DIAS

EVERYTHING TODAS LAS COSAS

NOTHING NADA

DIRECTIONS (2)
ALONG A LO LARGO

DOWN HACIA ABAJO

UP HACIA ARRIBA

INTO HACIA DENTRO

OUT OF HACIA FUERA

OVER POR ENCIMA

PAST PASAR JUNTO A

THROUGH ATRAVESAR

UNDER POR DEBAJO DE


ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

PRESENT CONTINOUS

EL PRESENTE CONTINUO,SE FORMA DE LA SIGUIENTE


MANERA:

VERBO SER(en presente simple)+ VERBO EN INFINITIVO + ING

EJEMPLO : I AM +WORK+ ING = IM WORKING

El presente continuo, expresa un hecho o una accion en curso: AHORA!

FORMACION :

TERMINADOS EL INFINITIVO EN E:
CAMBIA E POR ING

COME COMING / SMOKE SMOKING

VERBOS CORTOS CON UNA SOLA VOCAL


(consn vocal consn),
REPITE LA ULTIMA CONSONANTE :

RUN RUNNING / SIT SITTING / SWIM SWIMMING

HAY QUE APRENDERSELOS DE MEMORIA:

LIE LYING / DIE DYING

LOS TERMINADOS EN Y : SE LES AADE ING

STUDY STUDYING / PLAY PLAYING


ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

PRESENT CONTINOUS
SHES HAVING A SHOWER IN THE BATHROOM

WE ARE EATING A SANDIWCH IN THE KITCHEN

SHES WRITING TO HER MOTHER IN THE LIVING ROOM

WE ARE MAKING A TEA IN THE KITCHEN

HES READING A BOOK IN THE LIVING ROOM

THEY ARE CLEANING THESE TEETH IN THE BATHROOM

IM LISTENING TO MUSIC IN THE LIVING ROOM

THEY PUTTING ON THE CLOTHES IN THE BEDROOM

WE ARE PLAYING PING PONG IN THE BEDROOM

HES WASHING THE PLATES (OR WASHING UP) IN THE KITCHEN

LISTEN! PAT IS PLAYING THE PIANO

THEY ARE BUILDING A NEW HOTEL IN THE MOMENT

LOOK! SOMEBODY IS SWIMMING IN THE RIVER

YOU STANDING ON MY FOOT.OH IM SORRY

HURRY UP! THE BUS IS COMMING

WHERE ARE YOU,GEORGE ? IN THE KITCHEN. IM COOKING A MEAL

HELLO.CAN I SPEAK TO ANN ,PLEASE ? SHES HAVING A SHOWER AT THE


MOMENT,CAN YOU PHONE AGAIN LATER ?
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

QUE ESTA OCURRIENDO AHORA?


IM NOT WASHING MY HAIR

IT IS SNOWING

IM SITTING ON A CHAIR

I ARENT EATING A SANDWICH

IT ISNT RAINING

IM LEARNING ENGLISH

IM NOT LISTENING

IM NOT SMOKING A CIGARETTTE

IM NOT READING A NEWSPAPER

WHAT IS SHE READING ?

WHAT IS HE EATING ?

WHAT IS SHE CRYING ?

WHAT ARE THEY LOOKING ?

WHERE IS HE DOING ?

WHY ARE THEY LAUGHING ?


ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS :
LOS ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS SON LOS QUE COMO SU PROPIO
NOMBRE INDICA, DENOTAN POSESION:
MY HOUSE!

ESTOS SON:
MY MI...
YOUR TU...
HIS SU (DE EL)...
HER SU (DE ELLA)...
ITS NEUTRO PARA COSAS
OUR NUESTRO...
YOUR VUESTRO...
THEIR ELLOS...

PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS:
LOS PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS, TAMBIEN DENOTAN POSESION
PERO SUSTITUYEN AL NOMBRE.(EN ESTE CASO A CASA).
ITS MINE !

ESTOS SON:

MINE EL MIO...
YOURS EL TUYO...
HIS LOS SUYOS (DE EL)...
HERS LOS SUYOS (DE ELLA)...
ITS NEUTRO PARA COSAS
OURS LO NUESTRO...
YOURS LO VUESTRO...
THEIRS LO DE ELLOS...
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

GOING TO (VOY A...)


SE EMPLEA EN UN FUTURO MAS LEJANO QUE EL PRESENTE
CONTINUO,

SE FORMA AS:

SUBJET+VB TO BE+GOING TO+VERBO EN INFINITIVO

AFIRMATIVO:
YOU ARE GOING TO...

NEGATIVO:
YOU ARENT GOING TO LEARN...

INTERROGATIVO
WHY IS SHE GOING TO LEARN... ?

EJEMPLOS

IM GOING TO WATCH T.V.

IM NOT GOING TO WATCH T.V.

IM NOT GOING TO CATCH A BUS

IM NOT GOING TO EAT A RESTAURANT

IM NOT GOING TO MEET SOME FRIENDS

IM GOING TO COOK A MEAL

IM NOT GOING TO GO SHOPPING

IM GOING TO WASH MY HAIR

IM GOING TO DO MY HOMEWORK
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

GOING TO (VOY A...) 2


TAMBIEN USAMOS GOING TO,CUANDO NOSOTROS PODEMOS VER ALGO
AHORA QUE SEGURAMENTE SUCEDER EN EL FUTURO:

ITS GOING TO RAIN=VA A LLOVER

IM GOING TO SNEEZE=VOY A ESTORNUDAR

WERE GOING TO MISS THE BUSS=VAMOS A PERDER EL AUTO..

THEYRE GOING TO HAVE A PARTY=VAN A HACER UNA ...

IM GOING TO FAIL THE EXAM=VOY A SUSPENDER EL...

HES GOING TO PASS THE EXAM=EL VA A APROBAR EL...

YOURE ARE GOING TO DROP THE PLATES=VAS A TIRAR LOS...

THEYRE GOING TO KISS=ELLOS VAN A BESARSE

CUANDO APARECEN LOS VERBOS TO GO Y TO COME SE USA


GOING Y COMING

IM GOING TO GO TO HOLLAND TOMORROW


SHES GOING TO COME THIS EVENING

HE WENT TO STATION TO CATCH THE TRAIN

SHE TURNED ON THE TV TO WATCH THE FILM

ARE YOU GOING TO THE PUB TO HAVE A BEER ?

DID YOU OPEN THE DOOR TO GET SOME FRESH AIR

I PHONED BILL TO TELL THE NEWS

ARE YOU LEARNING ENGLISH TO GET A BETTER JOB ?

THEYRE STUDYING HARD TO PASS THEIR EXAM

IM GOING HOME EARLY TO FINISH MY HOMEWORK


ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

ULTIMAS ANOTACIONES DEL CURSO

WHAT WAS THE WEATHER LIKE IN.... QUE TIEMPO HACE EN....

IT WAS SUNNY AND WARM.18 DEGREES CELSIUS

IM AGREE.....ESTOY DE ACUERDO

I DONT AGREE....NO ESTOY DE ACUERDO

I THINK SO ....... PIENSO QUE SI

I DONT THINK SO.....PIENSO QUE NO

I GONNA= IM GOING TO

I WANNA= I WANT YOU

TO = HACIA (MOVIMIENTO)
HOME
WORK
T = HACIA (ESTATICO) SCHOOL
UNIVERSITY

RESTAURANTES
AT LUGARES PEQUEOS CASA
ARRIVE TRABAJO...
CIUDADES
IN LUGARES GRANDES
PAISES
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998

FUTURO

PRESENTE CONTINUO:
COSAS QUE VAN A SUCEDER INMEDIATAMENTE,POR EJEMPLO
LAS COSAS QUE SE APUNTAN EN UNA AGENDA:
IM MEETING HER TOMORROW

GOING TO:
FUTURO ALGO MAS LEJANO Y COSAS QUE VEMOS AHORAY
QUE VAN A SUCEDER:
IT GOING TO RAIN

WILL=IWILL=ILL:
ESPRESA UN FUTURO CON DECISION! ILL+INFINITIVO SIN TO
ILL RAIN !

SHALL:

ES UN VERBO AUXILIAR QUE SE USA PARA SUGERENCIAS:SE


USA EN PREGUNTAS+ SUJETO EN 1 PERSONAL +INFINITIVO
SIN TO.
WHAT SHALL WE DO? QUE PODEMOS HACER?
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MALAGA
ALVARO SOUVIRON CURSO 1997/1998
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

PRESENT PERFECT OR PAST SIMPLE?

1. SE USA EL PRESENT PERFECT PARA HABLAR GENERALMENTE SOBRE


EXPERIENCIAS PASADAS.

IVE BEEN ABROAD A LOT HE IDO AL EXTRANJERO MUCHO


HAVE YOU BEEN TO ROME? HAS ESTADO EN ROMA?

2. SE USA EL PASADO SIMPLE ,PARA HABLAR ACERCA DE CUANDO

I SAW YOUR SISTER YESTERDAY V A TU HERMANA AYER


WHEN DID SHE ARRIVE? CUANDO LLEG ELLA?

PREGUNTAS EN PRESENT PERFECT ( HAVE YOU EVER?...+ VERBO 3 COLUMNA)


ALGUNA VEZ?

PREGUNTAS RESPUESTAS
HAVE YOU EVER BEEN TO PARIS? YES,I WENT THERE 10 YEARS AGO
HAVE YOU EVER BROKEN A BONE YES,I BROKE MY LEG LAST YEAR
NO,IVE NEVER BROKEN A BONE

HAVE TO /DONT HAVE TO (TENGO QUE/NO TENGO QUE)

SE USA ACERCA DE: OBLIGACIN / NO OBLIGACIN

I HAVE TO WEAR A UNIFORM.ITS PART OF MY JOB

I DONT HAVE TO WORK TOMORROW.ITS SUNDAY

(NO SE CONTRAE HAVE NI HAS)


I HAVE TO TRAVEL A LOT NO IVE TRAVEL A LOT

EJEMPLOS:

DURING THE WEEK AT THE WEEKEND


I HAVE TO GET UP EARLY I HAVE TO COOK ON SATURDAY

I DONT HAVE TO USE PUBLIC TRANSPORT I HAVE TO DO HOUSEWOK

I DONT HAVE TO LOOK AFTER CHILDREN I DONT HAVE TO GO SHOPPING

38
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

SENTENCES TENSE NEGATIVE SENTENCES

HE LIVES NEAR HERE PRESENT SIMPLE HE DOENST LIVE NEAR HERE

SHES(HAS) BEEN TO USA PRESENT PERFECT SHE HASNT BEEN TO USA

WERE GOING TO BUY A CAR FUTURE(GOING TO) WE ARENT GOING TO BUY...

HES LOOKING FOR A JOB PRESENT CONTIN. HE ISNT LOOKING FOR A JOB

THEYRE OFTEN LATE FOR CLASS P.SIMPLE(TO BE) THEY ARENT OFTEN LATE...

I WENT TO THE CINEMA PAST SIMPLE I DIDNT GO TO THE CINEMA

SHE WAS TIRED LAST NIGHT PAST SIMPLE (BE) SHE WASNT TIRED LAST NIGHT

ON SUNDAY HES FLYING TO...P.CONTINUOUS (FUTURE) ON SUNDAY HE ISNT ..

HE WAS READING A BOOK PAST CONTINUOUS HE WASNT READING A BOOK

SE USA EL PAST SIMPLE Y NO EL PRESENT PERFECT


EN LAS PREGUNTAS QUE COMIENZAN POR
WHEN? O WHAT TIME?

GONE Y BEEN
HES GONE TO SPAIN HES BEEN TO SPAIN

SE HA IDO (Y ESTA ALL) HA ESTADO ( Y HA VUELTO)

39
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

PRONOMBRES Y ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS


SUBJECT PRONOUN OBJECTS PRONOUN POSSESIVE ADJECTIVE POSSESIVE PRONOUN

I YO ME M MY MI MINE EL MIO

YOU TU/VOSOTROS YOU TU/VOSOTROS YOUR TU YOURS EL TUYO/ LO VUESTRO

HE EL HIM EL (A EL) HIS SU (DE EL) HIS LOS SUYOS (DE EL)

SHE ELLA HER ELLA ( A ELLA) HER SU (DE ELLA) HERS LOS SUYOS (DE ELLA)

IT ESTO IT ESTO ITS SU (ANIMAL/COSA OURS LO NUESTRO

WE NOSOTROS US NOSOTROS OUR NUESTRO THEIRS LO DE ELLOS

THEY ELLOS THEM ELLOS THEIR SUYO

LOS PRONOMBRES PERSONALES DE SUJETO SON


LOS QUE REALIZAN LA ACCION

LOS PRONOMBRES OBJETOS,SON


LOS QUE RECIBEN LA ACCION
LOS ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS DENOTAN POSESIN: MI CASA!
CONCUERDAN CON EL POSEEDOR!!!

LOS PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS TAMBIEN DENOTAN


POSESION,PERO SUSTITUYEN AL NOMBRE,EN ESTE CASO A
CASA:ITS MINE
USA LOS PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS PARA HABLAR ACERCA DE
LAS POSESIONES DE LA GENTE.

SE PUEDE USAR EL NOMBRE PROPIO +S CON O SIN EL


NOMBRE:ITS PETERS CAR OR ITS PETERS.

CON LOS PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS,NO SE USA EL ARTICULO


THE: THIS IS THE MINE .

40
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

PRESENT PERFECT OR PAST SIMPLE? (II)

PRESENT PERFECT:

HAVE YOU EVER BEEN IN LONDON?


YES I HAVE

HAVE YOU EVER BROKEN YOUR LEG?


YES I HAVE

- USA EL PRESENT PERFECT PARA HABLAR GENERALMENTE ACERCA


DE EXPERIENCIAS PASADAS,
- CUANDO NO PUEDES DECIR O PREGUNTAR : CUANDO.

- USA EVER EN PREGUNTAS PARA EXPERIENCIAS Y ALGN TIEMPO


EN TU VIDA HASTA AHORA.

- USA NEVER EN NEGACIONES

PAST SIMPLE:
WHEN DID YOU GO TO LONDON?
I WENT TO LONDON IN 1989

WHEN DID YOU BREAK YOUR LEG?


I BROKE IT LAST JULY

- USA EL PASADO SIMPLE PARA DECIR O PREGUNTAR EXACTAMENTE


CUANDO HA SUCEDIDO UNA ACCION.

- SALO TAMBIEN CON YESTERDAY/LAST WEEKEND/IN 1986/SIX


YEARS..

- SALO EN PREGUNTAS QUE COMIENZAN POR WHEN? O WHAT TIME?

41
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

PRESENT CONTINUOUS (FUTURE)

USA EL PRESENTE CONTINUO


(+ UNA EXPRESION DE TIEMPO FUTURA)
PARA HABLAR ACERCA DE COMPROMISOS FUTUROS.

+ IM MEETING SOME FRIENDS TOMORROW EVENING

- THEY ARENT COMING TO THE PARTY ON SATURDAY

? WHAT ARE YOU DOING TONIGHT?

EL GOING TO ES SIMILAR, PRACTICAMENTE IGUAL

IM GOING TO THE THEATRE ON FRIDAY

(BE) + GOING TO ES POSIBLE PARA PLANES FUTUROS

IM GOING TO MEET SOME FRIENDS TONIGHT

PODEMOS USAR EL PRESENTE CONTINUO PARA


HABLAR ACERCA DE COSAS QUE ESTAN
SUCEDIENDO AHORA,EN ESTE MOMENTO.
NOW HES FLYING TO VIENA

THIS MONDAY HES GOING TO THE DENTIST

IN FACT , HES PLAYING SQUASH

42
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

PAST CONTINUOUS
STRUCTURE:
WAS/WERE + VERB.+ ING
PRESENT CONTINUOUS PAST CONTINUOUS

IM WORKING I WAS WORKING

THEYRE GOING HOME THEY WERE GOING HOME

WHERE ARE YOU GOING? WHERE WERE YOU GOING?

IT ISNT RAINING IT WASNT RAINING

IS IT SNOWING? WAS IT SNOWING?

YES,IT IS YES,IT WAS

USAMOS EL PAST CONTINUOUS PARA DESCRIBIR ACCIONES


EN PROGRESO EN UN TIEMPO PASADO ESPECIFICO

HABA CONTABA PERDA HABLABA

CONTANDO PERDIENDO HABLANDO

SE USA CUANDO DESCRIBIMOS UNA FOTO O UN DIBUJO

O CUANDO CONTAMOS UNA HISTORIA O UN CUENTO POR


EJEMPLO.

ERAN LAS SEIS EN PUNTO Y LA GENTE LLEGABA A CASA!

43
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

TIEMPOS VERBALES (RESUMEN)


El PRESENTE:
HAY DOS TIPOS DE PRESENTE ;
EL PRESENTE SIMPLE
QUE SE EMPLEA PARA ACCIONES QUE SE REALIZAN
HABITUALMENTE,DE VEZ EN CUANDO,A MENUDO,SIEMPRE O QUE NO SE
REALIZAN NUNCA.

HE LIVES IN MADRID
DOES SHE LIKES FISH?
THEY PLAY TENNIS EVERY SATURDAY

EL PRESENTE CONTINUO
EQUIVALE EN ESPAOL A ESTAR+ GERUNDIO .SE FORMA CON EL VERBO
TO BE+ ING AADIDO AL VERBO QUE SE CONJUGA.

WHAT ARE YOU DOING


IT IS RAINING
THE CHILDREN ARE NOT SLEEPING,THEY ARE PLAYING.

EL PASADO
EL PASADO SE EXPRESA DE ESTAS MANERAS:

EL SIMPLE PAST
CUANDO LA ACCION TUVO LUGAR EN UN MOMENTO CONCRETO DEL
PASADO Y YA ESTA COMPLETAMENTE TERMINADA.

SE FORMA AADIENDO AL VERBO LA TERMINACION ED EN FRASES


AFIRMATIVAS;DID EN INTERROGATIVAS Y DID NOT(DIDNT)
EN NEGATIVAS.

I WORKED A LOT YESTERDAY


I WENT TO THE CINEMA ON MONDAY
HE LIVED IN MADRID IN 1986

44
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

EL PRESENT PERFECT
CUANDO LA ACCION ,QUE COMENZ EN EL PASADO, CONTINUA HASTA
EL PRESENTE.

SE FORMA CON EL PRESENTE DEL VERBO TO HAVE SEGUIDO DEL


PARTICIPIO. (3 COLUMNA DE LOS VERBOS IRREGULARES)O EL
INFINITIVO + ED EN EL CASO DE LOS REGULARES

I HAVE WORKED A LOT TODAY


I HAVE BROKEN MY ARM

EL PAST CONTINUOUS:
SE FORMA CON EL PASADO WAS/WERE+ VERB+ ING

I WAS WORKING
THEY WERE GOING HOME

EL FUTURO DE INTENCION (GOING TO)


SE FORMA CON EL PRESENTE DEL VERBO TO BE SEGUIDO DE GOING TO
+UN INFINITIVO.

I AM GOING TO BUY
WHERE ARE YOU GOING TO SEE HER TOMORROW?

45
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

RESUMEN CONCISO Y FINAL DEL


PRESENTE,PASADOY FUTURO
TIEMPO ACCION FORMACION EJEMPLO TRADUCC
ION
PRESENT ACCIONES NORMALES LA PROPIA I PLAY TENNIS YO
SIMPLE QUE SE REALIZAN JUEGO AL
HABITUALMENTE TENIS

PRESENT ESTA PASANDO TO BE +ING ITS RAINING ESTA


CONTINUOUS AHORA. LLOVIEN
ESTAR + DO
GERUNDIO

PRESENTE ACCION PASADA SIGUE AHORA. TO HAVE + I HAVE ME ROMP


PERFECT PARTICIPIO BROKEN... UN
CUANDO NO SE PUEDE DECIR O HUESO.
PREGUNTAR CUANDO TENER + 3
COLUMNA

PAST SIMPLE EN EL PASADO Y TERMIN YA. SE AADE ED HE LIVED IN EL VIVIO


AL POSITIVO PARIS EN PARIS
PARA DECIR O PREGUNTAR
EXACTAMENTE CUANDO HA Y SE USA EL
SUCEDIDO ALGO AUXILIAR DID
CON PREGUNTAS
Y NEGACIONES

ED EN (+)
DID EN (-) (?)

PAST ACCIONES EN PROGRESO: EMPEZ WAS/WERE I WAS YO


CONTINUOUS EN EL PASADO Y SEGUA + WORKING ESTABA
SUCEDIENDO LA ACCION. VERB+ING TRABAJA
HABIA,ESTABA,CONTANDO,HABLA NDO
NDO..

FUTURE ACCIONES FUTURAS ILL = ILL MISS THE PERDER


WILL (+) TRAIN EL TREN

WILL NOT = I WONT


WONT (-) CATCH IT NO LO
COGER

46
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

TIEMPOS VERBALES DE INGLES Y SUS CORRESPONDIENTES EN


ESPAOL

TO PLAY
GERUND
JUGANDO
PLAYING
IMPERATIVE
JUEGA! JUGAD !
PLAY!
PRESENT
JUEGO,JUEGAS,JUEGA,JUGAMOS,JUGAIS,JUEGAN
I PLAY
PAST SIMPLE
JUGU,JUGASTE,JUG,JUGAMOS,JUGASTEIS,JUGARON
I PLAYED
FUTURE
JUGAR,JUGARS,JUGAR,JUGAREMOS,JUGAREIS,JUGARAN
ILL PLAY
SUBJUNCTIVE
JUEGUE,JUEGUES,JUEGUE,JUGUEMOS,JUGUEIS,JUEGUEN

IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE
JUGARA,JUGARAS.JUGARA,JUGARAMOS,JUGARAIS,JUGARAN

PRESENT PERFECT
HE JUGADO, HAS JUGADO, HA JUGADO,,HEMOS JUGADO,HABEIS JUGADO
HAN JUGADO
I HAVE PLAYED
PAST CONTINUOUS
JUGABA,JUGABAS,JUGABA,JUGABAMOS,JUGABAIS,JUGABAN
I WAS PLAYING

47
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

BASIC RULES
LOS ADJETIVOS NUNCA LLEVAN S
LOS ADJETIVOS SIEMPRE VAN DELANTE DEL NOMBRE

EN LAS FRASES, LAS PALABRAS TIENEN UN ORDEN


FIJO:
SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT + MANNER (HOW) + PLACE + TIME

I FOUND THE BOOK EASILY AT THE LIBRARY YESTERDAY

LOS ADJETIVOS NO VARAN NI POR GENERO NI POR


NUMERO:
TALL: ALTO ,ALTA, ALTOS, ALTAS
NO SEPARAR EL VERBO DE SU OBJETO

I ENJOYED THE FILM VERY MUCH

SI UNA FRASE TIENE OBJETO DIRECTO Y OBJETO


INDIRECTO, NORMALMENTE EL INDIRECTO VA
PRIMERO:

SHE WROTE HIM A LETTER

48
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

ADJECTIVES COMPARATIVES

(+) LESS + ADJECTIVE (POSITIVE) + THAN :


MENOS ALTO QUE

SE USA COMO ADJETIVO DE INFERIORIDAD EN


COMPARATIVOS;

TO REVERSE THE COMPARISON

LOUIS IS LESS TALL THAN JOHN

(+) AS + ADJECTIVE (POSITIVE) + AS :


TAN ALTO COMO

SE USA COMO ADJETIVO DE IGUALDAD EN COMPARATIVOS


TO SAY TWO NOUNS ARE THE SAME

LOUIS IS AS TALL AS JOHN

(-) NOT AS + ADJECTIVE (POSITIVE) + AS :


NO ES TAN ALTO COMO

SE USA PARA DECIR QUE EL PRIMER NOMBRE ES MENOS QUE


EL SEGUNDO
TO SAY THE FIRST NOUN IS LESS (ADJECTIVE) THAN THE SECOND

LOUIS IS NOT AS TALL AS JOHN

49
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

FORM OF ADVERB:
Structure:

ADJECTIVE+ LY
ADJECTIVE ADVERB
HES A BAD PLAYER HE PLAYS BADLY

THEYRE A VERY GOOD TEAM ...: THEY PLAY VERY WELL


IM A SLOW READER.........................: I READ SLOWLY
HE ISNT A FAST RUNNER ...............: HE DOESNT RUN FAST
SHES A HARD WORK........................: SHE WORKS HARD

MAKE SIX SENTENCES COMPARING MEN AND WOMEN

WOMEN DRIVES MORE SLOWLY THAN MEN


MEN DRESS WORSE THAN WOMEN
WOMEN TEACHS ENGLISH BETTER DEAF MEN
WOMEN WORK AS HARD AS MEN
WOMEN AS DONT THINK LOGICALLY AS MEN

ADVERBS COMPARATIVE
ADVERBS
REGULAR

SLOWLY MORE SLOWLY


HEALTHILY LESS HEALTHILY
IRREGULAR

HARD HARDER
FAST FASTER
WELL BETTER
BADLY WORSE
A LOT MORE
A LITLE LESS

PARA COMPARAR DOS ACCIONES,SE USA :


EL ADVERBIO COMPARATIVO+ THAN

50
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

FORMACION DEL COMPARATIVO Y DEL


SUPERLATIVO
AADIENDO AL POSITIVO ER PARA EL COMPARATIVO
AADIENDO AL POSITIVO EST PARA EL SUPERLATIVO

TODOS LOS MONOSILABOS:


TALL TALLER THE TALLEST
LONG LONGER THE LONGEST
SHORT SHORTER THE SHORTEST
OLD OLDER THE OLDEST
SAFE SAFER THE SAFEST

LOS BISILABOS TERMINADOS EN Y


HAPPY HAPPIER THE HAPPIEST
NOISY NOISIER THE NOISIEST

DIRTY DIRTIER THE DIRTIEST

LOS BISILABOS Y POLISILABOS


ANTEPONIENDO AL POSITIVO LA PALABRA MORE (MS) PARA EL
COMPARATIVO

Y THE MOST (EL QUE MS) PARA EL SUPERLATIVO.

BORING MORE BORING THE MOST BORING


BEAUTIFUL MORE BEAUTIFUL THE MOST BEAUTIFUL
INTELLIGENT MORE INTELLIGENT THE MOST BEAUTIFUL

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES
GOOD BETTER THE BEST
BAD WORSE THE WORST
FAR FARTHER THE FARTHEST

51
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

RESUMEN
(+) LESS + ADJECTIVE (POSITIVE) + THAN : MENOS ALTO QUE
(+) AS + ADJECTIVE (POSITIVE) + AS : TAN ALTO COMO
(-) NOT AS + ADJECTIVE (POSITIVE) + AS : NO ES TAN ALTO COMO

COMPARATIVES ADVERBS
ADVERBS COMPARATIVE
ADVERBS
REGULAR

SLOWLY MORE SLOWLY


HEALTHILY LESS HEALTHILY
IRREGULAR

HARD HARDER
FAST FASTER
WELL BETTER
BADLY WORSE
A LOT MORE
A LITLE LESS

PARA COMPARAR DOS ACCIONES,SE USA EL ADVERBIO COMPARATIVO+


THAN

ADJECTIVES SUPERLATIVES
ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE SPELLING
TALL TALLER THE TALLEST +EST
HAPPY HAPPIER THE HAPPIEST
MODERN MORE MODERN THE MOST MODERN + THE MOST
EXPENSIVE MORE EXPENSIVE THE MOST EXPENSIVE
GOOD BETTER THE BEST IRREGULAR
BAD WORSE THE WORST
FAR FARTHER THE FARTHEST

52
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

OPPOSITES

CLIMB UP A MOUNTAIN
CLIMB DOWN A MOUNTAIN

GET IN THE CAR


GET OUT OFF THE CAR

GET ON A BUS/PLANE/TRAIN
GET OFF A BUS/PLANE/TRAIN

GO DOWNSTAIRS
GO UPSTAIRS

GO UNDER A BRIDGE
GO OVER A BRIDGE

53
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

RETURN TO AFRICA
-Teresa Dunn her father :Thomas Dunn.
-Anna Holmes is the woman white hair.
-Dr. McCall is Thomas Dunns friend.

DR. MAcCALL

-Teresa went to the hospital (Kenya).

-Dr.MacCall has discovered a medicine woman near Lake Victoria who


can prevent a terrible sickness.

-The eyes become red and tired,and under a microscope you can see silver
lines in them.

-Shes found a special flower.She gives it to the young people.Then they


dont get river blindness.

F.D.I.=American Drug Company

LUNCH WITH A REPORTER (CRISTOPHER


WHALE)

-The reporter was working until three oclock,he was writing about that
Chinese man.

-The reporter know a Dr.MacCall and he knows that Dr.MacCall is


working on something very secret.

54
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

-Teresa discover a copy of his newspaper The African Telegraph.

-Is this why Dr.MacCall wants the medicine woman and her flower to be
a secret ? Money !

THE MEDICINE WOMAN

-The driver is Obediah.


-In Africa The women do the work.
-About five oclock they arrived in the Nandi area.
-The medicine woman lived several kms. Away in the forest.
-Rose is the medicine woman.
-Harriet is one of her grandchildren.

THE SECRET LEAVES

-Teresa followed Rose and Harriet into the forest.


-The tree was tall and had swall,yellow-green leaves.
-Now, lets wake a fire and we will boil the leaves three times.

A STRANGE DREAM

-She began to feel very sleepy.Her head felt very light.


-She was dreaming about a huge wild animal.It was coming closer and
closer.
-It want to eat her.
ANNA HELPS

-Teresa woke up in her tent.


-Teresa said Im in trouble.Anna Holmes.
-Shell call for take to Nairobi by plane;then you can tell your secret to
everyone.
-Two hours later Teresa was in Nairobi

55
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

TERESA GOES TO A MEETING

-Teresa and Mwale ran into the U.I. Building.


-They want speak to speak to the director Dr.Ndeti.
-Dr.MacCall was sitting there and smiling at her .

A HAPPY ENDING

-Teresa and Mwale were having lunch in a restaurant.


-Teresa will stay to Africa because she loves the space,the sky,the birds.
-Shes going to help Dr.MacCall in his hospitala and Mwale could give
hera job as a reporte.

56
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

FIRST CONDITIONAL
USAMOS EL FIRST CONDITIONAL PARA HABLAR ACERCA DE

POSIBLES SITUACIONES FUTURAS:


SI YO TE PRESTO MI PERIODICO,EMPEZARAMOS A HABLAR...

IF I LEND MY NEWSPAPER,WELL START TALKING.


IF WE START TALKING,WELL BECOME FRIENDS.
IF WE BECOME FRIENDS,ILL INVITE YOU TO MY HOUSE.
IF I INVITE YOU TO MY HOUSE,YOULL MEET MY
DAUGHTER,YVETTE.
IF YOU MEET YVETTE,YOULL FALL IN LOVE WITH HER.
IF YOU FALL IN LOVE WITH HER,YOULL RUN AWAY TOGETHER.
IF YOU RUN AWAY TOGETHER WITH HER,ILL FIND YOU.
IF I FIND YOU,ILL KILL YOU.
SO,THATS WHY I DONT WANT TO LEND YOU MY
NEWSPAPER.

FORMACION:
IF + SUBJECT + PRESENT SIMPLE, AND...
WILL/WONT + INFINITIVE
POSITIVO
ILL MISS THE TRAIN.
YOULL MISS THE TRAIN.
IF IT RAINS,WELL STAY IN.
IF IT RAINS, WE WONT GO OUT.
NEGATIVO
I WONT CATCH IT.
YOU WONT CATCH IT.
INTERROGATIVO
WILL YOU TELL HIM?
YES I WILL/NO I WONT.

57
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

SOME; ANY; NO .... BODY; THING; WHERE


POSITIVASINTERROGATIVAS NEGATIVAS Y COMO
Y NEGATIVAS SUJETO
PEOPLE SOMEBODY ANYBODY NOBODY
SOMEONE ANYONE NO ONE
THINGS SOMETHING ANYTHING NOTHING
PLACES SOMEWHERE ANYWHERE NOWEHERE

SOME.....: ORACIONES AFIRMATIVAS


ANY........: ORACIONES NEGATIVAS E INTERROGATIVAS
I HAVENT GOT ANY MONEY (NEGATIVA)
THERE ARE SOME BISCUITS IN THE CUPBOARD (POSITIVA)
THERE ISNT ANY MILK (NEGATIVA)
HAVE YOU GOT ANY BROTHERS OR SISTERS? (INTERROG.)
ARE THERE N ANY SHOPS NEAR HERE ? (INTERROG.)

EXCEPCIONES:
SOME.....: CUANDO SE PREGUNTA POR ALGO
CUANDO SE OFRECE ALGO
(WOULD YOU LIKE SOME COFFEE ?)

EN RESPUESTAS CORTAS Y USANDOLO COMO


SUJETO:NOBODY/NOTHING...

WHOS IN THE BATHROOM ? NOBODY


NOBODYS THE BATHROOM

58
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

NOTAR QUE :

EN LAS CONDICIONES EMPLEAMOS SOME (AFIRMACIONES)


Y EN LAS PREGUNTAS,YA USAMOS EL ANY.

POSITIVAS INTERROGATIVAS Y NEGATIVAS Y COMO


NEGATIVAS SUJETO
PEOPLE SOMEBODY ANYBODY NOBODY
SOMEONE ANYONE NO ONE
THINGS SOMETHING ANYTHING NOTHING
PLACES SOMEWHERE ANYWHERE NOWEHERE

SOME.....: ORACIONES AFIRMATIVAS


ANY........: ORACIONES NEGATIVAS E INTERROGATIVAS

USAMOS EL FIRST CONDITIONAL PARA HABLAR ACERCA DE

POSIBLES SITUACIONES FUTURAS:

FORMACION:

IF + SUBJECT + PRESENT SIMPLE, AND... WILL/WONT + INFINITIVE

ADVERBS COMPARATIVE
ADVERBS
REGULAR

SLOWLY MORE SLOWLY


HEALTHILY LESS HEALTHILY
IRREGULAR

HARD HARDER
FAST FASTER
WELL BETTER
BADLY WORSE
A LOT MORE
A LITLE LESS

PARA COMPARAR DOS ACCIONES,SE USA EL ADVERBIO COMPARATIVO+


THAN

59
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

ADJECTIVES SUPERLATIVES

ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE SPELLING


TALL TALLER THE TALLEST +EST
HAPPY HAPPIER THE HAPPIEST
MODERN MORE MODERN THE MOST MODERN + THE MOST
EXPENSIVE MORE EXPENSIVE THE MOST EXPENSIVE
GOOD BETTER THE BEST IRREGULAR
BAD WORSE THE WORST
FAR FARTHER THE FARTHEST

SET PHRASES = FRASE HECHAS


THE SAME AS IGUAL QUE

DIFERENT FROM DIFERENTE DE

AS MUCH AS TANTO

AS MANY AS TANTOS

DOES IT SOUND TO YOU ? TE SUENA?

ARE YOU FAMILIAR WITH IT ? TE RESULTA FAMILIAR?

FROM THE MOST TO THE LEAST DE MAS A MENOS

TO GIVE SPEECHES DAR DISCURSOS

ACTUALLY... ESTOO... BUENOO...

I CANT STAND YOU ! NO TE SOPORTO!

HOLD ON,HOLD ON,HOLD ON. ESPERA,TRANQUI TRONCO.

HAVENT YOU NO ES AS.

OF COURSE NOT POR SUPUESTO QUE NO!

WASNT IT ? NO FUE AS ?

DOES IT NO ES AS ?

FOR AGES MUCHO TIEMPO

60
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

PRESENT PERFECT + FOR/SINCE


SINCE= DESDE

SINCE + UN PUNTO FIJO EN EL TIEMPO

FECHA (6TH JUNE) - A MONTH (JULY) A YEAR (1998)

SHES LIVED IN SPAIN SINCE 1991

FOR= DESDE HACE...

FOR + UN PERIODO DE TIEMPO

10 MINUTOS 2 HORAS 4 DIAS 3 AOS

SHES LIVED IN SPAIN FOR 8 YEARS


USAMOS EL PRESENT PERFECT PARA HABLAR DE ACCIONES
QUE EMPEZARON EN EL PASADO Y AUN SIGUEN

PARA RESPONDER A LA PREGUNTA HOW LONG ?

USAMOS FOR + UN PERIODO DE TIEMPO


SINCE + UN PUNTO FIJO EN EL TIEMPO

RECORDAR LA DIFERENCIA ENTRE ...

EL PRESENTE PERFECT Y EL PAST SIMPLE:

IVE BEEN A TEACHER FOR THREE YEARS..: IM A TEACHER NOW

I WAS A TEACHER FOR THREE YEARS ..: IM NOT A TEACHER NOW

61
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

WOULD LIKE +TO + INFINITIVO


WOULD YOU LIKE TO...

GO AND WORK IN A FOREING COUNTRY ?


TRAVEL AROUND EUROPE BY BUS ?
TO BUY A NEW FLAT ?

TAMBIEN:

DECIDED + TO + INF
PLAN + TO + INF
HOPE + TO + INF
WANT + TO + INF
NEED + TO + INF ETC.ETC...

USAMOS EL WOULD LIKE TO + INFINITIVO PARA HABLAR


ACERCA DE LO QUE YO QUIERO HACER AHORA O EN EL
FUTURO.

SE TRADUCE COMO......TE GUSTARA ?

SE USA PARA PREGUNTAR COSAS ESPECIFICAS!!!

LIKE + VERBO+ING
GERUNDIO
DO YOU LIKE ....
MEETING NEW PEOPLE ?
WEARING THE LATEST FASHIONS ?
COOKING?

TAMBIEN:
DO YOU LOVE...SWIMMING ?
DO YOU HATE...STUDYING?

USAMOS EL LIKE + VERBO+ ING PARA HABLAR ACERCA DE LO


QUE ME GUSTA / NO ME GUSTA

62
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

TE GUSTA ?
PARA COSAS GENERALES

EXERCICES ABOUT
AUXILIARY / NOT AUXILIARY
Si la palabra pregunta (who,when,what,es el sujeto del
verbo,no usamos do/does/did/
1. WHO DIRECTED PSYCHO IN 1960?

2. WHICH COUNTRY WON THE WORLD CUP ...?

3. WHO MADE THE RECORD THRILLER IN 1988?

4. WHICH SPANISH PAINTER DIED IN 1988 ?

5. WHICH AMERICAN ACTOR WON OSCARS FOR PHILADELPHIA IN 1994


AND FORREST GUMP IN 1995 ?

6. WHICH FAMOUS SINGER WAS A FOOTBALLER FOR REAL MADRID?

7. WHO BECAME PRESIDENT AFTER 25 YEARS IN PRISON?

8. WHEN NEIL ARMSTRONG WALK ON THE MOON?

9. WHICH BRITISH WRITER WROTE ANIMAL FARM IN 1984?

10. WHICH SWEDISH ACTRESS SAID I WANT TO BE ALONE

11. WHICH PRESIDENT WON THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE IN 1990?

12. WHICH COUNTRY BUILT THE WORLDS FIRST COMPUTER IN 1946?

13. WHO WROTE MURDER ON THE ORIENT EXPRESS?

63
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

USO DEL GERUNDIO

GERUNDIO=VERB + ING
1. USAMOS EL GERUNDIO DESPUES DE LOS VERBOS
DE SENTIMIENTO
2.
LIKE / LOVE / HATE / ENJOY / MIND / PREFER
I DONT MIND COOKING BUT I HATE WASHING- UP
I LOVE SHOPPING

2. DESPUES DE LAS PREPOSICIONES


IM GOOD AT FINDING BARGAINS
IM GOOD AT COOKING

3.CUANDO USAMOS EL VERBO COMO SUJETO DE LA


FRASE

BUYING THINGS OFTEN TAKES ME A LONG TIME


SWIMMING IS THE BEST FORM OF EXERCISE

64
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

AS & LIKE

USAMOS LIKE O AS PARA DECIR COSAS QUE SON SIMILARES

LIKE:
ES UNA PREPOSICION

HE RAN LIKE THE WIND

ADEMAS DE USARLO COMO PREPOSICION,TAMBIEN SE USA

PARA DAR EJEMPLOS;


BEAUTIFUL LIKE A RAINBOW

AS:
ES UNA CONJUNCION

ON FRIDAY AS ON TUESDAY ,THE MEETING WILL BE AT 8:30


ADEMAS DE USARLO COMO CONJUNCION,LO USAMOS EN

LAS PROFESIONES:
HE WORKED AS A WAITER FOR TWO YEARS

ANOTHER
1.USAMOS ANOTHER + NOMBRE EN SINGULAR

WOULD YOU LIKE ANOTHER POTATO?

2.USAMOS ANOTHER + FEW/NUMBER + NOMBRE EN PLURAL

IM STAYING FOR ANOTHER FEW WEEKS

65
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

VERB PATTERNS
VERB + ING
LIKE
LOVE
ENJOY
FINISH VERBS OF
MIND EMOTION
SUGGEST
STOP

VERB + TO + INFINITIVE
AGREE
CHOOSE
DECIDE
EXPECT
FORGET
HELP
HOPE
MANAGE
PROMISE
REFUSE VERBS OF
TRY INTENTION
WANT
WOULD LIKE
WOULD LOVE
WOULD PREFER
NEED
OFFER
PLAN
LEARN

66
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

DESCRIBIENDO GENTE:
LOOK / LOOK LIKE
SE USAN LOS DOS TERMINOS PARA
DESCRIBIR: MI IMPRESIN

USAMOS LOOK + ADJETIVO PARA DESCRIBIR


LA ( PERSONALIDAD)

WHATS HE LIKES ? HES QUITE SHY


SHE LOOKS A FRENCH
HE LOOKS FRIENDLY

HOW OLD DO YOU THINK THEY ARE?


SHE LOOKS ABOUT 34

USAMOS LOOK LIKE + NOMBRE PARA


DESCRIBIR LA (APARIENCIA)

WHAT DOES HE LOOK LIKE ? HES TALL


SHE LOOKS LIKE AN ACTRESS

67
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999
QUANTIFIERS
(CANTIDADES)

PARA GRANDES CANTIDADES:

MANERA CONTABLE INCONTABLE

POSITIVO A LOT /LOTS OF A LOT/ LOTS OF


NEGATIVO (NOT) MANY (NOT) MUCH
INTERROGATIVO HOW MANY? HOW MUCH?

PARA PEQUEAS CANTIDADES:

MANERA CONTABLE INCONTABLE


POSITIVO A FEW A LITTLE
VERY FEW VERY LITTLE
INTERROGATIVO HOW MANY? HOW MUCH?

I HAVE GOT A LOT OF ( + I ) BOOKS, BUT I HAVENT GOT MANY ( - C)


CDs, AND IVE HAVE ONLY GOT A FEW TAPES.

THEY DRANK A LOT OF ( + I ) WINE,NOT MUCH ( - I ) BEER , AND VERY


LITTLE LEMONADE.

HOW MUCH ( I ) COKE DID THEY DRINK? HOW MANY ( I ) CRISPS DID
THEY EAT?
(RECORDAR : LOS NOMBRES QUE TERMINANEN S SON CONTABLES)

INCONTABLE CONTABLE

68
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

MISMOS SIGNIFICADOS
MORE THAN OVER

THE NOUN FROM UNEMPLOYED UNEMPLOYEMENT

TOO FULL OF PEOPLE OVER POPULATION

COVERED WITH SNOW CAPPED (CUBRI)

SMOKE AND FOG TOGETHER POLLUTION/ OR SMOG

A LINE OF CARS WHICH HAVE STOPPED JAMS

TAKING THE AIR BREATHING

GETTING BETTER IMPROVING

TOO / TOO MUCH / TOO MANY /ENOUGH / NOT ENOUGH

PARA DECIR QUE HAY MAS DE LO QUE NECESITO,USAMOS:

TOO + ADJETIVO
TOO MUCH +NOMBRE INCONTABLE
TOO MANY + NOMBRE CONTABLE

ENOUGH
PARA DECIR QUE TENGO TODO LO QUE NECESITO,USAMOS:

ENOUGH =SUFICIENTE

ONE / ONES
USAMOS EL ADJETIVO + ONE / ONES EN LUGAR DEL ADJETIVO + EL
NOMBRE:

THE RED BAG = THE RED ONE


THE BIG CAR = THE BIG ONE

69
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

BUYING CLOTHES
HAVE YOU GOT THOSE JEANS IN MY SIZE ?
WICH ONES ?
THE RED ONES
WHAT SIZE ARE YOU?
IM 42
LETS SEE. HERE YOU ARE
CAN I TRY THEM ON?
YES THERES A CHANGING ROOM OVER THERE
THEYRE A BIT TOO SMALL.HAVE YOU GOT A BIGGER SIZE?
THESE ARE A 44 ONES
YES,THESE ARE FINE .OK,ILL TAKE THEM
ANYTHING ELSE?
NO THANKS.HOW MUCH ARE THEY?
THEYRE 49,96 $
THANK YOU

SPORTS

GO / PLAY / DO
GO + VERB+ ING..:
GO SAILING,GO DIVING,GO WINDSURFING

PLAY + SPORTS WITH A BALL..:


PLAY FOOTBALL, PLAY TENNIS, PLAY BASKETBALL
DO + EXERCISE+ AND MARTIAL ARTS...:
DO KARATE, DO GIMNASTICS, DO JOGGING

70
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

PRESENT PERFECT + ALREADY / YET


PRESENT PERFECT + ALREADY
SIGNIFICA YA CON ORIENTACION AFIRMATIVA,POR LO QUE SE
EMPLEA EN:

FRASES AFIRMATIVAS:

THEYVE ALREADY FINISHED..:YA HAN TERMINADO


THEYVE FINISHED ALREADY..: HAN TERMINADO YA

FRASES INTERROGATIVAS A LAS QUE SE ESPERA UNA RESPUESTA


AFIRMATIVA :

HAVE YOU FINISHED ALREADY?..:HAS TERMINADO YA?


(SABEMOS QUE ES AS Y ESPERAMOS UNA CONFIRMACIN)

PRESENT PERFEC + YET


SIGNIFICA :
TODAVA EN FRASES NEGATIVAS
I HAVENT FINISHED YET...: NO HE TERMINADO TODAVA

YA EN FRASES INTERROGATIVAS
HAVE YOU FINISHED YET?..:HAS TERMINADO YA?

NORMALMENTE SE COLOCA AL FINAL DE LA FRASE

LAS DOS SIGNIFICAN YA EN FRASES INTERROGATIVAS, PERO SE


UTILIZA:

ALREADY:

EN PREGUNTAS A LAS QUE SE ESPERA UNA RESPUESTA AFIRMATIVA:


HAVE YOU FINISHED ALREADY?

SABEMOS QUE ES AS Y ESPERAMOS UNA CONFIRMACIN

71
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

YET:

EN PREGUNTAS CUYA RESPUESTA PUEDE SER LO MISMO AFIRMATIVA


QUE NEGATIVA:
HAVE YOU FINISHED YET?

NO LO SABEMOS Y PEDIMOS INFORMACIN

JUST
EL ADVERBIO JUST,TIENE LOS SIGUIENTES SIGNIFICADOS Y
USOS PRINCIPALES:

EXACTAMENTE JUSTAMENTE

THATS JUST WHAT I WANTED:ESO ES EXACTAMENTE LO QUE


QUERA

SOLAMENTE

WE HAVE JUST ENOUGH FOR US:TENEMOS SOLAMENTE LO


SUFICIENTE PARA NOSOTROS

ACABAR DE

CON EL PRESENT PERFECT; SE INTERCALA ENTRE EL


VERBO TO HAVE Y EL PARTICIPIO:

IVE JUST SEEN HER: ACABO DE VERLA

NO SE TRADUCE EN:

COMO REFUERZO DEL IMPERATIVO:JUST LISTEN TO ME!


ESCUCHAME!

72
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

PRESENTE PERFECT + ALREADY / YET/ JUST


EXERCISES
CAN I BORROW YOUR NEWSPAPER ?
SORRY,I HAVENT FINISHED IT YET

WOULD YOU LIKE A COFFEE ?


NO THANKS IVE JUST HAD ONE

DID YOU BUY ANY MILK?


NO, I HAVENT BEEN TO THE SUPERMARKET

YOUR HAIER LOOKS NICE


THANKS.IVE JUST WASHED IT

I LIKE YOUR SHOES


THANKS.IVE JUST BOUGHT.THEM

HAVE YOU FINISHED YOUR HOMEWORK?


NO,I HAVENT STARTED YET

DONT FORGET TO BUY THE TICKETS


IVE ALREADY GOT THEM

YOU LOOK SMILY


IVE JUST HAD SOME GOOD NEWS

ARE YOU HUNGRY?


NO.I VE JUST HAD A SANDWICH

CAN YOU LEND ME SOME MONEY?


SORRY,I HAVENTVE BEEN TO THE BANK YET

DO YOU WANT A ICE CREAM?


NO,THANKS.IVE ALREADY HAD ONE

HAVE YOU BOOKED THE TABLE?


YES,IVE ALREADY DONE IT

YOU LIKE TIRED


IVE JUST GOT UP

WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE DRACULA?


NO,THANKS.IVE ALREADY SEEN IT

73
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

RESPUESTAS A:WHY?
PARA RESPONDER A PREGUNTAS CON WHY?

USAMOS:

TO + INFINITIVO
O
FOR + NOUM
I WENT TO IRELAND / I WENT TO SEE SOME FRIEND

WHY DID YOU GO THERE ? / I WENT THERE FOR A HOLIDAY

USAMOS TAMBIEN:

BECAUSE + SUBJECT + VERB


WHY DID HE GO TO THE BANK? / BECAUSE HE WANTED TO GET SOME
MONEY

EXAMPLES: OF TO+ INFINITIVO

HE NEEDED A VISA TO GO TO CHINA


HES GONE TO THE BANK TO ORDER SOME DOLLARS
IM GOING BACK TO THE HOTEL TO HAVE A REST
HE DROVE TO THE AIRPORT TO PICK UP HIS FRIEND
WE PHONED THE TRAVEL AGENCY TO CONFIRM THE FLIGHT
SHE SENT A FAX TO CANCEL HER TICKET

NO SE USA FOR CON TO + INFINITIVO


TO GO STRAIGHT TO THE POINT
IR DIRECTAMENTE AL GRANO

74
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

MY FAVOURITE PHOTO IS OF MY WIFE NINI IN OUR TERRACE .


SHES PREGNANT OF LITTLE LVARO.

SHES A LOVELY AND TENDER SMILE.


I TOOK THIS PHOTO IN 1989, FOUR MONTHS BEFORE THE
BIRTH. AND OUR DAUGHTER IS NEXT TO NINI .
SHES JUST LIKE A LITTLE GIRL

I REMEMBER THIS DAY ALREADY.

I REMEMBER THAT SHES SURROUNDED OF PLANTS, MAKING


JOKES WITH ME, AND SPEAKING ABOUT OUR CHILDREN.

I MET NINI IN THE BEACH, IN CHILCHES COSTA AND WE FELL


IN LOVE INMEDIATELY.I THOUGHT:
THATS JUST WATH I WANT!!

TODAY, ALVARITO IS NINE ,AND HES JUST LIKE A MAN.


WE ARE A HAPPY FAMILY.

75
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

PHRASAL VERBS
LOS VERBOS FRASALES,SON VERBOS QUE VAN ACOMPAADOS DE UNA
PARTICULA (ON,OFF,DOWN,IN...ETC.) QUE ADQUIEREN UN NUEVO
SIGNIFICADO,

CON LA MAYORA DE LOS VERBOS FRASALES,SI EL OBJETO ES UN


NOMBRE,EL OBJETO SE PUEDE PONER ENTRE EL VERBO Y LA
PARTICULA.
EJEMPLO:
PUT ON YOUR COAT / PUT YOUR COAT ON
HE TOOK OUT HIS WALLET / HE TOOKHIS WALLET OUT

CUANDO EL OBJETO ES UN PRONOMBRE,ESTE SIEMPRE


VA ENTRE EL VERBO Y LA PARTICULA.
EJEMPLO:
PUT IT ON.

VERB TAKE OUT PARTICLE

OBJECT OBJECT

HE TOOK OUT HIS WALLET HE TOOK IT OUT

CAN I TRY ON THIS DRESS ?


CAN I TRY THIS DRESS ON ?
CAN I TRY THEM ON

VERBOS FRASALES (I) :


TURN OFF APAGAR TURN ON ENCENDER
TURN UP SUBIR TURN DOWN BAJAR
TAKE OFF QUITARSE ROPA PUT ON PONERSE ROPA
GO IN ENTRAR GO OUT SALIR
GO UP SUBIR GO DOWN BAJAR
GO BACK REGRESAR GO ON SEGUIR
STAND UP PONERSE DE PIE STAND DOWN AGACHARSE

76
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999
GET UP LEVANTARSE GET IN SUBIR (CAR)
GET OUT BAJAR (CAR) PICK UP RECOGER
SWITCH ON ENCHUFAR SWITCH OFF DESENCHUFAR
RING UP TELEFONEAR TAKE AWAY RETIRAR
TAKE OUT SACAR BRING IN METER

PUT OFF APLAZAR FILL IN RELLENAR IMP.


GIVE UP DEJAR SEE OFF DESPEDIR
LOOK AFTER VIGILAR LOOK FOR BUSCAR

BORED OR BORING?
BORED FOR PEOPLE
BORING FOR THINGS

SHOULD / SHOULDNT +INFINITIVO (SIN TO)


DEBERA / NO DEBERA
IGUAL PARA TODAS LAS PERSONAS !
EJEMPLOS:

I SHOULD GO TO THE E.O.I.


I SHOULDNT GO ON HOLIDAYS

I SHOULD REST
I SHOULDNT DRIVE MY CAR

YOU SHOULD WEAR A TIE


YOU SHOULDNT

TO BE OBSSESED WITH...
ESTAR OBSESIONADO CON...

GO UP MORE
SALIR MAS

TO FILL THE TANK

77
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

LLENAR EL DEPOSITO

GET

RECEIVE (RECIBIR)

+ ADJETIVE =BECOME LLEGAR A SER/ESTAR


GET
ARRIVE (LLEGAR A CASA,LLEGAR AL TRABAJO)

PHRASAL VERB

ECHO QUESTIONS
USAMOS LAS ECHO QUESTIONS PARA DEMOSTRAR INTERES Y
SORPRESA

SE FORMA CON : EL VERBO AUXILIAR + EL PRONOMBRE SUJETO

AUX+ (I, YOU, HE, SHE,.IT, WE, THEY)

HANA SMOKES DOES SHE ?


I DIDNT ENJOY IT DIDNT YOU ?
ILL HELP YOU WILL YOU ?
I DONT LIKE FLYING DONT YOU ?
SHE CANT SWING CANT SHE ?
I WAS IN N. Y WAS YOU ?
HE MET HIS WIFE IN OSLO DID HE ?
WEVE BEEN MARRIED HEVE WE ?
MY SISTER DIDNT LIKE IT DIDNT SHE ?
SHE PREFERS THRILLERS DOES SHE ?

78
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

AUXILIARES

VERBO INFINITIVO PRESENTE PASADO PART.


I AM
BE TO BE WE,THEY,YOU..ARE WAS BEEN
HE,SHE,IT...IS

HAVE TO HAVE I,WE,THEY,YOU..HAVE HAD HAD


HE,SHE,IT....HAD

DO TO DO I, WE,THEY,YOU,...DO DID DONE


HE,SHE.IT.....DOES
CAN TO BE ABLE CAN COULD BEEN ABLE

WILL WILL WOULD AUX.FUTURO

SHALL SHALL AUX.FUTURO

SO / NEITHER DO I
PARA FORMA R ORACIONES PARA ESTAR / NO ESTAR DE ACUERDO:

TO AGREE:
SO + AUXILIARY + SUJETO
CON ORACION AFIRMATIVA

I SAW THE FILM YO HE VISTO LA PELICULA


SO DID I YO TAMBIEN
(AQU SO SUSTITUYE AL VERBO PREVIAMENTE MENCIONADO)

NEITHER + AUXILIAR+SUJETO
CON ORACION NEGATIVA

I DIDNT SEE THE FILM


NO ME GUST LA PELICULA
NEITHER DID I A M TAMPOCO

79
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

TO DISAGREE:

I DONT LIKE CARTOONS


N O ME GUSTAN LAS PELICULAS DE DIBUJOS
NEITHER DO I NI AMI

SUJETO + AUXILIAR
SI NO ESTAS DE ACUERDO,ES LO CONTRARIO;LO AFIRMATIVO
A NEGATIVO Y LO NEGATIVO A AFIRMATIVO

I DONT LIKE NO ME GUSTA


NEITHER DO I A MI TAMPOCO
NEITHER AM I YO TAMPOCO SOY
SO DO I YO TAMBIEN
ME TOO YO TAMBIEN
NEITHER TOO YO TAMPOCO
I DONT YO NO !

SO+AUX.+SUBJ. (ORAC. POSITIVAS) SUBJ.+AUX.


NEITHER+AUX+SUBECT (ORAC.NEGATIV.)

AGREEE DISAGREE

1. I REALLY LIKE POP MUSIC SO DO I I DONT

2.I DONT LIKE CHICKEN NEITHER DO I I DONT

3.I HAVE GOT A COMPUTER SO HAVE I I HAVENT

4.I CANT SPEAK DUTCH NEITHER CAN I I CANT

5.I WENT TO THE CITY SO DID I I DIDNT

6.I DIDNT GO TO THE CIRCO NEITHER DID I I DIDNT

7.I HAVENT BEEN TO BRAZIL NEITHER HAVE I I HAVENT

80
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

8.IM GOING TO THE PARTY TONIGHT SO AM I I M NOT

WILL / WONT
1. OFRECIMIENTOS DE AYUDA SHALL I CARRY YOUR BAGS
ILL OPEN THE DOOR FOR YOU
2. PROMESAS WE WONT BE LATE
ILL ALWAYSLOVE YOU
3. UNPLANNED DECISIONS ILL HAVE THE STEAK,PLEASE
ILL DOIT NOW
4. PREDICTIONS / OPINIONS I THINK LIVERPOOL WILL WIN
I DONT THINK ILL ENJOY IT.
5. 1st CONDITIONAL IF YOU EAT A LOT OF
CHOCOLATE YOULL FALL IN
LOVE

GOING TO

WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DO


1. PLANNED FUTURE TONIGHT?
2. PREDICTION FROM EVIDENCE THIS TEAM ARE GOING TO WIN

THE PASSIVE
EL PRESENTE PASIVO

SE FORMA CON:AM / IS / ARE + PAST PARTICIPLE

EL PASADO PASIVO

SE FORMA CON : WAS / WERE + PAST PARTICIPLE

SI QUEREMOS INDICAR QUIEN HIZO LA ACCION USAMOS EL BY

USAMOS LA PASIVA CUANDO NO ESTAMOS INTERESADOS EN QUIEN


REALIZA LA ACCION

81
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

POSITIVE NEGATIVE QUESTIONS


PRESENT RICE IS GROWN IT ISNT GROWN IS IT GROWN
IN CHINA. IN GERMANY. IN FRANCE?

CARS ARE MADE THEY ARENT ARE THEY


IN BRAZIL MADE IN MADE IN KOREA
MONACO
PAST PAPER WAS IT WASNT WHEN WAS IT
INVENTED BY INVENTED BY INVENTED?
CHINESE. THE GREEKS.

THE PYRAMIDS THEY WERENT WERE THEY


WERE BUILT BY BUILT BY THE BUILT BY THE
THE EGIPTIANS ENGLISH PHARAONS?

IT WAS DECIDED THAT... SE DECIDI QUE...

HE WAS TOLD THE TRUTH LE DIJERON LA VERDAD


MY CAR IS BEING REPAIRED ME ESTN ARREGLANDO EL COCHE

82
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

THE PASSIVE:
EXAMPLES
+ ANNA KARENINA WAS WRITTEN BY LEO TOLSTOY
- ANNA KARENINA WASNT WRITTEN BY WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE
? WAS ANNA KARENINA WRITTEN BY LEO TOLSTOY ?

+ THE PYRAMIDS WERE BUILT BY THE EGYPTIANS


- THE PIRAMIDS WERENT BUILT BY THE GREEKS
? WERE THE PYRAMIDS BUILT BY THE EGYPTIANS ?

+ THE 1994 WORLD CUP WAS WON BY THE BRAZILIANS


- THE 1994 WORLD CUP WASNT WON BY THE SPANISH
? WAS THE 1994 WORLD CUP WON BY THE BRAZILIANS ?

+ PAPER WAS INVENTED BY THE CHINESE


- PAPER WASNT INVENTED BY THE ITALIANS
? WAS PAPER INVENTED BY THE CHINESE ?

+ THE MONA LISA WAS PAINTED BY LEONARDO DA VINCY


- THE MONA LISA WASNT PAINTED BY MIGUEL ANGEL BUONAROTTI
? WAS THE MONA LISA PAINTED BY LEONARDO DA VINCY ?

+ THE OLIMPICS GAMES WERE STARTED BY THE GREEKS


- THE OLIMPICS GAMES WERENT STARTED BY THE ROMANS
? WERE THE OLIMPICS GAMES STARTED BY THE GREEKS?

83
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

MUST / MUSTNT
USAMOS EL MUST / MUSTNT PARA CONSEJOS SERIOS Y
OBLIGACIONES

LA FORMA NEGATIVA DE MUST ES MUSTN'T, PERO EN


CONTEXTOS FORMALES O ENFTICOS SE SUELE USAR
MUST NOT. CUANDO MUST EXPRESA OBLIGACIN,
EQUIVALE A FORMAS DE DEBER O TENER QUE:

YOU MUST TELL HER


DEBES DECRSELO
TIENES QUE DECRSELO
SHE TOLD HIM HE MUSTN'T TOUCH IT
LE DIJO QUE NO DEBA TOCARLO
EL VERBO TO HAVE TO SUSTITUYE A MUST EN LOS
TIEMPOS VERBALES EN QUE STE NO SE USA:
YOU'LL HAVE TO GO TENDRS QUE IR
I HAD TO STAY ME TUVE QUE QUEDAR

CUANDO MUST EXPRESA INTENCIN, EQUIVALE A


FORMAS DE TENER QUE O AL USO DEL SUBJUNTIVO EN
ESPAOL:
I MUST REMEMBER TO RING HIM
TENGO QUE ACORDARME DE LLAMARLO
HEY MUSTN'T FIND OUT

84
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 2CURSO 1998 1999

QUE NO SE ENTEREN

CUANDO EXPRESA CONJETURA, EQUIVALE A FORMAS DE


DEBER (DE):

IT MUST BE ABOUT TEN O'CLOCK


DEBEN (DE) SER ALREDEDOR DE LAS DIEZ

EN ESTA ACEPCIN MUST TAMBIN SE USA SEGUIDO DE


HAVE + PARTICIPIO:

SHE MUST HAVE LEFT EARLY


DEBE (DE) HABER SALIDO TEMPRANO

THEY MUST HAVE MISSED THE TRAIN


DEBEN (DE) HABER PERDIDO EL TREN

85
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

VERB TENSES (REMEMBER...)


PRESENT
PRESENT SIMPLE :
NORMAL I PLAY YO JUEGO

PRESENT CONTINUOUS:
TO BE (AM,IS,ARE...) + ING I M PLAYING ESTOY JUGANDO

PRESENT SIMPLE PASSIVE


TO BE + PAST PARTICIPLE (3) CARS ARE MADE LOS COCHES
ESTAN HECHOS

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE


TO HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE (3) IVE BEEN IN SPAIN HE
ESTADO EN ESPAA

PAST
PAST SIMPLE
NORMAL +ED (REGULARES) I PLAYED YO JUGU
PAST CONTINUOUS
WAS/WERE + VERB+ ING THEY WERE GOING HOME ELLOS
IBAN A CASA

PAST SIMPLE PASSIVE


WAS/WERE + PAST PARTICIPLE (3) CARS WAS MADE LOS
COCHES ESTABAN HECHOS

86
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

AUXILIARY VERBS

DO DOES DID QUESTIONS AND PRESENT SIMPLE


SHORT ANSWERS Y/O PAST SIMPLE (DID)
NEGATIVE SENTENCES

BE +(VERB+ ING) /BE + P.PART. PRESENT CONTINUOUS


PAST CONTINUOUS
PRESENT SIMPLE PASSIVE
PAST SIMPLE PASSIVE

HAVE PERFECT (PRESENT & PAST)

VERBO INFINITIVO PRESENTE PASADO PART.


I AM
BE TO BE WE,THEY,YOU..ARE WAS/WERE BEEN
HE,SHE,IT...IS

HAVE TO HAVE I,WE,THEY,YOU..HAVE HAD HAD


HE,SHE,IT....HAS

DO TO DO I, WE,THEY,YOU,...DO DID DONE


HE,SHE.IT.....DOES
CAN TO BE ABLE CAN COULD BEEN ABLE

WILL WILL WOULD AUX.FUTURO

SHALL SHALL AUX.FUTURO

87
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

ES ESENCIAL PARA PONER EN LOS TEXTOS Y/O USAR CORRECTAMENTE


LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES, FIJARSE MUY ATENTAMENTE TANTO EN EL
CONTEXTO COMO EN EL SENTIDO DE CADA FRASE.

EJEMPLOS :

ABOUT: THE TIMES

(BEGIN). IT BEGAN HIS LIFE IN 1785 ( EMPEZ,PASADO BEGIN, BEGAN,


BEGUN)

(START). IT WAS STARTED BY JOHN WALTER (CUANDO APARECE


BY EL TIEMPO SIEMPRE VA EN PASIVA EN ESTE CASO EN
PASADO,WAS/WERE+ 3)

(COST). IN THOSE DAYS,COST .... (ES PASADO :COST,COST,COST)

(SELL). NOW IT SELLS OVER 650.000 COPIES.(IT:THE TIMES 3 PERSONA


)

(PUBLISH). ITS PUBLISHED IN LONDON (PARTICIPIO PASADO)

(HAVE). WITH THE SUNDAY TIMES, WHICH HAS AT LEAST TEN


SECTIONS. (3 PERSONA)

(HAVE). HAS HAD AN EXCELLENT REPUTATION (3 PERSONA Y


PASADO)

(WORK). THE TIMES HAS WORKED FOR THE TIMES SINCE


1980.(SIEMPRE QUE VA FOR/SINCE,SE PONE EL VERBO EN PRESENT
PERFECT (HAVE + 3 PERSONA)

(TRY). AND NOW WE ARE TRYING(ESTAMOS INTENTANDO,PRESENTE


CONTINUOUS, TO BE + VERB+ ING)

88
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

SHORT ANSWERS

WE USE SHORT ANSWERS,AFTER YES/NO QUESTIONS AND ALSO IN


REPLY TO STATEMENTS.

TO MAKE A SHORT ANSWER, REPEAT THE AUXILIARIY VERB .


IF THERE IN NO AUXILIARY VERB,USE DO/DOES/DID.

EXAMPLES:

ARE YOU COMING WITH US ? YES, I AM / NO, IM NOT

MARY LIKES READING ? YES, SHE DOES / NO, SHE DOESNT

DID YOU GOT OUT YESTERDAY ? YES, WE DID / NO, WE DIDNT

CAN YOU COOK? YES, I CAN / NO, I CANT

DO YOU PLAY A MUSICAL INSTRUMENT ? YES, I DO / NO, I DONT

DONT FORGET TO WRITE NO,I WONT

WE OFTEN USE A SHORT QUESTION TO REPLY TO SOMETHING SOMEONE


HAS SAID.WE USE SHORT QUESTION TO EXPRESS OUR INTEREST.

I WENT SHOPPING TODAY DID YOU, DEAR?


IVE BOUGHT YOU A PRESENT. HAVE YOU ? THANK YOU
DAVIS S GOING TO BERLIN IS HE? INTERESTING!
I LOVE CLASSICAL MUSIC DID YOU? I CANT STAND IT.

CUANDO LA FRASE EMPIEZA POR WHERE,NO ES NECESARIO PONER TO

WHERE DID YOU GO TO

89
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

HAVE & HAVE GOT

HAVE GOT:
POSSESION= I HAVE GOT A CAT
PRESENT= IVE GOT ANY MONEY
INFORMAL
I GOT (IN AMERICAN ENGLISH,SIN HAVE)

GOT = NO PAST / NO FUTURE

HAVE:
POSSESION = I HAVE A CAT
IN ALL OTHER THE TENSES = I LOVE HAVING A DOG
AUXILIARY = DO YOU HAVE A LIGHT?
ACTION AND EXPERIENCES = (EAT, DRINK, BATH....ETC.)

QUESTIONS & NEGATIVES


SENTENCES
USAMOS:

DO/ DOES/ DID


SORRY I DONT HAVE ANY MONEY
EXCUSE ME, DO YOU HAVE A CAR?

90
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

MODISMOS
SORRY I GOT HELD UP IN THE TRAFFIC. NEVER MIND ,COME AND SIT DOWN
LO SIENTO ME QUEDE ATRAPADA EN UNA CARAVANA . NO IMPORTA, PASA Y
SIENTATE

IM OFF TO SCHOOL NOW. TAKE CARE MY LOVE


SALGO YA PARA EL COLEGIO. TEN CUIDADO CARIO

JENNYS GOING TO OUT WITH PETE I DONT KNOW WHAT SHE SEES IN HIM
JENNY VA A SALIR CON PETE. NO SE ELLA QUE VE EN EL

HOW LONG DID IT TAKE... AGES


CUANTO TARDASTES... SIGLOS!

IM FED UP WHIT THIS WEATHER. MEE TOO,IM JUST LONGING FOR SOME
SUNSHINE

ESTOY HARTO DE ESTE TIEMPO. YO TAMBIEN.ESTOY ANSIOSO POR ALGO DE


SOL

WHO WAS THAT I SAW YOU WITH LAST NIGHT?. MIND YOUR BUSINESS!!
QUIEN ERA EL QUE ESTABA CONTIGO ANOCHE ? MTETE EN TUS ASUNTOS!!

IM HAVING NEXT WEEK OFF. O.K. THE BREAK WILL DO YOU GOOD
LA PROXIMA SEMANA TOMARE VACACIONES. O.K. EL DESCANSO TE
SENTAR BIEN

LETS GO FOR A TEN MILES JOG. YOU MUST BE JOKING


VAMOS A CORRER DIEZ MILLAS . DEBES DE ESTAR BROMEANDO

LET ME BUY YOU A DRINK. NO,NO ITS MY ROUND


DEJAME INVITARTE ESTA COPA. NO,NO ESTA ES MI RONDA

SHALL WE MEET THIS AFTERNOON AT 3.00 SORRY, I CANT MAKE IT THEN


PODRIAMOS VERNOS ESTA TARDE A LAS 3: LO SIENTO NO PEDO

WAS IT EXPENSIVE ? IT COST AN ABSOLUTE FORTUNE


TE COST CARO ? COST UNA VERDADERA FORTUNA

91
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

ACTIONS VERBS
ALGUNOS VERBOS SON USADOS EN LOS DOS TIEMPOS :SIMPLE Y
CONTINUO
(DRIVE,WALK, EAT, DRINK) DENOTAN ACTIVIDADES.

STATE VERBS
NO SON USADOS EN TIEMPOS
SON LOS VERBOS QUE USUALMENTE
CONTINUOS (-ING). DENOTAN ESTADOS ESTOS SON:

SOLO SON USADOS EN PRESENTE SIMPLE PORQUE SIGNIFICAN HECHOS

VERBOS DE PENSAMIENTO Y OPINION.


BELIEVE, THINK, KNOW, AGREE, MEAN, UNDERTAND, DOUBT, FORGET...

VERBOS DE EMOCIONES Y SENTIMIENTOS:


LIKE, LOVE, HATE, CARE, HOPE, WHISH, WANT, ADMIT...

VERBOS DE HAVING AND SEEING (HABIENDO Y SIENDO):


BELONG, OWN, HAVE, COST, POSSES, NEED, DEPEND ON, WEIGH

VERBOS DE SENTIDOS:
LOOK, HEAR, TASTE, FEEL, SMELL...

ALGUNOS DE ESTOS VERBOS,PUEDEN SER USADOS EN PRESENT


CONTINUOUS PERO CON UN CAMBIO DE SIGNIFICADO. EXPRESANDO
UNA ACTIVIDAD, NO UN ESTADO.

92
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

SPORT/ACTIVITY PLAY/GO/DO PEOPLE PLACE EQUIPEMENT

FOOTBALL PLAY GOALKEEPER STADIUM BALL,BOOTS


REFEREE: FOOTBALL PITCH
TENNIS PLAY SPECTATOR COURT RACKET;NET

CYICLING GO CYCLIST ROAD HELMET;


ELBOW
PATCH
BADMINTON PLAY BADMINTON PLAYER COURT RACKET

BASKETBALL PLAY BASKET PLAYER COURT BALL

FISHING GO FISHERMAN THE RIVER , FISHING ROD.


THE SEA BAIT.
BOBBIN REEL
HANG-GLIDING GO HANG-GLIDER AIR,SKY PARACHUTE,
HELMET.
ROSARY
VOLLEYBALL PLAY ...PLAYER COURT NET, BALL

HOCKEY PLAY ...PLAYER ON ICE COURT STICK,


ROLLER
SKATES
ICE SKATES
RACE DO RUNNER STADIUM SHORTS
T.SHIRT
MARATHON DO RUNNER COUNTRY AND CITY TRAINERS
CAP
HURDLE RACE DO RUNNER STADIUM HURDLE

GOALKEEPER:GUARDAMETA
REFEREE:ARBITRO
PITCH:CAMPO
HELMET:CASCO
ELBOW PATCH:CODERA
BAIT:CEBO
FISHING ROD:CAA DE PESCAR
BOBBIN REEL:CERRETE DE PESCAR
HANG-GLIDING: ALA DELTA

93
ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

TENNIS PLAY SPECTATOR COURT RACKET;NET


BALL BOY GRASS COURT
REFEREE
SKIING GO SKIER, SKI SLOPE SKI, GLOVE, SKI
LONG-DISTANCE SKI POLE, SLALOM
RUNNER.

GIMNASTICS DO HIGH JUMPER SPORT HALL HOOP.BALL


EXERCICES POLE VAULT SPORTS CENTRE BAR
LONG JUMPER
VOLLEYBALL PLAY UMPIRE COURT NET, BALL
LINESMAN

FISHING GO FISHERMAN THE RIVER , FISHING ROD.


SCUBA DIVER THE SEA BAIT.
BOBBIN REEL

SKI SLOPE: PISTA DE ESQUIAR


SKI POLE: BASTON DE ESQU
SLALOM:CARRERA DE ESQU
SKI GLOVES: GUANTES DE ESQUIAR
LONG-DISTANCE SKI RUNNER.:ESQUIADOR DE FONDO
HOOP : ARO
BALL BOY:RECOGEPELOTAS
UMPIRE:JUEZ DE SILLA
HIGH JUMPER: SALTADOR DE ALTURA
LONG JUMPER: SALTADOR DE LONGITUD
POLE VAULT:SALTO DE PERTIGA
LINESMAN: JUEZ DE LINEA
FISHING ROD:CAA DE PESCAR
BOBBIN REEL:CARRETE DE PESCAR

MY PARTNER
SHE LOOKS A VERY INTELLIGENT GIRL AND NICE TOO
SHE LOOKS A VERY GOOD ENGLISH STUDENT
SHE LOOKS LIKE SHY AND SHES RED CHUBBY-CHEEK

MY DOG: OLIVIA
SHE LOOKS LIKE AN SNOWFLAKE
SHE S ALWAYS STARVING
SHES HASKING FOR FED

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

LOOK (MULTI WORDS)

look forward to vt (gen): I'm looking forward to the weekend


tengo muchas ganas de que llegue el fin de semana; I'm really
looking forward to her coming estoy deseando que llegue, me hace
mucha ilusin que venga; she's not looking forward to the
interview no le apetece para nada ir a la entrevista; (frml: in a
letter): We look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely...
A la espera de sus noticias lo saluda atentamente....

to look out vt (to search for) buscar: he promised to


look out the books for me prometi buscarme los libros.
vi (to take care): look out, there's a car coming! ojo ,
cuidado, que viene un coche!

to look up vi (to improve) mejorar: employment


prospects are looking up las perspectivas de trabajo estn
mejorando.
vt 1. (to search for) buscar informacion en un
libro: we looked it up in the encyclopedia/dictionary lo
buscamos en la enciclopedia/en el diccionario.
2. (to visit) visitar: she looked us up when she was in London
vino a vernos, a visitarnos cuando estuvo en Londres.

look forward to........: tengo muchas ganas


o look out..: buscar / ojo , cuidado, que viene un
coche!
to look up...........: buscar informacion en un libro

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
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PHRASAL VERBS
LOOK FORWARD ESTAR ENCANTADO
BRING IN METER
BURST INTO IRRUMPIR EN
CATCH ON COGER
FED UP ESTAR HARTO
FELT OFF CAERSE
FILL IN RELLENAR IMP.
GET IN SUBIR (CAR)
GET OUT BAJAR (CAR)
GET UP LEVANTARSE
GIVE UP DEJAR
GO BACK REGRESAR
GO DOWN BAJAR
GO IN ENTRAR
GO ON SEGUIR
GO OUT SALIR
GO TO OUT SALIR FUERA
GO UP SUBIR
HELD UP QUEDAR ATRAPADO
ITS OFF ESTA ESTROPEADO
KNOCK ON LLAMAR
LOOK AFTER CUIDAR
LOOK AFTER VIGILAR
LOOK AT ! MIRA !
LOOK FOR BUSCAR ALGO
LOOK FOR BUSCAR
LOOK OUT ! CUIDADO!
LOOK UP BUSCAR INFORMACION EN UN LIBRO
PICK UP RECOGER
PUT OFF APLAZAR
PUT ON PONER (ROPA)
PUT ON PONERSE ROPA
RING UP TELEFONEAR
RUSH IN ENTRAR CORRIENDO
SEE OFF DESPEDIR
SET OFF PARTIR A...
STAND DOWN AGACHARSE
STAND UP PONERSE DE PIE
SWITCH OFF DESENCHUFAR
SWITCH ON ENCHUFAR
TAKE OFF QUITARSE ROPA
TAKE AWAY RETIRAR
TAKE CARE TENER CUIDADO
TAKE OUT SACAR
TO BE AWAY ESTA FUERA
TO BE IN ESTA EN
TO BE OFF SALIR
TURN DOWN BAJAR
TURN OFF APAGAR
TURN ON ENCENDER
TURN UP SUBIR
WHATS ON ? QUE DAN ?
WHATS UP? QUE PASA

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

PAST TENSES
TENSE TO
EXPRES POSITIVE NEGATIVE QUESTIONS
A FINISHED I ARRIVED I DIDNT WHEN DID YOU
PAST SIMPLE ACTION IN THREE WEEKS ARRIVE THREE ARRIVE
THE PAST AGO WEEKS AGO

PAST CONTINUOUS A PROGRESS SHE WAS SHE WASNT WHAT WAS SHE
WAS/WERE+ING ACCTION IN WORKING WORKING DOING?
THE PAST
YOU WERE YOU WERENT WHAT WERE WE
WORKING WORKING DOING?
A PAST I HAD FINISHED I HADNT WHEN HAD YOU
ACCTION WORK AT 6.00 FINISHED FINISHED WORK?
PAST PERFECT THAT WORK AT 6.00
HAD + P.P HAPPENED
BEFORE
ANOTHER
PAST
ACCTION

CUANDO USAMOS EL DID O EL HAD EN LOS PASADOS ?


CUANDO ES UNA ACCION SOLA EN EL PASADO. DID
I DIDNT PLAY (YO NO JUGU. 1 ACCION PASADA : JUGU)

CUANDO SON DOS ACCIONES RELACIONADAS EN EL PASADO. HADNT


I HADNT PLAYED ( YO NO HABA JUGADO. 2 ACCIONES PASADAS: HABA
Y JUGADO)

CUANDO APARECE SINCE LOS TIEMPOS APLICADOS SON SIEMPRE EN


PERFECT (PRESENT PAST)

WHILE, ES UNA CONJUNCION,= MIENTRAS


DURING + NOUN = DURANTE
FOR + PERIODO DE TIEMPO

ADJECTIVE + ENOUGH : GOOD ENOUGH


ENOUGH + NOUN : ENOUGH MONEY

FRECUENCY ADVERBS

BE + ADVERB = IM ALWAYS HERE

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
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ADVERB + MAIN VERB = I NEVER EARN SO MUCH MONEY

ADVERBS ORDER
1 Modo 2 lugar 3 tiempo
1 MANNER 2 PLACE 3 TIME

Present simple

Formacin. Se utiliza el infinitivo sin to para todas las personas excepto la tercera
del singular, que lleva el sufijo -s:

I work we work
you work you work
he/she/it works they work

Present continuous

Formacin. Se forma con el presente del verbo to be y el gerundio del verbo que
se conjuga:
I am working we are working
you are working you are working
he/she/it is working they are working

Present perfect

Formacin. Se forma con el presente del verbo to have y el participio del verbo
que se conjuga:
I have worked we have worked
you have worked you have worked
he/she/it has worked they have worked

Present perfect continuous

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
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Formacin. Se forma con el presente del verbo to have, el participio del verbo to
be (been) y el gerundio del verbo que se conjuga:

I have been working we have been working


you have been working you have been working
he/she/it has been working they have been working

Past simple

Formacin. Se utiliza la misma forma para todas las personas: infinitivo + -ed para
los verbos regulares

I worked we worked
you worked you worked
he/she/it worked they worked

Past continuous

Formacin. Se forma con el pasado del verbo to be y el gerundio del verbo que se
conjuga:
I was working we were working
you were working you were working
he/she/it was working they were working

Past perfect

Formacin. Se forma con el pasado del verbo to have y el participio del verbo que
se conjuga:
I had worked we had worked
you had worked you had worked
he/she/it had worked they had worked

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

La voz pasiva

La voz pasiva se forma con el verbo to be y el participio pasado del verbo:

the cathedral was built in the seventeenth century


Su uso es mucho ms frecuente que el de la estructura equivalente en espaol, ya que
se emplea tambin en frases como:

it was decided that... se decidi que...


he was told the truth le dijeron la verdad
my car is being repaired me estn arreglando el coche

VERBOS FRASALES

FED UP ALIMENTAR
FILL IN FIRMAR
GET BACK VOLVER
GET IN SUBIR EN UN COCHE
GET OUT SALIR DE UN COCHE
GET UP LEVANTARSE
GIVE UP IRSE
GO DOWN BAJAR
GO IN ENTRAR
GO ON VOLVER
GO OUT SALIR
GO UP SUBIR
HELD UP ESTAR ATRAPADO
KNOCK ON LLAMAR
LOOK AFTER VIGILAR
LOOK AT MIRA!
LOOK OUT! CUIDADO!

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

LOOK FORWARD TENER GANAS


LOOK UP BUSCAR INF.EN UN
LIBRO
PUT ON VESTIRSE
RING UP TELEFONEAR
STAND UP PONERSE DE PIE
SWITCH OFF DESENCHUFAR
SWITCH ON ENCHUFAR
TAKE AWAY LLEVAR
TAKE CARE TENER CUIDADO
TAKE OFF DESVESTIRSE
THROW INTO IRRUMPIR
TURN DOWN BAJAR VOLUMEN
TURN DOWN BAJAR EL VOLUMEN
TURN UP SUBIR VOLUMEN
TURN UP SUBIR EL VOLUMEN

OPPOSITES
MODEST IMMODEST ARROGANT
POLITE IMPOLITE RUDE
EXPENSIVE INEXPENSIVE CHEAP
FORMAL INFORMAL CASUAL
ATTRACTIVE UNATTRACTIVE UGLY
FASHIONABLE UNFASHIONABLE OUT OF DATE
HAPPY UNHAPPY SAD
INTELLIGENT UNINTELLIGENT STUPID
INTERESTING UNINTERESTING BORING
KIND UNKIND CRUEL
USUAL UNUSUAL RARE

FRECUENCY ADVERBS:
NEVER RARELY NOT OFTEN SOMETIMES OFTEN USUALLY ALWAYS

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

VERBOS AUXILIARES MODALES

Los verbos modales (can, could, dare, may, might, must, need, ought to,
shall, should, used to, will y would) no tienen infinitivo, participio ni
gerundio y no agregan -s en la tercera persona del singular.

Van generalmente seguidos de un infinitivo sin to


Los verbos modales forman el negativo y el interrogativo sin el uso del
auxiliar to do, aunque dare y used to constituyen excepciones al
respecto.

VERBO NEGATIVO CONTRACCION TRADUCCION AFIRM.


MODAL
CAN CAN NOT CANT PUEDO,PUEDES
CANNOT NO PUEDO,NO PUEDES
COULD COULD NOT COULDNT PODA, PUDE, PODRA
NO PODA,NO PUDE,..
TO BE MORE FORMAL DONT BE PERMITIR QUE. SE USA
ALLOWE ALLOWED TO MUCHO EN PASIVA
D TO
HAVE TO DO NOT HAVE TO DONT HAVE TO TENGO /NO TENGO QUE
EXTERNAL ABSENCE OF
OBLIGATION
OBLIGATION
MUST MUST NOT MUSTNT DEBER,TENER QUE
PERSONAL PROHIBITION NO DEBER ,NO TENER
OBLIGATI QUE
ON

HAVE TO: TENGO QUE

DONT HAVE TO: NO TENGO QUE

HAVE Y HAS: NO SE CONTRAEN

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

HAVE TO
INDICA UNA OBLIGACION EXTERNA (UNA LEY ...ETC)

PRESENT

I / WE/ YOU / THEY ... HAVE TO


HE / SHE / IT............. HAS TO

PAST

(YESTERDAY,LAST WEEK,....ETC)

SE USA HAD TO + INFINITIVO

QUESTIONS:
PRESENT

DO I / WE / YOU / THEY...HAVE TO ?
DOES HE / SHE / IT....HAVE TO ?

PAST

DID I/ WE / YOU / THEY/ HE / SHE / IT...HAVE TO ?

NEGATIVES
(ABSENCE OF OBLIGATION)

PRESENT

I/ WE / YOU/ THEY... DONT HAVE TO


HE / SHE / IT... DOESNT HAVE TO

PAST

I/ WE/ YOU /THEY / HE / SHE / IT... DIDNT HAVE TO

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

MUST
OBLIGACION PERSONAL ( NO POR LEY...ETC.)

PRESENT

MUST + INFINITIVO SIN TO


I / WE /YOU / THEY/ HE /SHE/ IT....MUST....

PAST

(YESTERDAY,LAST WEEK...ETC)
SE USA HAD TO + INFINITIVO

SE TRADUCE POR: TUVE,TUVISTE,TENA,TENIAS QUE...

NEGATIVE
PROHIBICION !!

MUSTNT + INFINITIVO SIN TO

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000
WE / YOU / THEY / HE / SHE / IT ...MUSTNT.. DO IT
YOU MUSTNT DO IT = NO DEBES HACERLO!!

CAN Y/O BE ABLE TO


BE ABLE TO SIGNIFICA LO MISMO QUE CAN .PERO CAN ES MUCHO MAS
COMUN BE ABLE TO ES MAS FORMAL .

TO MANAGE /-ED : PODER, PARA UNA COSA PARTICULAR


TO BE ABLE TO : PODER,PARA UNA COSA ESPECIFICA

BE ABLE TO TIENE FORMAS QUE CAN NO TIENE:

INFINITIVO: ID LOVE TO BE ABLE TO FLY


-ING FORMAS: I LIKE BEING ABLE TO MAKE A NOISE IF I WANT
FUTURO: SHELL BE ABLE TO SEE YOU TOMORROW

PARA HABILIDADES EN EL PASADO ,USAMOS COULD


I COULD SWIM WHEN I WAS FOUR

PERO SI NOS REFERIMOS A UNA HABILIDADEN UNA OCASIN


PARTICULAR EN EL PASADO, DEBEMOS USAR WAS ABLE TO O
MANAGED TO

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

THE MAN WAS DROWNING,BUT SHE MANAGED TO SWIM TO HIM AND


SAVE HIM
THE PRISONERS MANAGED TO / WERE BE ABLE TO ESCAPE
BY TYING UP THE WARDERS

SI SON VERBOS DE SENTIDOS (SEE,HEAR,SMELL,TASTE,FEEL) O DE


PENSAMIENTO (REMEMBER,UNDERSTAND) USAMOS COULD

PARA EXPRESAR UNA HABILIDAD NEGATIVA EN EL PASADO,


USAMOS COULDNT

I COULDNT FIND MY WALLET ANYWHERE

DROWNING : AHOGANDO
TYING UP : AMARRANDO
WARDERS : GUARDIANES

RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS MODALES DADOS EN CLASE

HAVE TO: TENGO QUE


DONT HAVE: TO NO TENGO QUE
HAVE Y HAS: NO SE CONTRAEN

NO TIENEN INFINITIVO, PARTICIPIO NI GERUNDIO Y NO AGREGAN -S EN


LA TERCERA PERSONA DEL SINGULAR.

VAN GENERALMENTE SEGUIDOS DE UN INFINITIVO SIN TO

HAVE TO
INDICA UNA OBLIGACION EXTERNA (UNA LEY ...ETC)

PRESENT

HAVE TO
HAS TO

PAST

SE USA HAD TO + INFINITIVO

QUESTIONS:

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

PRESENT

DO ...HAVE TO ?
DOES....HAVE TO ?

PAST

DID ...HAVE TO ?

NEGATIVES
(ABSENCE OF OBLIGATION)

PRESENT

I/ WE / YOU/ THEY... DONT HAVE TO


HE / SHE / IT... DOESNT HAVE TO

PAST

I/ WE/ YOU /THEY / HE / SHE / IT... DIDNT HAVE TO

MUST

OBLIGACION PERSONAL ( NO POR LEY...ETC.)

PRESENT

MUST + INFINITIVO SIN TO


....MUST....

PAST

SE USA HAD TO + INFINITIVO

SE TRADUCE POR: TUVE,TUVISTE,TENA,TENIAS QUE...

NEGATIVE

PROHIBICION !!

MUSTNT + INFINITIVO SIN TO

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

YOU MUSTNT DO IT = NO DEBES HACERLO!!

CAN Y/O BE ABLE TO

BE ABLE TO SIGNIFICA LO MISMO QUE CAN .PERO CAN ES MUCHO MAS


COMUN BE ABLE TO ES MAS FORMAL .(PRESENT)

PAST
DIFERENCIAS ENTRE COULD Y MANAGED TO / WAS ABLE TO

COULD:
SE USA PARA REFERIRSE A HABILIDADES Y/O SITUACIONES EN EL
PASADO QUE REQUIRIERON UN LARGO LAPSUS DE TIEMPO

WHEN I WAS CHILD, I COULD PLAY THE PIANO

(DURANTE MUCHO TIEMPO ESTUVE ESTUDIANDO PIANO)

I COULD SWIM WHEN I WAS FOUR

SI SON VERBOS DE SENTIDOS (SEE,HEAR,SMELL,TASTE,FEEL) O DE


PENSAMIENTO (REMEMBER,UNDERSTAND) USAMOS COULD

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
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MANAGED TO Y WAS ABLE TO :


SON IGUALES

SI NOS REFERIMOS A UNA SITUACION EN UN MOMENTO CONCRETO EN


EL PASADO, DEBEMOS USAR WAS ABLE TO O MANAGED TO

WHEN I WAS YOUNG,I WAS ABLE TO CLIMB TO THE EVEREST


WHEN I WAS YOUNG ,I MANAGED TO CLIMB TO THE EVEREST

PARA EXPRESAR UNA HABILIDAD NEGATIVA EN EL PASADO,


USAMOS COULDNT

I COULDNT FIND MY WALLET ANYWHERE

MAKING REQUEST AND OFFERS


REQUEST
EN INGLES HAY MUCHAS FORMAS DE HACER PETICIONES:

CAN
COULD
...YOU..............HELP ME PLEASE?
WILL
WOULD

CAN
... I ............. SPEAK TO YOU ,PLEASE?
COULD

COULD Y WILL SON MAS INFORMALES

WOULD YOU MIND OPENING THE WINDOW?


LE IMPORTARA ABRIR LA VENTANA?

DO YOU MIND IF I OPEN THE WINDOW?


LE IMPORTA SI ABRO LA VENTANA?

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

CAN YOU...? O COULD YOU..?


SE USAN PARA PEDIR A LAS PERSONAS QUE HAGAN ALGO (PUEDES,
PODRAS?)

CAN / COULD) YOU OPEN THE DOOR ,PLEASE ?


CAN / COULD YOU TELL ME THE TIME ?

CAN I...?
SE USA PARA PEDIR PERMISO ( PUEDO ?)

TOM, CAN I TAKE YOUR UMBRELLA ?


(AT PHONE) HELLO. CAN I SPEAK TO GARY,PLEASE ?

CAN I HAVE...?
SE USA PARA PEDIR COSAS ( QUISIERA... DESEARIA... ME DA...? )

CAN I HAVE THE BILL ,PLEASE?


CAN I HAVE THESE POSTCARDS,PLEASE?

WHOULD YOU LIKE...?

QUIERES...? (LITERALMENTE:TE GUSTARA?)

PARA OFRECER ALGO: WOULD YOU LIKE SOME COFFEE


PARA INVITAR A ALGUIEN:WOULD YOU LIKE TO COME TO A PARTY ?
QUISIERA ES UNA MANERA EDUCADA DE PEDIR ALGO:ID LIKE A
DRINK

OFFERS
PARA HACER OFRECIMIENTOS,USAMOS WILL Y SHALL
WILL:

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

CUANDO DECIDIMOS U OFRECEMOS HACER ALGO


(EN EL MOMENTO EN QUE
SE ESTA HABLANDO): YO LO HAR!
USAMOS WILL = ILL

ITS JANES BIRTHDAY TODAY. IS IT? ILL BUY HER SOME FLOWERS
ILL CARRY IT FOR YOU
ILL PHONE YOU TOMORROW, OKAY?

SHALL:
PARA OPINIONES, CONSEJOS Y OFRECIMIENTOS; PROPONER ALGO.
USAMOS SHALL

SOLO SE USA CON I and WE


CON YOU /HE/ SHE/ IT :NO!

SHALL I CARRY YOUR BAG FOR YOU? THATS VERY KIND,THANK YOU

SHALL WE GO OUT FOR A MEAL TONIGHT? MMM ID LOVE YOU

SHOULD:
PARA HACER SUGERENCIAS INFORMALES.
USAMOS SHOULD

WHAT SHOULD WE HAVE FOR DINNER ?


QUE PODRIAMOS HACER PARA CENAR ?

WHAT SHOULD WE DO TONIGHT ?


QUE PODRIAMOS HACER ESTA NOCHE ?
I DONT MIND ! ME D IGUAL !

REQUEST

CAN YOU...? O COULD YOU..?

SE USAN PARA PEDIR A LAS PERSONAS QUE HAGAN ALGO (PUEDES,PODRAS?)

CAN I...?

SE USA PARA PEDIR PERMISO (PUEDO?)

CAN I HAVE...?

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

SE USA PARA PEDIR COSAS (QUISIERA... DESEARIA... ME DA...? )

WHOULD YOU LIKE...?

QUIERES...? (LITERALMENTE:TE GUSTARA?)

OFFERS

WILL:

CUANDO DECIDIMOS U OFRECEMOS HACER ALGO

SHALL:

PARA OPINIONES, CONSEJOS Y OFRECIMIENTOS; PROPONER ALGO.


SOLO SE USA CON I and WE

SHOULD:

PARA HACER SUGERENCIAS INFORMALES.

FUTURE FORMS

SHALL
SE USA PARA :
OFRECIMIENTOS...SHALL I CLEAN THE CAR?
SUGERENCIAS....SHALL WE GO TO THE CINEMA
Y
PROMESAS...YOU SHALL HAVE ....

WILL
EXPRESA UNA INTENCION O DECISION TOMADA EN EL MOMENTO DE
DECIRLO
WELL ASK A POLICEMAN

SOLO USAMOS SHALL CON I AND WE

GOING TO...

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3er CURSO 1999 2000

EXPRESA INTENCION O DECISION TOMADA ANTES DEL MOMENTO DE


DECIRLO

TAMBIEN CUANDO PARECE EVIDENTE QUE ALGO VA A SUCEDER


LOK AT THE SKY! ITS GOING TO RAIN.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS (TO BE + ING)


PARA PLANES FIJOS QUE HAREMOS EN UN FUTURO CERCANO
WERE TAKING TO THE CINEMA

ESTOS DOS LTIMOS:GOING TO Y P.CONTINUOUS ,SON MUY MUY


PARECIDOS

EJEMPLOS:

-IM GOING TO THE SHOPS SOON, DO YOU WANT ANYTHING?


-WE HAVENT GOT ANY SUGAR
-ITS ON MY LIST, IM GOING TO BUY SOME.
-WE HAVENT GOT ANY BREAD
-OK. ILL GO TO THE BAKERS AND ILL BUY A LOAF

GOING TO.. TENIA PREVISTO DE ANTEMANO IR DE COMPRAS Y


COMPRAR AZUCAR.

WILL: NO LO TENIA PREVISTO PERO CUANDO SE LO DICEN,EN ESE


MOMENTO, TOMA LA DECISION

USO DEL WILL Y DEL PRESENT CONTINUOUS


RECORDEMOS QUE EL PRESENT CONTINUOUS ES MUY PARECIDO AL GOING TO
Y QUE PUEDE SER USADO PARA EXPRESAR PLANES DE FUTURO ENTRE
PERSONAS

LOGICAMENTE AL IGUAL QUE EL GOING TO , SON PLANES YA DECIDIDOS


O SABIDOS DE ANTEMANOY WILL SON DECISIONES TOMADAS EN EL
MOMENTO

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
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-COULD I SPEAK TO MR. HUELIN?


-IM AFRAID HES OUT AT THE MOMENT
-WHAT TIME WILL HE BE BACK?
-MMM. AT ABOUT 10 OCLOCK, HES DOING EXERCISE AT THE GYM.

-IS HE FREE AT LUNCH TIME?


-ILL CHECK. NO,HES HAVING A LUNCH WITH HIS WIFE

-WHENS A GOOD TIME TO TRY AGAIN


-HELL BE IN HIS OFFICE AT HALF PAST SIX
-ILL PHONE BACK THEN
-THATS FINE

WILL

DECISION EN EL MOMENTO
ILL GIVE YOU MY PHONE NUMBER .RING ME TONIGHT
ILL CHECK HER DIARY FOR YOU
ILL PHONE BACK LATER

PREDICCION DE FUTURO
TOMORROW WILL BE WARM AND SUNNY
IM SURE YOU LL PASS YOUR EXAM

GOING TO

DECISION ANTES DEL MOMENTO


WERE GOING TO HAVE A HOLIDAY
MY DAUGHTERS GOING TO STUDY SPANISH IN MADRID

CERTEZA DE QUE ALGO VA A SUCEDER


LOOK AT THOSE CLOUDS. ITS GOING TO RAIN

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

PLANES FUTUROS CERCANOS


PAT AND PETER ARE COMING FOR A MEAL TONIGHT
WERE HAVING SALMON FOR SUPPER

SOME ONE
ANY
NO
EVERY
+ BODY
THING
WHERE

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
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SOME
-EN FRASES POSITIVAS
-EN OFRECIMIENTOS Y PETICIONES
-CUANDO ESPERAMOS QUE LA RESPUESTA SEA: SI !

EJEMPLOS:

WOULD YOU LIKE SOMETHING TO EAT?


CAN I HAVE SOMETHING TO DRINK?
CAN WE GO SOMEWHERE QUIET?.....YES!
IS THE RE SOMEBODY I CAN SPEAK TO? ....YES!

ANY
-EN FRASES NEGATIVAS
-EN PREGUNTAS
-DESPUES DE IF...

EJEMPLOS

I VE NEVER BEEN ANYWHERE MORE BEAUTIFUL THAN SCOTLAND


DIS ANYBODY PHONE ME WHILE I WAS OUT ?
IF YOU NEED ANYTHING ,JUST ASK !

EMEMBER....

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
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ELLOS PENSABAN QUE.... THEY THOUGHT THAT....


ELLOS ESTABAN PENSANDO SOBRE... THEY WERE THINKING ABOUT...
ELLOS HABIAN PENSADO QUE... THEY HAD THOUGHT THAT...
ELLOS HABIAN ESTADO PENSANDO THEY HAD BEEN THINKING
QUE../SOBRE... THAT...ABOUT...

TRAVEL AROUND

DISTINTOS SIGNIFICADOS DE VIAJAR:

TO TRAVEL
SE USA EN LITERATURA PARA REFERIRSE A LOS VIAJES EN GENERAL.
THE MARCO POLOS TRAVELS
THE ODISSEUM TRAVELS

TRIP

ES EL VIAJE QUE HACEMOS NOSOTROS MISMOS EN EL QUE VISITAMOS


LUGARES ,HACEMOS FOTOS.ETC...

JOURNEY
SE REFIERE AL DESPLAZAMIENTO EN SI, ENTRE DOS PUNTOS

VOYAGE

VIAJE EN BARCO

HACER UN VIAJE: TO TAKE A TRIP/GO ON A TRIP


EL AUTOBUS TARDA: THE BUS ITS LATE / THE BUS TAKES A LONG TIME

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
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DESCRIBIENDO GENTE:
LOOK / LOOK LIKE

SE USAN LOS DOS TERMINOS PARA DESCRIBIR: MI


IMPRESIN

USAMOS LOOK + ADJETIVO PARA DESCRIBIR LA


( PERSONALIDAD)

WHATS HE LIKE ? HES QUITE SHY


SHE LOOKS A FRENCH
HE LOOKS FRIENDLY

HOW OLD DO YOU THINK THEY ARE?


SHE LOOKS ABOUT 34

USAMOS LOOK LIKE + NOMBRE PARA DESCRIBIR LA


(APARIENCIA)

WHAT DOES HE LOOK LIKE ? HES TALL


SHE LOOKS LIKE AN ACTRESS

LIKE
WHAT DOES HE LIKE DOING ?...QUE LE GUSTA? -HACER..
HE LIKES SWIMMING AND SKIING

WHATS IT LIKE?...COMO ES ALGO/ALGUIEN -EN GENERAL


HES REALLY NICE VERY FRIENDLY AND OPEN

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WHAT DOES HE LOOK LIKE?...QUE ASPECTO TIENE?


APARIENCIA
HES QUITA TALL WITH STRAIGHT BROWN HAIR

HOW IS SHE?... COMO ESTA ELLA? -DE SALUD


HE ISNT VERY WELL, ACTUALLY.HES GOT THE FLU

LIKE VERSUS AS
LIKE
COMO PREPOSICION SIEMPRE VA SEGUIDO DE UN NOMBRE

SIGNIFICA:

SIMILAR A ..: THEIR HOUSE IS LIKE A ZOO


IGUAL QUE...: IM GEMINI,LIKE YOU
COMO EJEMPLO....: WHY DO YOU SAY THINGS LIKE THAT?

AS
PUEDE SER USADA COMO PREPOSICION SEGUIDA DE UN NOMBRE

PERO EXPRESA:

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TRABAJO...: I WORKED AS A WAITER


FUNCION O USO DE PERSONA O COSA....:WE USE OUR GARAGE AS
KITCHEN

CUANDO SE USA COMO CONJUNCION ES SEGUIDA DE UN SUJETO Y UN


VERBO
AS YOU KNOW, WERE LEAVING TOMORROW

LA USAMOS TAMBIEN EN COMPARACIONES


MY DAUGHTER IS AS TALL AS ME

VERB PATERNS(1)

Verbs + -ing ...: (We loved driving through the countryside)


Like
Love

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Adore
Enjoy Doing
Prefer Cooking
Hate Sightseen
Cant stand
Dont mind
Finish
Look forward to

VERBOS DE GUSTOS,PREFERENCIAS LO CONTRARIO

Like,Love, Adore, Prefer, Hate a veces son usados con To,


pero ing es mas usual y tiene mas significado en general :
I like cooking
I like to cook beef on Sundays

VERB PATERNS(2)

Verbs + To + Infinitive...: (I hope to see you soon)


Agreee
Choose

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Dare
Decide
Expect
Forget
Help To do
Hope
Learn To come
Manage
Need To cook
Offer
Promisse
Refuse
Seem
Want
Would like
Would love
Would prefer
Would hate

1- Help y Dare pueden se usados sin To .: We helped tidy the kitchen

2- Have to para obligaciones.....: I have to wear a uniform

3- Used to = costumbres pasadas .: I used to smoke but i gave up last

VERB PATERNS(3)
Verb +Somebody + To + Infinitive (They invited us to have a
Meal)
Advise

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Allow
Ask
Beg
Encourage (animar)
Expect
Help
Need Me
Invite To do
Order Him
Remind (recordar) To go
Tell Them
Want To come
Warn (+not) (avisar) Someone
Would like
Would love
Would prefer
Would hate

Verb+ somebody+ infinitive (no To) Let us know if youre in the area

Let Her
Make Do
Help Us

1- To es usado con Make en la pasiva We were made to work hard

2- Let no puede ser usado en la pasiva, en vez de Let usamos Allowed


to She was allowed to leave

VERB PATERNS(4)
Verbs + -ing or to + infinitive (sin cambiar el significado)
Begin Raining

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Start To rain
Continue

Verbs + -ing or to + infinitive (con cambio de


significado)
Remember Doing
Stop To do
Try

1- A) I remember posting the letter (futuro) = tengo ahora en la


memoria una accion pasada: posting the letter.
Recuerdo que tengo que echar la carta.

B)I remembered to post the letter (pasado) =


me recuerdo el echar la carta

2- A) stopped smoking = yo par de fumar


B) I stopped to smoke = yo par de hacer algo, para fumar (to=
para)
(To siempre delante del verbo y For con sustantivos)
3- I tried to sleep = yo quera dormir pero era dificil
I tried counting sheep and taking sleeping pills =
habia diferentes maneras de coger el sueo

4- -ing = after preposition


5- -ing = cuando el verbo es el sujeto o una oracin

Verbs + -ing ...: (We loved driving through the countryside)


Like Gustar
Love Amar
Adore Adorar
Enjoy Disfrutar Doing
Prefer Preferir Cooking
Hate Odiar Sightseen
Cant stand No soportar

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Dont mind No importar


Finish Acabar
Look forward to Tener ganas de
Verbs + To + Infinitive...: (I hope to see you soon)
Agreee Estar de acuerdo
Choose Escoger
Dare Desafiar
Decide Decidir
Expect Esperar
Forget Olvidar
Help Ayudar To do
Hope Esperar
Learn Aprender To come
Manage Poder
Need Necesitar To cook
Offer Ofrecer
Promisse Prometer
Refuse Negar
Seem Parecer
Want Querer
Would like Gustara
Would love Querra
Would prefer Preferira
Would hate Odiara
Verb +Somebody + To + Infinitive (They invited us to have a Meal)
Advise Aconsejar
Allow Permitir
Ask Preguntar
Beg Pedir limosna
Encourage) Animar
Expect Esperar
Help Ayudar
Need Necesitar Me
Invite Invitar To do
Order Ordenar Him
Remind Recordar To go
Tell Decir Them
Want Querer To come
Warn (+not) Avisar/no Someone
Would like Gustara
Would love Querra
Would prefer Preferira
Would hate Odiara
Verb+ somebody+ infinitive (no To) Let us know if youre in the area
Let Make Help Her Us Do
Verbs + -ing or to + infinitive (sin cambiar el significado)
Begin Start Continue Raining To rain
Verbs + -ing or to + infinitive (con cambio de significado)
Remember Stop Try Doing To do

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RELATIVES CLAUSES
LAS FRASES DE RELATIVO, SON USADAS PARA AMPLIARNOS LA
INFORMACION Y DECIRNOS SOBRE QUIEN O QUE COSAS ESTAMOS
HABLANDO

WHO/THAT WHICH /THAT WHERE WHOSE


QUIEN /QUE CUAL/QUE DONDE CUYO /CUYA

The boy as gone into hospital


(Wich boy?)
the boy who lives next door has gone into hospital

the book is very good


(Wich book?)
The book that I bought yesterday is very good

WHO/THAT
QUIEN /QUE

WHO LO USAMOS PARA REFERIRNOS A PERSONAS


THAT LO USAMOS PARA REFERIRNOS A COSAS

The book is about a girl who marries a millonaire


What was the name of the horse that won the race?

SI WHO O THAT ES EL SUJETO DE LA ORACION DEBEN DE USARSE:


I like people who are kind and considerate

SI WHO O THAT ES EL OBJETO DE LA ORACION DEBEN QUITARSE:


The person you need to talk to is on holiday
(Sujeto: you)

WHICH /THAT
CUAL/QUE

PUEDE SER USADO PARA REFERIRNOS A TODA ORACION O IDEA


ANTERIOR
Jane cant come to the party,wich is a shame

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WHERE
DONDE

WHERE LO USAMOS PARA REFERIRNOS A LUGARES


The hotel where we stayed was right on the beach
WHOSE
CUYO /CUYA
USAMOS WHOSE PARA REFERIRNOS A LA POSESION DE ALGUIEN
Thats the woman whose son won the lottery

Present simple

Formacin. Se utiliza el infinitivo sin to para todas las personas excepto


la tercera del singular, que lleva el sufijo -s:
I work we work
you work you work
he/she/it works they work

Present continuous

Formacin. Se forma con el presente del verbo to be y el gerundio del


verbo que se conjuga:
I am working we are working
you are working you are working
he/she/it is working they are working
Uso. Para referirse a algo que est sucediendo en el momento de
hablar:
be quiet! I'm watching television
o a algo que est en proceso, aunque no est sucediendo precisamente
cuando se habla:
I'm reading a novel by Kundera

Para referirse a planes concretos de futuro:


I'm going to a party next Saturday
she's arriving on Wednesday

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Para referirse al futuro tambin es frecuente el uso de la forma going to +


infinitivo, que a menudo subraya la idea de la intencin del sujeto:
she's going to buy a car with the money she's saved
I'm going to make a pie for dinner

Present perfect

Formacin. Se forma con el presente del verbo to have y el participio del


verbo que se conjuga:
I have worked we have worked
you have worked you have worked
he/she/it has worked they have worked
Uso. Para referirse a acciones pasadas que tienen alguna conexin con
el momento presente:
I have seen that film (he visto esa pelcula y s de
qu se trata/no la quiero volver a ver, etc.)

Present perfect continuous

Formacin. Se forma con el presente del verbo to have, el participio del


verbo to be (been) y el gerundio del verbo que se conjuga:
I have been working we have been working
you have been working you have been working
he/she/it has been working they have been working

Uso. Para referirse a acciones que comenzaron en el pasado y


continan en el presente o acaban de terminar:
I have been waiting for two hours
John has been telling me about his trip to Kenya

Past simple

Formacin. Se utiliza la misma forma para todas las personas: infinitivo


+ -ed para los verbos regulares
I worked we worked
you worked you worked

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he/she/it worked they worked

Uso. Para referirse a hechos que tuvieron lugar en el pasado, a menudo


acompaado de expresiones adverbiales que especifican un momento
o una fecha concretos:
I met her last year

Past continuous

Formacin. Se forma con el pasado del verbo to be y el gerundio del


verbo que se conjuga:
I was working we were working
you were working you were working
he/she/it was working they were working

Uso. Para referirse a acciones que se desarrollaban en determinado


momento en el pasado:
they were having a drink when Peter arrived
Past perfect

Formacin. Se forma con el pasado del verbo to have y el participio del


verbo que se conjuga:
I had worked we had worked
you had worked you had worked
he/she/it had worked they had worked
Uso. Para referirse a acciones anteriores a determinado momento en el
pasado. Es el equivalente pasado del present perfect y se usa de forma
paralela:
I had already seen that film ya haba visto la pelcula

Sin embargo, con este tiempo, a diferencia de con el present perfect, se puede
especificar el momento en que haba ocurrido la accin:
I wasn't hungry because I had had breakfast half an hour before
Future simple

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Formacin. Se forma con el auxiliar modal will seguido del infinitivo sin
to. En el ingls britnico shall se utiliza a veces en lugar de will en las
primeras personas:
I will (o shall) work we will (o shall) work
you will work you will work
he/she/it will work they will work
Uso. Para referirse a acciones que creemos ocurrirn en el futuro:

Conditional

Formacin. Se forma con el auxiliar would seguido del infinitivo sin to.
I would work we would work
you would work you would work
he/she/it would work they would work

La voz pasiva

La voz pasiva se forma con el verbo to be y el participio pasado del


verbo:
the cathedral was built in the seventeenth century
Su uso es mucho ms frecuente que el de la estructura equivalente en
espaol, ya que se emplea tambin en frases como:
it was decided that... se decidi que...he was told the truth le dijeron la
verdad
my car is being repaired me estn arreglando el coche

PRESENT PERFECT
(HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE)

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EL PRESENTE PERFECTO,EXISTE EN MUCHOS IDIOMAS EUROPEOS,PERO


EN INGLS,ES ESENCIALMENTE UN TIEMPO DE PRESENTE, AUNQUE
TAMBIEN EXPRESA EL EFECTO DE UNA ACCION PASADA Y ACTIVIDADES
EN EL PRESENTE.
Ive lived in London

Past Present perfect Present


PRESENT PERFECT SIGNIFICA ANTES DE AHORA .
NO EXPRESA CUANDO HA SUCEDIDO UNA ACCION,
SI QUEREMOS DECIR EXACTAMENTE CUANDO, TENDREMOS QUE USAR
EL PAST SIMPLE

IVE LIVED IN LONDON


WE HAVENT LIVED IN LONDON
HE HAS LIVED IN LONDON
SHE HASNT LIVED IN LONDON
HOW LONG HAVE YOU LIVED IN LONDON
HOW LONG HAS SHE LIVED IN LONDON

EL PRESENT PERFECT TIENE TRES USOS PRINCIPALES:

1- EXPRESA UNA ACCION QUE EMPEZ EN EL PASADO Y AN CONTINA.


WEVE LIVED IN THE SAME HOUSE FOR TEN YEARS

2- EXPRESA UNA ACCION QUE SUCEDI EN EL PASADO. ESTA ACCION


ACABO,PERO TODAVIA SENTIMOS LOS EFECTOS DE ESTA.
IVE BEEN IN THE STATES (I STILL REMEMBER)

3- EXPRESA UNA ACCION PASADA QUE TIENE RESULTADO EN EL


PRESENTE
(EN UN PASADO RECIENTE)
IVE LOST MY WALLET (I HAVENT GOT IT NOW)

BE CAREFUL WITH BEEN AND GONE:


HES BEEN TO AMERICA ( = EXPERIENCE- EL YA NO EST ALL )
SE HA IDO Y HA VUELTO
SHES GONE TO AMERICA (= PRESENT RESULT-ELLA EST ALL AHORA)
SE HA IDO Y SE HA QUEDADO

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PRESENT PERFECT
CUANDO SOLEMOS DECIR LAS COSAS CONCISAMENTE,
USAMOS EL PRESENT PERFECT

CUANDO AMPLIAMOS LA INFORMACION Y DAMOS DETALLES,


USAMOS EL PAST SIMPLE

PONGAMOS POR EJEMPLO: UNA NOTICIA

EL TITULAR (CONCISO) PRESENT PERFECT

THE MURDERER BRUCE BRADEN HAS ESCAPED FROM PRISON

LA INFORMACION (LOS DETALLES) PAST SIMPLE

LAST NIGHT ,THE MURDERER BRUCE BRADEN,ESCAPED FROM PRISON.


PRISON OFFICERS FOUND HIS CELL EMPTY AT SIX OCLOCK.

PRESENT PERFECT ACTIVE & PASSIVE

LOS USOS DEL PRESENT PERFECT SON LOS MISMOS EN LA PASIVA


TO BE +PAST PARTICIPLE

TWO MILLIONS CARS HAVE BEEN PRODUCED IN AMERICA THIS YEAR

HAVE YOU EVER BEEN MADE REDUNDANT?

LA DIFERENCIA ESENCIAL PARA DISTINGUIR ENTRE LAS ORACIONES DE


PRESENT PERFECT PASIVA O ACTIVA ES:

SABEMOS LA RESPUESTA...:ACTIVA

WHO HAS ESCAPED FROM PRISON ? ( BRUCE BRANDEN) = ACTIVA

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NO SABEMOS LA RESPUESTA...: PASIVA

WHO HAS ESCAPED WITH BRUCE ? ( ???) = PASIVA

TIME EXPRESSIONS

PAST SIMPLE PRESENTPERFECT


FOR
JUST
BEFORE
NEVER
SINCE X
YET X
ALREADY X
IN(1.960) X
AGO X
AT(8.00) X

OPPOSITES
MODEST IMMODEST ARROGANT
POLITE IMPOLITE RUDE
EXPENSIVE INEXPENSIVE CHEAP
FORMAL INFORMAL CASUAL
ATTRACTIVE UNATTRACTIVE UGLY
FASHIONABLE UNFASHIONABLE OUT OF DATE
HAPPY UNHAPPY SAD
INTELLIGENT UNINTELLIGENT STUPID
INTERESTING UNINTERESTING BORING
KIND UNKIND CRUEL
USUAL UNUSUAL RARE

I WORK LIKE A SLAVE YO TRABAJO COMO UN ESCLAVO


I WORK AS A SLAVE YO TRABAJO DE ESCLAVO

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LAS ORACIONES CONDICIONALES


Las oraciones condicionales constan de dos partes,
la parte encabezada por if, que establece la condicin, y la oracin
principal.

Pueden dividirse en tres tipos bsicos:

FIRST CONDITIONAL
if + present, future
if she takes a taxi, she'll be here in ten minutes
si toma un taxi, estar aqu en diez minutos
En este caso es posible que se cumpla la condicin expresada.

SECOND CONDITIONAL
if + past, conditional
if she took a taxi, she would be here in ten minutes
si tomara un taxi, estara aqu en diez minutos
En este caso es menos probable que se cumpla la condicin
expresada. Este tipo tambin puede expresar algo contrario a la
realidad actual:
if I had any money, I would lend it to you
si tuviera dinero, te lo prestara (pero no tengo dinero)

THIRD CONDITIONAL
if + past perfect, conditional perfect

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if she had taken a taxi, she would have been here in ten
minutes
si hubiera tomado un taxi, habra estado aqu en diez minutos
Expresa una condicin que ya no se puede cumplir: ella no tom un
taxi, vino en el autobs, o a pie, etc.

En las oraciones condicionales a menudo se utiliza were en lugar de


was, sobre todo en la expresin if I were you (yo que t):
if I were you, I would go and see a doctor

ZERO CONDITIONAL
if + two present tenses
if you boil water, it evaporates
cuando hierves agua,se evapora
Expresa una condicin que siempre es verdad.
If significa when o whenever (cuando)

(IN SECOND CONDITIONAL CLAUSES):

IF + PAST+ WOULD

IF I HAD 2 MILLION POUNDS ... I WOULD GO ROUND THE WORLD

WOULD

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I would help you if I could si pudiera, te ayudara;

I wouldn't do that if I were you yo que t no hara eso;

if you had done some work, you would have passed the exam si hubieras estudiado,
habras aprobado el examen.

IF I WERE YOU.... YO QUE TU...


EN ORACIONES DE TIEMPO:
(no en condicionales)
WHEN / AS SOON AS / UNTIL ......PRESENT SIMPLE AND WILL

Informacin general sobre cmo se escriben las cartas en


ingls

Frmulas de saludo y de despedida

Todas las cartas comienzan con la frmula Dear, seguida del nombre del
destinatario, si se conoce, o Sir, Madam, etc., si no se conoce. A continuacin se
aade una coma:

Dear John,... Dear Madam,


La frmula de despedida de una carta depende de a quin va dirigida y de la relacin
entre el remitente y el destinatario.
La frmula de despedida de las cartas formales vara segn se conozca o no la
identidad del destinatario. Cuando se conoce el nombre del destinatario, la carta
termina con la frmula Yours sincerely:

Dear Mr Smith, Dear Mrs Johnson, Dear Ms Tate, Dear Colin, Yours
sincerely

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Si se desconoce el nombre del destinatario o si la carta va dirigida a una institucin


se utiliza la frmula impersonal de despedida Yours faithfully:

Dear Sir,Dear Sirs,Dear Madam,Dear Sir/Madam,... Yours faithfully:


(Ntese que, cuando se desconoce si el destinatario es un hombre o una mujer, se
emplea la frmula Dear Sir/Madam.)

Si se quiere introducir un toque amistoso al final de una carta formal, se puede


aadir With best wishes antes de Yours sincerely o Yours faithfully.

En el caso de las cartas informales entre amigos, Yours es la frmula de despedida


ms corriente:
Dear Lisa and Steven,
...
Yours,
David
Si existe una relacin muy estrecha con el destinatario (por ejemplo, entre
miembros de una familia), la frmula de despedida ms normal es love:

Dear James,
...
love,lots of love, with love from,with best wishes to your parents and
love from

Jennifer
Nombre y direccin del destinatario y del remitente

En una carta formal la direccin del remitente aparece en la parte superior derecha
de la primera hoja. Normalmente no se incluye el nombre. La direccin del
destinatario figura bajo la del remitente, en la parte izquierda de la pgina, precedida
por el nombre del destinatario y el tratamiento que se le da.

En una carta informal la direccin del remitente tambin aparece en la parte superior
derecha de la primera hoja. Sin embargo, no se incluyen ni el nombre ni la direccin
del destinatario.

Cmo se escribe una direccin:

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Se sigue el siguiente orden (con cada uno de los elementos sealados en rengln
aparte): (1) nombre de la casa (si existe); (2) nmero y calle; (3) parte de la ciudad o
pueblo; (4) ciudad o pueblo; (5) condado; (6) cdigo postal.
Es perfectamente aceptable colocar una coma al final de cada rengln y un punto al
final del ltimo. Sin embargo, la tendencia es a suprimir los signos de puntuacin.
Tambin existe la posibilidad de tener una coma entre el nmero y el nombre de la
calle. As pues, las cuatro formas posibles son:
27, Chelsea Gardens,
Sevenoaks,
Kent.

Fecha

Lo normal es que la fecha aparezca en la parte superior derecha de la carta, debajo de


la direccin del remitente. En Gran Bretaa la forma normal de expresar una fecha
es: da, mes, ao (p. ej.: 14 May 1997). En los Estados Unidos la convencin es:
mes, da, ao (p. ej.: May 14, 1997). Ambas formas son vlidas en ingls a nivel
internacional, pero pueden dar lugar a equvocos cuando se abrevia la fecha. Por
ejemplo, el 1 de diciembre de 1997 podra ser 1/12/97 (en el sistema britnico y del
resto de Europa) o 12/1/97 (en el sistema norteamericano). Por eso, a la hora de
concertar citas por carta o fax, se recomienda escribir el nombre del mes para evitar
confusiones.

Nombre y direccin en el sobre

Lo normal es escribir el nombre del destinatario y, a continuacin, la direccin


(siguiendo el orden indicado ms arriba).
En el dorso del sobre se pueden escribir el nombre y la direccin del remitente,
precedidos de las frmulas From: o Sender:
Tratamientos

Cuando se enva una carta formal es preciso darle algn tratamiento al destinatario.
Para hombres basta con Mr. En el caso de una mujer, est cada vez ms extendido el
uso de la abreviatura Ms, que se aplica tanto a mujeres casadas como solteras. Se
utiliza Mrs (para dirigirse a una mujer casada) o Miss (para dirigirse a una mujer
soltera) cuando se sabe que la persona en cuestin as lo prefiere.

PHRASAL VERBS (Al 22 de Mayo de 2.000)

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SEPARABLES O INSEPARABLES?

NORMALMENTE,SI LA PARTICULA ES UP,SE PUEDE SEPARAR ,Y SI ES AFTER,NO SE


PUEDE

VERBO TRADUCCION VERBO TRADUCCION


BRING IN METER PUT AWAY GUARDAR ALGO
BRING UP CRIAR A ALGUIEN PUT OFF APLAZAR / APLAZAR
BURST INTO IRRUMPIR EN PUT ON PONERSE ROPA
CATCH ON COGER PUT OUT APAGAR
CLEAR UP RECOGER,LIMPIAR PUT UP SOPORTAR
FED UP ESTAR HARTO RING UP TELEFONEAR
FED UP ALIMENTAR RUN OUT OF TERMINAR / ACABAR
FELT OFF CAERSE RUSH IN ENTRAR CORRIENDO
FILL IN RELLENAR IMP. SEE OFF DESPEDIR
FIND OUT ENTERARSE DE ALGO SET OFF PARTIR A...
GET BACK VOLVER SORT OUT SOLUCIONAR
GET IN SUBIR EN UN COCHE STAND DOWN AGACHARSE
GET ON WITH LLEVARSE BIEN CON STAND UP PONERSE DE PIE
GET OUT SALIR DE UN COCHE SWITCH OFF DESENCHUFAR
GET OVER PASAR POR ENCIMA SWITCH ON ENCHUFAR
GET UP LEVANTARSE TAKE OFF QUITARSE ROPA
GIVE UP DEJAR DEFINITIVAMENTE TAKE AFTER PARECERSE A
GIVE UP IRSE TAKE AWAY LLEVAR
GO BACK REGRESAR TAKE BACK DEVOLVER ALGO
GO DOWN BAJAR TAKE CARE TENER CUIDADO
GO IN ENTRAR TAKE OFF DESVESTIRSE
GO ON VOLVER TAKE OUT SACAR
GO OUT SALIR TAKE UP PRACTICAR
GO OUT WITH SALIR CON THROW INTO IRRUMPIR
GO TO OUT SALIR FUERA TO BE AWAY ESTA FUERA
GO UP SUBIR TO BE IN ESTA EN
HELD UP ESTAR ATRAPADO TO BE OFF SALIR
ITS OFF ESTA ESTROPEADO TRY ON PROBARSE ALGO
KNOCK ON LLAMAR TRY ON PROBARSE ALGO
LOOK AFTER VIGILAR TRY OUT ENSAYAR, PROBAR
LOOK AT MIRA! TRY OUT ENSAYAR, PROBAR
LOOK FOR BUSCAR TURN DOWN BAJAR EL VOLUMEN
LOOK ESTAR ENCANTADO TURN OFF APAGAR
LOOK TENER GANAS TURN ON ENCENDER
LOOK OUT ! CUIDADO! TURN UP SUBIR EL VOLUMEN
LOOK UP BUSCAR INF.EN LIBRO WHATS ON ? QUE DAN ?
MAKE UP INVENTARSE WHATS UP? QUE PASA
PICK UP RECOGER GIVE AWAY DAR
MAKE UP DECIDIR GET OVER RECUPERARSE
HANG ON ESPERAR HANG ON RESISTIR
WORK OUT CALCULAR WORK OUT ENTENDER
PUT OFF QUITAR LAS GANAS GO ON PASAR/SUCEDER

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ATENCION !!

ID RATHER ......PREFERIRIA
I WOULDNT MIND......NO ME IMPORTARIA

I DONT LIKE STUDYING.ID RATHER BE OUTSIDE PLAYING TENNIS

I WOULDNT MIND A CUP OF TEA

NO ME IMPORTARIA UNA TAZA DE TE

WILL AND WOULD

WIL...: UNA CERTEZA DE QUE SUCEDA ALGO Y/O ALGO


POSIBLE
WOULD ...: PROBABLEMENTE NO SUCEDERA .ALGO
IMAGINARIO

ESTRUCTURA RESUMIDA DE LAS CONDICIONALES

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ZERO CONDITIONAL...: IF + TWO PRESENT TENSES


Expresa una condicin que siempre es verdad.
if you boil water, it evaporates
cuando hierves agua,se evapora

FIRST CONDITIONAL...: IF + PRESENT....FUTURE WILL


En este caso es posible que se cumpla la condicin expresada.
if she takes a taxi, she'll be here in ten minutes
si toma un taxi, estar aqu en diez minutos

SECOND CONDITIONAL...:IF+ PAST...CONDITIONAL WOULD


En este caso es menos probable que se cumpla la condicin expresada
if she took a taxi, she would be here in ten minutes
si tomara un taxi, estara aqu en diez minutos

THIRD CONDITIONAL...:IF+ PAST PERFECT...PERFECT


CONDITIONAL WOULD +(HAVE+ PAST PARTICIPLE)
Expresa una condicin que ya no se puede cumplir
if she had taken a taxi, she would have been here in ten
minutes
si hubiera tomado un taxi, habra estado aqu en diez minutos

BASE AND STRONG ADJECTIVES

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PODEMOS USAR ADJETIVOS QUE AUMENTAN EL SIGNIFICADO


DE ALOS ADVERBIOS .POR EJEMPLO VERY Y ABSOLUTELY

NO PODEMOS DECIR ABSOLUTELY BIG PORQUE ABSOLUTELY


SOLO VA CON STRONG ADJECTIVES.

Y NI PODEMOS DECIR
VERY ENORMOUS PORQUE ENORMOUS YA SIGNIFICA VERY
BIG.

BASE ADJECTIVE STRONG ADJECTIVE


BIG ENORMOUS, HUGE
HOT BOILING
TIRED EXHAUSTED
COLD FREEZING
TASTY DELICIOUS
INTERESTING FASCINATING
BAD HORRID, HORRIBLE, AWFUL,
TERRIBLE, DISGUSTING
GOOD PERFECT, MARVELLOUS,
SUPERB, WONDERFUL,
FANTASTIC, BRILLIANT
DIRTY FILTHY
SURPRISED ASTONISHED, AMAZED
ANGRY FURIOUS
FUNNY HILARIOUS
FRIGHTENED TERRIFIED
PRETTY BEAUTIFUL
CLEVER BRILLIANT

WORDS THAT JOIN IDEAS

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PALABRAS QUE JUNTAN IDEAS O FRASES

SE USAN PARA HACER COMENTARIOS Y/O AMPLIAR LA


INFORMACION

EVEN INCLUSO
FOR EXAMPLE POR EJEMPLO
THEREFORE POR CONSIGUIENTE
AT LEAST POR LO MENOS
SPECIALTY ESPECIALMENTE
ALSO TAMBIEN
SO ASI QUE
BECAUSE PORQUE
NEARLY CERCA
ONLY SOLO
BUT PERO
OF COURSE POR SUPUESTO
HOWEVER SIN EMBARGO
EITHER TAMPOCO
ENOUGH PRETTY BASTANTE BONITO
BECAUSE OF A CAUSA DE
ACTUALLY ACTUALMENTE/DE
HECHO
MEANWHILE MIENTRAS TANTO
AFTER ALL DESPUES DE TODO
AS WELL TAMBIEN

I WISH = IF ONLY

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(Ojal)
OBSERVAR:

QUE EL CAMBIO DEL TIEMPO VERBAL ES UN PASO


HACIA DELANTE EN EL PASADO.

ESTO ES.....:

AM / IS......WAS
ARE.....WERE
HAVE / HAS.....HAD
CAN....COULD
WILL / WONT....WOULD
DOES / DO.....DID
LIKE...LIKED
GO....WENT
ETC.ETC...

I AM SHORT - I WISH I WAS TALL (or If only)


I LIVE IN SPAIN -I WISH I DIDNT LIVE IN SPAIN(or If only)
-I WISH I LIVED IN ENGLAND
(Quiero cambiar algo del presente)

PETER SMOKES TOO MUCH -I WISH HE WOULDT SMOKE SO MUCH (or If


only)
(Para hbitos que nos molestan)
(pensamos en futuro:(Ojal dejara de fumar)
y por eso ponemos el would que es condicional de futuro)

TOM WONT HELP ME -I WISH PETER WOULD HELP ME (or If only)

IM DIDNT LEARN GERMAN -I WISH I HAD LEARNED GERMAN (or If only)


(Algo que ocurri y que ojal no hubiera ocurrido)

ESTILO DIRECTO/ESTILO INDIRECTO

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He said that... / he told me that...


El verbo que aparece detrs SAID o TOLD (SB.)
est normalmente en pasado

AM / IS......WAS (Presente Continuo a Pasado Continuo)


(She said) Im working..........She said that She was working
(They said to us) The hotel isnt very good...They told us the hotel wasnt
very good

ARE.....WERE (Presente a Pasado)


(I said ) The shops are open...He said that the shops were open

HAVE / HAS.....HAD (Present Perfect a Past Perfect)


(I said to him) Ive finished my work ... I told him that I had finished my
work

CAN....COULD (Auxiliar en Presente a Auxiliar en Pasado)


(Tom said) I cant come to the party...Tom said that he couldnt come to
the party

WILL / WONT....WOULD ( Futuro a condicional de Futuro)


(My friends said to me) The exam will be easy...My friends told me that
the exam would be easy

DOES / DO.....DID (Auxiliar en Presente a Auxiliar en Pasado)

(I said) It doesnt matter...I said that it didnt matter


(He said) I dont know your address...he said that he didnt know my
address

LIKE...LIKED (Presente a Pasado


(Mary Said) I like wine...Mary said that she liked the wine

GO....WENT (Presente a Pasado

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(They said ) We often go to the cinema... They said that they often went
to the cinema

En este tipo de frases, THAT puede omitirse

ESTILO DIRECTO / ESTILO INDIRECTO(II)


DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH
PRESENT SIMPLE PASA PAST SIMPLE
I LIVE IN LONDON A SHE SAID SHE LIVED IN
LONDON
PRESENT CONTINUOUS PASA PAST CONTINUOUS
HES READING A BOOK A SHE SAID HE WAS READING
A BOOK
PRESENT PERFECT PASA PAST PERFECT
HES FINISHED THE BOOK A SHE SAID HE HAD FINISHED
THE BOOK
PRESENT PERFECT PASA PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
CONTINUOUS A SHE SAID SHE HAD BEEN
IVE BEEN WAITING FOR AN WAITING FOR AN HOUR
HOUR
PAST SIMPLE PASA PAST PERFECT
I TRIED TO GET TICKETS A SHE SAID SHE HADTRIED TO
FOR THE THEATRE GET TICKETS FOR THE
THEATRE
FUTURE (WILL) PASA CONDITIONAL (WOULD)
ILL FINISH IT LATER A SHE SAID SHE WOULD
FINISH IT LATER
FUTURE CONTINUOUS PASA CONDITIONAL CONTINUOUS
ILL BE GOING TO A SHE SAID SHE WOULD BE
UNIVERSITY IN A FEW GOING TO UNIVERSITY IN A
YEARS FEW YEARS
PAST PERFECT SE PAST PERFECT
QUEDA
EN

PAST PERFECT SE PAST PERFECT


CONTINUOUS QUEDA CONTINUOUS
EN

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CAMBIOS

SHALL/WILL WOULD
CAN COULD
MUST MUST /HAD TO
SHOULD SHOULD
OUGHT TO OUGHT TO
MAY MIGHT
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XX
I HE / SHE
WE THEY
MY HIS/ HER
OURS THEIRS
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
X
HERE THERE
THIS THAT
THESE THOSE
TODAY THAT DAY
YESTERDAY THE DAY BEFORE
LAST WEEK THE WEEK BEFORE
TOMORROW THE NEXT DAY
NOW THEN
AGO BEFORE
TONIGHT THAT NIGHT
THE DAY AFTER TOMORROW IN TWO DAYSTIME
THE DAY BEFORE YESTERDAY TWO DAYS BEFORE
DONT NOT TO

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DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH


PRESENT SIMPLE PASA PAST SIMPLE
I LIVE IN LONDON A SHE SAID SHE LIVED IN LONDON

PRESENT CONTINUOUS PASA PAST CONTINUOUS


HES READING A BOOK A SHE SAID HE WAS READING A BOOK

PRESENT PERFECT PASA PAST PERFECT


HES FINISHED THE BOOK A SHE SAID HE HAD FINISHED THE BOOK

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PASA PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS


IVE BEEN WAITING FOR AN HOUR A SHE SAID SHE HAD BEEN WAITING FOR AN
HOUR
PAST SIMPLE PASA PAST PERFECT
I TRIED TO GET TICKETS FOR THE A SHE SAID SHE HAD TRIED TO GET TICKETS
THEATRE FOR THE THEATRE
FUTURE (WILL) PASA CONDITIONAL (WOULD)
ILL FINISH IT LATER A SHE SAID SHE WOULD FINISH IT LATER

FUTURE CONTINUOUS PASA CONDITIONAL CONTINUOUS


ILL BE GOING TO UNIVERSITY IN A FEW A SHE SAID SHE WOULD BE GOING TO
YEARS UNIVERSITY IN A FEW YEARS
PAST PERFECT SE QUEDA PAST PERFECT
EN
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS SE QUEDA PAST PERFECT
EN CONTINUOUS
Bnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn gggggggggggg lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
SHALL/WILL WOULD
CAN COULD
MUST MUST /HAD TO
SHOULD SHOULD
OUGHT TO OUGHT TO
MAY MIGHT
llllll
I HE / SHE
WE THEY
MY HIS/ HER
OURS THEIRS
lllllll
HERE THERE
THIS THAT
THESE THOSE
TODAY THAT DAY
YESTERDAY TTHE DAY BEFORE
LAST WEEK THE WEEK BEFORE
TOMORROW THE NEXT DAY
NOW THEN
AGO BEFORE
TONIGHT THAT NIGHT
THE DAY AFTER TOMORROW IN TWO DAYSTIME
THE DAY BEFORE YESTERDAY TWO DAYS BEFORE
DONT NOT TO

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REPORTING SPEECH
REPORTED STATEMENTES

(AFIRMACIONES)
Si el reporting verb en el estilo directo esta en pasado,(ej. said, told,),es usual que le
verbo del
Estilo indirecto,se mueva un tiempo atrs.

Present Past
Present Perfect Past Perfect
Etc...
Im going He said he was going

Si el verbo en el estilo directo est en Presente en el indirecto sigue en Presente

I come from Spain She says she comes from Spain

REPORTED QUESTIONS

(PREGUNTAS)

1- El orden de las palabras en el reported questions es diferente en el report speech.


No hay inversion del sujeto y el verbo auxiliary no hay do/does/did.

What time is it? He wants to know what time it is.


Where do you liveShe asked me where I lived

2-Si no hay question word (what, who, where...etc),usamos If


She wants to know if she should wear a dress.

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REPORTING SPEECH (II)


REPORTED COMMANDS, REQUEST, OFFERS AND
ADVICE

(ORDENES, PETICIONES, OFRECIMIENTOS Y


CONSEJOS)
1- SE FORMAN CON:VERBO + PERSONA+ TO+ INFINITIVO
They told us to go away
She persuaded me to have a hair cut

2- PARA ORDENES NEGATIVAS USAMOS NOT TO


He told me not to tell anyone

3-USAMOS TELLPARA AFIRMACIONES Y ORDENES,


PERO LA FORMA ES DIFERENTE.

Statements:
He told me that he was going
They told us that they were going abroad

Commands:
He told me to keep still
The police told people to move on

4-USAMOS ASK PARA ORDENES Y PREGUNTAS,


PERO LA FORMA ES DIFERENTE.

Commands:
He asked me to open my suitcase
She asked me not to smoke

Questions:
He asked me what I did for a living
She asked me why I had come

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TALK AND SPEAK


EN INGLES BRITANICO USAMOS LA PREPOSICION TO
PERA EN INGLES AMERICANO SE USA WITH.
YA ES IGUAL DE COMUN EL WITH EN LOS DOS

CAN I SPEAK TO YOU ?


CAN I SPEAK WITH YOU ?

TALK

SUGIERE QUE DOS O MAS PERSONAS ESTAN TENIENDO UNA


CONVERSACION
ES MAS COMUN QUE SPEAK.

WE STAYED UP ALL NIGT TALKING

SUGIERE USUALMENTE LA IDEA DE UNA CONVERSACION

SPEAK
SUGIERE ALGO MAS SERIO Y/O FORMAL

I HAVE A COMPLAINT. ID WOULD LIKE TO SPEAK TO THE MANAGER

SUGIERE TAMBIEN,QUE UNA PERSONA ESTA HABLANDO MAS QUE OTRA

THE DOCTOR SPOKE TO THE AUDIENCE ABOUT THE DANGER OF


SMOKING

PUEDE SOLO REFERIRSE AL USO COMO PALABRA

IVE LOST MY VOICE.I CANT SPEAK

USAMOS SPEAK CUANDO HABLAMOS SOBRE IDIOMAS

HOW MANY LANGUAGES CAN YOU SPEAK?

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TO GET MARRIED CASARSE CON ALGUIEN (QUE DESCONOCEMOS)


TO BE MARRIED TO SB. ESTAR CASADO CON ALGUIEN
TO MARRY SOMEBODY CASARSE CON ALGUIEN QUE CONOCEMOS

ULTIMAS ANOTACIONES DEL ESTILO INDIRECTO

Se llama directo al estilo, cuando el que habla o escribe reproduce textualmente


con las que se ha expresado el autor...
En el estilo indirecto el que habla o escribe,refiere por si mismo lo que el otro ha
dicho.

Veamos algunos ejemplos:

PEDRO: Los libros estan sobre la mesa (The books are on the table)
MARIA: Pedro dijo que los libros estaban encima de la mesa ( Peter said the books
were
on the table) .

PEDRO: Trabajo aqu (I work here)


MARA: Pedro dijo que trabajaba alli (Peter said he worked there)

Un somero analisis de estos ejemplos nos revela que estas estructuras sintacticas son
basicamentes ,coincidentes en ingls y espaol.

Nos revela igualmente que:

a) Las construcciones de estilo indirecto van precedidas de un verbo introductorio.


b) Existe una estrecha correlacion temporal entre este verbo y los de las
construcciones de estilo indirecto propiamente dicho.
c) El paso de estilo directo a estilo indirecto implica cambios importantes en tres
campos : Sujeto, Verbos y Adverbios. (Observese los subrayados)

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VERBOS INTRODUCTORIOS
Existen una serie de verbos introductorios cuya seleccin viene fundamentalmente
determinada por el sentido de la frase.Cuando esta recoge un hecho sin matices,el
verbo introductorio es SAY o TELL. La diferencia radica en que usamos TELL
cuando se especifica el complemento indirecto y SAY cuando no se hace.

PETER: I work here


JOHN: Peter said he worked there (casi nunca se dice Peter said to me)

Peter told me he worked here

ULTIMAS ANOTACIONES DEL ESTILO INDIRECTO (II)

QUESTIONS
Si la frase en estilo directo es una PREGUNTA, el verbo introductorio,es ASKED
(Pregunt)

Puede darse dos casos :pregunta con o sin interrogativo (pronombre).


En el primer caso la frase resultante es una interrogativa y en el segundo una
disyuntiva con WHETHER o mucho mas comunmente con IF.

MARY: Who lives next door? -Pronombre intrrogativo.


JOHN: Mary asked who lived next door

MARY: Does Peter live in London?


JOHN: Mary asked IF (whether) Peter lived in London.

Debe de prestarse especial atencin al hecho de que las interrogativas indirectas


tienen estructura afirmativa en ingles
El complemento indirecto del verbo ASK puede aparecer o no aparecer,sin que ello
introduzca ninguna otra modificacion.

Cuando la frase en estilo directo expresa un RUEGO ir introducido en estilo


indirecto por ASK (Pedir).

MARY to JANE: Open the window,plese


MARY asked JANE to open the window

MARY: Dont say that please,Peter


JOHN: Mary asked Peter not to say that

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Sin en lugar de un ruego, se trata de una

ORDEN o MANDATO
El verbo introductorio de estilo indirecto el TELL (a veces ORDER)

MARY to the boy :Stop making noise !


JOHN: Mary told (ordered) the boy,to stop making noise

MARY to the boy: Dont make noise!


JOHN: Mary told to the boy not to make noise

ULTIMAS ANOTACIONES DEL ESTILO INDIRECTO (III)

Es necesario tener presente la necesidad de sealar de un modo explicito el


complemento
indirecto con TELL ya apuntado mas arriba.

Los verbos introductorios que acabamos de sealar son mas caracteristicos, pero hay
otros muchos que pueden aparecer esporadicamente tal como ponen de manifiesto los
ejemplos que siguen:
He promised that he would do it the next day
He wrote he was coming next week
The phoned he was going to do the shopping
He explained he hadntt been able to do it
She remarked that the situation was rather complicated

Otros:

Said Accepted Hoped Exclaimed


Told Accused Insisted Urged
Slated Admitted Pollited at Asked
Responded Agreed Promised Inquired
Expressed Apologized Wished Wondered
Thought Assured Wanted Refused
Reminded Called Ordered Insisted
Invited Congratulated Begged Offered
Suggested Denied Warned Shauted

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En Mlaga a 6 de Junio de 2.000

lvaro Souvirn

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PRESENT PERFECT

- Se hace la pregunta en ingls con Present Perfect,pero se traduce al espaol


en Presente.
A- How long has he been in Spain?
B- Cuanto tiempo hace que esta en Espaa?

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

- Acciones que empezaron en el pasado y continuan ahora.


- Con How long.......+ Since and For

A-How long have you been studying english?


C- Ive been studying english for two years

- Acciones que acaban de terminar recientemente

A- Youre very dirty.What have you been doing?


B- Ive been playing football

REFLEXIVOS

Myself, Himself, Herself, Yourself


Yourselves, Ourselves, Themselves

Si se les adjunta la particula By = Solo

She was by herself


Estaba sola

Each other A B

Paul and Peter live near each other

Enjoy..: Siempre necesita un reflexivo u otro objeto al lado


We enjoyed oorselves

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BOTH / EITHER / NEITHER

BOTH....and... (A and B)...: Ambos / Los dos


Both Auxi and I are studying english

EITHER .... or... (A or B)....:Uno u otro / cualquiera


Either Auxi or lvaro have blue eyes

NEITHER ...nor... (A nor B )....: Ni lo uno ni lo otro / Ninguno de los dos


Neither Auxi nor lvaro have curly hair

ONE OF US...: Uno de los dos


One of us are fatter than other one

- Despues de BOTH y NEITHER el verbo debe ser positivo


- Pueden llevar detrs un sustantivo
-
- Si el sustantivo va precedido de The, These, This, My...se aade Of
Both of the .../ Neither of these ...

-Con pronombres personales, tambin se aade Of


Both of them Both of us Neither of you
Niether of us was ungry

- Con un verbo negativo, se usa Either en vez de Neither.


I dont know either of them

- Neither puede usarse solo o al principio de la frase

POSESIVOS S y OF

- El Apostrophe -S se usa con personas


Lo poseido se coloca detrs y no lleva articulo
My sisters mouse
- Of, se usa para hablar de cosas, lugares..
The roof of the building

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Present En frases del tipo .... Significa:


Perfect +
ALREADY - Afirmativas YA
- Interrogativas (esperamos que la respuesta YA
sea afirmativa)
YET -Negativas TODAVA
Interrogativas (No sabemos si la respuesta sera YA
afirmativa o negativa, pedimos apinion)
JUST - Afirmativas ( Se intercala Just entre el ACABAR DE:
verbo To Have y el Participio

TOO
- Significa : Tambin
- Se coloca al final de la frase
- Va detrs de un verbo afirmativo
Im happy . Im happy too

NOT EITHER
-Significa : Tampoco
-Se coloca al final de la frase
-Va detrs de un verbo negativo
Im not happy . Im not happy either

SO AM I
Estructura: So + auxiliar + sujeto
-Significa: (y) yo tambin
- Se usa en frase Positivas
Im tired . So Am I

NEITHER DO I
Estructura: Neither + auxiliar + sujeto
-Significa: (ni) yo tampoco
- Se usa en frase Negativas
I wont be here tomorrow. Neither will I

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AM/ IS / ARE
SO WAS / WERE
DO / DID / DOES
HAVE / HAD
CAN
NEITHER WILL
MUST

IMPORTANTE: Cuando no sabemos el auxiliar,: DO/ DOES / DID


NEITHER =NOR

SO AM I
(y) yo tambien

En frases afirmativas
Se coloca al principio de la frase
Detrs se coloca el auxiliar (Have, Can, Did...) correspondiente
al verbo de la frase anterior . Cuando no sabemos el auxiliar,usamos DO

Im tired / So am I
I was late for work today / So was John
I work in a bank / So do I
We went to the cinema last night / So did we

NEITHER DO I
(ni) yo tampoco
En frases negativas
Se coloca al principio de la frase
Detrs se coloca el auxiliar (Have, Can, Did...) correspondiente
al verbo de la frase anterior . Cuando no sabemos el auxiliar,usamos DO
What does he like doing?.....que le gusta hacer?
What does he look like?...... Como es? (de aspecto de apariencia)
Who does he look like?....... A quien se parece?
Whats it like?..............Como es algo? / alguien? (de personalidad)
How is she?...................Como esta? (de salud)
Nota: Like es un verbo solo en la frase n1

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BASTANTE
SHES QUITE TALL
VERY
RATHER
FAIRLY

Rather es Bastante pero en frase negativas,con un tono peyorativo


The meal was rather expensive

Fairly, tambin se traduce por Bastante pero con un matiz menor que los
otros tres casos.
My parents live in a fairly large house
Mis padres viven en una casa bastante grande

No tienen que ver con Enough y Too (suficiente y demasiado)

What does he like doing?.....que le gusta hacer?


What does he look like?...... Como es? (de aspecto de apariencia)
Who does he look like?....... A quien se parece?
Whats it like?..............Como es algo? / alguien? (de personalidad)
How is she?...................Como esta? (de salud)
Nota: Like es un verbo solo en la frase n1

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LOOK OR LOOK LIKE


LOOK + ADJECTIVE.....:PERSONALIDAD
LOOK LIKE +NOUN.....:ASPECTO / APARIENCIA

OBLIGACION
Obligacion propia que yo me impongo y/o moral: MUST (DEBO)
Obligacion externa (una orden dada por tu jefe/padre: HAVE TO (TENGO)

POSESIVOS

En cuanto al apostrofe:
1. A photo of my father (una foto donde aparece mi padre)
2. A photo of my fathers ( Unas fotos que ha pagado my padre aunque no
aparezca)
Con pronombres posesivos
A friend of mine
A friend of yours
A friend of hers
A friend of his
A friend of theirs
A friend of ours

PARTS OF THE DAY


MORNING (In the morning): de 8:00 de la maana a 14:00
AFTERNOON (In the afternoon): de 14:00 a 18:00
EVENING (In the evening): de 18:00 a 23:00
NIGHT(At the night): Despues de las 23:00

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/i/ OR /ai/
i entre consonantes = /i/ (skin, dinner)
i + consonante + e = /ai/ (wine,driver)
igh entre consonantes = /ai/ (right,light)

PRESENT SIMPLE or PRESENT CONTINUOUS

PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUOUS


SITUACIONES PERMANENTES ACCIONES QUE ESTAN
I live in a flat SUCEDIENDO AHORA,EN EL
MOMENTO DE HABLAR
Im having dinner with friends
ACCIONES HABITUALES + PARA CITAS FUTURAS
EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO What are you doing on friday night?
She always has toast for breakfast

LOS VERBOS DE POSESION,NO SON USADOS


EN PRESENT CONTINUOUS :

WANT, LIKE, LOVE, HATE,


NEED, PREFER, DEPEND, KNOW,
MEAN, UNDERSTAND, BELIEVE,
REMEMBER, FORGET

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TIME EXPRESSIONS

AT
Se usa para decir la hora
At 8 oclock / At 10:30 / At midnight

Y tambin:
At weekend / At night / At christmas / At the end / At the moment

ON
Se usa con los dias y las fechas
On Sundays / On April 25 / On my birthday / On Christmas Eve

Y tambin:
On Monday morning / On Saturday night

IN
Se usa con los meses,aos y estaciones
In April / In 1996 / In Summer

Y tambin:
In the morning / In the afternoon / In the evening /
In five minutes / in a few days/ In six weeks / In two years

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QUANTIFIERS

Los sustantivos pueden ser CONTABLES o INCONTABLES

PARA GRANDES CANTIDADES:

MANERA CONTABLE INCONTABLE

POSITIVO A LOT /LOTS OF A LOT/ LOTS OF


NEGATIVO (NOT) MANY (NOT) MUCH
INTERROGATIVO HOW MANY? HOW MUCH?

PARA PEQUEAS CANTIDADES:

MANERA CONTABLE INCONTABLE

POSITIVO A FEW A LITTLE


VERY FEW VERY LITTLE
INTERROGATIVO HOW MANY? HOW MUCH?

Grandes Pequeas Cantidad Mas de lo que Menos de lo


cantidades cantidades cero necesitas que
necesitas
CONTABLE (+) A LOT OF A FEW NOT...ANY TOO MANY NOT
LOTS OF VERY FEW NONE ENOUGH
(-) NOT MANY
(?) HOW MANY

UNCONTABLE (+) A LOT OF A LITTLE NOT...ANY TOO MUCH NOT


LOTS OF VERY NONE ENOUGH
(-)NOT MUCH LITTLE
(?)HOW MUCH

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3CURSO 2000-2001

CONTABLE......MANY / FEW
INCONTABLE......MUCH / LITTLE

I HAVEA FEW FRIEND......TENGO MUCHOS AMIGOS


I HAVE FEW FRIENDS....TENGO POCOS AMIGOS

A LOT OF .....MUCHO (CANTIDAD)


A LOT ...ME GUSTA MUCHO, MUCHAS GRACIAS...

TOO + ADJECTIVE
TOO MUCH + NOUN (CONTABLE)

REMEMBER:

DO YOU GOING (NUNCA!!!)

DO + ING SON INCOMPATIBLES

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LVARO SOUVIRN 3CURSO 2000-2001

GERUND
1. DESPUES DE PREPOSICIONES
She left without saying goodbye
Im thinking of buying a flat

2. DESPUES DE CIERTOS VERBOS ( EMOCION )


LIKE, LOVE, HATE, ENJOY, MIND, FINISH, STOP...
I love cooking but I hate cleaning
I dont mind driving you to the airport

3. COMO EL SUJETO DE LA FRASE


Eating in restaurants is expensive
Swimming is good exercise

TO + INFINITIVE

1. DESPUES DE ADJETIVOS
Its difficult to learn a language

2. PARA RESPONDER A WHY? (RAZON / PROPOSITO)


Why did you go to Mexico?
To see my aunt and uncle

3. DESPUES DE CIERTOS VERBOS: ( INTENCION )


WOULD LIKE, WANT, NEED, DECIDE, HOPE, EXPECT, PLAN, FORGET,
SEEM, TRY, PROMISE, OFFER, REFUSE, LEARN,MANAGE
Would you like to come?
Im hoping to get a better job soon

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3CURSO 2000-2001

QUESTION TAGS
Las QUESTION TAGS, son pequeas preguntas al final de una frase que
corresponden a expresiones en espaol como: No? / Verdad?

Si la frase es afirmativa, la question tag es negativa


Si la frase es negativa, la question tag es afirmativa

Frase afirmativa Q.T. Negativa

Its a beautiful day inst it?


She lives in London doesnt she?
You Closed the window didnt you?
Those shoes are nice arent they?
Tom will be at home tomorrow wont he?

Frase Negativa Q.T. Afirmativa

That inst your car is it?


You dont smoke do you?
You havent met my mother have you?
You wont be late will you?
Usamos DO/DOES para el presente y DID para el pasado

SHORT ANSWERS
Usamos las Short Answers despues de preguntas con respuestas SI /NO
Para hacer una Short Answer,repetimos el verbo auxiliar.
Si no lo hay ,usamos do/does/did

Are you coming with us? Yes I am / No Im not


Mary likes reading Yes she does / No she doesnt
Do you go out yesterday Yes,we did / No we didnt
Have you been here before? Yes,I have / no I havent
Can you cook? Yes I can / no I cant

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ADJECTIVE + ENOUGH : GOOD ENOUGH


ENOUGH + NOUN : ENOUGH MONEY

I USED TO / I DIDNT USE TO


(SOLA / NO SOLA)

Usamos USED TO / I DIDNT USE TO,

Para hbitos que han cambiado

I used to drive to work ( but i dont now)

Situaciones pasadas o estados que han cambiado

She used to be a Diana Lookalike (But now,she isnt)


She used to have short hair (But now,shes a different style)

Para hbitos y/o situaciones del presente usamos


USUALLY+ PRESENT SIMPLE
I used to eat a lot of meat but now I usually eat fish

Porque: USED TO ,no existe en el


presente!!!
(+) I USED TO WORK IN A RESTAURANT
(-) I DIDNT USED TO DRIVE TO WORK
(?) DID YOU USED TO PLAY WITH DOLLS WHEN
YOU WERE A CHILD?

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
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WHEN YOU WERE A CHILD, DID YOU USE TO...


... SHARE A BEDROOM ?
Yes, I did. When I was a child I used to share a bedroom.

... BE ILL A LOT ?


Yes, I did. I used to be ill a lot.

... DO ANY SPORT ?


No, I didnt. I didnt use to do any sport.

... PLAY IN THE STREET ?


Yes, I did. I used to play in the street .It was funny.

... LIKE SCHOOL ?


No, I didnt. I didn use to like school. It was bored.

... EAT A LOT OF SWEETS ?


No, I didnt. I didnt use to eat a lot of sweets. I didnt like they.

... WATCH A LOT OF TV ?


Yes, a did. I used to watch a lot of TV.

... HATE ANY PARTICULAR FOOD ?


Yes, I did. I used to hate turkey and chicken,Today, already, I hate them

... FIGHT WITH YOUR BROTHER OR SISTER ?


Yes, I did: I used to fight with my brothers or sister.

... VISIT YOUR GRANDPARENTS ?


No, I didnt. I didnt use to visit my grandparents. They were died in that moment.

... BE AFRAID OF ANYTHING ?


Yes, I did. I used to be afraid of darkness and Count Drcula!

... HAVE A FAVOURITE POP GROUP / SINGER ?


Yes, I did. I used to have a favourite singer and pop group.

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El comparativo y superlativo de los


adjetivos
La formacin del comparativo y el superlativo de los adjetivos depende
del nmero de slabas de la palabra.

Los adjetivos de una slaba, excepto aqullos que terminan en -ed (vexed,
bored), forman el comparativo agregando -er y el superlativo agregando
-est:
tall taller tallest
he's taller than me

big bigger biggest


it's the biggest in the world

La mayora de adjetivos de dos slabas o ms forman el comparativo


usando more y el superlativo usando most:
famous more famous most famous
careful more careful most careful
interesting more interesting most interesting
Algunos adjetivos de uso frecuente tienen comparativos y superlativos
irregulares:
good better best
bad worse worst
far further/farther furthest/farthest
many more most
much more most
little less least

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ANY MORE / ANY LONGER

Usamos ANY MORE / ANY LONGER al final de una oracion con un verbo
negativo
para indicar que una situacin pasada ya no existe.

I dont work there any more


I used to work there but I dont now

ANY LONGER / NO LONGER significan lo mismo que ANY MORE ,


pero es mas formal

This credit card is no longer valid

MAKE, LET (+ Person + Infinitive) without TO


BE ALLOWED TO (+ Infinitive)

Usamos LET + Person + Infinitive para PERMITIR

Our teachers let us wear what we like

Usamos MAKE + Person + Infinitive para OBLIGACIONES


(A obliga a B a hacer algo)

Our boss makes us work late


Does your teacher make you speak English in class?

Usamos BE ALLOWED TO (+ Infinitive) para decir que PODEMOS / NO


PODEMOS

We arent allowed to smoke in the office

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3CURSO 2000-2001

PAST TENSES ARE:

MAKE MADE
LET LET
BE ALLOWED TO WAS/WERE ALLOWED TO

THE JOKER

El articulo definitivo THE


(El/La/Los/Las)
Usamos THE:

Para hablar acerca de GENTE, COSAS, SITIOS ESPECIFICOS


The books I bought yesterday

Cuando solo hay UNO de algo (El Sol, La Luna, La Oficina de Correos)
We looked at the Moon

Si esta CLARO que t estas hablando sobre eso.


She opened the door and went into the flat

Con instrumentos musicales


I can play the piano but no the guitar

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LVARO SOUVIRN 3CURSO 2000-2001

NO usamos THE

Cuando estamos hablando acerca de COSAS o GENTE EN GENERAL


Men /women are selfish
Love is more important than money

Con: SITIOS EN GENERAL : School, University, Work, Bed, Hospital,


Church...
Shes at school
I start work at 8.00

Despues de verbos BE IN/AT, GO TO, GET TO, START, FINISH, LEAVE


How often do you go to church?

Con NEXT / LAST ...WEEK, MONTH, YEAR, SUMMER, MONDAY...


I went to Amsterdam last month
What are you doing next weekend

Con DEPORTES, COMIDAS, ASIGNATURAS


I hate football but I love cicling
Im terrible at Maths

RESUMEN DE THE

SI
COSAS, SITIOS, GENTE ESPECIFICA

SOLO HAY UNA :SOL LUNA...
ESTAMOS HABLANDO DE UNA COSA CLARAMENTE
INSTRUMENTOS MUSICALES

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LVARO SOUVIRN 3CURSO 2000-2001

NO
COSAS, GENTE EN GENERAL
SITIOS EN GENERAL: SCHOOL,WORK,HOSPITAL,UNIVERSITY...
DESPUES DE :BE IN/AT, GO TO, GET TO, START, FINISH, LEAVE
CON : NEXT / LAST ...MONTH, YEAR, SUMMER, MONDAY...
CON DEPORTES, COMIDAS, ASIGNATURAS

CAN, COULD, BE ABLE TO

CAN Y COULD SOLO SE UTILIZAN EN


TIEMPO PRESENTE Y PASADO
LOS USAMOS PARA DECIR QUE ALGO ES POSIBLE O QUE ALGUIEN
TIENE LA HABILIDAD DE HACER ALGO
I can speak German
They can come at 7 oclock
She couldnt help me

BE ABLE TO SE UTILIZA EN FUTURO


LO USAMOS CUANDO NO ES UNA FORMA DE CAN

Ill be able to drive next year


Shes never been able to park
Id like to be able to dance well

Ill be able to= PODR

Being (Sujeto) able to use= Poder usar

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LVARO SOUVIRN 3CURSO 2000-2001

PASADO
USO DEL COULD WAS /WERE ABLE TO

USAMOS COULD PARA HABLAR DE UNA HABILIDAD GENERAL

My grandfather could play the piano

USAMOS WAS / WERE BE ABLE TOPARA DECIR QUE ALGUIEN HIZO


ALGO EN UNA OCASIN ESPECIAL O TENIA UNA DIFICULTAD MUY
GRANDE PARA HACERLO

Although the restaurant was very full, we were able to get a table

I was be able to pass my driving test after six times

CAN Y COULD
La formas negativas de can y could son can't y couldn't, pero en
contextos formales o enfticos se suele usar cannot y could not. Cuando
expresan la idea de posibilidad o permiso, y en oraciones interrogativas
en las que se pide un favor, can equivale a puedo, puedes, etc. y could
puede equivaler a poda, podas, etc., pude, pudiste, etc. o podra, podras,
etc.:

He can help you l te puede ayudar


Can you open the door for me? me puedes abrir la puerta?
She couldn't understand why no poda entender por qu
I couldn't finish the essay no pude terminar el trabajo
Could you lend me the money? me podras prestar el dinero?
We could go by train podramos ir en tren

La expresin to be able to sustituye a can y could en los tiempos


verbales en que stos no se utilizan:

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Do you think he'll be able to do it? crees que podr hacerlo?


She hopes to be able to come on Tuesday espera poder venir el
martes
I haven't been able to do it yet todava no he podido hacerlo

can't, could y couldn't tambin pueden ir seguidos de


have + participio:
He can't have said that! no puede haber dicho eso!
You could have told me! me lo podras haber dicho!
I couldn't have done it without you no lo podra haber hecho sin ti

can y could equivalen a formas del verbo saber


cuando van seguidos de verbos que expresan una habilidad que se ha
adquirido:
She can't swim no sabe nadar
Can you type? sabes escribir a mquina?
He could read when he was four saba leer cuando tena cuatro aos
She told us she couldn't sing nos dijo que no saba cantar

can y could generalmente no se traducen al


espaol cuando van seguidos de los verbos de los
sentidos:
I can't hear you no te oigo
I can see why she doesn't like it ya veo por qu no le gusta
He couldn't see a thing no vea nada
She could smell gas not que ola a gas

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LVARO SOUVIRN 3CURSO 2000-2001

AFIRMATIVO ? / NEGATIVO ?

COMO CONOCER SI ES CAN CANT CUANDO NOS LO


HABLAN :

Si la entonacion va sobre CAN es Afirmativo:


I can stop

Si la entonacion va sobre el VERBO PRINCIPAL es Negativo


I cant stop

CAN BE ABLE TO +INFINITIVE


PRESENT CAN AM/IS/ARE ABLE TO
SIMPLE - WILL BE ABLE TO
FUTURE (WILL) COULD WAS/WERE ABLE TO
PAST SIMPLE - HAS/HAVE BEEN ABLE TO
P. PERFECT - (TO) BE ABLE TO
INFINITIVE - BEING ABLE TO
GERUND

SUGERENCIAS
LETS....
WHY DONT WE....?
HOW ABOUT...?

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PARA CUANDO .... ?

When is It for ? Para cuando es ?


When would It be for ? Para cuando sera /Estara ?
When will It be for ? Para ser /estar

EN CASO
In case (Por si acaso)
In case it rains, take an umbrella

In the event (En caso de )


In the event of fire, call 080

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LVARO SOUVIRN 3CURSO 2000-2001

BASE AND STRONG ADJECTIVES


PODEMOS USAR ADJETIVOS QUE AUMENTAN EL SIGNIFICADO DE ALOS
ADVERBIOS .POR EJEMPLO VERY Y ABSOLUTELY

NO PODEMOS DECIR ABSOLUTELY BIG PORQUE ABSOLUTELY SOLO VA CON


STRONG ADJECTIVES. Y NI PODEMOS DECIR
VERY ENORMOUS PORQUE ENORMOUS YA SIGNIFICA VERY BIG.

BASE ADJECTIVE STRONG ADJECTIVE


COLD FREEZING
TASTY DELICIOUS
INTERESTING FASCINATING
BAD HORRID, HORRIBLE, AWFUL,TERRIBLE,
DISGUSTING
GOOD PERFECT, MARVELLOUS, SUPERB, WONDERFUL,
DIRTY FILTHY
FUNNY HILARIOUS
FRIGHTENED TERRIFIED
CLEVER BRILLIANT
PRETTY BEAUTIFUL
BIG ENORMOUS
SAD TRAGIC
TIRED EXHAUSTED
COLD FREEZING
HOT BOILING
HUNGRY STARVING
LITTLE TINY
ANGRY FURIOUS
SURPRISED AMAZED. ASTONISHED
SURE POSITIVE
ED = PEOPLE IM BORED (SOY ABURRIDO)

ING =THINGS /PERSON IM BORING (ESTOY ABURRIDO)


ITS BORING ES ABURRIDO

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 3CURSO 2000-2001

A SEVERAL PHRASAL VERBS


FIND OUT DESCUBRIR
GET ON (WELL) LLEVARSE (BIEN)
GIVE UP DEJAR
GO ON SEGUIR
GO UP SUBIR /AUMENTAR
LIE DOWN TUMBARSE /HECHARSE
LOOK FOR BUSCAR
LOOK UP BUSCAR INFORMACION
PUTT OFF POSPONER
SET OFF PONERSE EN CAMINO

MAKING REQUESTS
EN INGLES HAY MUCHAS FORMAS DE HACER PETICIONES:

CAN
COULD
YOU HELP ME PLEASE?
WILL
WOULD

CAN
I SPEAK TO YOU ,PLEASE?
COULD

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LVARO SOUVIRN 3CURSO 2000-2001

COULD Y WILL SON MAS INFORMALES

Would you mind opening the window?


Le importara abrir la ventana?

Do you mind if I open the window?


Le importa si abro la ventana?

CAN YOU...? OR COULD YOU..?


SE USAN PARA PEDIR A LAS PERSONAS QUE HAGAN ALGO (PUEDES,
PODRAS?)

Can / could) you open the door ,please ?


can / could you tell me the time ?

CAN I...?

SE USA PARA PEDIR PERMISO ( PUEDO ?)

Tom, can i take your umbrella ?


(At phone) Hello. Can I speak to gary,please ?

CAN I HAVE...?

SE USA PARA PEDIR COSAS ( QUISIERA... DESEARIA... ME DA...? )

Can I have the bill ,please?


Can I have these postcards,please?

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WHOULD YOU LIKE...?

QUIERES...? (LITERALMENTE:TE GUSTARA?)

PARA OFRECER ALGO:


Would you like some coffee
PARA INVITAR A ALGUIEN:
Would you like to come to a party ?
QUISIERA ES UNA MANERA EDUCADA DE PEDIR ALGO:
Id like a drink

REQUEST
RESUME
CAN YOU...? O COULD YOU..?

SE USAN PARA PEDIR A LAS PERSONAS QUE HAGAN ALGO


(PUEDES, PODRAS?)
CAN I...?

SE USA PARA PEDIR PERMISO (PUEDO?)

CAN I HAVE...?

SE USA PARA PEDIR COSAS (QUISIERA..DESEARIA.. ME DA..?)


WHOULD YOU LIKE...?

QUIERES...? (LITERALMENTE: TE GUSTARA? )

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LVARO SOUVIRN 3CURSO 2000-2001

FUTURE FORMS

WILL
DECISION EN EL MOMENTO
Ill give you my phone number. Ring me tonight
Ill check her diary for you
Ill phone back later

PREDICCION DE FUTURO
Tomorrow will be warm and sunny
Im sure youll pass your exam

GOING TO
DECISION ANTES DEL MOMENTO (Ya premeditadas)
Were going to have a holiday
My daughters going to study spanish in madrid

CERTEZA DE QUE ALGO VA A SUCEDER


Look at those clouds. Its going to rain

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
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PRESENT CONTINUOUS
PLANES FUTUROS CERCANOS
especialmennte con los verbos
GO, COME, SEE, MEET, LEAVE HAVE(DINNER ETC)
Pat and Peter are coming for a meal tonight
Were having salmon for supper

BECAUSE Y BECAUSE OF
LA DIFERENCIA ENTRE ES QUE
BECAUSE OF NO VA ACOMPAADO DE VERBO

He didnt come BECAUSE he was ill


He didnt come BECAUSE OF his illness

I WORK (sus prepocisiones de lugar)


IN.....: a city / country / region
AT....: (Inside of) Hospital / chemists / market
FOR ....: Big Companies

ACONTECIMIENTOS QUE VAN O PUEDEN SUCEDER

1 SEGURO QUE VA A SUCEDER:


Youre going to have an accident

2 PREDICCION (CON EL CONDICIONAL IF):


Youll have an accident if...

3 POSIBILIDAD DE QUE OCURRA:


You might / may have an accident
(Might : menos posible / May : ms posible)

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WILL........: DECISION EN EL MOMENTO


SHALL..........: OFRECIMIENTOS
MIGHT/MAY ...........: NO ESTAS SEGURO QUE SUCEDA
GOING TO...........: DECISION PREMEDITADA
PRESENT CONTINUOUS............: PLANES FUTUROS CERCANOS

MIGHT / MAY
QUIZAS... / ES POSIBLE.../ PUEDE

SE USA PARA DECIR ALGO QUE NO ESTAMOS SEGURO


QUE SUCEDA

You havent decided if you really want to go to the party: I might go .Im not
sure
Youre not sure if you want to go to the cinema tonight:I might see a film this
evening

MIGHT Y MAY VAN SEGUIDOS DE UN INFINITIVO SIN TO

MIGHT ES MAS COMUN EN INGLES HABLADO


Take your umbrella . It migth rain /Quizas llueva
Ann may phone tonight / Es posible que Ann llame esta noche

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LVARO SOUVIRN 3CURSO 2000-2001

LA NEGACION

MIGHT NOT / MAY NOT

QUIZS NO
I might not go to work / Quizas no vaya a trabajar
Sue may not come to ... / Quizas Sue no venga a ....

PARA PEDIR PERMISO

MAY I ?

PUEDO?
May I smoke? / Puedo fumar?
May I sit here? / Puedo sentarme aqu?

LIVING IN THE MATERIAL WORLD


CUAL ES LA DIFERENCIA ENTRE.... ?

LEND...: DEJAR PRESTADO / BORROW...:PEDIR PRESTADO


WIN...: GANAR UN PREMIO / EARN...: GANAR DINERO TRABAJANDO
SPEND...: GASTAR / WASTE...: DERROCHAR
INHERIT...: HEREDAR / INVEST...: INVERTIR
WEALTHY ...: ADINERADO / BROKE...: ARRUINADO

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
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VOCABULARY IN REFERENCE TO THE "MONEY"

BANK LOAN PRESTAMO BANCARIO


BANKRUPT ARRUINADO
BROKE SIN UN DURO
CANT AFFORD NO PODERSELO PERMITIR
DEBT DEUDA
EXCHANGE RATE TIPO DE CAMBIO
FOOTBALL POOLS QUINIELAS
FOREING CURRENCY MONEDA EXTRANJERA
GIVE AWAY DAR, DONAR
INCOME INGRESOS (POR SUELDO)
INHERIT HEREDAR
INVEST INVERTIR
LIKELIHOOD PROBABILIDAD
MORTGAGE HIPOTECA
NOTE BILLETE
OWE DEBER DINERO / UN FAVOR...
SAFE CAJA FUERTE
SHARES ACCIONES DE BOLSA
SPEND GASTAR DINERO
TO SHOW OFF ALARDEAR
WASTE (MONEY) DERROCHAR
WEALTHY ADINERADO,RICO
WILL TESTAMENTO
YIELD RENDIMIENTO

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FIRST CONDITIONAL
PARA HABLAR DE POSIBILIDADES FUTURAS Y SUS
CONSECUENCIAS
IF + PRESENT... FUTURE + INFINITIVE

If she takes a taxi, she'll be here in ten minutes


she'll be here in ten minutes, If she takes a taxi
Si toma un taxi, Estar aqu en diez minutos
Estar aqu en diez minutos, si toma un taxi
En este caso es posible que se cumpla la condicin
expresada.

SECOND CONDITIONAL
PARA HABLAR DE UN PRESENTE IMAGINARIO O UNA
SITUACION FUTURA Y SUS CONSECUENCIAS
IF + PAST...CONDITIONAL (WOULD / WOULDNT)+
INFINITIVE

If she took a taxi, She would be here in ten minutes


She would be here in ten minutes, If she took a taxi
Si tomara un taxi, estara aqu en diez minutos
Estara aqu en diez minutos, si tomara un taxi
If I had any money, I would lend it to you
I would lend it to you, If I had any money
Si tuviera dinero, te lo prestara (pero no tengo dinero)
Te lo prestara, si tuviera dinero,

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En este caso es menos probable que se cumpla la condicin


expresada.
En las oraciones condicionales a menudo se utiliza were en lugar de
was, sobre todo en la expresin if I were you (yo que t):
If I were you, I would go and see a doctor

PUNTUALIZACIONES

EL SUBJUNTIVO EN ESPAOL ES PRESENT SIMPLE EN


INGLS

Ill do It if....I have time


Ill do It when ....I have time
Ill do It as soon as ....I have time

Lo har si....tengo tiempo


Lo har cuando....tenga tiempo
Lo har tan pronto como....tenga tiempo

EN LOS EJEMPLOS ANTERIORES: I WILL HAVE TIME :


NUNCA WILL !!!

Ill do It if....I will have time


Ill do It when ....I will have time
Ill do It as soon as ....I will have time

IF + NEGATIVE = UNLESS + AFFIRMATIVE

If he doesnt arrive earlier , Ill sack him


Si no llega mas pronto, le despedir
Unless he arrives earlier , Ill sack him
A menos que llegue mas pronto,le despedir

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VERBOS MODALES DE OBLIGACION

VERBO MODAL NEGATIVO CONTRACCION TRADUCCION AFIRM.


MUST MUST NOT MUSTNT DEBER,TENER QUE
NO DEBER ,NO
PERSONAL PROHIBITION TENER QUE
OBLIGATION

HAVE TO DO NOT HAVE TO DONT HAVE TO TENGO /NO TENGO


QUE
EXTERNAL ABSENCE OF
OBLIGATION OBLIGATION
ITS NO NECESSARY
SHOULD SHOULD NOT SHOULDT TENDRIAS / NO
TENDRIAS
CONSEJO
RECOMENDACION

EJEMPLOS
MUST: OBLIGACION PERSONAL (impuesta por uno mismo)
I must remember her birthday

MUSTNT: PROHIBICION
You mustnt park here

HAVE TO: OBLIGACION EXTERNA (impuesta por ley u otros)


You have to drive on the left

DONT HAVE TO: AUSENCIA DE OBLIGACION


Its free. You dont have to pay

SHOULD: CONSEJO, RECOMENDACION


You should drive more slowly

SHOULDNT: CONSEJO, RECOMENDACION


You shouldnt eat so much

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Past Perfect
AFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE QUESTIONS
A past acction that I HAD I HADNT WHEN HAD
PAST happened before FINISHED FINISHED YOU
PERFECT WORK AT 6.00 WORK AT FINISHED
than another past
HAD + P.P 6.00 WORK?
acction

We arrived too late. They had already gone. (they went before we arrived)
Llegamos tarde.Ya se habian ido. (Se fueron antes de que llegaramos)

Formacin. Se forma con el pasado del verbo to have y el participio del


verbo que se conjuga:
I had worked we had worked
you had worked you had worked
he/she/it had worked they had worked

Uso. Para referirse a acciones anteriores a determinado momento en el


pasado. Es el equivalente pasado del present perfect y se usa de forma
paralela:
I had already seen that film ya haba visto la pelcula

Sin embargo, con este tiempo, a diferencia de con el present perfect, se


puede especificar el momento en que haba ocurrido la accin:
I wasn't hungry because I had had breakfast half an hour before

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RELATIVE CLAUSES
Las frases de relativo, son usadas para ampliarnos la
informacion y decirnos sobre QUIEN o DE QUE cosas estamos
hablando

WHO/THAT WHICH /THAT WHERE WHOSE


QUIEN /QUE CUAL/QUE DONDE CUYO /CUYA

The boy as gone into hospital (Wich boy?)


the boy who lives next door has gone into hospital
the book is very good (Wich book?)
The book that I bought yesterday is very good

WHO/THAT...QUIEN /QUE
WHO lo usamos para referirnos a personas
THAT lo usamos para referirnos a cosas

The book is about a girl who marries a millonaire


What was the name of the horse that won the race?

Si WHO o THAT es el sujeto de la oracion deben de usarse:


I like people who are kind and considerate

Si WHO o THAT es el objeto de la oracion deben quitarse:


The person you need to talk to is on holiday
(Sujeto: you)

WHICH / THAT.....CUAL / QUE


Puede ser usado para referirnos a toda oracion o idea anterior
Jane cant come to the party,wich is a shame

WHERE...DONDE
WHERE lo usamos para referirnos a lugares
The hotel where we stayed was right on the beach

WHOSE...CUYO /CUYA
Usamos WHOSE para referirnos a la posesion de alguien
Thats the woman whose son won the lottery

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DEFINING RELATIVES
The actor WHO/THAT won The Oscar ir from New Zealand

The film WHICH/THAT won The Oscar was about gladiators

The film WHERE/IN WHICH the ceremony took place was in L.A.

The film WHOSE direction won The Oscar was Gladiator

This is the person WHO works for me


Esta es la persona que trabaja para mi
(La persona : sujeto)

This is the person WHO I work for


Esta es la persona para la que trabajo
(Yo : sujeto)

That is the car WHICH cost 1 million Pounds


Este es el coche que cuesta 1 milln de Libras
(El coche : sujeto)

That is the car WHICH I like


Este es el coche que me gusta
(A m: sujeto)

WHO / WHICH SON OMITIDOS A MENUDO CUANDO


EL VERBO DESPUES DEL PRONOMBRE RELATIVO
(WHO / WHICH )TIENE UN SUJETO DIFERENTE

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NON-DEFINING RELATIVES

Se usan para dar informacion extra sobre una persona , lugar o


cosa.

LA FRASE QUE CONTIENE EL RELATIVO,


VA SIEMPRE ENTRE COMAS. ( COMA Y PUNTO)

En este tipo de uso del relativo,


NO PODEMOS OMITIR WHICH /WHO, WHERE AND WHOSE
como antes que se daba el caso al cambiar el sujeto.

NO PODEMOS USAR THAT

The house ,which has a large garden, was just what they had always wanted
My mother ,who is 65, has just retired
Finally I arrived home, where my mother was waiting for me
Chester,where my parents live, is a beautiful town

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PREPOSICIONES Y EXPRESIONES DE
MOVIMIENTO

GO STRAIGHT ON.................SIGA RECTO


ON THE LEFT......................... A LA IZQUIERDA
ON THE RIGHT...................... A LA DERECHA
TAKE THE FIRST/SECOND... STREET ON......TOME LA 1,2.....CALLE A....
TURN LEFT..............................TUERCE A LA IZQUIERDA
TURN RIGHT.......................... TUERCE A LA DERERCHA
GO PAST.................................. PASAR DE LARGO
TO CROSS............................... CRUZAR
CROSSROADS....................... CRUCE DE CAMINOS
ICE RINK................................ PABELLON DE PATINAJE
ROUND ABOUT.................... ROTONDA
ALONG..................................... A LO LARGO
DOWN........................................HACIA ABAJO
UP................................................HACIA ARRIBA
INTO .............................. ..........HACIA DENTRO
OUT OF..................................... HACIA FUERA
OVER .........................................POR ENCIMA
PAST...........................................PASAR JUNTO A
TROUGH...ATRAVESAR;A TRAVES DE 3 DIMENSIONES O CUANDO HAY
OBSTACULOS
ACROSS....................................A TRAVES DE UNA SUPERFICIE
UPHILL.......................................CUESTA ARRIBA
DOWNHILL..............................CUESTA ABAJO
KEEP WALKING.......................CONTINA
KEEP GOING............................ SIGUE
AS FAR AS................................ HASTA
HALFWAY................................. MITAD DE LA CALLES
JUCTION.................................. CRUCE DE CALLES
CROSSROAD............................ CRUCE DE CARRETERAS
CAR PARK.................................. APARCAMIENTO

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LA VOZ PASIVA

La voz pasiva se forma con el verbo to be y el participio pasado del verbo:


the cathedral was built in the seventeenth century

El presente pasivo se forma con: AM / IS / ARE + PAST PARTICIPLE

El pasado pasivo se forma con : WAS / WERE + PAST PARTICIPLE

Si queremos indicar quien hizo la accion usamos el by

Usamos la pasiva cuando no estamos interesados en quien realiza la accion

Su uso es mucho ms frecuente que el de la estructura equivalente en


espaol, ya que se emplea tambin en frases como:
it was decided that... se decidi que...
he was told the truth le dijeron la verdad
my car is being repaired me estn arreglando el coche

Positive Negative Questions


PRESENT Rice is grown in It isnt grown in Is it grown
china. germany. In france?

Cars are made in They arent made Are they made in


brazil in monaco korea
PAST Paper was It wasnt When was it
invented by invented by the invented?
chinese. greeks.

The pyramids They werent Were they built


were built by the built by the by the pharaons?
egiptians english

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THE PASSIVE (EXAMPLES)


+ Anna Karenina was written by leo tolstoy
- Anna Karenina wasnt written by william shakespeare
? Was Anna Karenina written by leo tolstoy ?

+ The pyramids were built by the egyptians


- The piramids werent built by the greeks
? Were the pyramids built by the egyptians ?

+ The 1994 world cup was won by the brazilians


- The 1994 world cup wasnt won by the spanish
? Was the 1994 world cup won by the brazilians ?

+ Paper was invented by the chinese


- Paper wasnt invented by the italians
? Was paper invented by the chinese ?

+ The mona lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci


- The mona lisa wasnt painted by Miguel Angel Buonarotti
? Was the mona lisa painted by Leonardo da Vinci ?

+ The olimpics games were started by the greeks


- The olimpics games werent started by the romans
? Were the olimpics games started by the greeks?

ACTIVE PASSIVE
Present simple Make Is made
Past simple Made Was made
Present continuous Is making Is being made
Past continuous Was making Was being made
Present perfect Has made Has been made
Past perfect Had made Had been made
Future (will) Will make Will be made
Future (going to) Is going to make Is going to be made
Infinitive (with to) To make To be made

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ASKING POLITELY FOR INFORMATION

Wheres the bookshop?


Excuse me , IS there a bookshop near here, please ?
Excuse me, DO YOU KNOW. / COULD YOU TELL ME IF.....where the bookshop
IS ?

NOTAR QUE: en la primera frase el verbo IS esta dentro de la frase porque


forma parte de la pregunta que se hace.

SIN EMBARGO: en la segunda frase el verbo IS va al final de la frase porque


la pregunta en s es DO YOU KNOW/ COULD YOU TELL ME IF... ?
(Esta es mucho mas educada y correcta)

DOES this train stop at London Bridge


DO the shops open on Sunday

NOTAR QUE: en la primera frase,el auxiliar es DOES, por que,this train es 3


persona del singular.

SIN EMBARGO: en la segunda frase, el auxiliar es DO, porque, the shops, es


tercera persona pero del plural

Do the shops open on Sunday ?


Excuse me, DO YOU KNOW IF... the shops open on Sunday ?

How long does the journey take ?


Excuse me, COULD YOU TELL ME ...How long the journey takes ?

Where do I have to get off ?


Excuse me, COULD YOU TELL ME ...Where I have to get off ?

Does this train stop at London Bridge ?


Excuse me, DO YOU KNOW IF...This train stops at London Bridge ?

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LA VOZ PASIVA(II)

1 REGLA DE LA PASIVA:

LA PASIVA, SIEMPRE TIENE QUE TENER UNA


REGLA VERBAL MS QUE LA FRASE EN ACTIVA.
e.g.
Activa ..: Everybody remembers Casablanca
Pasiva..: Casablanca is remembered by everybody

2 REGLA DE LA PASIVA:

EN LA FRASE PASADA A PASIVA, LA PRIMERA


REGLA VERBAL,SIEMPRE CONSERVA EL MISMO
TIEMPO VERBAL.
e.g.
Activa..: Everybody remembers (Present Simple) Casablanca
Pasiva..: Casablanca is (Present Simple) remembered by everybody

3 REGLA DE LA PASIVA:

EN LA FRASE EN PASIVA,LA REGLA


VERBAL,SIEMPRE ACABAR EN PAST PARTICIPLE
e.g.
Casablanca is remembered by everybody

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OTRAS:

Cuando poner Being o Been ? (cuando la regla verbal consta de 3


elementos)
Cuando el verbo es TO BE es Being
Cuando el verbo es TO HAVE es Been

Nunca ing detrs de have has being

El comparativo y superlativo de los adjetivos

Los adjetivos de una slaba, forman el comparativo agregando -er y el


superlativo agregando -est:
tall taller tallest / he's taller than me
big bigger biggest / it's the biggest in the world

La mayora de adjetivos de dos slabas o ms forman el comparativo


usando more y el superlativo usando most:
famous more famous most famous
careful more careful most careful

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interesting more interesting most interesting


Algunos adjetivos de uso frecuente tienen comparativos y superlativos
irregulares:
good better best/
bad worse worst
far further/farther furthest/farthest
many more most
much more most
little less least

WHATS THE OPPOSITE OF...?

Comparative Opposittes Superlative Opposites


Adjectives Adjectives

Longer Shorter The slowest The fastest


Smaller Bigger The coldest The hottest
Cheaper More expensive The safest The most dangerous
More difficult Easier The saddest The happiest
More interesting More boring The rudest The most polite
Better Worse The best The worst
More Less The most The least
PARA COMPARAR DOS COSAS

Comparativo + than or Adverbio + than


Boxing is more dangerous than rugby
I can run faster than you

PARA EXPRESAR MAXIMOS O MINIMOS

The + Superlativo or The + Adverbio


Shes the tallest player in the team
She plays the best

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DECIR QUE DOS COSAS SON LO MISMO

As + Adjetivo + as or As + Adverbio + as
Our team is as good as yours
He can play as well as me

The same as
My racket is the same as yours

ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE SPELLING


TALL TALLER THE TALLEST + ER COMPARATIVE
HAPPY HAPPIER THE HAPPIEST + EST SUPERLATIVE
MODERN MORE MODERN THE MOST MODERN + MORE COMPARATIVE
EXPENSIVE MORE THE MOST EXPENSIVE +THE MOST UPERLATIVE
EXPENSIVE
GOOD BETTER THE BEST IRREGULAR
BAD WORSE THE WORST
FAR FARTHER THE FARTHEST

N0TA
It is the least expensive
Es el menos caro
Se traduce por el menos porque least va seguido de un adjetivo
It consumes the least petrol
Consume la menor cantidad de gasolina
Se traduce por la menor cantidad porque least va seguido de un nombre

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NARRATIVE TENSES
PAST SIMPLE
PAST PERFECT
PAST CONTINUOUS

Usamos el PAST SIMPLE para hablar acerca de acciones consecutivas en el


pasado

She bought a newspaper and then she had a coffee in a small caf

(ella se tomo un caf despues de comprar el periodico)

Usamos el PAST PERFECT para hablar acerca de algo que sucedi antes del
tiempo del cual estamos hablando

When she went to pay, she saw that they had made a mistake in the bill

(Ellos cometieron el error antes de que ella pagara)

Usamos el PAST CONTINUOUS (was/were + verb + ing) para describir una


accion mas larga en continuo.

The sun was shining when she left the caf

(La accion de continuo mas larga es que el sol estaba brillando.


Ella dej el caf es una accion mas corta que sucede en mitad de la accion
mas larga de continuo)

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VERBOS MODALES DE DEDUCCION

MUST + Inf (Seguro que es verdad)


MIGHT/COULD + Inf (Posiblemente es verdad)
CANT + Inf (Es imposible)
Usamos MUST+ Inf para decir que estamos SEGUROS que algo
(logicamente) es verdad. El contrario es CANT BE

He must be out. All the lights are off.


They must be Italian.Theyre speaking Italian

Usamos MIGHT / COULD + inf para decir que algo es POSIBLEMENTE


verdad.

She might be working. Im not sure.


He might be at home or he might be at the gym.

Usamos CANT para decir que algo es IMPOSIBLE

It cant be true! I dont believe it.


They cant be in New York! I saw them this morning.

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CONNECTORS
Usamos ALTHOUGH / THOUGH ,HOWEVER or ON THE OTHER HAND
para introducir otra frase cuya informacion difiere de la primera

We had a good time ,although / though it rained a lot


She usually listens to pop music,however/on the other hand,She likes opera
too.

ALTHOUGH / THOUGH significan lo mismo,

THOUGH no es usado al principio de la frase, suele ir en la mitad de esta.

HOWEVER or ON THE OTHER HAND solo pueden ser usados a principio de


la frase.

Usamos ALSO O AS WELL para introducir informacion similar adicional

He had some chocolate cake, and he also had an ice cream.


He ha some chocolate cake and an ice cream as well

ALSO Y AS WELL, significan lo mismo,

ALSO, usualmente va antes del verbo principal , pero despues de BE.


Y AS WELL,siempre va al finalde la frase, como Too

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ESTILO DIRECTO/INDIRECTO
Se llama Estilo directo (DIRECT SPEECH), cuando el que habla o escribe
reproduce textualmente las palabras con las que se ha expresado el
autor...

es decir: LAS PALABRAS DICHAS DIRECTAMENTE POR UNA PERSONA

Se llama estilo indirecto(REPORTED SPEECH) cuando hablamos en


pasado sobre lo que alguien dijo, pregunt o escribi...

es decir: CUANDO REFERIMOS CON NUESTRAS PROPIAS PALABRAS


LO QUE EL OTRO HA DICHO ANTERIORMENTE.

PEDRO: Yo Trabajo aqu (I work here)


MARA: Pedro dijo que trabajaba alli (Peter said he worked there)

Un somero analisis de estos ejemplos nos revela que estas estructuras


sintacticas son basicamentes ,coincidentes en ingls y espaol.

Nos revela igualmente que:

a) Las construcciones de estilo indirecto van precedidas de un verbo


introductorio.

b) Existe una estrecha correlacion temporal entre este verbo y los de las
construcciones de estilo indirecto propiamente dicho.

c) El paso de estilo directo a estilo indirecto implica cambios importantes en


tres campos : Sujeto,(Yo / Pedro) Verbos (trabajo / trabajaba))
y Adverbios (Aqu/ All.) (Observese los subrayados)

Estilo Directo: Yo trabajo aqu.


Estilo Indirecto: Pedro dijo que trabajaba all

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AFIRMACIONES)

(REPORTED SPEECH : STATEMENTS)


Es usual que el tiempo del verbo en estilo directo se mueva un paso hacia el
pasado para formar el estilo indirecto
Im going He said he was going

Si el verbo en el estilo directo est en Presente en el indirecto sigue en


Presente
I come from Spain She says she comes from Spain

(PREGUNTAS)

(REPORTED SPEECH : QUESTIONS)


1- El orden de las palabras en el reported question es igual que en el Direct
speech. (SUJETO + VERBO).
2- No hay inversion del sujeto y no se usan verbos auxiliares. No hay
do/does/did.
What time is it? He wants to know what time it is.
Where do you live She asked me where I lived

3- SI NO HAY QUESTION WORD (what, who, where...etc)


o EMPIEZA POR VERBO,

USAMOS IF
Can you show me the way?
She asked him IF he could show her the way

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(ORDENES

REPORTED SPEECH : IMPERATIVES

USAMOS TELLPARA AFIRMACIONES Y ORDENES,

Statements (Afirmaciones):
He told me that he was going
They told us that they were going abroad

Commands (Ordenes):
He told me to keep still
The police told people to move on

SE FORMAN CON:VERBO + PERSONA+ TO+


INFINITIVO

PARA ORDENES NEGATIVAS USAMOS NOT TO


He told me not to tell anyone

PETICIONES,
REPORTED SPEECH : REQUEST

USAMOS ASK PARA ORDENES Y PREGUNTAS,

Commands (Ordenes):
He asked me to open my suitcase
She asked me not to smoke

Questions (Preguntas)
He asked me what I did for a living
She asked me why I had come

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DIRECT & REPORTED SPEECH


DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH
PRESENT SIMPLE PASA PAST SIMPLE
I LIVE IN LONDON A SHE SAID SHE LIVED IN LONDON

PRESENT CONTINUOUS PASA PAST CONTINUOUS


HES READING A BOOK A SHE SAID HE WAS READING A BOOK

PRESENT PERFECT PASA PAST PERFECT


HES FINISHED THE BOOK A SHE SAID HE HAD FINISHED THE BOOK

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PASA PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS


IVE BEEN WAITING FOR AN HOUR A SHE SAID SHE HAD BEEN WAITING FOR AN
HOUR
PAST SIMPLE PASA PAST PERFECT
I TRIED TO GET TICKETS FOR THE A SHE SAID SHE HAD TRIED TO GET TICKETS
THEATRE FOR THE THEATRE
FUTURE (WILL) PASA CONDITIONAL (WOULD)
ILL FINISH IT LATER A SHE SAID SHE WOULD FINISH IT LATER

FUTURE CONTINUOUS PASA CONDITIONAL CONTINUOUS


ILL BE GOING TO UNIVERSITY IN A FEW A SHE SAID SHE WOULD BE GOING TO
YEARS UNIVERSITY IN A FEW YEARS
PAST PERFECT SE QUEDA PAST PERFECT
EN
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS SE QUEDA PAST PERFECT
EN CONTINUOUS
Bnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn gggggggggggg lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
SHALL/WILL WOULD
CAN COULD
MUST MUST /HAD TO
SHOULD SHOULD
OUGHT TO OUGHT TO
MAY MIGHT
llllll
I HE / SHE
WE THEY
MY HIS/ HER
OURS THEIRS
lllllll
HERE THERE
THIS THAT
THESE THOSE
TODAY THAT DAY
YESTERDAY THE DAY BEFORE
LAST WEEK THE WEEK BEFORE
TOMORROW THE NEXT DAY
NOW THEN
AGO BEFORE
TONIGHT THAT NIGHT
THE DAY AFTER TOMORROW IN TWO DAYSTIME
THE DAY BEFORE YESTERDAY TWO DAYS BEFORE
DONT NOT TO
STATEMENTS UN TIEMPO ATRS EN EL IM GOING
PASADO HE SAID HE WAS GOING
AFIRMATIVAS / NEGATIVAS SAID / TOLD ME...
QUESTIONS ORDEN: SHE ASKED ME WHERE I LIVED
SHE ASKED HIM IF HE COULD SHOW
PREGUNTAS ASKED ME... SUJETO + HER THE WAY
VERBO
COMMANDS VERB+ PERS.+TO+INF
NEGATIVO : NOT TO HE TOLD ME TO DRIVE FASTER

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ORDENES HE TOLD ME NOT TO DRIVE FASTER


TELL
REQUEST VERB+ PERS.+TO+INF SHE ASKED ME TO OPEN MY BAG
NEGATIVO : NOT TO SHE ASKED ME NOT TO SMOKE
PETICIONES ASK

-ED /-ING ADJECTIVES

USAMOS EL ADJETIVO CON TERMINACION ED,PARA EXPRESAR


COMO NOS SENTIMOS NOSOTROS = PARA PERSONAS
We were exhausted after the long flight
Estabamos agotados despues del largo vuelo
Im bored
Estoy aburrido

USAMOS EL ADJETIVO CON TERMINACION ING,PARA EXPRESAR QUE


ALGO ES DE UNA MANERA = PARA COSAS
The long flight was exhausting
El largo vuelo fue agotador
Its boring
Es aburrido
ED=COMO NOS SENTIMOS. ING = COMO ES ALGO.
PARA PERSONAS ESTOY: PARA COSAS ES:
FRIGHTENED ASUSTADO FRIGHTENING ATERRADOR
BORED ABURRIDO BORING ABURRIDO
SURPRISED SORPRENDIDO SURPRISING SORPRENDENTE
TIRED CANSADO TIRING CANSADO
DEPRESSED DEPRIMIDO DEPRESSING DEPRESIVO
TERRIFIED ATERRORIZADO TERRIFYING TERRORIFICO
ANNOYED ENFADADO ANNOYING MOLESTO
EXCITED EXCITADO EXCITING EXCITANTE
EMBARRASED AVERGONZADO EMBARRASING EMBARAZOSO
FASCINATED FASCINADO FASCINATING FACINANTE

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IN CASE
(POR SI)
USAMOS IN CASE CUANDO SUGERIMOS QUE SE HAGA ALGO PORQUE
MAS TARDE HAY UNA POSIBILIDAD DE QUE SUCEDA ALGO Y NOS HAGA
FALTA LO SUGERIDO

DESPUES DE IN CASE USAMOS PRESENT ,PERO TAMBIN PODEMOS


USAR EL PASADO SI EL VERBO PRINCIPAL ESTA EN ESTE TIEMPO
Take a map in case you get lost
Coge un mapa por si te pierdes

SOME PHRASAL VERBS

PHRASAL VERB EXAMPLE TRANSLATION


BE ON THERES A GOOD FILM ON TV PONER (TV,CINE)
BE OVER THE MATCH IS OVER ACABAR
BREAK DOWN MY CAR HAS BROKEN DOWN ROMPER
BREAK UP HE BROKE UP WITH HIS GIRLFRIEND TERMINAR (UNA
RELACION)
FALL OVER HE FELL OVER AND BROKE HIS LEG CAERSE
FILL IN FILL IN THE FORM,PLEASE RELLENAR
FIND OUT FIND OUT WHAT IT MEANS DESCUBRIR
GET AROUND THE BEST WAY TOGET AROUND IS BY CAR VIAJAR (POR LA
CIUDAD)
GET IN (TO) GET OUT (OF) GET INTO THE CAR.WERE LEAVING ENTRAR/SALIR DE
UN COCHE
GET ON/ FF GET OFF THE BUS AT THE NEXT STOP ENTRAR /SALIR
OCHE,BUS...
GET ON WITH I GET ON WELL WITH MY SISTER LLEVARSE BIEN
GET UP SHE GETS UP AT 7 EVERY MORNING LEVANTARSE
GIVE AWAY HE GAVE AWAY ALL HIS MONEY DAR (DINERO)
GIVE BACK GIVE ME BACK MY BALL DEVOLVER
GIVE UP IVE DECIDED TO GIVE UP SMOKING DEJAR
GO AWAY WE WENT AWAY FOR A WEEKEND SALIR DE LA CIUDAD
GO OUT WE WENT OUT LAST NIGHT SALIR DE LA CASA
GO BACK HE WENT BACK TO WORK VOLVER
GO DOWN THE TEMPERATURE HAS GONE DOWN BAJAR
GO/CARRY ON HE WENT ON SPEAKING FOR TWO HOURS SEGUIR,CONTINUA
R

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GO UP PRICES ARE GOING UP SUBIR


HOLD ON PLEASE HOLD ON A MOMENT ESPERAR
HARRY UP HURRY UP.WERE LATE DARSE PRISA
LIE DOWN HE LAY DOWN ON THE BED TENDERSE
LOOK AFTER HES LOOKING AFTER THE CHILDREN VIGILAR
LOOK FOR IM LOOKING FOR A JOB BUSCAR
LOOK FORWARD TO IM LOOK FORWARD TO SEEING YOU TENER GANAS QUE
SUCEDA ALGO
LOOK UP CAN YOU LOOK UP THIS WORD IN THE BUSCAR INFORMACION
DICTIONARY? EN UN LIBRO
PAY BACK ILL PAY YOU BACK TOMORROW DEVOLVER DINERO
PRESTADO
PICK UP ILL PICK YOU UP AT YOUR HOUSE AT 7 RECOGER A ALGUIEN O ALGO
DEL SUELO
PUT ON PUT ON YOUR COAT .ITS COLD VESTIR
PUT OFF LETS PUT OFF THE MEETING UNTIL MONDAY POSPONER,ATRASAR
RUN OUT OF OH.NO! WERE RUNNING OFF PETROL QUEDARSE SIN AGO
RUN OVER HE WAS RUN OVER BY A BUS ATROPELLAR
SET OFF THEY SET OFF EARLY IN THE MORNING PONERSE EN CAMINO
SWITCH / TURN OFF PLEASE SWITCH /TURN OFF THE LIGHTS APAGAR/DESCONECTAR
SWITCH / TURN ON FIRST SWICHT /TURN ON THE ENGINE ENCENDER /CONECTAR
TAKE BACK IM GOING TO TAKE THIS SWEATE BACK DEVOLVER / CAMBIAR
TAKE OFF THE PLANE TOOK OFF DESPEGAR UN AVION
HE WAS HOT SO HE TOOK OFF HIS JACKET /
QUITARSE UNA
PRENDA
TAKE OUT SHE TOOK SOME MONEY OUT OF THE BANK SACAR
THROW AWAY HE THROW THE SHOES AWAY TIRAR A LA BASURA
TRY ON CAN I TRY THESE JEANS ON? PROBARSE ROPA
TURN UP /DOWN CAN YOU TURN UP THE TV? I CANT HEAR IT SUBIR (EL VOLUMEN)
WAKE UP I WAKE UP AT 8 EVERY MORNING DESPERTAR
WASH UP ILL COOK IF YOU WASH UP LAVAR

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THIRD CONDITIONAL
EXPRESA UNA CONDICIN QUE YA NO SE PUEDE
CUMPLIR:
EN ESTE CASO ES IMPOSIBLE QUE SE CUMPLA LA
CONDICIN EXPRESADA.

(PARA ESPECULAR SOBRE ALGO QUE SUCEDI EL EL PASADO Y


PODRA HABER SIDO DIFERENTE)
IF + PAST PERFECT...WOULD+ HAVE + PAST
PARTICIPLE (conditional perfect)

If she had taken a taxi, she would have been here in ten minutes
She would have been here in ten minutes ,If she had taken a taxi

Si hubiera tomado un taxi, habra estado aqu en diez minutos


Ella habria estado aqu si hubiera tomado un taxi

PODEMOS USAR COULD MIGHT EN VEZ DE WOULD

If Id worked harder, I could have passed the exam


I could have passed the exam If Id worked harder

Si yo hubiera trabajado mas duro, podria haber aprobado el examen


Podria haber aprobado el examen si hubiera trabajado ms duro

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VOWELS & CONSONANTS


DIPHTONGS
i: see /si:/ pen /pen/
sit /sit/ b bad /bd/
e ten /ten/ t tea /ti:/
hat /ht/ d did /did/
: arm /:m/ k cat /kt/
got / t/ got / t/
: saw / :/ t chin /tin/
put /t/ d June /du:n/
: too /t:/ f fall /f :l/
cup /k/ v voice /v is/
I happy /hpi/ thin /in/
: fur /f:(r)/ then /en/
ago /g/ so //
ei page /peid/ zoo /:/
home /hm/ she /i:/
ai five /faiv/ vision /vin/
a now /na/ how //
join /d n/ man /mn/
near /n( r)/ no //
e hair /he(r )/ sing /si/
pure /pj( r )/ l leg /leg/
r red /red/
j yes /jes/
w wet /wet/

VERBOS MODALES DE OBLIGACION

VERBO NEGATIVO CONTRACCION TRADUCCION AFIRM.


MODAL

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MUST MUST NOT MUSTNT DEBER,TENER QUE


NO DEBER ,NO TENER
PERSONAL PROHIBITION QUE
OBLIGATION

HAVE TO DO NOT HAVE DONT HAVE TO TENGO /NO TENGO QUE


TO
EXTERNAL ABSENCE OF
OBLIGATION OBLIGATION
ITS NO NECESSARY
SHOULD SHOULD NOT SHOULDT TENDRIAS / NO
TENDRIAS
CONSEJO
RECOMENDACI
ON

EJEMPLOS

MUST: OBLIGACION PERSONAL (impuesta por uno mismo)


I must remember her birthday

MUSTNT: PROHIBICION
You mustnt park here

HAVE TO: OBLIGACION EXTERNA (impuesta por ley u otros)


You have to drive on the left

DONT HAVE TO: AUSENCIA DE OBLIGACION


Its free. You dont have to pay

SHOULD: CONSEJO, RECOMENDACION


You should drive more slowly

SHOULDNT: CONSEJO, RECOMENDACION


You shouldnt eat so much

VERBOS MODALES DE DEDUCCION


MUST + Inf (Seguro que es verdad)
MIGHT/COULD + Inf (Posiblemente es verdad)

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CANT + Inf (Es imposible)

Usamos MUST+ Inf para decir que estamos SEGUROS que algo (logicamente) es verdad. El
contrario es CANT BE

He must be out. All the lights are off.


They must be Italian.Theyre speaking Italian

Usamos MIGHT / COULD + inf para decir que algo es POSIBLEMENTE verdad.

She might be working. Im not sure.


He might be at home or he might be at the gym.

Usamos CANT para decir que algo es IMPOSIBLE

It cant be true! I dont believe it.


They cant be in New York! I saw them this morning.

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PHRASAL VERBS

LOS VERBOS FRASALES,SON VERBOS QUE VAN ACOMPAADOS DE UNA


PARTICULA (PREPOSICION O ADVERBIO (ON,OFF,DOWN,IN...ETC.) QUE
ADQUIEREN UN NUEVO SIGNIFICADO,

CON LA MAYORA DE LOS VERBOS FRASALES,SI EL OBJETO ES UN


NOMBRE,EL OBJETO SE PUEDE PONER ENTRE EL VERBO Y LA PARTICULA.
EJEMPLO:

Put on your coat / put your coat on


He took out his wallet / he took his wallet out

CUANDO EL OBJETO ES UN PRONOMBRE,ESTE SIEMPRE


VA ENTRE EL VERBO Y LA PARTICULA.

EJEMPLO:
Put it on.

VERB TAKE OUT PARTICLE

OBJECT OBJECT

HE TOOK OUT HIS WALLET HE TOOK IT OUT

Can I try on this dress ?


Can I try this dress on ?
Can I try them on

SEPARABLES O INSEPARABLES?
Normalmente,si la particula es up,se puede separar ,y si es after,no se puede

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HAY CUATRO TIPOS DE VERBOS FRASALES

TIPO EJEMPLOS NOTAS/PROBLEMAS


1-VERBO FRASAL SIN UN The meeting went on for EL VERBO Y LA PARTICULA NO SE
OBJETO PUEDEN SEPARAR
hours
2-EL VERBO FRASAL PUEDE Take off your shoes SI EL OBJETO ES UN NOMBRE ,ESTE
ESTAR SEPARADO OR UN PUEDE IR O DESPUES DE AMBAS
Take your shoes off
OBJETO PARTICULAS DEL VERBO FRASAL O
Take them off ENTRE ELLAS.SI EL OBJETO ES UN
PRONOMBRE ESTE DEBE DE IR
ENTRE LAS DOS PARTES NO TAKE
OFF THEN
3-VERBOS FRASALES QUE NO I looked through the NO I LOOKED THE MAGAZINE
PUEDEN ESTAR SEPARADOS THROUG
magazine when i was at the
POR UN OBJETO
hairdresser
4-VERBOS FRASALES CON DOS Weve run out of petrol LAS TRES PALABRAS NO PUEDEN
PREPOSICIONES /ADVERBIOS SER SEPARADAS.
NO WEVE RUN OUT OF PETROL

ALGUNAS VECES EL SIGNIFICADO DE LA PARTICULA DE LA PARTICULA


(PREPOSICION O ADVERBIO) NOS AYUDA A ENTENDER EL VERBO
FRASAL.EJ.BACK CASI SIEMPRE SIGNIFICA: VOLVER.

ALGUNAS PREPOSICIONES PUEDEN TENER DIFERENTES


SIGNIFICADOS:

UP A) AUMENTO B) COMPLETAMENTE

DOWN A) PONER EN PAPEL B) DISMINUCION


B) C) PARAR COMPLETAMENTE

ON A) CONTINUACION B) VESTIR C) CONECTAR

OFF A) DESCONECTAR B) SALIR

OUT A) HACER DESAPARECER B) PARA GENTE DIFERENTE

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PARA HABLAR DE NACIONALIDADES

1- ADJECTIVE + PEOPLE
French people

2-THE + ADJECTIVE
The French

3- SI EL ADJETIVO TERMINA EN AN ,SE LE AADE S


The Hungarians

4-HAY PALABRAS ESPECIALES QUE DEFINEN NACIONALIDADES


The Poles Los Polacos
The Spaniards Los Espaoles

QUESTION FORMATION
Use Examples Notes / Problems
Para formar preguntas Has your Father phoned? Con el Present Simple y el
normales usamos un verbo Where do they normally Past Simple usamos
auxilar (do,have) work? Do/Does/Did
Did you enjoy the show?
Usamos preguntas negativas Dont you like chips? El orden de las palabras es
para comprobar si algo es Hasnt Mary phoned el mismo que en las
verdad o mentira preguntas normales
Cuando la question word es el Who wrote Proud and No who did write
sujeto no se usa Do/ Did Prejudice?
Which actor won the Oscar
Usamos indirect question para Could you tell me where the El orden de las palabras
preguntar de una forma mas bank is? es:subject + verb
educada
Preguntas terminando en What are they talking La preposicion va al final
preposiciones about de la pregunta
Where does he come from?
Short questions Im going on holiday
tomorrow

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Where to?

QUESTION TAGS
Las QUESTION TAGS, son pequeas preguntas al final de una frase que
corresponden a expresiones en espaol como: No? / Verdad?

Si la frase es afirmativa, la question tag es negativa


Si la frase es negativa, la question tag es afirmativa

Frase afirmativa Q.T. Negativa

Its a beautiful day inst it?


She lives in London doesnt she?
You Closed the window didnt you?
Those shoes are nice arent they?
Tom will be at home tomorrow wont he?

Frase Negativa Q.T. Afirmativa

That inst your car is it?


You dont smoke do you?
You havent met my mother have you?
You wont be late will you?

Usamos DO/DOES para el presente y DID para el pasado

SHORT ANSWERS
Usamos las Short Answers despues de preguntas con respuestas SI /NO
Para hacer una Short Answer,repetimos el verbo auxiliar.
Si no lo hay ,usamos do/does/did

Are you coming with us? Yes I am / No Im not


Mary likes reading Yes she does / No she doesnt
Do you go out yesterday Yes,we did / No we didnt
Have you been here before? Yes,I have / no I havent

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Can you cook? Yes I can / no I cant

ADVERBS AND ADVERBIAL EXPRESSIONS

USO: USAMOS ADVERBIOS Y EXPRESIONES


ADVERBIALES PARA DESCRIBIR UN VERBO,ADJETIVO,O
UNA FRASE ENTERA
TIPO EJEMPLOS NOTAS
COMO ALGUIEN He drives very badly. Normalmente van
HACE ALGO: DESPUES DEL VERBO
DE MODO
CUANTAS VECES I never drink alcohol Ponemos ANTES DEL
SUCEDE ALGO: We usually go to bed at VERBO PRINCIPAL,
DE FRECUENCIA midnight. pero DESPUES DEL
Hes always late. VEBO TO BE
CUANDO SUCEDE I think hell be here Pueden ir al PRINCIPIO
ALGO: soon. DE LA FRASE PARA DAR
DE TIEMPO Last night I had dinner NFASIS
with a friend.
CUANTAS VECES ES He drinks a lot. A bit,little,much, y a lot
ALGO HECHO: Ive almost finished. van DESPUES DEL
DE GRADO VERBO O EXPRESION.
Todos LOS DEMAS van
ANTES DEL VERBO
PRINCIPAL
PARA HACER Ideally we ought to leave AL PRINCIPIO es mas
COMENTARIOS at 10:00. enftico
ACERCA DE UNA The car broke down,
SITUACION: unfortunately.
FRASES
ADVERBIALES
OTROS ADVERBIOS I only have one sister. LA MAYORIA de los
Theyve just arrived. adverbios van ANTES
She can probably come. DEL VERBO PRINCIPAL

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What does he like doing?.....que le gusta hacer?


What does he look like?...... Como es? (de aspecto de apariencia)
Who does he look like?....... A quien se parece?
Whats it like?..............Como es algo? / alguien? (de personalidad)
How is she?...................Como esta? (de salud)
Nota: Like es un verbo solo en la frase n1

PRONUNCIATION OF THE ENDING -ED


1- WHEN THE BASE FORM OF THE VERBS ENDS WITH THE SOUNDS

/D/ OR /T/ THE PRONUNCIATION IS /ID/

E.G. WAIT WAITED = /WEITID/

2- WHEN THE BASE FORM OF THE VERB ENDS WITH THE SOUNDS

/F/ /K/ /P/ /S/ / / / t/ THE PRONUNCIATION IS T

E.G. FINISH FINISHED = /FINIT/

3- WITH ALL THE OTHER VERBS

/D/

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TENSES IN CONDITIONALS (FIRST AND ZERO)


AND FUTURE TIME CLAUSES

FIRST CONDITIONAL
if + present, future
If she takes a taxi, she'll be here in ten minutes
si toma un taxi, estar aqu en diez minutos
En este caso es posible que se cumpla la condicin expresada.

ZERO CONDITIONAL
if + two present tenses
If you boil water, It evaporates
cuando hierves agua,se evapora
Expresa una condicin que siempre es verdad.
If significa when o whenever (cuando)

Use Examples Notes / Problems


Usamos el Primer condicional If I see her, Ill tell her Despues de If se usan
(If + Present Tense+ If youve finished ,Lets go tiempos
will/wont /going He wont come If he isnt presentes,simple,perfect o
to/Imperative, feeling better. continuo,pero no una forma
para hablar acerca de una If the film is very violent,Im futura
posibilidad futura y sus going to leave If Ill see her
consecuencias
Usamos el Zero conditional If Ive got a headhache.
tiempos presentes en cada I always take an aspirin.
una de las partes . If you heat water to 100C
para hablar acerca de algo que It boils (Its the consecuence)
siempre sucede
Usamos un tiempo presente Ill get up when the doctor If= para posiblidad
(simple ,perfect, continuous) comes. When= cuando estos
despues de : Shell go back to work as soon seguro que sucedera.
When,as soon as, before, as she feels better. As soon as =
after, until,unless, and in Dont stop taking the pills until inmediatamente cuando.
case.. youve finished the packet. Until=encima del tiempo

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para hablar acerca del futuro Shell probably come unless cuando
(no will+infinitivo). shes studying. Unless= excepto si.in case
En la otra parte,usamos will o Take a coat in case its get cold = por si hay una posibilidad
going to o imperativo later de que suceda:Por si.

FIRST OR SECOND CONDITIONALS ?

FIRST CONDITIONAL
if + present, future
If she takes a taxi, she'll be here in ten minutes
si toma un taxi, estar aqu en diez minutos
En este caso es posible que se cumpla la condicin expresada.

SECOND CONDITIONAL
if + past, conditional
if she took a taxi, she would be here in ten minutes
si tomara un taxi, estara aqu en diez minutos
En este caso es menos probable que se cumpla la condicin
expresada. Este tipo tambin puede expresar algo contrario a la
realidad actual:
if I had any money, I would lend it to you
si tuviera dinero, te lo prestara (pero no tengo dinero)

FIRST-If you rest for a couple of days,youll feel better


Likely (=probable) or possible situations

SECOND- If you rested for a couple of days,youd feel better


Unlikely (=unproblable) or impossible situations

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FIRST- If Im not working tomorrow,Ill come with you


Likely (=probable) or possible situations

SECOND- If We Arent working tomorrow,Wed come with you


Unlikely (=unproblable) or impossible situations

FUTURE FORMS

SHALL

SE USA PARA :
OFRECIMIENTOS...Shall I clean the car?
SUGERENCIAS....Shall we go to the cinema
Y
PROMESAS...You shall have ....

WILL

EXPRESA UNA INTENCION O DECISION NO PLANEADA.


TOMADA EN EL MOMENTO DE DECIRLO,
Well ask a policeman
Solo usamos shall con I and we

GOING TO...

EXPRESA INTENCION Y/O PREDICCION


DECISION TOMADA ANTES DEL MOMENTO DE DECIRLO

TAMBIEN CUANDO PARECE EVIDENTE QUE ALGO VA A SUCEDER


Look at the sky! Its going to rain.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS (TO BE + ING)

PARA PLANES FIJOS QUE HAREMOS EN UN FUTURO CERCANO


WERE TAKING TO THE CINEMA

ESTOS DOS LTIMOS:GOING TO Y P.CONTINUOUS ,SON MUY MUY PARECIDOS

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EJEMPLO:
-Im going to the shops soon, do you want anything?
-We havent got any sugar
-Its on my list, Im going to buy some.
-we havent got any bread
-ok. Ill go to the bakers and Ill buy a loaf

GOING TO.. TENIA PREVISTO DE ANTEMANO IR DE COMPRAS Y COMPRAR AZUCAR.


WILL: NO LO TENIA PREVISTO PERO CUANDO SE LO DICEN,EN ESE MOMENTO,
TOMA LA DECISION

CONCERTANDO UNA CITA

USO DEL WILL Y DEL PRESENT CONTINUOUS

RECORDEMOS QUE EL PRESENT CONTINUOUS ES MUY PARECIDO AL GOING TO


Y QUE PUEDE SER USADO PARA EXPRESAR PLANES DE FUTURO ENTRE PERSONAS

LOGICAMENTE AL IGUAL QUE EL GOING TO , SON PLANES YA DECIDIDOS


O SABIDOS DE ANTEMANO

Y WILL SON DECISIONES TOMADAS EN EL MOMENTO

-COULD I SPEAK TO MR.HUELIN?


-IM AFRAID HES OUT AT THE MOMENT
-WHAT TIME WILL HE BE BACK?
-MMM. AT ABOUT 10 OCLOCK, HES DOING EXERCISE AT THE GYM.
-IS HE FREE AT LUNCH TIME?
-ILL CHECK. NO,HES HAVING A LUNCH WITH HIS WIFE
-WHENS A GOOD TIME TO TRY AGAIN
-HELL BE IN HIS OFFICE AT HALF PAST SIX
-ILL PHONE BACK THEN
-THATS FINE

WILL

DECISION EN EL MOMENTO
Ill give you my phone number,ring me tonight
Ill check her diary for you
Ill phone back later

PREDICCION DE FUTURO
Tomorrow will be warm and sunny

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Im sure you ll pass your exam

GOING TO

DECISION ANTES DEL MOMENTO


Were going to have a holiday
My daughters going to study spanish in madrid

CERTEZA DE QUE ALGO VA A SUCEDER


Look at those clouds. Its going to rain

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

PLANES FUTUROS CERCANOS


Pat and peter are coming for a meal tonight
Were having salmon for supper

FUTURE PERFECT

(WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE)

USAMOS EL FUTURE PERFECT PARA DECIR QUE ALGO


ESTAR ACABADO
EN UN MOMENTO PARTICULAR FUTURO

In two weeks term will have finished


They wont have come out of the cinema yet
Ill have done the home work by monday

Este tiempo es usado frecuentemente con expresiones de tiempo

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FUTURE CONTINUOUS

(WILL BE + VERB + ING)

USAMOS EL FUTURE CONTINUOUS PARA DECIR QUE UNA ACCION


ESTARA EN PROGRESO
EN UN CIERTO MOMENTO FUTURO

I hope Ill be living in my own flat soon.


What will you be doing tomorrow at 11:00?

Ese tiempo es muy comun usarlo con un tiempo exacto en el futuro (11:00)

I USED TO / I DIDNT USE TO

(SOLA / NO SOLA)

Para hbitos que han cambiado / Situaciones pasadas o estados que han cambiado

I used to drive to work ( but I dont now)

BE USED TO (+VERB +ING) O UN NOMBRE

(ESTOY ACOSTUMBRADO )

Una nueva situacion que ahora ya es familiar y estas acostumbrado

Im used to not eating chocolate


Im used to my new way of life

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GET USED TO (+VERB+ ING) O UN NOMBRE

(ME ESTOY ACOSTUMBRANDO)

Algo que todavia no es familiar para ti o te estas adaptando a ello

Im still getting used to my job


I have got used to living without caffeine

USUALLY+ PRESENT SIMPLE

(NORMALMENTE)

Para hbitos y/o situaciones del presente usamos

I used to eat a lot of meat but now I usually eat fish

GERUND
1. DESPUES DE PREPOSICIONES
She left without saying goodbye
Im thinking of buying a flat

2. DESPUES DE CIERTOS VERBOS ( EMOCION )


LIKE, LOVE, HATE, ENJOY, MIND, FINISH,
STOP...
I love cooking but I hate cleaning
I dont mind driving you to the airport

3. COMO EL SUJETO DE LA FRASE


Eating in restaurants is expensive
Swimming is good exercise

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TO + INFINITIVE

1. DESPUES DE ADJETIVOS
Its difficult to learn a language

2. PARA RESPONDER A WHY? (RAZON / PROPOSITO)


Why did you go to Mexico?
To see my aunt and uncle

3. DESPUES DE CIERTOS VERBOS: ( INTENCION )


WOULD LIKE, WANT, NEED, DECIDE, HOPE,
EXPECT, PLAN, FORGET, SEEM, TRY, PROMISE,
OFFER, REFUSE, LEARN,MANAGE
Would you like to come?
Im hoping to get a better job soon

NARRATIVE TENSES
PAST SIMPLE
PAST CONTINUOUS
PAST PERFECT
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Usamos el PAST SIMPLE para hablar acerca de acciones consecutivas en el


pasado

She bought a newspaper and then she had a coffee in a small caf

(ella se tomo un caf despues de comprar el periodico)

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Usamos el PAST CONTINUOUS (was/were + verb + ing) para describir


una accion mas larga en continuo.

The sun was shining when she left the caf

(La accion de continuo mas larga, es que el sol estaba brillando.


Ella dej el caf es una accion mas corta que sucede en mitad de la accion
mas larga de continuo)

Usamos el PAST PERFECT (had + past participle) para hablar acerca de


algo que sucedi antes del tiempo del cual estamos hablando

When she went to pay, she saw that they had made a mistake in the bill

(Ellos cometieron el error antes de que ella pagara)

Usamos el PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS (had + past participle + verb +


ing) para hablar acerca de una accion en continuo mas larga que estaba
sucediendo antes del tiempo especifico en el pasado cuando los
acontecimientos principales de la historia sucedieron

She went to the doctor because she hadnt been feeling well

Ella fue al doctor porque no se habia estado sintiendo bien

THIRD CONDITIONAL
EXPRESA UNA CONDICIN QUE YA NO SE PUEDE
CUMPLIR:

EN ESTE CASO ES IMPOSIBLE QUE SE CUMPLA LA


CONDICIN EXPRESADA.

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(PARA ESPECULAR SOBRE ALGO QUE SUCEDI EL EL PASADO Y


PODRA HABER SIDO DIFERENTE)

IF + PAST PERFECT...WOULD+ HAVE + PAST


PARTICIPLE (conditional perfect)

If she had taken a taxi, she would have been here in ten minutes
She would have been here in ten minutes ,If she had taken a taxi

Si hubiera tomado un taxi, habra estado aqu en diez minutos


Ella habria estado aqu si hubiera tomado un taxi

PODEMOS USAR COULD MIGHT EN VEZ DE WOULD

If Id worked harder, I could have passed the exam


I could have passed the exam If Id worked harder

Si yo hubiera trabajado mas duro, podria haber aprobado el examen


Podria haber aprobado el examen si hubiera trabajado ms duro

ZERO CONDITIONAL
PRESENT......PRESENT

SIEMPRE SE CUMPLE LA EXPRESION


If you boil water ....it evaporates

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FIRST CONDITIONAL
IF....WILL

PUEDE QUE SE CUMPLA LA CONDICION


If she takes a taxi....she will be here in ten minutes

SECOND CONDITIONAL
IF + PAST...WOULD + INF.

ES MENOS PROBABLE QUE SE CUMPLA LA CONDICION


If she took a taxi...she would be here in ten minutes

THIRD CONDITIONAL
IF + HAD + P.P.....WOULD + HAVE + P.P.

ES IMPOSIBLE QUE SE CUMPLA LA CONDICION


If she had taken a taxi...she would have been here in ten minutes

SHOULD /SHOULDNT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE:

Lo usamos para criticar una accion pasada

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cuando tu o alguien no hizo la cosa correcta


Have se pronuncia /hv/
I should have waited
Debera haber esperado
You shouldn't have accepted
No deberas haber aceptado

PODEMOS USAR TAMBIEN CON EL MISMO SIGNIFICADO

OUGHT TO HAVE / OUGHTNT TO HAVE


Su uso equivale al de debera, deberas, etc:

La forma negativa de ought to es ought not to. Tambin existe la


contraccin oughtn't to, pero es menos frecuente.

You ought to write to her


Deberas escribirle
They ought to arrive before three
Deberan llegar antes de las tres
You ought not to go out alone
No deberas salir solo

OUGHT TO TAMBIN SE USA SEGUIDO DE HAVE + PARTICIPIO:


I ought to have bought it
Debera haberlo comprado
She ought not to have agreed
No debera haberlo consentido

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SHOULD
LA FORMA NEGATIVA DE SHOULD ES SHOULDN'T, PERO EN
CONTEXTOS FORMALES O ENFTICOS SE SUELE USAR SHOULD
NOT.
SE USA SHOULD PARA INDICAR QU ES LO QUE DEBE HACERSE:

All essays should be typed


Todos los trabajos deben ser escritos a mquina
Why should I listen to her?
Por qu le voy a hacer caso?
Por qu he de hacerle caso?

A MENUDO SHOULD INDICA UN DEBER MORAL Y EQUIVALE A


DEBERA, DEBERAS, ETC.:
You shouldn't speak to her like that
No deberas hablarle as
Should I offer to help?
Crees que debera ofrecerme para ayudar?

TAMBIN SE USA SEGUIDO DE HAVE + PARTICIPIO:

I should have waited


Debera haber esperado
You shouldn't have accepted
No deberas haber aceptado

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A VECES SHOULD INDICA PROBABILIDAD:


The taxi should be here soon
El taxi debe (de) estar al llegar
It shouldn't cause any problems
No debera (de) causar ningn problema

THE...THE + COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVE / ADVERB

LO USAMOS PARA ENSEAR QUE CUANTO MAS ES UNA COSA ,MAS ES LA OTRA

CUANTO MAS CHOCOLATE SE COME......MAS SE ENGORDA

EXAMPLES

If we leave soon well get there earlier


The sooner we leave the earlier well get there

If I speak fast I make more mistakes


The faster I speak the more mistakes I make

If the weather is cold you use more electricity


The colder the weather is the more electricity you use

If the restaurant is full the service is worse


The fuller the restaurant is the worse the service is

If the colour is bright shell like it more


The brighter the colour is the more shell like it

If you have a lot of money you can dress better


The more money you have the better you can dress

* CUIDADO CON LA POSICION DEL IS / IT !!!

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I WISH = IF ONLY

OJAL...

I WISH + PAST TENSE

REFIRIENDOSE AL PRESENTE O AL FUTURO


(Quiero cambiar algo del presente)

OJALA YO FUESE RICO (AHORA O DENTRO DE UN MES)

I whish I were rich

I WISH + PAST PERFECT

REFIRIENDOSE AL PASADO
(Algo que ocurri y que ojal no hubiera ocurrido)

OJALA YO HUBIESE TERMINADO MI TRABAJO (AYER)

I wish I had finished my homework (yesterday)

I didnt learn german , I wish I had learned german (or if only)

I WISH + WOULD

REFIRIENDOSE A QUEJAS O CRITICAS HACIA ALGO O ALGUIEN


(Para hbitos que nos molestan)
(Pensamos en futuro y por eso ponemos el would que es condicional de futuro)

OJAL DEJARA DE LLOVER

I wish it would stop raining

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SIN S FINAL
NOMBRES INCONTABLES SIN ARTICULO
MASA Y LIQUIDOS

HOW MUCH? CON NOMBRES INCONTABLES (CUANTO/CUANTA)

CON S AL FINAL
NOMBRES CONTABLES CON ARTICULO
PUEDEN LLEVAR NMERO

HOW MANY? CON NOMBRES CONTABLES (CUANTOS CUANTAS)

NOMBRES INCONTABLES:

LOS SIGUIENTES NOMBRES COMUNES SON SIEMPRE INCONTABLES:

Traffic
Weather
Accommodation
Health
Scenery
Rubbish
Work
Politics (y otras palabras terminadas en ics)

SIEMPRE NECESITAN UN VERBO EN SINGULAR

NO LLEVAN S FINAL

NO USAN ARTICULO A / AN

There was terrible traffic this morning

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LOS SIGUIENTES NOMBRES COMUNES SON TAMBIEN INCONTABLES:

Furniture, Information, Advice


News, Luck, Bread
Toast, Luggage, Equipment

NECESITAN TAMBIEN UN VERBO EN SINGULAR

CUANDO HABLAMOS DE UN SOLO ELEMENTO DE ESTOS USAMOS


:A PIECE OF

Thats a beautiful piece of furniture

ALGUNOS NOMBRES PUEDEN SER CONTABLES O INCONTABLES,PERO


CAMBIAN LOS SIGNIFICADOS

IRON....UNCONTABLE : EL METAL
IRON.......CONTABLE : LA PLANCHA

Id like a glass of water / The table is made of glass

NOMBRES PLURALES

ESTOS NOMBRES SOLO EXISTEN EN PLURAL

Clothes, People. Trousers


Jeans, Arms (guns..), Police

NECESITAN UN VERBO EN PLURAL


NO USAN ARTICULO A / AN

People here are very friendly


The police have arrived

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HAVE SOMETHING DONE

CUANDO TU ORGANIZAS ALGO PARA QUE OTRA PERSONA LO HAGA

HAVE + SOMETHING + PAST PARTICIPLE

Im having the house painted


(he pagado a los pintores para que lo hagan por mi)

Hes having a new garage built


El ha construido un nuevo garage (los albailes)

Weve just had the house painted


Hemos acabado de pintar la casa(la han pintado los pintores)

I usually have my hair cut one a month


Normalmente me corto el pelo una vez al mes (el peluquero)

Aqu Have es el verbo principal,asi pues la negativa y la interrogativa son


formadas con Do/Did en el Present simple y el Past simple

I didnt have the kitchen painted because I did it myself

How often do you have your car serviced?

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PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE


SIGNIFICA ANTES DE AHORA .
NO EXPRESA CUANDO HA SUCEDIDO UNA ACCION,
SI QUEREMOS DECIR EXACTAMENTE CUANDO, TENDREMOS QUE USAR EL
PAST SIMPLE

EL PRESENT PERFECT TIENE ESTOS USOS PRINCIPALES:

1- EXPRESA UNA ACCION QUE OCURRIO EN EL PASADO Y TODAVIA NO HA


ACABADO.
Weve lived in the same house for ten years

2-CON HOW LONG / FOR / SINCE PARA VERBOS QUE NORMALMENTE NO


SON USADOS EN CONTINUO
Ive known her since I was a child

4. CON EVER / ALREADY / YET / JUST

3- EXPRESA UNA ACCION PASADA QUE TIENE RESULTADO EN EL


PRESENTE
(EN UN PASADO RECIENTE)
Ive lost my wallet (I havent got it now)

4 -CUANDO DECIMOS CUANTO O CUANTAS VECES


Ive read two books this morning

5 -SE HACE LA PREGUNTA EN INGLS CON PRESENT PERFECT,PERO SE


TRADUCE AL ESPAOL EN PRESENTE.
A- How long has he been in Spain?
B- Cuanto tiempo hace que esta en Espaa?

6- LIVE AND WORK (+FOR / SINCE) PUEDEN SER USADOS CON


AMBOS TIEMPOS CON EL MISMO SIGNIFICADO.

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PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

ACCIONES QUE EMPEZARON EN EL PASADO Y HAN SEGUIDO


REALIZANDOSE DE FORMA CONTINUADA HASTA EL PRESENTE .
How long have you been studying english?

CUANDO PREGUNTAMOS HOW LONG.......Y RESPONDEMOS... SINCE AND


FOR
Ive been studying english for two years

ACCIONES QUE ACABAN DE TERMINAR RECIENTEMENTE


A- Youre very dirty. What have you been doing?
B- Ive been playing football

CON LOS VERBOS LIVE AND WORK PODEMOS USAR AMBOS TIEMPOS

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WORDS THAT JOIN IDEAS

BECAUSE OF A CAUSA DE
IN SPITE OF DESPITE A PESAR DE
CURRENTLY ACTUALMENTE
ACTUALLY ACTUALMENTE / DE HECHO
SO ASI QUE
ALTHOUGH AUNQUE
ENOUGH PRETTY BASTANTE BONITO
NEARLY CERCA
I BELIEVE CREO
DUE TO DEBIDO A
AFTER ALL DESPUES DE TODO
AT THE MOMENT EN ESTE MOMENTO
IN MY OPINION EN OPINION MIA
SPECIALLY ESPECIALMENTE
IT IS CLEAR TO ME THAT ESTA CLARO PARA MI QUE...
IM IN FAVOUR OF ESTOY A FAVOR DE...
I AGREE WITH ESTOY DE ACUERDO CON
IM AGAINST ESTOY EN CONTRA
OBVIOUSLY EVIDENTEMENTE
EVENTUALLY FINALMENTE
EVEN INCLUSO
MOREOVER LO QUE ES MAS
MEANWHILE MIENTRAS TANTO
I DISAGREE WITH NO ESTOY DE ACUERDO CON
BUT PERO
THEREFORE POR CONSIGUIENTE
CONSEQUENTLY POR CONSIGUIENTE
FOR EXAMPLE /FOR INSTANCE POR EJEMPLO
AT LEAST POR LO MENOS
ON THE OTHER HAND POR OTRO LADO
OF COURSE POR SUPUESTO
FINALLY POR ULTIMO
BECAUSE PORQUE
AS I SEE IT SEGN YO LO VEO
HOWEVER SIN EMBARGO
ONLY SOLO
ALSO AS WELL TAMBIEN
EITHER TAMPOCO

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A. IN MY OPINION.... (Opinion)
THE FACT THAT.... ( Se expone el tpico
ITS CLEAR TO ME
B. I BELIEVE THAT....(Se respalda la opinion)
AS I SEE IT....(Ejemplos,hechos,datos)
I STRONGLY FEEL....( Se aporta una nueva idea)
C. IN ADDITION.... (Campaas, tv,prensa,informacion...)
D. IN CONCLUSSION.....(Se ofrece una solucion)

QUANTIFIERS
USO EJEMPLOS
Usamos ALL para la cantidad total:

1 - ALL + plural o nombre incontable All men like cars


cuando se habla en general.
2 ALL (OF) para especificar gente o All cheese is made from milk
cosas All of the people at work smoke

3 ALL + RELATIVE CLAUSE para decir Ive got all that I need
Everything / the only thing
EVERYBODY / EVERYTHING para
hablar de todo el mundo / todas las cosas Has everybody finished?
Everything was incredibly
expensive
EVERY para decir cada cuanto tiempo
suceden las cosas I go to class every Tuesday

EACH para hablar sobre dos cosas


There are two hotels . Each (one)
has its own style
NO + noun
There are no oranges
NONE + without noun or + of
Are there any oranges? No none
ANY(body,etc) +positive verb or ALONE
para decir no importa Buy any kind of bread
Anybody can come to my party

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BOTH / EITHER / NEITHER


BOTH....and... (A and B)...: Ambos / Los dos
Both Auxi and I are studying english

EITHER .... or... (A or B)....:Uno u otro / cualquiera


Either Auxi or lvaro have blue eyes

NEITHER ...nor... (A nor B )....: Ni lo uno ni lo otro / Ninguno de los dos


Neither Auxi nor lvaro have curly hair

Las frases de relativo, son usadas para ampliarnos la


informacion y decirnos sobre QUIEN o QUE cosas estamos
hablando

WHO/THAT WHAT WHICH /THAT WHERE WHOSE


QUIEN LO QUE QUE. EL QUE . LO QUE. DONDE CUYO.CUYA
QUE LA COSA QUE EL CUAL. LO CUAL DE QUIEN

The actor WHO/THAT won The Oscar ir from New Zealand


The film WHICH/THAT won The Oscar was about gladiators
The film WHERE/IN WHICH the ceremony took place was in L.A.
The film WHOSE direction won The Oscar was Gladiator

WHO / WHICH SON OMITIDOS A MENUDO CUANDO EL VERBO DESPUES DEL


PRONOMBRE RELATIVO (WHO / WHICH ) TIENE UN SUJETO DIFERENTE

This is the person WHO works for me


Esta es la persona que trabaja para mi
(La persona : sujeto)

This is the person WHO I work for


Esta es la persona para la que trabajo
(Yo : sujeto)

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That is the car WHICH cost 1 million Pounds


Este es el coche que cuesta 1 milln de Libras
(El coche : sujeto)

That is the car WHICH I like


Este es el coche que me gusta
(A m: sujeto)

Si WHO o THAT es el sujeto de la oracion deben de usarse:


I like people who are kind and considerate

Si WHO o THAT es el objeto de la oracion deben quitarse:


The person you need to talk to is on holiday
(Sujeto: you)

Usamos WHOM en vez de WHICH despues de preposiciones o en Ingls muy


formal
Usamos WICH (Not THAT) despues de preposiciones o para referirnos a todo
Dave hasnt arrived yet,which is very worrying

LA VOZ PASIVA(II)

1 REGLA DE LA PASIVA:

LA PASIVA, SIEMPRE TIENE QUE TENER UNA


REGLA VERBAL MS QUE LA FRASE EN ACTIVA.
e.g.
Activa ..: Everybody remembers Casablanca
Pasiva..: Casablanca is remembered by everybody

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2 REGLA DE LA PASIVA:
EN LA FRASE PASADA A PASIVA, LA PRIMERA
REGLA VERBAL,SIEMPRE CONSERVA EL MISMO
TIEMPO VERBAL.
e.g.
Activa..: Everybody remembers (Present Simple) Casablanca
Pasiva..: Casablanca is (Present Simple) remembered by everybody

3 REGLA DE LA PASIVA:
EN LA FRASE EN PASIVA,LA REGLA
VERBAL,SIEMPRE ACABAR EN PAST PARTICIPLE
e.g.
Casablanca is remembered by everybody

OTRAS:

Cuando poner Being o Been ? (cuando la regla verbal consta de 3


elementos)
Cuando el verbo es TO BE es Being
Cuando el verbo es TO HAVE es Been
Nunca ing detrs de have has being

ACTIVE PASSIVE
Present simple Make Is made
Past simple Made Was made
Present continuous Is making Is being made
Past continuous Was making Was being made
Present perfect Has made Has been made
Past perfect Had made Had been made
Future (will) Will make Will be made
Future (going to) Is going to make Is going to be made
Infinitive (with to) To make To be made

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SO and SUCH
Hacen que el significado de el adjetivo o adverbio sea mas fuerte,mas enftico

1- USAMOS SO + ADJECTIVE / ADVERB


You are so stupid !
The waters so warm
The weathers so nice

2- USAMOS SUCH + A /AN + NOUN / ADJECTIVE


Such a story
Such people
Such a stupid story
Such nice people

3- SUCH +ADJECTIVE+ PLURAL OR INCONTABLE NOUN


Theyre such boring books

4- USAMOS SO / SUCH...THAT (opcional) para expresar una consecuencia


The book was so exciting (that) I couldnt put it down

EACH and EVERY


USAMOS EACH CUANDO PENSAMOS EN COSAS SEPARADAMENTE ,UNA A
UNA

El uso de Each es mas usual para pequeos numeros

At the begining of the game, each player has three cards

USAMOS EVERY CUANDO PENSAMOS EN COSAS COMO UN GRUPO


El significado es similar a All (todo)

El uso de Every es mas usual para grandes numeros

I would like to visit every country in the world

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EVERYONE and EVERY ONE


USAMOS EVERYONE SOLO PARA REFERIRNOS A
PERSONAS(=EVERYBODY)
Everyone enjoyed the party

USAMOS EVERY ONE PARA REFERIRNOS A COSAS (=EACH ONE)


He is invited to a lot of parties and he goes to every one

Verbs + -ing ...: (We loved driving through the countryside)


Like Gustar
Love Amar Apologized for Disculparse por
Adore Adorar Accuse (sb) of Acusar de
Enjoy Disfrutar Admit Admitir Doing
Prefer Preferir Deny Negar Cooking
Hate Odiar Insist (on) Insistir en Sightseen
Cant stand No soportar Recommend Recomendar
Dont mind No importar Regret Arrepentirse de
Finish Acabar Suggest Sugerir
Look forward to Tener ganas de
Verbs + To + Infinitive...: (I hope to see you soon)
Agreee Estar de acuerdo
Choose Escoger
Dare Desafiar
Decide Decidir
Expect Esperar
Forget Olvidar
Help Ayudar To do
Hope Esperar
Learn Aprender To come
Manage Poder
Need Necesitar To cook
Offer Ofrecer
Promisse Prometer
Refuse Negar
Seem Parecer
Want Querer
Would like Gustara
Would love Querra
Would prefer Preferira
Would hate Odiara
Verb +Somebody + To + Infinitive (They invited us to have a Meal)
Advise Aconsejar
Allow Permitir
Ask Preguntar
Beg Pedir limosna
Encourage) Animar
Expect Esperar
Help Ayudar

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Need Necesitar Me
Invite Invitar To do
Order Ordenar Him
Remind Recordar To go
Tell Decir Them
Want Querer To come
Warn (+not) Avisar/no Someone
Would like Gustara
Would love Querra
Would prefer Preferira
Would hate Odiara
Verb+ somebody+ infinitive (no To) Let us know if youre in the area
Let Make Help Her Us Do
Verbs + -ing or to + infinitive (sin cambiar el significado)
Begin Start Continue Raining To rain
Verbs + -ing or to + infinitive (con cambio de significado)
Remember Stop Try Doing To do

LIKE VERSUS AS
LIKE
COMO PREPOSICION SIEMPRE VA
SEGUIDO DE UN NOMBRE
Trabaja como un camarero(de bien y de rpido,pero no es camarero)

SIGNIFICA:

SIMILAR A ..:
Their house is like a zoo

IGUAL QUE...:
Im gemini, like you

COMO EJEMPLO....:
Why do you say things like that?

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AS
TAMBIEN COMO PREPOSICION SIEMPRE VA
SEGUIDO DE UN NOMBRE
Trabaja de camarero( es camarero de profesin)

PERO EXPRESA:

TRABAJO...:
I worked as a waiter

FUNCION O USO DE COSA PERSONA ...:


We use our garage as kitchen
Use this plate as an ashtray

Con verbos de speaking and knowing, y + usual y always


COMO CONJUNCION LIKE y AS
SON SEGUIDOS DE UN SUJETO Y UN VERBO(CLAUSE)
As you know, were leaving tomorrow

LA USAMOS TAMBIEN EN COMPARACIONES


My daughter is as tall as me

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VERBOS QUE PUEDEN SER SEGUIDOS POR UN


GERUNDIO O UN INFINITIVO

FORGET
Forget + Infinitivo
Te olvidaste.No hicistes algo
Matt forgot to take his camera out of the car

Forget + Gerund
Hicistes algo. Y no lo olvidars (o si)
Ill never forget talking my son to school for the first time

Forget + gerund es normalmente usado en el negativo

REMEMBER
Remember + Infinitive
Recuerdas algo,luego tu lo hicistes
Remember to close the windows before you leave!

Remember + Gerund
Hicistes algo.Mas tarde te acuerdas de lo que hicistes
I definitely remember closing the window

TRY
Try + Infinitive
Haces un esfuerzo para hacer algo dificil
I tried to change the wheel ,but I couldnt

Try + Gerund
Intentas hacer algo que es facil de hacer
I dont know why my radio inst work. I tried changing the batteries,but theyre OK.

NEED
Need + Infinitive
Tienes que o deberias de hacer algo
I need to clean my shoes.Theyre filthy

Need + Gerund
Algo tiene o deberia de ser hecho
My shoes need claning.Theyre flithy

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INFINITIVO GERUNDIO
FORGET Te olvidastes de hacer algo. Hicistes algo y no lo olvidaras.
No lo hicistes
REMEMBE Recuerdas algo , Te acuerdas de haber estado
R luego lo hicistes haciendo algo
TRY Intentas hacer algo dificil Intentas hacer algo facil.

NEED Tienes que hacer algo. Algo tiene que ser hecho
Deberias de hacer algo Algo deberia de ser hecho

ALTHOUGH, EVEN THOUGH, THOUGH,


IN SPITE OF, DESPITE
(AUNQUE /A PESAR DE QUE)

Usamos estos terminos para expresar un contraste de ideas

Despues de ALTHOUGH, EVEN THOUGH, THOUGH, usamos

un sujeto + verbo

Although it rained a lot ,they enjoyed themselves


I didnt get the job although I had all the necessary qualifications

EVEN THOUGH,es mas duro que ALTHOUGH, THOUGH (+ informal)


Even though I was really tired , I couldent sleep

Despues de IN SPITE OF Y DESPITE usamos

1- un nombre
2- un verbo en ing form
3- The fact that + sujeto + verbo = more formal

In spite of the traffic I arrived on time


I couldnt sleep despite being tired
I didnt get the job in spite of the fact (that) I had all the necessary
qualifications

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EXPRESING PURPOSE AND REASON

PURPOSE

1. TO, IN ORDER TO, SO AS TO + INFINITIVE


I went to the cinema to see a film
Please drive slowly in order to avoid accidents (more formal)
He took an umbrella so as not to get wet (more formal)

For negative purpose use: SO AS NOT TO and IN ORDER NOT


TO

2. FOR + NOUN
They went to Thailand for a holiday

3. SO THAT + CLAUSE (subject and verb)


Ill do the cooking so that you can have a rest
She gave him so that he can know where he go

Despues de That normalmente va un verbo modal(can,could,would)

REASON

1. BECAUSE + CLAUSE ( subject + verb)


We arrived late because we missed the bus

2. BECAUSE OF + NOUN
We took an umbrella because of the rain

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Verbs + -ing ...: (We loved driving through all time)

Adore Adorar VERBS OF


Accuse (sb) of Acusar de
Admit
Apologized for
Admitir
Disculparse de
SENSATION
Cant stand
Deny
No soportar
Negar Doing
Para describir sentidos o
Dont mind No importar sensaciones usamos:
Enjoy Disfrutar
Finish Acabar Cooking
Hate Odioar
Insist (on)
Like
Insistir en
Gustar Sightseing
TASTE, SMELL, FEEL,
Look forward to
Love
Tener ganas de
Amar
LOOK, and SOUND
Prefer Preferir
Recommend Recomendar
Regret Arrepentirse de 1- LOOK ,SMELL,(etc.) +
Suggest Sugerir
Verbs + To + Infinitive...: (I hope to see you soon) ADJECTIVE
It looks wonderful
Agreee Estar de acuerdo It tastes delicious
Choose Escoger
Dare Desafiar
Decide Decidir
Expect Esperar 2- LOOK, SMELL (etc.) + LIKE
Forget Olvidar
Help Ayudar +NOUN (like=similar to)
Hope Esperar To do She looks like an actress
Learn Aprender This soup tastes like gazpacho
Manage Poder
Need Necesitar To come
Offer Ofrecer
Promisse Prometer 3- LOOK (etc.) + AS + IF +
Refuse Negar To cook
Seem Parecer CLAUSE (subject + verb)
Want Querer That cake smells as if its burning
Would like Gustara It sounds as if the babys woken up
Would love Querra
Would prefer Preferira
Would hate Odiara
Verb + Sb.+ To + Infinitive (They invited us to have a Meal)
Advise Aconsejar
Allow Permitir
Ask Preguntar
Beg Pedir limosna Him
Encourage Animar To do
Expect Esperar
Help Ayudar Me
Need Necesitar
Invite Invitar To go
Order Ordenar
Remind Recordar Them
Tell Decir
Want Querer To
Warn (+not) Avisar/no come
Would like Gustara Someone
Would love Querraa

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ESTAR ABURRIDO

BORING: ESTAR / SER ABURRIDO PERMANENTEMENTE


BORED: ESTAR / SER ABURRIDO TEMPORALMENTE

VERBS OF SENSATION
Para describir sentidos o sensaciones usamos:

TASTE, SMELL, FEEL, LOOK, and SOUND

1- LOOK ,SMELL,(etc.) + ADJECTIVE


It looks wonderful
It tastes delicious

2- LOOK, SMELL (etc.) + LIKE +NOUN (like=similar to)


She looks like an actress
This soup tastes like gazpacho

3- LOOK (etc.) + AS + IF + CLAUSE (subject + verb)


That cake smells as if its burning
It sounds as if the babys woken up

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THE PASSIVE
OTHER USES

1- IT + PASSIVE + CLAUSE
Esta estructura es comunmente usada en noticieros de prensa y TV con los verbos
KNOW,TELL,UNDERSTAND, REPORT, EXPECT, SAY AND THINK.
Esto hace que la informacion suene mas impersonal
SE DICE....SE SABE....SE ESPERA....SE PIENSA.....

It said that street crime has dobled this year


Its thought that the police are inteviewing suspects
It is said that 32 million Big Macs are eaten worldwide every day
Its was known that the minister had accepted bribes
Its being said that the couple have secretly divorced

2- VERBS WITH TWO OBJECTS


Algunos verbos : GIVE, ASK, SHOW, TELL, TEACH, OFFER, PROMISE, SEND...
A menudo tienen dos objetos

Le ofrecieron el trabajo a Angela


Angela was offered the job or The job was ofered to Angela

I was told that the film was good


She was tought to cook by her mother
I was promised that they would finish the work today
We were given free tickets for a concert
He was asked to make a speech at the weeding

ATENCION!!!

CUANDO LA FRASE COMIENZA POR


THEY, SOMEONE, SOMEBODY and PEOPLE...
NO LLEVA BY
A PARTIR DEL RELATIVO ( THAT ) LA FRASE QUEDA COMO ESTABA ANTES
DE VOLVERLA A PASIVA

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WORDS AND PHRASES THAT JOIN IDEAS


(INCREASED)
ACTUALLY ACTUALMENTE / DE HECHO
AFTER ALL DESPUES DE TODO
AFTERWARDS DESPUES
ALSO / AS WELL TAMBIEN
ALTHOUGH AUNQUE
ANOTHER ADVANTAGE IS OTRA VENTAJA ES
ANOTHER ASPECT OF THE ISSUE IS OTRO ASPECTO DE ESTE TEMA ES
AS I SEE IT SEGN YO LO VEO
AS OPPOSED TO MAS QUE / OPUESTO
AT FIRST LO PRIMERO
AT LAST POR ULTIMO
AT LEAST POR LO MENOS
AT THE MOMENT EN ESTE MOMENTO
BECAUSE PORQUE
BECAUSE OF A CAUSA DE
BUT PERO
CONSEQUENTLY POR CONSIGUIENTE
CURRENTLY ACTUALMENTE
DESPITE A PESAR DE
DUE TO DEBIDO A
EITHER TAMPOCO
ENOUGH PRETTY BASTANTE BONITO
EVEN INCLUSO
EVENTUALLY FINALMENTE
FINALLY POR ULTIMO
FOR EXAMPLE /FOR INSTANCE POR EJEMPLO
FURTHERMORE ADEMAS
HOWEVER SIN EMBARGO
I (STRONGLY) BELIEVE CREO
I (STRONGLY) FEEL TENGO LA SENSACION
I AGREE WITH ESTOY DE ACUERDO CON
I BELIEVE CREO
I DISAGREE WITH NO ESTOY DE ACUERDO CON
I DONT FEEL THAT YO NO SIENTO QUE
IM AGAINST ESTOY EN CONTRA

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IM IN FAVOUR OF ESTOY A FAVOR DE...


IN ADDITION EN SUMA
IN CONTRAST TO EN CONTRASTE CON
IN MY OPINION EN OPINION MIA
IN SPITE OF /DESPITE A PESAR DE
IN THE END EN EL FINAL/ AL FINAL
IN THE PAST EN EL PASADO
IT IS CLEAR TO ME THAT ESTA CLARO PARA MI QUE...
LATER MAS TARDE
MEANWHILE MIENTRAS TANTO
MOREOVER LO QUE ES MAS
NEARLY CERCA
OBVIOUSLY EVIDENTEMENTE
OF COURSE POR SUPUESTO
ON THE OTHER HAND POR OTRO LADO
ONCE UNA VEZ
ONE ADVANTAGE IS UNA VENTAJA ES
ONE ASPECT OF THE ISSUE IS UN ASPECTO DE ESTE TEMA ES
ONLY SOLO
OTHER PEOPLE BELIEVE OTRA GENTE CRE
PERHAPS QUIZAS
PERSONALLY PERSONALMENTE
POSSIBLY POSIBLEMENTE
PROBABLY PROBABLEMENTE
SINCE DESDE HACE
SO ASI QUE
SOME PEOPLE BELIEVE ALGUNA GENTE CREE
SPECIALLY ESPECIALMENTE
SUDDENLY DE REPENTE
THEN ENTONCES
THEREFORE POR CONSIGUIENTE
THOSE WHO ARE IN FAVOUR AQUELLOS QUE ESTAN A FAVOR
THOSE WHO ARE AGAINST AQUELLOS QUE ESTAN EN CONTRA
THOUG AUNQUE
TO BEGIN WITH PARA EMPEZAR CON
WHEREAS MIENTRAS QUE
WHILE MIENTRAS /CUANDO

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GERUND

1. DESPUES DE PREPOSICIONES
She left without saying goodbye
Im thinking of buying a flat

2. DESPUES DE CIERTOS VERBOS ( EMOCION )


LIKE, LOVE, HATE, ENJOY, MIND, FINISH,
STOP...
I love cooking but I hate cleaning
I dont mind driving you to the airport

3. COMO EL SUJETO DE LA FRASE


Eating in restaurants is expensive
Swimming is good exercise

INFINITIVO GERUNDIO
FORGET Te olvidastes de hacer algo. Hicistes algo y no lo
No lo hicistes olvidaras.
REMEMBER Recuerdas algo , Te acuerdas de haber
luego lo hicistes estado haciendo algo
TRY Intentas hacer algo dificil Intentas hacer algo facil.

NEED Tienes que hacer algo. Algo tiene que ser hecho
Deberias de hacer algo Algo deberia de ser hecho

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Verbs + -ing ...: (We loved driving through all


time)
Adore
Accuse (sb) of Adorar
Admit Acusar de
Apologized for Admitir
Cant stand Disculparse de
Deny No soportar
Dont mind Negar Doing
Enjoy No importar
Finish Disfrutar
Hate Acabar Cooking
Insist (on) Odioar
Like Insistir en
Look forward to Gustar Sightseing
Love Tener ganas de
Prefer Amar
Recommend Preferir
Regret Recomendar
Suggest Arrepentirse de
Sugerir
Verbs + To + Infinitive...: (I hope to see you soon)
Agreee Estar de acuerdo
Choose Escoger
Dare Desafiar
Decide Decidir
Expect Esperar
Forget Olvidar
Help Ayudar
Hope Esperar
Learn Aprender
Manage Poder
Need Necesitar
Offer Ofrecer
Promisse Prometer
Refuse Negar
Seem Parecer
Want Querer
Would like Gustara
Would love Querra
Would prefer Preferira
Would hate Odiara

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VERBOS MODALES DE OBLIGACION

VERBO MODAL NEGATIVO CONTRACCION TRADUCCION AFIRM.


MUST MUST NOT MUSTNT DEBER,TENER QUE
NO DEBER ,NO TENER
PERSONAL PROHIBITION QUE
OBLIGATION

HAVE TO DO NOT HAVE DONT HAVE TO TENGO /NO TENGO


TO QUE
EXTERNAL ABSENCE OF
OBLIGATION OBLIGATION
ITS NO NECESSARY
SHOULD SHOULD NOT SHOULDT TENDRIAS / NO
TENDRIAS
CONSEJO
RECOMENDACION

EJEMPLOS

MUST: OBLIGACION PERSONAL (impuesta por uno mismo)


I must remember her birthday

MUSTNT: PROHIBICION
You mustnt park here

HAVE TO: OBLIGACION EXTERNA (impuesta por ley u otros)


You have to drive on the left

DONT HAVE TO: AUSENCIA DE OBLIGACION


Its free. You dont have to pay

SHOULD: CONSEJO, RECOMENDACION


You should drive more slowly

SHOULDNT: CONSEJO, Recomendacin


You shouldnt eat so much

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VERBOS MODALES DE DEDUCCION

MUST + Inf (Seguro que es verdad)


MIGHT/COULD + Inf (Posiblemente es verdad)
CANT + Inf (Es imposible)

Usamos MUST+ Inf para decir que estamos SEGUROS que algo
(logicamente) es verdad. El contrario es CANT BE

He must be out. All the lights are off.


They must be Italian.Theyre speaking Italian

Usamos MIGHT / COULD + inf para decir que algo es POSIBLEMENTE


verdad.

She might be working. Im not sure.


He might be at home or he might be at the gym.

Usamos CANT para decir que algo es IMPOSIBLE

It cant be true! I dont believe it.


They cant be in New York! I saw them this morning.

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MODAL VERBS OF PROBABILITY

RANGE OF MODAL CERTEZA COMENTARIO


CERTAIN VERB
(de mas a
menos)
1 WILL SEGURO ES PRESENTE, NO FUTURO
2 MUST CASI SEGURO !
3 MAY PUEDE,
4 MIGHT & NO MUY SEGURO PARA EL PASADO SE LE
COULD AADE EL PRESENT
NEGATIVES PERFECT:
3 COULDNT PUEDE QUE NO
2 CANT CASI SEGURO QUE she must have left early
NO they must have missed the
train
1 WONT SEGURO QUE NO
they may have called earlier

Will have gone: habr ido


Must have gone: puede
haber ido

EN POSITIVO,NO USAMOS NUNCA CAN,USAMOS MAY.


PARA ESPECULAR SOBRE UNO MISMO,OBVIAMENTE, NO SE USA WILL O
MUST

EJEMPLOS

That will be Joe on the phone ..... Debe (de) ser Joe el que llama
Es seguro que es Joe

It must be about ten o'clock ..... Deben (de) ser alrededor de las diez
Casi seguro que son las diez

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She may decide to stay ..... Puede que decida quedarse


Puede que si o puede que no

I might go this weekend ..... A lo mejor voy este fin de semana


No estoy muy seguro,a lo mejor

We could take the train Podramos coger el tren


Cogeriamos el tren (en caso de no tener coche,por ejemplo)

VER + -ING OR TO + INFINITIVE


FRECUENTEMENTE USAMOS VERB + -ING PARA UNA ACCION QUE
SUCEDE,
QUE PASA, ANTES DEL PRIMER VERBO

They denied stealing the money


(primero se habia robado el dinero,despues niegan haberlo hecho)

stealing denied

USAMOS VERB + TO + INFINITIVE PARA UNA ACCION


QUE SIGUE AL PRIMER VERBO

They decided to steal the money


(primero lo deciden y seguidamente lo hacen)

decided to steal

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REMEMBER
VERB + -ING
TE ACUERDAS DE HABER ESTADO HACIENDO ALGO

Im absolutely sure I locked the door. I clearly remember locking it.

VERB + TO + INFINITIVE

RECUERDAS ALGO QUE DEBES DE HACER Y LO HACES

I remembered to lock the door when I left but I forgot to shut the
windows

REGRET
VERB + -ING

ME ARREPIENTO DE HABER HECHO ALGO ANTES; PRIMERO LO HICE Y


AHORA LO LAMENTO

Weve always regretted selling the farm

VERB + TO + INFINITIVE

ME APENA, LAMENTO ALGO QUE VOY A DECIR / INFORMAR, AHORA

We regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you the job

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GO ON

VERB + -ING

CONTINO HACIENDO /DICIENDO LA MISMA COSA

The minister went on talking for two hours

VERB + TO + INFINITIVE

CONTINO HACIENDO /DICIENDO ALGO NUEVO

After discussing the economy,the minister then went on to talk about foreign
policy

TRY
VERB + -ING

INTENTAS HACER ALGO FACIL


PROBAR ALGO NUEVO
I tried moving the table to the other side of the room

VERB + TO + INFINITIVE

INTENTAS HACER ALGO DIFICIL

I tried to move the table but it was too heavy

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NEED
VERB + -ING

ALGO TIENE O DEBERIA DE SER HECHO

The batteries in the radio need changing

VERB + TO + INFINITIVE

TIENES TU O DEBERIAS DE HACER TU ALGO

I need to take more exercise

NON-DEFINING RELATIVES

Se usan para dar informacion extra sobre una persona , lugar o


cosa.

LA FRASE QUE CONTIENE EL RELATIVO,


VA SIEMPRE ENTRE COMAS. ( COMA Y PUNTO)

En este tipo de uso del relativo,


NO PODEMOS OMITIR WHICH /WHO, WHERE AND WHOSE
como antes que se daba el caso al cambiar el sujeto.

NO PODEMOS USAR THAT

The house ,which has a large garden, was just what they had always wanted
My mother ,who is 65, has just retired
Finally I arrived home, where my mother was waiting for me
Chester,where my parents live, is a beautiful town

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HAVE SOMETHING DONE (I)

CUANDO TU ORGANIZAS ALGO PARA QUE OTRA PERSONA LO HAGA

REGLA GENERAL

HAVE + SOMETHING + PAST PARTICIPLE


Im having the house painted
(he pagado a los pintores para que lo hagan por mi)

Hes having a new garage built


El ha construido un nuevo garage (los albailes lo han hecho)

Weve just had the house painted


Hemos acabado de pintar la casa(la han pintado los pintores)

I usually have my hair cut one a month


Normalmente me corto el pelo una vez al mes (el peluquero)

Aqu Have es el verbo principal,asi pues la negativa y la interrogativa son


formadas con Do/Did en el Present simple y el Past simple

I didnt have the kitchen painted because I did it myself


How often do you have your car serviced?

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CAUSATIVE HAVE
HAVE SOMETHING DONE (II)

REMEMBER:
REGLA GENERAL
EL PAST PARTICIPLE VA DESPUES DEL OBJETO

HAVE + SOMETHING + PAST PARTICIPLE


EXAMPLE OF SITUATION:
The roof of Jills house was damaged in a storm, so she arranged for somebody
to repair it. Yesterday a workman came and did the job.

Jill had the roof repaired yesterday

This means: Jill arranged for somebody else to repair the roof.
She didnt repair it herself.

Examples
Have + Object + P.Participle
Jill Had The roof Repaired Yesterday
Where Did you have Your hair Cut?
Your hair Have you had It Cut?
looks nice
Julia Has just had Central Installed In her house
heating
We Are having The house Painted At the moment
How often Do you have Your car Serviced
I think you Have Tha coat Cleaned Soon
should
I dont like Having My taken
photograph

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CAUSATIVE HAVE
HAVE SOMETHING DONE (III)

Sometimes HAVE SOMETHING DONE


Has a different meaning In depending of the verb:

ED PARTICIPLE:
Subject + Have + Sb /Sth + ED Participle

Arrangement:

Ive had my house painted


Im having my car repaired

Suffering:

She has had her husband killed


The have had their house burn down
George had his nose broken in a fight

BARE INFINITIVE
(infinitivo desnudo,sin sujeto)

Subject + Have + Sb /Sth + Bare Infinitive

Uncontrolled
(The action is uncontrolled by the subject)

The Galicians are having their beaches pollut


During the flood they had their house destroy

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VERB + ING

Subject + Have + Sb /Sth + Verb Ing

Intollerance

I wont have you coming back home at 5 a.m. and drunk

Omen
Presagio (malo o bueno)

Youll have your fingers burning

Persuasion

The new teacher had the students sitting down quietly in five minutes

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PHRASAL VERBS
Back up Respaldar
Bump into Encontrarse con
Call off Cancelar
Carry out Llevar a cabo
Cut down Reducir
Frown on Desaprobar
Get across Hacer entender
Knock down Atropellar
Leaf through Hojear
Live on Vivir de
Live up to Estar a la altura
Look down on Despreciar
Make out Distinguir
Pick out seleccionar
Pick up Recoger
Put off posponer
Rely on Confiar en
Rip off Timar
Run up acumular
Set off Encender
Set off Salir
Set up Montar un negocio
Stand out Destacar
Take on Coger un empleo
Take up Llevar / ocupar
Talk Sb into Convencer a alguien
Tie up Atar
Track down Localizar
Turn up Aparecer

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LINKERS

And whats more / Y lo que es mas /Ademas


And whats more,he knew how touse it

As soon as / En cuanto / tan pronto como


As soon as the water boils, add the pasta

At the end / Al final


At the end of the story....

Because of / a causa de / debido a


He couldn't play because of his injury

But / Sino
they had not one, but three houses!

Calmy / Con calma


Calmly,the child pick up the paw

Despite / A pesar de
despite the rain, the beach was full of people

However / Sin embargo


the room is very small; we'll take it, however

In the end / Finally


In the end the wolf ran off

Just then / Justo entonces


Just then she heard the howl of a wolf

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LINKERS (II)

Obediently / Obedientemente
Obediently,the child started out through the wood

So...that / Para que


I put it away so (that) he wouldn't see it

Such...that / Tal que


I had such a headache that I decided to stay at home

First / Firstly /Lo primero ,Primeramente...


First of all we had to clean the walls

Also / Tambien
She's a student, but she also has a part-time job

In conclusion / En conclusion
in conclusion...

Overall / En conjunto / En general


The play was a success overall

Since / Desde
I haven't been there since I was a child

Furthermore / Ademas
I dont know what happened to Rupert and furthermore I dont
care

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Last but not least / Por ultimo y no por eso menos importante
and, last but not least,...

In addition / Ademas
There will be four children in addition to the six adults

LINKERS (III)

Therefore / por lo tanto Por consiguiente


Their funds ran out, and therefore they had to close

To summarise / En resumen
The theatre was packed,the audience was happy,
to summarise ie has been a huge success

As a result / Como consecuencia de ello


as a result, the match was postponed

Moreover / Adems, lo que es ms


we got there late and, moreover, exhausted

First and foremost / Ante todo / Primero y mas importante


Manchester was, first and foremost, an industrial city

Finally / Por ultimo


Finally, I should like to ask...

Consequently / En consecuencia
Our shares have gone down a 45 % consequently,the competition is
buying

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To conclude / Para terminar


To conclude I can only say that he is innocent

In brief /Resumiendo
In brief, this is what happened

Hence / De ah / Por lo tanto


he lived in Mexico for fifteen years, hence his accent

VERBOS MODALES DE OBLIGACION

VERBO MODAL NEGATIVO TRADUCCION


AFIRM.
MUST MUSTNT DEBER,TENER QUE
(NO PASADO,SOLO EN PRESENTE NO DEBER ,NO
Y OBLIGACIONES FUTURAS)
MUST NOT TENER QUE
PERSONAL OBLIGATION
La obligacion procede del
PROHIBITION
que habla

HAVE TO DONT HAVE TO TENGO /NO TENGO


DO NOT HAVE TO QUE
EXTERNAL OBLIGATION,
FOR CIRCUNSTANCES OR ABSENCE OF
LAW. OBLIGATION.ITS
La obligacion procede de NO NECESSARY
otros o por ley

EJEMPLOS

MUST: OBLIGACION PERSONAL (impuesta por uno mismo)


I must remember her birthday
I must pay all my debts

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MUSTNT: PROHIBICION
You mustnt park here
Remember Johnny that you mustnt stare at people on the bus

HAVE TO: OBLIGACION EXTERNA (impuesta por ley u otros)


You have to drive on the left
I had to pay all my debts when my taylor caught me
When I was in te army I had to do lot of things I abhorred.
Sorry boys,but the headmaster says you have to stay in detention this
afternoon

DONT HAVE TO: AUSENCIA DE OBLIGACION


Its free. You dont have to pay

NECESSITY MODALS

NEEDNT

LEXICAL NEED MODAL NEED

AFIRMATIVE
I need to play soccer NO AFIRMATIVE
I dont need to workk I neednt to work
She doesnt need to work She neednt to work
Does she need to work? Need she work?

You neednt do something= NO es necesario que lo hagas,


NO necesitas hacerlo:

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EJEMPLOS:

You Can come with me if you like but you neednt come if you dont
want to
Tu puedes venir conmigo si te apetece,pero no necesitas venir si no
te apetece.
(NO ES NECESARIO QUE VENGAS)

Weve got plenty of time.We neednt hurry


Tenemos tiempo de sobra. No necesitamos apresurarnos
(NO ES NECESARIA LA PRISA)

NECESSITY MODALS(II)

NEEDNT HAVE (DONE)

LEXICAL NEED MODAL NEED

NEGATIVE
I didnt need to go I neednt have gone
She didnt need to work She neednt have worked

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EJEMPLOS

George had to go out. He thought it was going to rain, so he


decided to take the umbrella.
But it didnt rain,so the unbrella was not necessary.So:

He neednt have taken the umbrella

He neednt haven taken the umbrella = he took the umbrella but


this was not necessary. Of course,he didnt know this when he went
out.

Compare

I Didnt need to get up early,so I didnt.


it was not necessary for me. So I didnt
No tenia que levantarme temprano y no lo hice
(Yo sabia en ese momento que no era necesario)

I didnt need to get up early,but it was a lovely morning,so I did.


No tenia que levantarme temprano,pero lo hice de todos modos.

I got up very early because I had to get ready to go away.But in


fact it didnt take me long to get ready,So I neednt have got up
so early.I could have stayed in bed longer.
Tenia que levantarme temprano y asi lo hice.
( Cuando lo hice supe que no era necesario)

Asi pues didnt need to go y neednt have gone (i,e,) en el


pasado son diferentes.Porque?

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Verb Was it necessary? Did you go?

Didnt need to go No yes

Neednt have gone No ?

SOME ADJECTIVES AND THEIR TRANSLATION

ADJECTIVE TRANSLATION
Compassionate Compasivo
Sympathetic Compresivo
Gregarious Sociable
Gentle Dulce,tierno
Dexterous diestro
Insightful Perspicaz
Composed Tranquilo
Faithful Fiel
Self-reliant Independiente
Encouraging Alentador
Regal Regio
Down to- heart Sensato y practico
Supportive Que apoya
Strong willed De mucha fuerza de voluntad
Having low self esteem Tenen baja autoestima
Non committal Evasivo
Overburdened Agobiado, sobrecargado
Chilvarous Caballeroso
Trustworthy Digno de confianza
Having high values Tener altos valores,principios

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PREFIXES,THEIR MEANINGS AND EXAMPLES


PREFIXE MEANING EXAMPLE
Arch Chief,main, Archangel
Hightest ranking Archbishop
Counter Against Counterattack
Counterproductive
Hyper Exceeding, surpasing Hyperactive,hyperactive,
Hypertension
Mal Badly,wrong Malformation,malfunction,
Malnutrition
Pro For,in favour of Proamerican , progovernment
Pseudo False, pretended Pseudoanarchist,
Pseudoleft-wing
(izquierdista)
Sub Under Subconcious,subcontract,
Submarine, submarine
Trans Across Transatlantic,transcontinent
al
Bi Two Bilingual,
Biannual,bisexual
Co With,together Cooperation
Coalition ,co-driver
De Taken away Decentralise,
Debunk (descentralizar)
Ex Former , before Ex husband,
Ex - president
Fore Before , in front of Forecast ,forebears
(antepasados) Forefront
(vanguardia)
Inter Between International ,interchange,
Intercontinental

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PREFIXES,THEIR MEANINGS AND EXAMPLES


(II)

PREFIXE MEANING EXAMPLES


Neo New Neoclassical.
Neorealism
Over Extremely , too Overeat, Overburdened,
Overcrowded
Post After Postscript , Postwar,
Postpone
Pre Before Prefix, Prehistoric,
Prejudge
Re Again Redecorate, reanimated,
Reactivate
Super Above , more than Supersonic, superhuman,
Superintendent
Tri Three Triangle, trident
Trilogy
Under Not enough Underpaid, underdeveloped,
Underhand (desaseado)

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NEGATIVE PREFIXES

PREFIXE EXAMPLES
UN Unsatisfied, Unwelcome , Unfriendly, Undisciplined
IN Inability, Inhospitable, Inaccessible, Inaccurate
(inexacto)
IM Immature, Immaculate, Immeasurable, Inmoral,
Inmodest
NON Non-alcoholic,Non-aligned, Non-believer,
Nonconformist
DIS Disability, Disadvantage, Disaffection,Disagreeable
IR Irrational, Irreconciliable,
Irregular,Irrelevant,Irresolute
IL Illegal, Illogical, Illegible, Illicit,

MIXED CONDITIONAL

Al margen de los tres condicionales basicos,existe un cuarto


tipo que se denomina Mixed Conditional que tiene la
particularidad de mezclar las propiedades del tercer y segundo
(por ejemplo) en la misma oracion de condicional.

La primera parte de la oracion (la condicion) va en


pasado,mientras la segunda parte (la consecuencia) podr ir
tanto en presente como en futuro.
III conditional II conditional
If I hadnt broken my legs yesterday...I would go to the ball

II conditional III conditional


If She spoke chinesse.... she would have got the job

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I WISH = IF ONLY

OJAL...

I WISH + PAST TENSE

REFIRIENDOSE AL PRESENTE O AL FUTURO


(Quiero cambiar algo del presente)

OJALA YO FUESE RICO (AHORA O DENTRO DE UN MES)

I whish I were rich

I WISH + PAST PERFECT

REFIRIENDOSE AL PASADO
(Algo que ocurri y que ojal no hubiera ocurrido)

OJALA YO HUBIESE TERMINADO MI TRABAJO (AYER)

I wish I had finished my homework (yesterday)

I didnt learn german , I wish I had learned german (or if only)

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I WISH + WOULD

REFIRIENDOSE A QUEJAS O CRITICAS HACIA ALGO O ALGUIEN


(Para hbitos que nos molestan)
(Pensamos en futuro y por eso ponemos el would que es condicional de futuro)

OJAL DEJARA DE LLOVER

I wish it would stop raining

I WISH = IF ONLY
(Ojal)
OBSERVAR:

QUE EL CAMBIO DEL TIEMPO VERBAL ES UN PASO


HACIA DELANTE EN EL PASADO.

ESTO ES.....:

AM / IS......WAS
ARE.....WERE
HAVE / HAS.....HAD
CAN....COULD
WILL / WONT....WOULD
DOES / DO.....DID
LIKE...LIKED
GO....WENT
ETC.ETC...

I AM SHORT - I WISH I WAS TALL (or If only)


I LIVE IN SPAIN -I WISH I DIDNT LIVE IN SPAIN(or If only)
-I WISH I LIVED IN ENGLAND

(Quiero cambiar algo del presente)

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 5 CURSO 2002-2003

PETER SMOKES TOO MUCH -I WISH HE WOULDT SMOKE SO MUCH (or If


only)

(Para hbitos que nos molestan)


(pensamos en futuro:(Ojal dejara de fumar)
y por eso ponemos el would que es condicional de futuro)

TOM WONT HELP ME -I WISH PETER WOULD HELP ME (or If only)


IM DIDNT LEARN GERMAN -I WISH I HAD LEARNED GERMAN (or If only)
(Algo que ocurri y que ojal no hubiera ocurrido)

MODAL VERBS OF ABILITY


(IN THE PAST)

USO DEL COULD WAS /WERE ABLE TO

COULD:

USAMOS COULD PARA HABLAR DE UNA HABILIDAD O UNA SITUACION


GENERAL

My grandfather could play the piano

I could swim when I was four

SE USA PARA REFERIRSE A HABILIDADES Y/O SITUACIONES EN EL


PASADO QUE REQUIRIERON UN LARGO LAPSUS DE TIEMPO

When I was child, I could play the piano

(DURANTE MUCHO TIEMPO ESTUVE ESTUDIANDO PIANO)

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 5 CURSO 2002-2003

USAMOS COULD

SI SON VERBOS DE SENTIDOS (SEE,HEAR,SMELL,TASTE,FEEL) O DE


PENSAMIENTO (REMEMBER,UNDERSTAND)

USAMOS COULDNT

PARA EXPRESAR UNA HABILIDAD NEGATIVA EN EL PASADO,

I couldnt find my wallet anywhere

WAS ABLE TO :

SI NOS REFERIMOS A UNA SITUACION EN UN MOMENTO


CONCRETO,O EN UNA SITUACION PARTICULAR EN EL PASADO,
DEBEMOS USAR WAS ABLE TO

When I was young,I was able to climb to the everest

USAMOS WAS / WERE BE ABLE TOPARA DECIR QUE ALGUIEN HIZO


ALGO EN UNA OCASIN ESPECIAL O TENIA UNA DIFICULTAD MUY
GRANDE PARA HACERLO

Although the restaurant was very full, we were able to get a table

I was be able to pass my driving test after six times

The man was drowning,but she managed to swim to him and save him

The prisoners were be able to escape

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 5 CURSO 2002-2003

CAN BE ABLE TO +INFINITIVE


PRESENT SIMPLE CAN AM/IS/ARE ABLE TO

FUTURE (WILL) - WILL BE ABLE TO


PAST SIMPLE COULD
WAS/WERE ABLE TO
PRESENT PERFECT -
HAS/HAVE BEEN ABLE TO
INFINITIVE -
GERUND - (TO) BE ABLE TO

BEING ABLE TO

INVERSION ( CONDICIONALES)

PRIMER CONDICIONAL

(NECESITAMOS EL AUXILIAR SHOULD PARA INVERTIR EL


CONDICIONAL)

A) If you see him , beat him up (Imposible Inversion)

B) If you should see him, beat him up (Posible Inversion para enfatizar)

C) If should you see him , beat him up (inversion realizada)

SEGUNDO CONDICIONAL

(NECESITAMOS WERE PARA INVERTIR EL CONDICIONAL)

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 5 CURSO 2002-2003

A) If he became famous, he wouldnt even greet you


B) If he were to became famous, he wouldnt even greet you
C) If were he to became famous, he wouldnt even greeet you.

TERCER CONDICIONAL
(NO NECESITAMOS AUXILIAR PUES YA LO TENEMOS EN LA PROPIA
FRASE)

A) If he had been here, he would have seen it.

B) (No necesito el paso B para construir la inversion)

C) If had he been here, he would have seen it

NOTAR QUE LA SEGUNDA PARTE DE LA ORACION EN NINGUNO


DE LOS TRES CASO SUFRE NINGUN CAMBIO

EN LAS AFIRMACIONES ES USUAL QUE EL SUJETO VAYA SEGUIDO


DEL VERBO.

SIN EMBARGO A VECES ESTE ORDEN DE PALABRAS ES CAMBIADO.


ESTO ES LO QUE LLAMAMOS INVERSION.

INVERSION EN EXPRESIONES ADVERBIALES DE DIRECCION Y LUGAR


(usada particularmente en estilo formal o literario o para enfatizar)

CUANDO PONEMOS UNA EXPRESION ADVERBIAL (ESPECIALMENTE DE


DIRECCION O LUGAR) AL PRINCIPIO DE LA FRASE,
PONEMOS EL VERBO DELANTE DEL SUJETO
I have never eaten such a good paella
Never have I eaten such a good paella

You will nowhere come across a more hospitable people


Nowhere will you come across a more hospitable people

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ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS DE MLAGA
LVARO SOUVIRN 5 CURSO 2002-2003

INVERSION EN EXPRESIONES ADVERBIALES NEGATIVAS

NEVER (BEFORE) NUNCA ANTES


RARELY CASI NUNCA
SELDOM RARAS VECES
HARDLY/SCARCELY/BARELY.. APENAS..CUANDO/ANTES
WHEN/BEFORE
NO SOONER...THAN TAN PRONTO....CUANDO

SEGUIMOS PONIENDO EN LA FRASE INVERTIDA EL VERBO DELANTE


DEL SUJETO,PERO DELANTE DEL ADVERBIO
DEBEMOS DE PONER: NOT

I didn't allow myself a rest until I arrived home


Not until I arrived home did I allow miself a rest

As soon as she saw him,she shot at him


No sooner had she seen him than she shot at him

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